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Online Treatment of Transformers and Regeneration of Insulating Oil Andreas Gruber Dipl Ing TS Abstract

Online Treatment of Transformers

and

Regeneration of Insulating Oil

Andreas Gruber

Dipl Ing TS

Abstract

Managing Director

For securing operational safety of power transformers on a long terms basis, it is essential to maintain the moisture content in the oil and in the entire insulation as low as this is possible. Comprehensive studies in regions all over the world have revealed that a high number of power transformers operate with an increased moisture content in the insulating oil, as well as in the in- sulation. Depending on the amount of cellulose insulation, operating temperature, voltage class, moisture content, age and service book of the transformer, the operators or the servicing com- pany must decide on the drying technology to be applied and the degree of urgency under which this has to be done. Main factors for such decision, such as available equipment or investment capital, efficiency of a specific drying process, operational and maintenance cost, required per- sonnel etc. must be carefully evaluated, in order that the optimal drying and treatment technology can be chosen. In this report we shall offer a display of available processes for the treatment of power transformers and we shall make an in depth analysis of requirements taking the examples of two technologies that are given preference by Messrs. Micafluid.

Register of contents U 1 U U Introduction U   3 U 2 U U

Register of contents

U1 U UIntroductionU

 

3

U2U

UTechnology of Oil PurificationU

4

U2.1 U URequirements on insulating fluids U

4

U2.2 U URequirements on insulating fluids in operationU

5

U2.2.1U

U2.2.2U

U2.2.3U

U2.2.4U

U2.2.5U

U2.2.6U

U2.2.7U

UMoisture content (ppm)U

5

UGas content (%Vol)U

6

UDielectric strength (kV/cm)U

7

UDielectric Loss Factor (tan delta)U

7

UNeutralization number (KHO/g)U

7

UInterfacial tension (mN/m)U

7

UInhibitor content U

7

U2.3 U UIndications on intervals between inspections on power transformersU

8

U2.3.1U

U2.3.2U

UPower transformers U

8

UStep switches (tap changers)U

8

U3.1U UOn-line treatment without vacuum U

9

U3.1.1U

U3.1.2U

U3.1.3U

UMolecular sieves U

 

9

UCellulose filters U

9

UCold traps U

9

U3.2U

UOil treatment under vacuumU

9

U3.3U

UOn-line Oil Treatment under VacuumU

10

U3.3.1U

U3.3.2U

UOn-line oil treatment plants with low through flow capacityU

10

UOn-line oil treatment plants with high through flow capacityU

10

U3.4 U

UOn-line Treatment and Regeneration under Vacuum U

11

U3.4.1U

UConventional

pressure “fullering”U

11

U3.4.2U

UCombined oil purification and regeneration plantsU

11

U3.5U UDrying through heat and vacuum U

12

U3.5.1U

UPulsation drying through oil circulation and vacuumU

12

U3.5.2U

UHot oil spray dryingU

 

13

U3.5.3U

U3.5.4U

ULow frequency heating and drying with oil circulationU

13

ULow frequency heating and drying with hot oil sprayingU

14

U4. U UComparison of various Technologies U

14

 

U4.1 U ULocations of plants in serviceU

14

U4.2 U URequirements on operational personnelU

15

U4.3U

UEvaluation of efficiencyU

16

U4.4 U UTime consumption of each system vs. intervals between services U

16

U4.5 U UEstimation of costsU

17

U4.6 U UPossibilities among various methods U

18

U4.7 U UDiscussionU

 

18

U4.7.1U

U4.7.2U

UTransformer operator U

18

UMaintenance and service companies U

19

U4.7.2U

UAnalysis of requirementsU

19

U5.1U UOn-line treatment plants U

 

20

U5.1.1 U

UScope of duties U

21

U5.2U

UCombined purification and regenerating plants U

21

U5.3U

UVOP + VH312U

21

U5.4U

UMORPU

22

U5.4.1U

U5.4.2U

UPurification unit U

 

23

URegeneration unit U

23

U5.4.3U

UDescription of the process U

23

U5.4.4 U UPerformance MORPU

 

25

U6.1 U UOutlook U

26

U7U UAnnexU

 

27

 

U7.1U URegenerationU

27

U7.1.1U

USample fulleringU

28

U7.1.2U

UConsumption of Fuller’s earth in function of the ageing behaviourU

28

U7.2U

URegister of Graphs U

29

U7.3U

URegister of Tables U

29

0B 1 Introduction Power transformers are an important and also costly component in the chain

0B1

Introduction

Power transformers are an important and also costly component in the chain of electrical power supply. Thus they represent a high investment value.

In conjunction with the basically in Europe ongoing deregulation and privatisation process of the power supply market, generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy gains more and more importance in a liberal market. With the increase of demand of elec- trical energy on one side and political pressure against nuclear or other climate active power generation on the other side, there exists an ever rising concern over future short- ages in electrical power supply. Since necessary capital investment is held back due to the above, one of the remaining measures to counter the catastrophic effects of a general shortage in power supply, will be to maintain and service the existing gear in an optimal way. This presentation will focus on maintenance of transformers as a relevant contribu- tion to securing power supply on the long run.

On oil filled transformers, various monitoring and servicing systems may meet. The opera- tors of such transformer systems demand a reliable and economic method in order to con- tinuously supervise and evaluate the operating condition of transformers. Inevitably, such method ends up to be a compromise between technical practicability and economical con- siderations.

The lifetime of oil insulated transformers is mainly determined by the general condition of its main insulation, principally expressed by the oxygen content, the quality of the oil, the moisture content in the insulation and the operating temperature of the unit, the latter two being the main factors of influence.

Decomposition products dissolved in the oil are important indicators of possible weak spots within the active part, quite often so, long time before sizeable damages do occur. Besides the classical dielectric tests, nowadays the gas-in-oil-analysis has an increasingly important part in the quality evaluation of oil-paper insulation systems.

1B 2 4B 2.1 Technology of Oil Purification Requirements on insulating fluids The use of

1B2

4B2.1

Technology of Oil Purification

Requirements on insulating fluids

The use of mineral oil as an insulating medium reaches as far back as high voltage tech- nique has been applied. By impregnating the solid insulating system and filling of all empty spaces in the transformer, homogeneousness of the electrical field was achieved. With ever increasing capacity density in modern transformers, a reliable transport of heat losses from inside of the active part to the outside became yet another necessity, which not only made the oil an insulator, but also a thermal carrier medium.

