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Familiarization and Basic Operation of CVHF Chiller

Date
TOPICS

• Overview
• Typical View
• Major Components of CVHF Chiller
• Refrigeration System
• Operating Principle
• L brication & Motor Cooling S
Lubrication System
stem
• Purge System
• Chiller Control System
• M i t
Maintenance
• Questions

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Overview

CVHF Feature
> Single compressor, CENTRIFUGAL type water cooled liquid chillers
> Uses R-123 as refrigerant and Trane Oil 0022
Model Number Coding System
CVH F 049 D A 2 P 0 L C N 2 7 1 8 W B E 8 R B C00

12 3 4 567 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
Digits
1,2 CV Unit type Centravac Hermetic 14 C Control Interface, UCP3
3 H Drive Type, Direct Driv 15 N Comp KW, CPKW
4 F Design Sequence,
Sequence fifth 16 17 18 271
16,17,18
5,6.7 049 Nominal Tonnage,770Ton Comp Impeller Cutback
Design tons 751.75 1st 2nd
8 D Voltage, 460/60/3 27.6 27.6
9 A Unit type, Cooling Condenser
10,11 2P Design Sequence 19 8 Evap Shell Size, 080 long shel
12 0 Hotgas bypass, without 20 W Evap tube bundle size,800 Nom
13 L Purge Purifier

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Typical View of a CVHF Chiller

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Major Components of the Chiller

Compressor • It is the heart of the vapor compression system.


• It provides the pressure increase necessary to facilitate the
transfer of heat.

Condenser • It receives superheated refrigerant from the compressor and


removes the superheat and liquefy the refrigerant (sub cooling).

Metering Device • It reduce the pressure of the refrigerant and regulate the flow of
refrigerant to the evaporator.

Evaporator • It transfer heat from a substance being cooled to a boiling


refrigerant.
g

• It is a devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to


Economizer perform another useful function like p
p preheating
g a fluid.

• The purgeis designed to remove non-condensable gases and


Purge water from the refrigeration system.

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Refrigeration
g System
y

• It provides cooling to equipment


equipment, processes
processes, and
personnel spaces. The systems do this with refrigerants
that remove heat from the heat source and discharge it
to a heat sink.

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Basic Refrigeration
Cycle
Cooling
Tower
Sub-cooled liquid Superheated vapor

3 CONDENSER 2

HP Liquid line

Metering
COMPRESSOR
Device
LP Vapor line

4 EVAPORATOR 1
Mixture
Saturated vapor

AHU
HEAT COOL

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OPERATING PRINCIPLES

Evaporator Components
tube bundle

liquid
refrigerant

chilled
water
return
liquid
distributor eliminator orifice system
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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR COMPONENTS

Inlet Guide Vanes Impellers

• Pre-spins Refrigerant Vapor


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Inlet Guide Vanes

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0
Condenser

Condenser
Water Out
95°

85°
Condenser
Water In

• De
De-superheats
superheats and Condenses Refrigerant 1
Vapor 1
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Metering Orifice

• The Metering Orifice Meters


Refrigerant Flow

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CVHF Refrigeration Cycle with Economizer

2-Stage Refrigerant Flow

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ECONOMIZER

T 2n d Stta ge
To

Elim in ator

To Evap ora
From
Con den ser Orifice

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CVHF Refrigeration Cycle

2-Stage P-H Diagram

Efficiency
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General Assembly Oil/Refrigeration System Schematic

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Purge System

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Refrigerant Report

Purge Operating Modes


(Stop, On, Auto, Adaptive)
p – The p
1. Stop purge
g condensing
g unit will not
run.

2. On - The purge condensing unit runs


continuously regardless of the chiller
operational status.

3. Auto - the purge condensing unit runs when


the chillers main compressor is in operation

4. Adaptive – The purge condensing unit


operation is totally dependent on past purge
activity. Purge monitors it’s 1.) daily pumpout
time with the chiller ON or OFF, over the last 24
hours and 2.) average daily pumpout time with
the chiller ON or OFF, over the last 7days.

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Advantages of Adaptive Mode

Objectives of operating the unit in the Adaptive


mode are:

• Operating the purge refrigeration circuit to effectively


accumulate non-condensables with or without the
chiller
hill running.
i

•Provide information to the operator as to whether


leakage is on the high-pressure or low-pressure side of
the chiller
chiller.

•Decrease energy usage by running the purge


refrigeration circuit only when needed to remove non-
condensables rather than running continuously.
condensables, continuously

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Purge System

R-404a Condensing Unit

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System Contamination

Results From:
Equipment Leaks
Poor Evacuation
Introducing Contaminated Refrigerant

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Earthwise Purge System

Condensing Unit
Condenser
C
Compressor Pressure Relief
Carbon Tank
Temp Sensor Device

Expansion Exhaust
Device Solenoid Valve
Restrictor
To Chiller
Pumpout Vent Line
Solenoid Valve

Compressor
p Suction To Chiller
Temp Sensor Pump-out Evaporator
Compressor

Purge Regeneration
Tank Solenoid Valve
Isolation
Vapor
V V l
Valve
Pick-up Line Float
Switch Heater Carbon
Tank
Filter/Drier Liquid Drain Finned
Chiller Heater Well
Line
Condenser
Isolation
Valves

