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Contents Chapter 1. Introduction to Electrical Engineering 1 4.10 blecirical bs 1.2. blectrical b: of Mechatronic S) 4.3 Fundamentals of Review. § 4.4, Brier History of Fle 455 Sister of Units 10 436. Special Features of This Book 11 Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 15 2.4 Charge, Came, snd Kirchlio’s Current Law 16 2.2. Voltage and Kirchhotl’s Vol 2.3 ideal Voltage and Cu Ideal Voltage Sour Ideal Current Sources 25 Dependent (Controlled) Sources 2.4 slecric Power and Si B!5 Circuit Elements and thei i yCharacteristies 29 2.6 Resistance and Ohv’s Law 30 Gpen snd Short Circuits 38 Series Resistors and the Vola. Divider Rule 39 Parallel Resistors and the Curent Divider Rule 42 2.7. Proctcal Voltage and Curent Sources 49 28 n Convention The Ohi The Ammeter The Violometer Network A Circuit Variables 36 Ground 57 Chapter 3 Resistive Network Analysis 74 3.4 ‘The Node Voltge Method 72 Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source 3.2. ‘The Mesh Cartent Method 7S Mesh Analysis with Carre Sources ll and Mesh Anolssis with Controle Sources 84 Remarks on Node Volk Methods” 86 3.4. The Principle of Superposition 86 3.5. One-Port Networks and Equivalent Circuits 89 “Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Cireaits 90 Detenination of Norton ur Thévenin Equivalem Resistance 91 Compating the Thevenin Voltage 9S ompating the Noston C Source ranshormations 101 perimental Determination of Thévenin and Norton Fquislents.» 104 3.6 Moximumm Power Tansier 107 3.7) Nonlinear Cirewit Flements 110, Description of Nonlncar Hlements 100, Graphical (Load-Line) Analysis of Nonkinea Cieuits 111 and Mesh Current Chapter 4 AC Network Analysis 125 4A. Energy-Storage (Dynamic) Cieait Elements 126 the Ideal Capacitor 126 rage in Capacitors 130 tor 133 in Inductors 137 dent Signal Sources 141 Why Sinusoids? 61 Average and RMS Values 142 4.3 Solution of Circuits Contsinin Blements 145 Forced Response of Circuits Excited dal Sources 146 4.4. phasors and Impedimee 148 Bers Klentity HS Phasors 149 Superpesiti Impedance “The Resistor ‘The Inductor The Capacitor Admittance 161 AC Circuit Analysis Methods AC Eiquivalent Circuits 166 Dynamic by Simuso of AC Signals 151 153 153 154 155 45 162 Chapter 5 Transient Analysis 181 $1 ntiduction 181 5.2. Solution of Circuits Containing Dynamic Elements 18° 5.3. ‘Transiont Response of Fin-Ondsr Circuits 186 Natural Response of Fin-Onder Cireuits 187 anu Complete Response of First-Order Giteuits 191 Continuity of Capzcitor Voltages and Inductor Circuits 192 Complete Solution of Firs-Onder Circuits 194 5.4. “Trasiont Respunse of Firs-Onder Circuits 203 Deriving the Differential Equations For Second-On am ‘Natural Response of Secora-Onler Cireuits 208 Overtamped Solution 208 Critically Darnped Solution 209 Undendamped Solution 209 Foreed and Complete Response of Second-Order Circuits 200) Chapter 6 Frequency Respose and System Concepts 231 6.4. Sinisoidal Frequency Respomse 62 Files 23 Low=Pass Filters High-Poss Filters Band-Pos Filkers Ds Decivel (db) or Bode Plots 257 6.3. Complex Froqucney and ‘ransom 261) The Lapkice Transform 263, Transfer Functions, Poles, amd Zeros 267 Chapter 7 AC Power 281 7.1 Power in AC Circuits 282 Instantaneous and Aver AC Power Notation Power Factor 288 Complex Power 289 Power Factor, Revisited Transformers 308 The Ideal Translormer 309 Impedance Reflection and Power Transier 311 Thnge-Phase Power 315 Balanced Wye Loads 318 Balanced Dela Loads 319 Residential Wiring: Groundin, anid Safety Power 2 7.2 7.3 204 7.4 7.5 7.6 Generation and Distribution of AC Power 325 PART I SELECTRONICS Chapter 8 Semiconductors and Diodes 337 8.1. Electrics Conduction in Sernicondctor Devices 338 8.2. The pr Junction and the Semiconductor Diode 40 B.3 Circuit Models forthe Semiconductor Diole M3 Large-Signal Diode Models 243 Srrall-Signal Diode Models 351 Piecewise Linear Diode Movlel 387 8.4 Prsctical Diode Circuits 360 The FullWase Rectifier 360 “The Bridye Rectifier 362 DC Power Supplies. Zener Dives and Yollage Regulation 364 Signal-Processing Applications 