The most important requirements on an insulating fluid are:

Good dielectric characteristics (high dielectric strength, low loss factor)

High resistivity against oxidation and thermal stress

Optimal viscosity properties, particularly so at low temperatures

High flash point

Simple and ecological disposal

Low cost of supply

Minimal requirements on new insulating oil are set forth in the IEC specifications no. 60296, which are displayed in table 1:

Specification for unused insulating liquids

: IEC 60296

Electrical breakdown (AC)

: IEC 60156

Dielectric dissipation factor and resistivity of oil

: IEC 60247

Water content (Karl Fischer)

: IEC 60814

Acidity (Neutralisation factor)

: IEC 62021

Sediment and Sludge content

: IEC 61125

Oxidation stability

: IEC 61125

Inhibitor content

(Anti-oxidant additives)

: IEC 60666

Gas in oil analysis

: IEC 60567

Particulates (particle count)

: IEC 60970

Table 1:

Minimal requirements on insulating oils as per IEC specifications

Oxidation and thermal stress in the transformer modify the physical and chemical proper- ties of the oil, as these lead to so called „ageing“ of the oil. For the operational supervision of transformers, a detailed monitoring of all modifications in the quality of oil becomes es- sential, particularly of those changes that could have a negative effect on the operational safety of the unit. In order to obtain valid information on the development of the dielectric properties of the oil, one has to draw regular oil samples or these must be supervised and analysed with an on-line system. It is important to collect as many parameters as this is possible, so that a reliable assessment of the condition of the transformer can be made.

5B 2.2 Requirements on insulating fluids in operation In the following chapter we shall review

5B2.2

Requirements on insulating fluids in operation

In the following chapter we shall review the most important parameters and their effect on the performance of insulating oil in operation:

27B2.2.1

Moisture content (ppm) The moisture content in insulating oil is dependent on the temperature and the number of polar molecules in the oil. Diagram 1 demonstrates how the moisture content in the oil changes in function of the environmental moisture and the temperature.

function of the environmental moisture and the temperature. Graph 1: Moisture content (ppm) in function of

Graph 1: Moisture content (ppm) in function of the temperature

The moisture content in the transformer oil allows conclusions regarding the moisture con- dition of the paper insulation; it can be assumed that there exists equilibrium in mass transportation of water between the outer layers of the solid insulation and neighbouring oil. High moisture content in the oil indicates that the insulation is likely to contain an ele- vated amount of water too.

Next to oxidation, the hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the most important decomposition processes of paper insulation. Hereby water is being both consumed through an autocata- lytic reaction, as well as new water is being generated.

In the stage of advanced decomposition of cellulose fibres, under certain circumstances chains of cellulose are created, which increase the risk of a dielectric rupture in the trans- former. Graph 2 displays moisture equilibrium curves according to Dr. Oommen, as well as the saturation values for insulation oils.

Graph 2: Equilibrium curves in paper-oil-systems 28B 2.2.2 Gas content (%Vol) During the decomposition of
Graph 2: Equilibrium curves in paper-oil-systems 28B 2.2.2 Gas content (%Vol) During the decomposition of

Graph 2: Equilibrium curves in paper-oil-systems

28B2.2.2

Gas content (%Vol)

During the decomposition of cellulose material and disturbances in the active part (e.g. partial discharges) gasses are being generated, which to a large extent end up being dis- solved in the oil. The dissolved gasses lead to an expansion of the oil volume, reason why the gas in the oil is expressed in percent by volume (%Vol).

Dissolved gasses are being identified and quantified through the gas-in-oil analysis. From the composition of these dissolved gasses, the experienced operator may conclude on possible causes of disturbances behind the high dissolved gas volume.

The following gasses may allow conclusions on possible cause of such disturbances (de- pending on their share and mixing ratio:

-

-

-

-

-

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

Methane

Ethane

Carbon dioxide

H N CH 4 C 2 H 6 CO 2

2

2

- Oxygen - Ethylene - Acetylene - Carbon monoxide

O

2

C

C

2 H

2 H

4

2

CO

Characteristic decomposition gasses appearing as a consequence of disturbances in transformers:

Decomposition of cellulose

Low energy discharges (Gas)

High energy discharges (Sparks, light arcs)

Local overheating

(hot spots)

CO

H

2

H

2

 

H

2

CO 2

CH 4

C

2 H 2

 

CH 4

 

C

2 H 2

 

C

2 H 4

     

C

2 H 2

Possible causes:

High moisture content in the insulation

Bad impregnation of the solid insulation, entrapment of air

Bad contacts, discharges between varying potentials

Overload; high transition resistance, scale loss

Table 2:

Characteristic decomposition gasses as a consequence of disturbances in transformers

29B 2.2.3 Dielectric strength (kV/cm) Dielectric strength is mainly influenced by three factors: - Moisture

29B2.2.3

Dielectric strength (kV/cm)

Dielectric strength is mainly influenced by three factors:

- Moisture content [ppm] in the oil (dissolved water)

- Temperature of the oil [°C]

- Contaminations in the oil, which can absorb water (e.g. cellulose fibres)

30B2.2.4

Dielectric Loss Factor (tan delta)

The parameter tan delta (tan δ) is an important criterion for estimating the ageing condition of insulating oil. Tan δ is influenced by ageing products contained in oil, such as acids, sludge and other particles. Main cause for this ageing process is the increased oxygen content in the oil and the insulation.

31B2.2.5

Neutralization number (KHO/g)

The neutralization number is an indicator for the danger that sludge formation. Sludge content is measured in percent by weight and serves as an indicator on an already advanced oil ageing. New oil is expected to display a value of below 0,01 KHO/g. Since measuring inaccuracy increases considerably below 0,03 KHO/g, IEC standards stipulate < 0,03 KHO/g.

32B2.2.6

Interfacial tension (mN/m)

The interfacial tension expresses the tension of the interfaces between oil and water. This ratio of tensions depends on the groups of polar molecules in the oil.

33B2.2.7

Inhibitor content

Inhibitors are chemical additives, which are mixed with the basic transformer oil in order to enhance its stability to oxidation. This results in a slowed down ageing of the insulating oil. By recommendable standards inhibited oils have an inhibitor content of 0,3 to 0,4%, re- lated to the total oil volume in the transformer. If the inhibitor content decreases to a value below 0,1 % one of the following possible steps is to be investigated as counter measure:

- supplementary filling of inhibitors in order to enhance the inhibitor concentration

- regenerate the insulating oil with a subsequent inhibition process

- new filling with inhibited oil

The same is being determined through an ageing test in compliance with IEC 61125 method C. The content of inhibitors in the oil is being measured according to IEC 60666.