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Purge Condenser R-
R-404a Circuit

150F Vapor CO
CONDENSER
S

R-404a EVAP

COMPRESSOR 85 F LIQUID

TEMP SENSOR -16 F LIQUID

> 60 F Vapor

R-123
R 123 AEV
INLET
R-123 75 F LIQUID
OUTLET
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No Air in purge tank

• R-404a
R 404a Liquid/Vapor
Mixture from EXV (-16 o F)

• Purge coil area available


for superheating

• R404a Gas to
condensing
unit • Chiller refrigerant
Compressor vapor (100° F)
suction (90° F)

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Air ½ of Purge Tank

R404a Liquid/Vapor Mixture from


EXV (-16°F)

Purge coil area


available for Air
superheating

Chiller refrigerant vapor (100°F)

R404a Gas to Condensing


Unit compressor Suction
(70°F)

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Air fills Purge Tank

R404a Liquid/Vapor Mixture from


EXV (-16°F)

No coil area
available for
superheating

Air
R404a Gas to condensing unit
compressor Suction (-16°F)

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N -Condensable
Non-
Non C d bl Removal
R l

When sufficient non-condensable have accumulated in the purge tank to


decrease the compressor suction temperature below the pump out initiate
set point a pump out cycle has begun. The cycle will be terminated when the
compressor suction temperature sensor increases above the pump out
terminate set-point.

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Control System

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Maintenance

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Maintenance

• Change Oil and Oil Analysis


After the first 6 months or 1000 hours operation, whichever comes first, it is
recommended to change the oil and filter. After this oil change,
recommendations are to subscribe to an annual oil analysis program rather
than automatically change the oil as part of scheduled maintenance.

• Proper Water Treatment


The use of untreated or improperly treated water in a CenTraVac may result
in scaling, erosion, corrosion, algae or slime. It is recommended that the
services of a qualified water treatment specialist be engaged to determine
what water treatment, if any, is required. Trane assumes no responsibility for
equipment failures which result from untreated or improperly treated water, or
saline or brackish water.

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Basic Maintenance Items
Daily
• Monitoringg of Chiller Required
q Parameters
• Oil Level visual check (using sight glass)
Quarterly
• Cleaning of water strainers (Piping)
Semi-Annually
• Lubrication of Vane Control System (bearings, ball joints,...)
Annually
• Calibration
C lib ti off Controls
C t l (relays,
( l sensors, …))
• Measure Compressor Motor Winding resistance
• Oil Change and Oil Analysis
• Replacement of Oil Filter
Other Maintenance Requirements
• Inspect and clean condenser tubes if necessary
• Evaporator Tubes cleaning interval shall be 3-years
3 years

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Compressor Motor Problem

Voltage And Current Unbalance

100 X the Sum of the Deviation of the Voltages, (Currents),


Di id d by
Divided b 2 X the
th Average
A

The Unbalance Should Not Exceed 2% Voltage or 10 % Current

Example:
Measured Voltages : Sum of the Deviation:
480 Volts 480 - 470 = 10
470 Volts 470 - 470 = 0 2 000 : 2 X 470 = 2
2,000 2.13
13 %
460 Volts 470 - 460 = 10
Average: = 470 Volts 20 X 100 = 2,000

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Other Important Items

CAUSES OF SURGE
• Too high
g condensing g temperature
p
• Too much incondensable in a low pressure unit :
– don't operate unit at full load if purge unit is not stabilized ( pay attention
to leaks of refrigerant through purge unit )
• Cooling tower temperature too high :
» too much refrigerant
» dirty tubes
» too low water flow rate
• Lack of refrigerant
• too long part load operation
– unitit might
i ht surge dduring
i a llong titime att partt lload
d ( 15 tto 20% )), it iis th
then
recommended to reduce condenser inlet water temperature of 1°F per
10% load reduction

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Other Important Items

CAUSES OF SURGE SURGE CONSEQUENCES


Q

• Liquid refrigerant carry over • Loss of performance


– too much refrigerant • Pressure instability
– too high evaporator water • Amperage peaks
temperature
• Vibrations and noise
• Oil carryy over
• Bearing wears
– noisy compressor
– amperage fluctuations

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Normal Parameters

Normal Operating Conditions


Description Condition
E
Evaporator
t Pressure
P 15” tto 20” H
Hg (V
(Vacuum))
Condenser Pressure 0 to 10 psig
Oil Sump Temperature
Unitt Not
U ot Running
u g 1400 to 145°F
5
Unit Running 62 to 162°F
Differential Oil Pressure 18 to 22 psid
Discharge Oil Pressure 7 to 15 psig
Oil Tank Pressure 12” to 18”Hg
Condenser Approach Temp = Sat Cond Temp - Lvg Cond Water Temp
Evaporator Approach Temp = Lvg CHW Temp - Sat Evap Temp
Notes: 1. ARI Conditions are: cond water - 85°F & 3 gpgpm/xxx tons
Evaporator Water: 54 to 44°F
2. Condenser pressure is dependent on condenser water temp and
should equal the saturation pressure of HCFC-123 at a temp above that of leaving
condenser water at full load
load.
3. Std. Cond App Temp: 0 to 5°F ; Std Evap App Temp: 0 to 4°F
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Questions

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Th k you !!!
Thank

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