370 Phostodiodes¥ Chapter 9 Transistor Fundamentals 391 9.4. “Transistors as Amplifiers and Switches 592 9.2 ‘the lipolar anction Transistor (3IT) 594 Determining the Operating Region Se BIT 307 Selecting an Operating Point fora BIT 399 3 407 a paBIT 407 9.4 Field-Ffleet Transistors 415 9.5 Overview of Enhancement-Mo MOSFETs 415 Operation of the Channel Enhancement- Mode MOSFET 416 Channel MOSFETS andl CMOS Devices 421 9.6 Depletion MOSHE Ts and JFETs 423 Depletion MOSFETs 423 Junction Pield-Ef fect Transistors 424 Depletion MOSFET and IFFT I:quations 436 Chapter 10. Transistor Amplifiers and Switches 437 410.1 SiallSignal Models ofthe BUT 438 ‘Transconductance 441 410.2. IT Sivall-Signsl Amplitiens 483 DC Analysis ofthe Conmmen-Eitter Amplifier 446 AC Analysis of the Common-biitr Amplitier 453 Other BIT Amplifier Circuits 457 10.3. FET SmallSignal Amplifiers 4 The MOST Common-Source Amplifier 461 ‘The MOSFET Source Follower 465 10.4. Transistor Amplifiers 468 Frequency Response of Smell-Signal Amplifiers 468 Multistage Amplifier 470 40.5 Transistor Gates and Switches 472 Anclog Gates 473 Digital Gates 475 Chapter 11 Power Electronics 495 11.1 Classifi cation of Power Electronic Devices 496 14.2 Classification of Power Electronic Cireuits 497 41.3 Voitare Regulators 499 11.4 Power Amplifiers and Transistor Switches 302 Power Amplifiers BIT Switching Chara istics S04 Power MOSFETs $0: Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBIs) 30s, 14.5 Rectifiers snl Contvolled Rectifiers (ACDC Converters) 508 Uihee-Phase Rectifiers “S11 Thsristors and Controlled Rectifiers 14.6. Lleciie Motor Drives S18 Choppers (DC-DC Converters) Inverters (DC-AC Con enters Chapter 12. Operational Amplifiers 534 12.4 Aplin $32 Ideal Amplifier Characteristics: 12.2. The Operational Amphitier The Open-Loop Model 534 ‘The Operational Amplifier in the Closed-Loop Mode 12.3 Active filters 553 42.4 invcerator ata Dilerenintor Circuits $89 ‘he deal Differentiation $62 12.5. Analog Computers 562 Scaling in Analog Computers S64 12.6 Physical Limitations of Op-Ainps $69 Voltage Supply Limits $69 Frequency Response Limits 371 Input Set Nolage 574 Input Bias Curents Outpan OF Adjustment $76 Slew Rate Limit’ 577 Shot-Cireuit Output Current $79 Conman-Mode Rejection Ratio. 58 Chapter 13 Digital Logic Circuits 599 13.1 Analog and Digital Signals 600 13.2 ‘The Binary Number Syste Addition and Subtraction 6002 Multiplication and Division 603 Conversion from Decimal to Binary 60% Complements and Negative Numbers 604 ‘The Hexadecimal System 606 Binary Codes 606 13.3 Boolean Algebra 610 AND and OR Gates 610 NAND andl NOR Gates 67 The NOR (Pslusive OR} Gate 619 13.4 Kemugh Maps and Logic Design 620 Sum-ol-Products Realizations 62% ProdctolSus Realizations 627 Dnt Care Conitions 631 13.5 Combinational Logic Modules 634 Multiples 64 Read-Only Memory (ROM) 635 Decoders and Read and Write Memory 638 Chapter 14. Digital Systems 647 14.1 Sequential Logic Modules 648 Latches and Flip-Flops. 648, Digital Counters 655 Re 602 Sequential Ls 2 Design 664 3. Microcomputers 667 24 Microcomputer Architecture 670 5 Microcontrollers 671 Computer Atehitectare 6 Nutnder Spates ard Number Codes in Digital Computers 674 Memory Organization 675 Operation ofthe Cental Processing Unit (CPU) 677 Interrupts 67 Instruction Sat fr the MC@SIHCDS Microcontroller 679 Pro and Application Development ina Microcontroller 688 14.6 A Typical Automotive Engine Mictoconttaller 68 | Deseription 680 Processor Section 681 Memory 682 Inputs." 