Probably the single most important parameter for all measuring methods is the actual av- erage temperature in the transformer. Without this indication, all moisture content measur- ing are more or less worthless.

6B 2.3 Indications on intervals between inspections on power transformers The frequency to inspect transformers

6B2.3

Indications on intervals between inspections on power transformers

The frequency to inspect transformers is being influenced by technical as well as commer- cial aspects. The oil testing as it is described under chapter 2.2 is quite costly. In the past years it was concluded that the here below listed periods and intervals between inspec- tions of oil-insulated electrical devices have proven to be recommendable:

34B2.3.1

Power transformers

 

Basic measurements according to IEC 60422 (recommendable limiting values may vary depending on the operational voltage range of the unit).

 

Period

Activity

 
 

0

Upon conclusion of the erection labour and filling with insulat- ing oil, thereby using an vacuum oil purification plant (e.g. Micafluid system), it is recommended to draw an oil sample in order to determine the residual moisture content, the elec- tric break-down strength, the dielectric loss factor “tan δ, as well as the composition of gasses in the oil (DGA).

after 3 to 6 months

3 to 6 months after setting the transformer into operation a DGA will be carried out in order to determine its actual condi- tion, which will be considered the “Fingerprint” of this trans- former unit.

 

3

years

Every 3 years a short analysis of the transformer condition and smaller services should be carried out according to the operator’s check-list.

 

6

years

Every 6 years the transformer should be inspected and ser- viced according to operator’s check-list.

Table 3:

Periodic inspections on Power Transformers

35B2.3.2

Step switches (tap changers)

The necessity to service step switches basically depends on one of two criteria (which ever occurs first):

Time in operation

Number of switching operations

With MR-tap changers (star-point connection) the recommended servicing intervals are at 6 to 7 years. Main criteria for a thorough check-up are:

Burn-up loss on the contacts

Oil values

Retrofit (after approx. 25 years)

In transformers as well as in tap-changers the analysis of the oil offers decisive information on the general condition of the system, i.e. oil analyses as per methods and standards de- scribed under chapter 2.2.

3 Oil treatment technologies The various treatment and drying technologies can be divided into the

3 Oil treatment technologies

The various treatment and drying technologies can be divided into the following groups:

7B3.1

36B3.1.1

37B3.1.2

Note:

In this case „on-line“ means that the transformer is switched off for a rather short time (1 – 2 hours for the connection of the treatment plant); thereafter the actual treatment is carried out under normal operational conditions of the connected transformer.

On-line treatment without vacuum

Molecular sieves

A relatively small amount of oil (100-200 lt/h) will be continuously pumped

(in a by-pass) through a molecular sieve. The molecular sieve has the capability to adsorb water dissolved in the transformer oil and thus continuously drying the oil. A typical drying capacity of such molecular sieve would around 6-7 lt/year. Once the cartridges are saturated, these must be ex-changed and regenerated in a separate plant. This technology

is mainly applied on newly installed transformers, as the moisture content

will be controlled right from the beginning and the gas content in the oil is not influenced.

beginning and the gas content in the oil is not influenced. Cellulose filters A by-pass flow

Cellulose filters

A by-pass flow of the transformer oil is being conducted through a cellulose filter. This filter

has a limited water absorption capacity and the cartridges must be exchanged in regular intervals. For large oil volumes this method is not very suitable as it has a low drying ca- pacity. Yet, the gas content will not be influenced.

38B3.1.3

Separator (Cold traps)

A partial stream of the insulating oil is being cooled to the extent that the

previously dissolved water will condense or can be trapped in a filter. This method offers the advantage that the gas analysis is not influenced (dis- torted). Yet, it combines a relatively low drying capacity with high (cooling) energy consumption.

8B3.2

Oil treatment under vacuum

energy consumption. 8B 3.2 Oil treatment under vacuum Oil treatment and regeneration in off-line mode does

Oil treatment and regeneration in off-line mode does not require much different equipment (except the supervision and monitoring devices) than on-line plants do. For this reason we refer to chapters 3.3 and 3.4.

9B 3.3 On-line Oil Treatment under Vacuum 39B 3.3.1 On-line oil treatment plants with low

9B3.3

On-line Oil Treatment under Vacuum

39B3.3.1

On-line oil treatment plants with low through flow capacity

A

relatively small amount of oil flow (100-400 lt/h) is continuously being submitted in a by-

pass system to withdrawal of gasses and water in a vacuum chamber. The dried, dehu- midified and filtered oil is subsequently being conducted back into the transformer. Depending on the system, there will be a vacuum pump installed (pressure in the vacuum chamber approximately 5 mbar) or the vacuum is being generated by hydraulic pumps (pressure 100-200 mbar). In this case, the plant remains installed to the transformer for several years (or even the life time of the same). In transformers treated this way, gas- analyses cannot be compared with traditionally obtained values, since with this system, the gasses generated by errors are continuously withdrawn form the oil. The treatment values regarding dryness and degassing are strongly dependant on temperature.

40B3.3.2

On-line oil treatment plants with high through flow capacity

oil treatment plants with high through flow capacity 1 Graph 3: On-line oil treatment with Micafluid
1
1

Graph 3: On-line oil treatment with Micafluid plant type VOP

A relatively high quantity of oil (approx. 1’000 to 9’000 lt/h) is continuously being degassed

and dehydrated in a vacuum chamber (2). Contrary to those plants working with very low amount of oil, these plants will only be installed for a limited period of time (weeks/ months).

The supervision and monitoring systems control the condition of the transformer (1) during the entire process, i.e.:

- No leaks (lowering of the oil level in the transformer

- No evacuation of the transformer tank

- No back-flow of gas into the transformer

- Operational condition of the treatment plant

- Analysis of the oil parameters (e.g. DGA, drawing of oil sample)

Despite of this detailed and automatic supervision it is recommended to also supervise the actual treatment process. In this case, the gas analysis is being influenced for a limited pe- riod of time. Depending on the residual moisture content in the insulation, this treatment process may have to be repeated up to several times, because water continuously diffuses from the moist insulation into the now dry oil, due to now modified condition of equilibrium.