684 Oiuspas 685 Chapter 15 Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements 689 15.1 Measurer sand Transducers 690) Mezsurement Systems 691) Sensor Classification 699 Motion and Dimensional Messurements 691 Fores, Torq, and Pressure Messurements 691 Flow Measurements 693 ‘Temperature Measurements 693 15.2 nding, and Noise 695 al Sources and Measirement System gurations 695 Noise Sources and Coupli Mechanisins | 697 Doise Reduction 69S 15.3 Signal Conditioning 699 Instrumentation Amplifiers 699 Active Filters 704 15.4 naloy-to-Digial and Digtal-o-Ana Conversion 713 Digitabto-Analag Comerters 714 Aalogete-Digital Converters 718 Data Acquisition Systems 723 15.5. Comparator and Tiining Circuits The Op-Amp Comparator 728 Uhhe Schmit Trigger 731 ‘The Op-Amp Astuble Multvibrator | 738 ‘The Op-Amp Monostable Muivibrator (One-Shot 737 Timer ICs: The NESS: 15.6 Other Instrumentation h Amplifiers 742 DACS and ADCS Frequenes-io-Vott Voltoge-to-Frequency Converters, and Phase-Locked Loops 73 er Sensor and Signal Conditioning Circuits 743 15.7. Data Transmiss Instruments 748 the IEEE 488 Bus 749 The RS-282 Standand 75% rated Circuits in Digital ARAM) TABOR NTO) Vee EAN ie Chapter 16 Principles ofElectromechanics 767 16.4 Flectivity and Magnetism 768 The Magnetic Field and Faraday’s Law 768 Sean Mutual Inluctance Ampare’s Law 77S 2° Mognetic Circuits 779 3 netic Materials and B-Ff Circuits 793 5.4 Transformers 795 5 Electromechanical Energy Conversion 799 Forees in Magnetic Structures — $00 w-lron Transducers $00 il Transducers $09 1 Chapter 17 Introduction to Electric Machines 827 17.1 Rotating Hleetric Machines 828 Basie Classification of Electric Machines S28 Performance Characteristics of Electric Machines $30 Basie Operation of All blectrie Machines $37 Magnetic Poles in kleetric Machines 8 17.2. Direct-Curvent Machines 840, Physical Structure of DC Machines _ $40 Configuration of DC Machines $42 DC Machine Models $42 17.3 Direci-Current Generators S45. 17.4 Direct-Current Motors 849. Speed-Torque and Dynamic Characteristics ‘of DC Motors 830) DC Drives and DC Motor Speed Control 860) 17.5 AC Machines 862 Rovating Magnetic Fields 862 17.6 ‘The Alternator (Synchronous Generator) 864 17.7 ‘The Synchronous Motor 866 17.8 The Induction Motor 870 Performance of Induction Motors 87 and Torque Control $79 Adjustable-Frequency Drives $80 Chapter 18 Special-Purpose Electric Machines 889 18.1. Brushless DC Motors 18.2. Stepping Motors 897 18.3 Switched Reluctance Motors 905 Operating Principles of SR Machine 906 18.4 Single-Phase AC Motors 908) The Universal Motor 909 Single-Phase Induction Motors 91 (Classification of Single-Phase Induction Motors 917 Summary of Sing Characteristics Motor Selection and Application Motor Performance Calculations Motor Selection 926 Phase Motor 18.5 933 923 Find Chapter 19 on the Web Fup: seseimbbhe.comengesielectriealrizzoni Chapter 19 Introduction to Communication Systems 19-1 ingoduction to Communication Systems Information, Modultion, and Canes Communications Channels Classification of Communication Systems nals and Their Spectra mal Spec jodic Signals: Fourier Ser Non-Petiodic Signals The Fourier Transform Bandwidth 19.3 Ample Modulation snd Demodilstion Basic Principle of AM AM Demodblaton: ntgrated Cireait Receivers Commenton AM Applictions 19.4 Frequemey Modulation and Demedalation Baie Principle of FM FM Signal Models FM Demodkaton 19.5 Examples of Communication Systems Global Position: ystem Sone Rada Cellular Phones Local-e Compater orks: Appendix A Linear Algebra and Complex Numbers 933 Appendix B_ Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Examination 941 Appendix © Answers to Selected Problems 955 Index 961 C HAPTER Introduction to Electrical Engineering he aim of this chapter isto introduce elecirical engineering. ‘The chapter is organized to provide the neweomer with a view of the different specialties making up electrical engineering and to plave the intent and organization of the book into perspective. Perhaps the first question that surfaces in the: mind ofthe student approaching the subject is, Why electrical engineering? Since this book is directed at a readership having a mix of enginecring bac (including electrical engineering), the question is well justified and deserves some discussion, The chapter begins by desining the various branches of electrical engi- neering, showing some of the interactions among them, and illustrating by means comnected to many other engineering disciplines. In the second section, mechatronic systems engi nnceringis introduced, with an explanation of how this book can kay the foundation for interdisciplinary mechatronic product design. This design approach is illus- trated by an