10B 3.4 On-line Treatment and Regeneration under Vacuum 41B 3.4.1 Conventional pressure “fullering” With the
10B 3.4 On-line Treatment and Regeneration under Vacuum 41B 3.4.1 Conventional pressure “fullering” With the

10B3.4

On-line Treatment and Regeneration under Vacuum

41B3.4.1

Conventional pressure “fullering”

With the conventional pressure fullering, the regenerated oil is being pumped through one or several adsorption columns. Chemical ageing products and contaminants will be ad- sorbed on the surface of activated clay (Fuller’s earth). As the adsorption clay not only ad- sorbs contamination products, but also natural and artificial inhibitors of the oil, the regen- erated oil will have to receive the required quantity of new inhibitors.

The fullering and inhibition plant normally is supplementary equip- ment to the existing oil purification

The fullering and inhibition plant normally is supplementary equip- ment to the existing oil purification plant. It will be connected to the latter between oil heater and degassing column as a by-pass. Dur- ing regeneration, a part of the oil flows through the adsorption col- umns. It cannot be avoided that certain amount of finest particles of the Fuller’s earth are transported into the main stream of the oil.

Graph 4: VH312

These fine particles have a high moisture absorption capacity, which again will dramati- cally reduce the electric break-down strength, as this was described under chapter 2.2.3. For this reason, the oil is being conducted via the fine filters of the oil purification plant, thus excluding the possibility that moist fuller’s earth particles can distribute over the ac- tive part of the transformer.

During a regeneration process with Fuller’s earth, the activated clay reaches a state of

saturation after a certain amount of oil having passed through it, i.e. no further chemical contaminations can be adsorbed. In other words, the adsorption clay must be replaced and correctly disposed of.

.

42B3.4.2

Combined oil purification and regeneration plants

3.4.2 Combined oil purification and regeneration plants Graph 5: Combined oil purification and regeneration plants

Graph 5: Combined oil purification and regeneration plants MORP

This type of plant comprises an oil purification unit and a regeneration plant, which can operate jointly or separately. For the regeneration of aged oil, a variable amount of it will be lead through one or several adsorption columns. The regenerated oil will thereafter be dried and degassed in the degassing chamber of the oil purification unit, and finally it will be filtered in special fine filters, before it is conducted back into the transformer.

Modern regenerating plants are capable of aut omatically regenerating saturated Fuller’s earth up to 300

Modern regenerating plants are capable of automatically regenerating saturated Fuller’s earth up to 300 times. The clay remains in the adsorption columns and its surface will be reactivated with a special method. During this reactivation process, basically it is a “de- sorption”, the regeneration unit is separated from the purification plant, through which the entire regeneration and treatment time is extended. However, this stand-still time can be reduced with commutable regenerating columns (parallel operation).

These combined plants offer the advantage, that various parameters, which influence the oil quality, will be improved.

- Reduction of acidity

- Reduction of water content

- Improvement of the neutralisation number

- Increase of the electric break-down strength

- Improvement of the loss factor (tan δ)

11B3.5

Drying through heat and vacuum

This method can only applied with the transformer having been switched-off, since a good part or the complete volume of oil will be drained from the transformer tank. During the treatment process, moisture will be removed from the insulation through thermal and con- vective diffusion.

43B3.5.1

Pulsation drying through oil circulation and vacuum

3.5.1 Pulsation drying throu gh oil circulation and vacuum 1 3 5 2 4 Graph 6:
1 3 5 2 4
1
3
5
2
4

Graph 6: Pulsation drying through oil circulation and vacuum phase

The oil purification plant (2) heats the oil volume in circulation to treatment tempera- ture, whereby the transformers (1) temperature will also rise to 60-80 °C. Thereafter the oil will be drained into a separate tank (4) and vacuum will be pulled on the trans- former. This will cause the water in the insulation to evaporate and this vapour will be pumped off by the vacuum pumps (3). The evaporation of the water causes the insula- tion to cool down again, which will require that this heating cycle has to be repeated up to several times, depending on the total weight of the insulation. This method requires that the transformer is taken out of service for several days up to weeks. The prime cost for such drying process is relatively low. Yet, the cost of process time and the re- sulting cost of the transformer being out of operation are substantial.

44B3.5.2 Hot oil spray drying 4 1 3 2 6 Graph 7: Hot oil spray
44B3.5.2 Hot oil spray drying 4 1 3 2 6 Graph 7: Hot oil spray
44B3.5.2
Hot oil spray drying
4
1
3
2
6
Graph 7: Hot oil spray drying
The transformer oil will be drained into a separate tank (6) and the transformer tank (1) will
be evacuated. A relatively small quantity of spray-oil will be heated in the oil heater of the
purification plant and will be sprayed over the evacuated active part (4). This spray-oil will
heat the active part to the required drying temperature (80-120°C). Hereby water will
evaporate from the insulation and the vapour will be pumped off by the vacuum pump (3).
At the end of the heating process, the spray oil will be completely drained and the trans-
former tank will be completely evacuated for an optimal dry-out of the insulation. Thereaf-
ter the transformer will be refilled with purified oil. As in this process, the vacuum is main-
tained through-out the entire process, the concentration of oxygen is in negligible propor-
tion and thus no risk of ageing exists for the paper insulation, despite of the relatively high
process temperature.
45B3.5.3
Low frequency heating and drying with oil circulation
Low frequency heating and drying with oil circulation Graph 8: LFH-Drying with oil circulation 3 2

Graph 8: LFH-Drying with oil circulation

3 2 1 5 6 4 7
3
2
1
5
6
4
7

The oil filled transformer (1) is simultaneously heated by the oil purification plant (4) and the low frequency heating plant (2). Once the process temperature is reached, the oil will be drained and the transformer evacuated. As a consequence water will evaporate from the insulation and the vapour will be pumped off by the vacuum pumping group (5). Fur- ther temperature increases relevant to the process will be effectuated and controlled by the LFH plant.

The continuous development of the LFH-technology allows for a safe drying process, which results in low residual moisture contents in the insulation through short drying time.

LFH drying in the field (with mobile LFH plant) is the most effective and efficient

LFH drying in the field (with mobile LFH plant) is the most effective and efficient method to dry an installed transformer. Die relatively high cost of procurement for the required equipment can be written off after a few transformer drying processes, depending on size, location and required processing time. This is why this system does not only appear attrac- tive for operators of transformers, but also for service companies.