example. The next section introduces the Engineer-in-Training (EIT) national examination. A brie historical perspective isalso provided, to outline the growth and development of this relatively young engineering specialty, Next, the fimdamental physical quantities and the system of unitsare defined, to set the st for the chapters that follow. Finally, the organization af the book is discussed, 10 give the student, as well as the teacher, a sense of continuity in the development ofthe different subjects covered in Chapters 2 through 18 grounds ofa practical example how electrical engineering is intimate Chapter | Introduction to Flecrieal Engineering 1.1 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING The typical curriculum ofan undergraduate electrical e ng student includes the subjects listed in Table 1.1, Although the distinction between some of these subjects is not akways clear-cut, the table is sufficiently representative to Serve our purposes. Figure 1.1 illustrates a possible interconnection between the disciplines of Table 1.1. The aim of this book is to insrodace the non-electrical engineering student to those aspec's of electrical engineering that are likely to be most relevant to his or her professional career. Virtually all of the topies of Table 1.1 will be touched on in the book, with varying degrees ofemphasis. The following example illustrates the pervasive presence of electrical, electronic, and eleetromechanical devices and systems in a very common application: the aaromobile, As you read through the example, it will be instructive to refer to Figure 1.1 and Table 1.1 Cire analysis Electomagneries Enginvering Solid-state electronics applications Fleetric machises Electtc power systems Power Dai cin —N\ Flectro-opties Mathematical [7] machiner Physical Instrumentation systems foundations: ‘reo erst magnetics System TP comsunr Cotes Figure 1.4 Elecica! a EXAMPLE 1.1 Electrical Systems in a Passenger Automobile engineering actually in system: the automobile, Figure 1.2 presents view of electrical engingering systems in a craet to permit the operation ofa very Femniliar engin ical Fnginvering Hoy eetioies Vehicle Power in sont varhags ‘ntlock bake Frgine Cimate Traction Transmission Security and kegless ent Suspension Chargin Cooling an sao els wheel seer Memory minor MUX 4 wheel drive Insnunanstion FEnertiiomont rllog dash Celular shone Digital dish cpDat Ravigaton AMM ral Digital radio Figure 4.2 Flectrical esgincering systems in the astomolle ‘modem automobile, Even in older vehicles, the electrical system in eee, an elec trie ie—plays a very important part in the overall operation. An inductor co salficiently high volt the air und fuel misty battery, In addition to providing the et allows a spark to form across the spark ph te col is supplied by a DC voltage provided by le for the ignition circuits, the battery a supplies power to many other el the ‘rieal components, the raost obvious of which a lights, the windshield wipers, and the radio. Eleeteie power is carried from the battery to sborae lectronie devices ealled fransistors of tensistorized ignition Jer reliability, ease of control all of these components by means of wire harness, which constitutes & rather el electrical circuit, In recent years. the conventional electrical ystem has by ie ignition; that is, solid-state points, The adsant systems over the conventional mechanical ones is their and life span (mechanical breaks Other electrical engineering diseiplines are fairly obs ious in the nutomobile. “T on-bo: communication 1 systems thal exploitefectromagneties are CB radios and the ever more common cellular phones, [ut this is not all! ‘The battery is, i effeet, a sel!