46B3.5.4

Low frequency heating and drying with hot oil spraying

3.5.4 Low frequency heating and drying with hot oil spraying Graph 9: LFH-Drying with hot oil

Graph 9: LFH-Drying with hot oil spraying

3 2 1 5 6 4 7
3
2
1
5
6
4
7

Contrary to the combination of LFH and oil circulation, with this method, the oil will be drained right at the beginning of the process. The active part is being heated under vac- uum by the combination of hot oil spray and LFH. By using the hot-oil-spray system, the heat is also conveyed to parts of the insulation that are quite distant from the conductors, which would require much more time with a pure LFH system. The thus resulting even temperature distribution over the entire active part has a very positive effect on the drying results.

2B4.

12B4.1

Comparison of various Technologies

The here below cited comparisons and claims refer to records and values of experience, which were gained over the past ten … twelve years while assisting Service and Mainte- nance companies in the treatment of power transformers. Depending on the region where such service was provided, the most varied requirements and specific application turned out to bet he rights ones.

Locations of plants in service

XGraph 10X displays a selection of locations where aforementioned on-line treatment plants, regeneration plants (MORP) and mobile LFH systems are in service. We refrained from displaying locations of further systems, as described in chapter 3, in order to maintain a neat survey.

Online MORP LFH Graph 10: Locations of Micafluid treatment systems in service X Graph 10
Online MORP LFH

Online

Online MORP LFH

MORP

Online MORP LFH

LFH

Online MORP LFH

Graph 10: Locations of Micafluid treatment systems in service

XGraph 10X displays a concentration of “on-line systems” in the Asian/Indonesian zone. This may be a result of the high relative humidity in these regions, as well as the sometimes in- sufficient net-work coverage. Transformers on isle states normally can only be taken off the network for very short period of time, but they often present above average moisture in the oil as well as in the insulation. MORP systems are often used in regions with outdated power supply infrastructure, where regeneration is badly needed due to advanced ageing of oil and insulation. LFH technology is mainly applied in industrialized countries.

13B4.2

Requirements on operational personnel

XGraph 11 X displays the requirements on the professional training of personnel as con- tracted by transformer operators and service companies, divided into requirements for the regular operation and for maintenance and repair services on various systems.

Molekularsieb

10

Zellulosefilter

9

8

Kältefalle Ölaufbereitung (offline)

7

6

Regeneration (offline) Ölaufbereitung (online)

5

Regeneration (online)

4

3

Vakuum-Trocknung

Oil-Spray

Mobile LFH

2

1

0

Betrieb Unterhalt

Betrieb

Betrieb Unterhalt

Unterhalt

Oil-Spray Mobile LFH 2 1 0 Betrieb Unterhalt 0 grün 5 gelb 10 orange 15 rot

0

grün

5

gelb

10

orange

15

rot

20

Green

Service technician

Yellow

Operator

Orange

Specifically trained operator

Red

Engineering specialist

Graph 11: Requirements on operating personnel From X Graph 11 X it can be concluded

Graph 11: Requirements on operating personnel

From XGraph 11 X it can be concluded that the demands on the specialization of the operat- ing and service personnel increases with the application of more advanced technology of the used systems. Whilst for transformer operators easy to operate systems are available, service and maintenance firms must contract specially trained personnel.

4.3 14B

Evaluation of efficiency

XGraph 12 X demonstrates an evaluation of the efficiency of various drying technologies re- garding their treatment capabilities:

Regeneration Entfeuchtung Entgasung Filtrierung

Regeneration

Regeneration Entfeuchtung Entgasung Filtrierung

Entfeuchtung

Regeneration Entfeuchtung Entgasung Filtrierung

Entgasung

Regeneration Entfeuchtung Entgasung Filtrierung

Filtrierung

Molekularsieb

10

Zellulosefilter

9

8

Kältefalle Ölaufbereitung (offline)

7

6

Regeneration (offline) Ölaufbereitung (online)

5

Regeneration (online)

4

3

Vakuum-Trocknung

Oil-Spray

Mobile LFH

2

1

0

(online) 4 3 Vakuum-Trocknung Oil-Spray Mobile LFH 2 1 0 0 grün 5 gelb 10 orange

0

grün

5

gelb

10

orange

15

rot

20

Diagram 3

 

Green

100% Efficiency

Yellow

75%

Efficiency

Orange

50%

Efficiency

Red

25%

Efficiency

Graph 12:

Evaluation of efficiency of each treatment technology

As this may have been expected from the above descriptions, the efficiency increases and also the possibilities to combine different techniques with more advanced drying technol- ogy (regeneration, dehumidification, degassing, filtering).

15B4.4

Time consumption of each system vs. intervals between services

XGraph 13 X compares the estimated treatment times and the resulting service intervals with the various methods. A rather advanced condition of ageing of oil and insulation was taken as reference point.

Molekularsieb 10 Zellulosefilter 9 8 Kältefalle Ölaufbereitung (offline) 7 6 Regeneration (offline) Ölaufbereitung

Molekularsieb

10

Zellulosefilter

9

8

Kältefalle Ölaufbereitung (offline)

7

6

Regeneration (offline) Ölaufbereitung (online)

5

Regeneration (online)

4

3

Vakuum-Trocknung

Oil-Spray

Mobile LFH

2

1

0

Aufbereitung Intervall

Aufbereitung

Aufbereitung Intervall

Intervall

Oil-Spray Mobile LFH 2 1 0 Aufbereitung Intervall grün 0 5 gelb 10 orange 15 rot

grün

0 5

gelb

10

orange

15

rot

20

Green

Shortest treatment time vs. extended service intervals (years)

Yellow

Short treatment time vs. Long service intervals (months)

Orange

Long treatment time vs. short service intervals (weeks)

Red

Very long treatment times vs. shortest service intervals (days)

16B4.5

Graph 13:

Time consumption of each system vs. estimated intervals between services

Estimation of costs

XGraph 14 X represents a summary of the investment, operational and costs of consumables of the different technologies:

Investition Betrieb Verbrauch

Investition

Investition Betrieb Verbrauch

Betrieb

Investition Betrieb Verbrauch

Verbrauch

Molekularsieb

10

Zellulosefilter

9

8

Kältefalle Ölaufbereitung (offline)

7

6

Regeneration (offline) Ölaufbereitung (online)

5

Regeneration (online)

4

3

Vakuum-Trocknung

Oil-Spray

Mobile LFH

2

1

0

(online) 4 3 Vakuum-Trocknung Oil-Spray Mobile LFH 2 1 0 grün gelb 0 5 10 15

grün

gelb

0

5

10

15

Green

<

10 kCHF

Yellow

<

100 kCHF

Orange

<

500 kCHF

Red

< 1’000 kCHF

 