-containe I2-VDCelec entioned fimetions. In order for the battery to have @ useful lifetime. a charging systera, compo: ent in every automobile, The supplanted by efeen have replaced the traditional break: points are subject to wear) rl radio receives electromagnetic waves by means of the antenna, and decodes the als o reproduce sounds and speech of remote origins other common power system, providing the energy for all of the aforer oan alternator and of power alternator is aneleetrc windows, pow icctronic devives. is pr tavhine, as are the motors that drive the power mitrors, pow er cals, and other convenience features found in lusury ears, Incidental the loudspeakers ate also electric machines Chapter | Introduction to Flecrieal Engineering The lst does not end here, though. In fet, some of the more interesting anplieations of elzirieal engineering ta the automobile hase not been discussed yet, Consider computer sextoms. You are certainly aware that in the kst to decades, environmental cncems related f0 exhaust emissions trom automobiles have fed 1 the introdaction of sophisticated engine emission contra! systems, ‘The heart af such control systems is a pe oF computer ealled a iemprocessor The micrapracessor receives signals from devices (called sensors) that measure relevant variibls—such as the engine speed the on of oxygen in the exhaust gases, the position ofthe throttle valve (ie. the driver's demand for engine power. snd the aniount of air aspirated by the en subsequently computes the optimal simount of fuel and the eorreet timing af the spark (© result in the eleanest combustion possible under the cireumstances. The measurement of the aforementioned variables falls under the heading of fastramentation, and the inerconnection between the sensors and the mic ap of digital civciits. Finally. asthe presence of computers on board becomes more pervasive—in, areas such as antilock braking, electronically controlled suspensions, four-wheel ste systems, and electronic eruise coniro#-vammunications among the various 0 computers will have to oecur at fester and faster rates, Some dey in the notso-istant Tuturs, these communications may oecur over a fiber optic network, sndetectro-opties will replace the conventional wire hare present in some of the more advanced displays that sre port ofan automotive instrumentation system, concent ian processor is uswelly me should be noted that ‘ro-opties is already 1.2 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AS A FOUNDATION FOR THE DESIGN OF MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS Many of today mobiles, Computer eoatrol of machines aad processes is comtmioa to the automotive, chem ical, aerospace, manufacturi: jon, consumer, and industrial eleetronivs industries. The extensive use of microelectronies in mamufucturing ito *s machines and processes, om chemical plants to 2 quire some form of electronic or computer control for proper operation, test and instruments systems and in engineering products and processes has led to new approach to the design ofsuch engineering systems. To use a term coined in Japan and widely adopted in Europe, mechanonie design has surfuced as @ new philesophy of de- sian, based on the inezravion oF existing disviplines—primarily mechanical, and electrical, electronic, and software engineer slected in a strictly disciplinary approach A very important issue, often ne; to engineering education, is the integrated aspect af engineering practice, which is unavoidable in the design snd analysis of large seale andior complex systems, One aim of this book is to give engineering students of different backgrounds exposure tothe integration oF electrical, electronic, and software engineering into their domain, This is accomplished by making use of modern computer-aided tools and by providing ant examples and references. Section 1.6 describes how some of these goals are accomplished D. A. Bradley, D. Dasson, N.C. Burd, A.J, Loader, 1991, Moshatronies, Electronics in Products and Processes, Chapman and Hall, London. Soe also ASME AIEEE Transsetians on Mechatenies Nol LN. 1. 