20

orange

rot

Graph 14:

Estimated cost for each technology

17B 4.6 Possibilities among various methods X Graph 15 X describes the possibilities of on-line

17B4.6

Possibilities among various methods

XGraph 15 X describes the possibilities of on-line treatment and drying methods under vac- uum referred to the different methods:

Molekularsieb

10

Zellulosefilter

9

8

Kältefalle Ölaufbereitung (offline)

7

6

Regeneration (offline) Ölaufbereitung (online)

5

Regeneration (online)

4

3

Vakuum-Trocknung

Oil-Spray

Mobile LFH

2

1

0

Vakuum Online

Vakuum

Vakuum Online

Online

Vakuum-Trocknung Oil-Spray Mobile LFH 2 1 0 Vakuum Online 0 grün 5 gelb 10 orange 15

0

grün

5

gelb

10

orange

15

rot

20

Green

Vacuum vs. on-line operation available

Yellow

Vacuum optional vs. on-line operation optional

Orange

Vacuum conditional vs. on-line operation possible

Red

No vacuum vs. no on-line operation

Graph 15: Possibilities among various methods

18B4.7

47B4.7.1

Discussion

Transformer operator

The demands of a transformer operator on the treatment technologies can be summarized as follows:

a) New installations

- Optimal first filling with insulating oil (oil purification plant required)

- Conservation of the operating condition without tampering the DGA (small systems with molecular sieve)

b) Transformer in operation

- On-line supervision of the operating condition (e.g. DGA, and so forth)

- Short service time (time transformer out of operation)

- Long service intervals

48B 4.7.2 Maintenance and service companies The demands on the treatment pos sibilities by a

48B4.7.2

Maintenance and service companies

The demands on the treatment possibilities by a service companies can be summarized as follows:

- low investment costs

- low operational and maintenance costs

- realistic demands on the operating personnel

- flexible possibilities of use in one system

- short treatment times

- adaptation to the regional conditions (on-line treatment)

49B4.7.2

Analysis of requirements

- first filling:

- conservation of the actual status:

- on-line treatment:

- regeneration

- Drying

Micafluid VOP Molecular sieves Micafluid VOP with on-line supervision Micafluid MORP Micafluid Hot Oil Spray (VOP HOS)

On the basis of above summary, following chapter 5 will emphasize VOP on-line and MORP regenerating plant.

5 will emphasize VOP on-line and MORP regenerating plant. On-line Treatment and Regeneration of Transformers
5 Technolog y by Micafluid Drying capacities and the correspondingly needed time for drying vary

5 Technology by Micafluid

Drying capacities and the correspondingly needed time for drying vary depending on the drying mode. With all drying methods, the drying temperature plays a major role. In this chapter we shall offer a detailed survey on the treatment technologies mainly used by Mi- cafluid.

19B5.1

On-line treatment plants

The on-line treatment system consists of a Micafluid oil purification plant VOP, which is equipped with a transformer monitoring system. In the purification plant, the oil is being pre-filtered, heated (optionally regenerated by a pressure fullering system), degassed by a thin-film degassing system and finally fine-filtered.

XGraph 16 X displays the process diagram of an on-line treatment:

16 X displays the process diagram of an on-line treatment: Graph 16: Diagram of VOP on-line

Graph 16: Diagram of VOP on-line plant

50B 5.1.1 Scope of duties The client has a power transformer with critical oil values.

50B5.1.1

Scope of duties

The client has a power transformer with critical oil values. The operator could not or did not want to take the transformer from the network and opted for an on-line drying.

Transformer

Basic data

12

MVA / 22 kV

Type

3-phase power transformer

Oil content

5’775 lt

Initial conditions

Moisture content in oil

48

ppm at 60 °C

El. break-down voltage

18.4 kV

Values measured after 4 days of on-line processing at 3'000 lt/h

Moisture content in oil

3 ppm at 60 °C

El. break-down voltage

55

kV

Table 4:

Examples of an on-line treatment

20B5.2

Combined purification and regenerating plants

Basically we distinguish between two system and products:

Traditional pressure fullering:

VOP + VH312

Re-adsorption process:

MORP

Micafluid offers both systems for the regeneration of aged insulating oil. The plants differ from each other mainly regarding the through-flow capacity, respectively the number of adsorption columns and the handling of the Fullers’ earth.

21B5.3

VOP + VH312

VH 312 with 2 adsorption columns and one inhibition tank

Flow capacity

Adsorption columns (Fuller’s earth filled tanks)

1’500 lt/h

Inhibition tank

400

lt/h

VH 312 with 6 adsorption columns and two inhibition tanks

Flow capacity

Adsorption columns

4'500 lt/h

Inhibition tank

800

lt/h

Table 5:

Summary on VH312

Graph 17: Mobile VH312 system Per adsorption column, approx. 80 kg of Fuller’s earth are
Graph 17: Mobile VH312 system Per adsorption column, approx. 80 kg of Fuller’s earth are

Graph 17: Mobile VH312 system

Per adsorption column, approx. 80 kg of Fuller’s earth are required. Micafluid proposes the use of the following type of Fuller’s earth:

Microsorb LVM* Mesh Size 16/30 or alternatively

Microsorb LVM* Mesh Size 30/60 (*Low volatile matter)

Depending on the flow capacity of the VH312 unit, a cor- responding VOP plant will be selected.

VH312 unit, a cor- responding VOP plant will be selected. Graph 18: Problem of correct disposal

Graph 18: Problem of correct disposal of used Fuller’s earth with traditional regeneration

There is a clear disadvantage to this regeneration method, i.e. that the Fuller’s earth will saturate with ageing products after approx. 10 to 15 passes through the columns. Thereby the adsorption capacity of the Fuller’s earth decreases so much, that the same must be exchanged. The advantages of this classical pressure fullering are the low capital invest- ment and the relatively short processing time.

22B5.4

MORP

As this was already described in chapter 3, this plant type (Micafluid Oil Regeneration Plant) actually consists of two separate units, i.e. of the purification plant und the regenera- tion plant.

of the purification plant und the regenera- tion plant. Graph 19: MORP Depending on the desired

Graph 19: MORP

Depending on the desired execution, the plants will be mounted in a 20ft or a 40ft standard

container. They can be equipped with up to 36 columns. The equipment may also com- prise a test laboratory, in order that necessary oil test may be carried out directly on site

tan (Bauer

(Karl Fischer test, break-down voltage testing (Bauer DPA) and Tan Delta DTP)

51B 5.4.1 Purification unit The purification unit corresponds in its function and treatment technique with

51B5.4.1

Purification unit

The purification unit corresponds in its function and treatment technique with one of the VOP Micafluid purification plants, as described in chapter 5.1.