1996 Inrodstion 00 ical Fnginvering 5 Example 1.2 illustrates some of the thinking behind the mechatronic system design philosophy through a practical example drawn from the design experience of undergradate students at a number of U.S, universities EXAMPLE 1.2 Mechatronic Systems—Design of a Formula Lightning Electric Race Car he Formule Lightning electric race ear competition isan imenuniversity® competition project that has been aetise since 1994, This project involves the design. anak testing of an electric openewsheel rave car A photo and the generie layout ofthe ear are shown in Figares 1 and [4 The student-designed propulsion and energy stor systems have been tested in interunivetsity camnpetitions since 1994. Projects have ncluded vehicle dynamics and race tack simlation, motor and battery pack sees battery pack and loading system design, and transmission amd driveline design, ‘Ths is am ‘ongoing competition, and new projects are defined in advance of exch rave season, ‘The objective of this competitive series is to demonstrate sdhancement in electric drive technology for propulsion applications using motorsports as a means of extensling existin {echnology to its performance limit, This example deserides some of the development that hhas token place a the Ohio State University, The deseription given below is representative fof work done at all oF the participating universities, ‘ nor = Buckeye Design Constraints: ‘The Formula Li cation chassis; thus, extensive modifications to the frame, suspension, brakes, anxl body are not permitted, ‘The focus af the competition is therefore to optimize the performance of the spec vehicle by selecting a ies is based on a spe Universities sha have participated in this competition ate Arizona State University. Bowling Gr niversity. Georgi Institute of State University. Case Westem Reserve University. Ket Tecan Not University of Oklahoma, and Wright State (iniversity Todiana Universine=Pusdue Univesity at Iniasapolis, Northern Atizoaa University Dame University: Ohio State Universi hve University, Rennsslar Polytschinie Inti Chapter | Introduction to Flecrieal Engineering suitable combination of drivetrain and energy stor ponents, In addition, sinee the nner, qu vehicle is intended to compete ina race series, issues such as energy mana and eflcient pit stops for battery pack replacement, and the ability to adapt system performan constraints race conditions and diflerent race aacks are also important Design Solutions: Teans of undergraduate aerospace, electrical, industrial, and mechanical engineering students parteipate in the design ofthe alleleetrie Formula Li visetrain throw sal design coutse, made available especialy for student design competitions Ina representative course at Ohio State, the student team was divided into four jou: battery system selection, motor snd controller selection, transmission and lriveline design, and instrumentation and vehicle dynamies. Each of thes charged with the responsibility of determining the rechnology that woukd be hest suited 10 rateching the requirements ofthe competition and result in 2 highly competitive vehicle Figure 1.5 illustrates the interdiseiplinary mecharmnies team approach: it apparent thot, to arrive at an optimal solution, an iterative process had to be followed and that the various iterations required significant interaction between different teams To begin the process, a gross vehicle weight wos assumed and energy storage limitations were ignored ina dynamic computer simulation o° the vehicle on a simulated road course (the Cleveland Grend Prix Burke Lakefront Airport racetrack site of he first race in the series). The simalation employes realistic model ofthe vehicle and ti namics, but a simple model of an eletrie drive—eneray storage limitations would be considered fer Vehicle ight and Motor vsighdsrvation nergy ‘Toraiesdoot ‘Gear and fal - EY PRS] pastine crise ato, [Saisie nes egnanic sation 1 Toray Motor | Transmission selection i Bastery selecion Figure 1.5 leratve des car drivers process for electie ave The simulation was exercised under various scenarios to determine the limit, performance of the vehicle and the choice of a proper drivetrain design, The first round of simulations led to the conclusion that a mullispeed gearbox would be a necessity for 3K. Grider. G. Rizzoni, Design of he Ohio State University elect race cur, SAF Techical Paper inPmoediny, 196 SAE NisospnsCenfetec anlponto, Dean MI-Dae 213 i006 ical Fnginvering competitive performance on a road course, and also