52B5.4.2

Regeneration unit

The automatic regeneration of the Fuller’s earth of- fers a decisive advantage over the conventional

The automatic regeneration of the Fuller’s earth of- fers a decisive advantage over the conventional pressure fullering. In this system, the Fuller’s earth can be reactivated between 250 to 300 times. Thus the Fuller’s earth remains in the columns for a time span of several years and does not have to be re- placed after a short period of time. Yet, this system doesn’t offer advantages only. The relatively high cost of procurement of the corresponding equipment is one of the factors, and relatively long process times, depending on the execution of the plant, may yet be another factor.

Graph 20: The disposal of used Fuller’s earth with MORP plant

53B5.4.3

Description of the process

The system permits to operate the plant as filtration plant, as oil purification plant or as a combined regenerating and oil purification plant. Depending on the desired process pro- gram, the plant may work ON-LINE or OFF-LINE, i.e. during the purification and regenera- tion process, the transformer may be treated whilst being under current or being switched off. Depending on the condition of oil and Fuller’s earth, the regeneration process takes between 8 to 12 hours. As soon as the Fuller’s earth is saturated with ageing products, the plant automatically switches over to the re-activating process. All plants do have a variable oil through-put of 1’000-5'000 lt/h.

Graph 21: Process diagram with MORP system
Graph 21: Process diagram with MORP system
a) Purification and filtration Graph 22: MORP Purification and filtration The purification and filtering process

a) Purification and filtration

a) Purification and filtration Graph 22: MORP Purification and filtration The purification and filtering process can

Graph 22: MORP Purification and filtration

The purification and filtering process can be oper- ated as fully independent process. The is being pumped by the entry pump through the oil heater, the coarse filter and then either through the fine fil- ter unit back to the tank, or through the thin film degassing system of the oil purification plant and via the fine filters back to the transformer

This process may also be operated either ON- LINEA or OFF-LINE. Micafluid also offers a hose supervision system, so that the plant can be oper- ated over a longer period of time, without the con- tinuous control by the operators.

b) Regeneration of transformer oil

control by the operators. b) Regeneration of transformer oil Graph 23: MORP regeneration The aged oil

Graph 23: MORP regeneration

The aged oil is being fed from the transformer via the Fuller’s earth col- umns and thereafter through the thin film degassing chamber of the oil puri- fication plant, through the fine filters back into the transformer. As soon as the colour of the oil does no longer change, the plant will automatically switch over to “reactivation” of the Fuller’s earth.

c) Reactivation of the Fuller’s earth

Fuller’s earth. c) Reactivation of the Fuller’s earth Graph 24: MORP reactivation of Fuller’s earth As

Graph 24: MORP reactivation of Fuller’s earth

As soon as the automatic colour de- tector recognises that the quality of the oil does not improve anymore, the plant switches over to the reactivation process. The two plant types are being separated from each other and the oil processing plant continuously purifying the oil. In the meantime the saturated Fuller’s earth will be reactivated.

This process takes approximately 16 hours. During this time, the oil purification plant con- tinues to purify the oil. After conclusion of the reactivation of the Fuller’s earth, the plant switches automatically back to the regeneration mode.

54B 5.4.4 Performance MORP The combined treatment and regeneration plant impr oves the dielectric characteristics

54B5.4.4

Performance MORP

The combined treatment and regeneration plant improves the dielectric characteristics of the insulating oil. The following parameters are favourably influenced:

Electric break-down voltage

Moisture content in the oil

Dielectric loss factor

Neutralization number

Surface tension

Colour code

Acidity

Particles count

These values are quite often standardized, depending on national standards and operators specifications (e.g. IEC 60422).

6. Summary Transformers represent a high capital investment and maintenance work. Reasonably planned care and

6.

Summary

Transformers represent a high capital investment and maintenance work. Reasonably planned care and maintenance will contribute to enhance their availability and effective operational time. In order to extend the life time of a transformer it is necessary to maintain the moisture content of its insulation as low as this is possible and improve the dielectric properties of its insulating oil.

In the wake of ongoing liberalization of the power market, many of the power companies have outsourced maintenance of their transformers to external service companies. Thereby, a number of different processes are available. Practically all of these processes have in one or the other way a positive influence on the dryness of the insulation and thus they have a positive influence on the transformers life time as well.

As this can be concluded from this report, none of these methods is in position on its own to cover the full scope of needs regarding dryness, treatment and regeneration. Full satis- faction will therefore always require a combination or a go together of various processes.

23B6.1

Outlook

In the restructuring process of the MICAFIL Vacuum Plants Division of ABB Switzerland Ltd., the newly (since 2005) formed company Micafluid Ltd. took over the product line of insulating oil purification and regeneration plants.

In the future, Micafluid Ltd will seek even closer cooperation with the transformer manufac- turing industry, as well as with power generators, power distributors and service compa- nies, in order to be able to develop new solutions and technologies in the field of treatment of insulating fluids, e.g. to directly combine the gas in oil analysis with the oil purification and drying technology.

Micafluid oil purification and drying plants will further be developed closer to the needs of the users, also taking into consideration their economical and ecological requirements, and also fulfilling the most stringent quality standards. A project for the fully automatic oil proc- essing in several transformers of one power substation will be launched soon.

Micafluid is further planning to develop a new line of plants for the processing of other types of liquids, e.g. for the treatment of used motor oil, for edible oils and for thermal flu- ids. Yet, the main business is expected to remain in the field of processing and drying of transformers and insulating oils.

31.12.2008

Micafluid Ltd., Switzerland

Andreas Gruber

HUandreas.gruber@micafluid.chUH

3B 7 24B 7.1 Annex Regeneration The only known and effective treatment of aged oil,

3B7

24B7.1

Annex

Regeneration

The only known and effective treatment of aged oil, in order to improve its dielectric char- acteristics is the adsorption of the ageing products with Fuller’s earth. Activated clay, e.g. on the basis of “magnesium-aluminum-silicate” have the capability to adsorb carbonyl and hydroxyl groups as the main ageing products of the oil.