showed the need for a very high performance AC drive as the propulsion system, The motor and contra picted in ure 16 a ees Figure 1.6 Morr and comreller Figure 1.7 Open side po with barter pach and si Ones te elecirie drive ha been selected he results ot batters tests performed by the battery team were evaluated to determine the proper batery technologs. and the resting comely and weight distidation of the datery packs, With te prefered bat hnology identifi (see Figure 1.7), energy erteria was ineladed in the sinnlation, a lap times an consumption were predicted. Finelly, appropriate instrumentation was designed to permit monitoring ofthe most important functions inthe vehicle (2 battery voltage and current, motor temperature, vehicle ad motor sp. | depicts the vehicle dashboard, Table 1.2 gives the specifications far the vehicle Table 1.2. Smokin’ Bickeyespectications Drive system: ‘Voctor coattolled AC peopulsion model 180 Mosor type! thnee-phase duction, 130 KY Weight: mror 1401, controller 75 Ih Mocor dimensions: [2-in diameter 15-n lengt! Transmission chotel ‘Webster four-speed supplied by Taylor Race Engineerin Tilton metalic che Bu Figure 1.8 Dashboard Total voltage: 372 V (sominaly iso Ih atteries: 31 Bary: Optima spral-wonad lead-acid gel-cell barery ‘Contigaration: 16 barery packs. [2 or 24 V each Instrumestaion: ‘Ohio Semitranies model EVI cleric vohicle monitor Stack model SR S04 Data Acgusiton Vehicle dimensions: Woeelhase: 11Sin Total length: 163 Widths 77 in Weighs: 2690 Ih Stock components Tines: Yokohama Cassis: 1994 Stewart Rac Springs: Bibs Shocks. Penske racing coil-over shucks Brakes. Wilwood Dynalie ‘rial Ligh | Introduction to Floctries! Fnginvering ner approximately 30 students from different engineering disciplines participated in the initial design process. They received eredi for their efTort either through the courss—ME S80.04, Analysis, Design, Testing and Fabrication of Alternative \Vehicles—or through a senior design project. As noted, interaction among teas and is from different disciplines was an integral part of the design pro among st Comments: ‘Ihe example illustrates the importance of interdisciplinary thin design of mechatronies systems, The aim of this book is o provide students in different engineering disciplines with the Founktations of electrical necessary to eflsctively participate in interdiseiplinary en next 17 chapters will present the foundations and vocabulary oF 1.3. FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW Each of the 50 states regulates the engineering profession by requiring individuals who intend to practice the profession to become registered professional engineers. To become a professional engineer, it is nevessary to satisfy four requirements The firs is the completion of a B.S. degree in engineerin college or university (although it is theoretically possible to be registered with- we). The second is the successful completion of the \g(PE) Examination. This is an eight-hour exam that covers general engineering undergraduate education. The third requirement is ‘ovo 10 four years of engineering experience after passing the FE exam, Finally, the fourth requirement is successful completion of the Principles and Practice of Engineering or Professional Engineer (PE) Examination. The FE exam isa two-part national examination given twive x yeur (in April and October). The exam is divided into nwo 4-hour sessions. The morning session consists of 140 muliple choice questions (Five possible answers are givenis the aflernoon session consists of 70 questions, The exam is prepared by the State Board of Engineers for each state One of the aims of this book is to assist you in preparing for one part of the FE exam, entitled Electrical Cireuits. This part of the examination consists of «total of 18 questions in the momting session and 10 questions in the afternoon session, The examination topics for the electrical cineuits part are the following from an accredited out having completed a de Fundamentals af Engineer DE Cireuits AC Circuits Three-Phase Circuits Capacitinee and Inductance Transients Diode Applications