In order to evaluate the ageing condition of insulating oil, several limiting values have been set forth under IEC 60422 specifications:

Power transformers

< 72,5 kV

< 72,5 kV-170 kV

> 170 kV

Oil colour

[Scale no.]

max. 2

max. 2

max. 2

Water content

[ppm]

< 10

< 5

< 5

Inter facial tension

[mN/m]

35

35

35

Neutralisation number

[mg KoH/g]

> 0,15 mg

> 0,15 mg

> 0,15 mg

Loss factor tan δ

(at 90°C)

[-]

max. 0,015

max. 0,015

max. 0,010

Electric break-down voltage

[kV]

> 55

> 60

> 60

Table 6:

Proposed limiting values for new oil in transformers as per IEC 60422

During the regeneration of the oil through adsorption, it has been observed that the loss factor starts to decrease first. Somewhat slower we can observe an improvement of the neutralization number, followed by the interfacial tension. After an optimal regeneration of the oil, the oil characteristics correspond to a large extent with those of new oil.

correspond to a large extent with those of new oil. Graph 25: Steps in regeneration of

Graph 25:

Steps in regeneration of aged insulating oil

Before regenerating insulating oil with Fuller’s earth, a test fullering should be carried out in order to investigate the reaction of the aged oil to the treatment with Fuller’s earth and to determine the approximate consumption of Fuller’s earth during such regeneration. This mainly applies for the conventional pressure fullering method.

55B 7.1.1 Sample fullering Graph 26: Test fullering Procedure: Heat one litre of aged oil

55B7.1.1

Sample fullering

55B 7.1.1 Sample fullering Graph 26: Test fullering Procedure: Heat one litre of aged oil to

Graph 26: Test fullering

Procedure:

Heat one litre of aged oil to 60° C. Keep stirring whilst adding in even steps quantities of Fuller’s until the interfacial tension reaches a value close to the one of new oil. If the dielectric values do not significantly improve, one may assume that the insulating oil has been exposed to excessive chemical and thermal stresses. This again would lead to the conclusion that this oil has to be fully re- placed.

56B7.1.2

Consumption of Fuller’s earth in function of the ageing behaviour

. Graph 27: Consumption of Fuller’s earth
.
Graph 27: Consumption of Fuller’s earth

In XGraph 27 X displays the consumption of Fuller’s earth in function of oil weight. Based on these values, one may draw conclusions on the consumption of Fuller’s earth and through a test fuller- ing, it can be evaluated whether a specific oil is suitable for yet another regeneration.

Basically it can be said that the typical Fuller’s earth consumption is around 10-15 kg per 100 kg of oil (corresponding to 10-15 percent by weight).

25B 7.2 Register of Graphs U Graph 1: U   U Moisture content (ppm) in

25B7.2

Register of Graphs

UGraph 1: U

 

UMoisture content (ppm) in function of the temperatureU

5

UGraph 2: U

UEquilibrium curves in paper-oil-systemsU

6

UGraph 3: U

UOn-line oil treatment with Micafluid plant type VOPU

10

UGraph 4: U

UVH312U

11

UGraph 5: U

UCombined oil purification and regeneration plants MORP U

11

UGraph 6: U

UPulsation drying through oil circulation and vacuum phaseU

12

UGraph 7: U

UHot oil spray drying U

13

UGraph 8: U

ULFH-Drying with oil circulation U

13

UGraph 9: U

ULFH-Drying with hot oil sprayingU

14

UGraph 10:

Locations of Micafluid treatment systems in serviceU

15

UGraph 11

Requirements on operating personnel U

16

UGraph 12

Evaluation of efficiency of each treatment technologyU

16

UGraph 13: U

UTime consumption of each system vs. estimated intervals between servicesU

17

UGraph 14: U

UEstimated cost for each technologyU

17

UGraph 15:

Possibilities among various methods

18

UGraph 16: U

UDiagram of VOP on-line plantU

20

UGraph 17: U

UMobile VH312 system U

22

UGraph 18:

Problem of correct disposal of used Fuller’s earth with traditional regenerationU

22

UGraph

19:

U

UMORPU

22

UGraph 20:

The disposal of used Fuller’s earth with MORP plant U

23

UGraph 21: U

UProcess diagram with MORP systemU

23

UGraph 22: U

UMORP

Purification and filtration U

24

UGraph

23:

U

UMORP

regenerationU

24

UGraph 24: U

UMORP reactivation of Fuller’s earthU

24

UGraph 25:

Steps in regeneration of aged insulating oil U

27

UGraph 26:

 

28

UGraph 27: U

 

Sample fullerungU UConsumption of Fuller’s earthU

28

26B7.3

Register of Tables

UTable 1: U

 

UMinimal requirements on insulating oils as per IEC specifications U

4

UTable 2: U

UCharacteristic decomposition gasses as a consequence of disturbances in transformers U

6

UTable 3: U

UPeriodic inspections on Power Transformers U

8

UTable 4: U

UExamples of an on-line treatment U

21

UTable 5: U

USummary on VH312U

21

UTable 6: U

UProposed limiting values for new oil in transformers as per IEC 60422U

27

Literary References 1 T.V. Oommen Oct 2000 Bubble evolution from transformer overload, IEEE Insulation life

Literary References

1 T.V. Oommen Oct 2000

Bubble evolution from transformer overload, IEEE Insulation life subcommittee

2. Sokolov, Griffin, Vanin Moisture equilibrium and moisture migration within transformer insulation

systems CIGRE WG

12.18

3. W. Lampe Beitrag zur Berechnung der notwendigen Trocknungszeit von Grosstransformatoren

(A contribution to calculating the necessary drying time for large power transformers), Archiv für Elektrotechnik, Band 53 (1969) Heft 3

4. Y. Du,M. Zahn, B.C. Lesieutre, A.V. Mamisehv, S.R. Lindgren Moisture equilibrium in Trans- former paper-oil systems IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine 1999

5. T.V Oommen Moisture equilibrium in Transformer paper-oil systems, Doble Conference Paper

April 2003

6. IEC 60422 Specifications on Fluids for Electrotechnical Applications

7. H.J. Knab Die Betriebsüberwachung von Transformatoren (Operational supervision of

transformers), Bulletin SEV/VSE 21/96

8. Hinweis zur Überwachung und Wartung von Leistungstransformatoren (Indications for the

supervision and servicing of power transformers), Micafil Technische Nachrichten (Micafil

technical news), MNV 500D, 1990

9. Fa. Engelhard Clay Specifikation

10. Ekofluid Specification