Operational Amplifiers (Ideal) Electric and Magnetic Fields Elevirie Machinery Appendix B contains a complete review of the Electrical Cireuits portion of the FE examination, In Appendix B you will find a detailed listing of the Chapter | Introduction o Flecrieal Engineering twpies covered in the examination, with references to the relevant material in the book. The appendix also contains a collection of sample problems similar to those found in the examination, with answers, These sample problems are arranged in two sections: The first includes worked examples with a full explanation af the solution; the second consists of a sample exam with answers supplied separately This material is based on the author's experience in teaching the FE Elvetrical Circuits review course for mechanical engineering seniors at Ohio State University over several y 1.4 BRIEF HISTORY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING The historical evolution of electrical engineering ean be attributed, in part, to the work and discoveries of the people in the following list, You will find these scientists, mathematicians, and physicists referenced throughout the text William Gilbert (1540-1603), English physi science, published De Maynete, a treatise on mag Charles A, Coulomb (1736-1806), French engineer and physicist. published the laws of electrostatics in seven memoirs to the French Academy of Science between 1785 snd 1791, His name is associated with the unit of cha netic James Watt (1736-1819), E Tis name is used to represent the unit of power ish inventor, developed the steam engine Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), lialian physicist, discovered the electric pile, The unit of electric potential and the alternate name of this quantity (volsage) are named after him. Hans Christian Oersted (17771851), Danish physicist, discovered the connection hetween elvetricty and magnetism in 18211, The unit of magnetic field strength is named alter him André Marie Ampere (1775-1836), French mathemiatician, chemist, and physicist, experimentally quinified the relationship between electric current and the magnetic field. His works were summarized in a treatise published in 1827. The unit of elecitie current is named after hin. Georg Simon Ohm (17891854), German mathematician, investigated the relationship between voltage and current and quantified the phenomenon of resisiance, His firs results were published in 1827, His name is used to repre: Michael Faraday (1791-1867), English experimenter, demonstnsied clectromagnetie induetion in 1831. His electrical transformer and eleezramagnetie generator marked the beginning of the age of electric ‘nt the unil of resistance. power. His name is associated with the unit of capacitance. Joseph Henry (17971878), American physicist, discovered sell-induction around 1831, and his name has been designated to represent the unit of inductance, He had also recognized the essential structure of the telegraph, which was kater perfected by Samuel F, B. Morse Carl Friedrich Gauss (177 man mathematician, and Wilhelm Eduard Weber (180-1891), German physicist, published a ° | Introduction to Floctries! Fnginvering treatise in 1833 describing the measurement of the earth's magnetic field The gauss isa unit of magnetic field strength, while the weber isa unit of magnetic flux James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), Scottish physicist discovered the electromagnet theory of light and the kaws of cleetrodynamies, The modern theory of elvetromugneties is entirely founded upon Maxwell's equations. Ernst Werner Siemens (1816-1892) and Withelm Siemens (1823-1883), German inventors and engineers, contributed to the invention and development of electric machines, as well as to perfecting electrical science. The modem unit of conductance is named after them Heinrich Rudolph Hertz (1857-1894), German scientist and experimenter, discovered the nature of electromagnetic waves and published his findings in I888, His name is associated with the unit of frequency Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), Croatian inventor, emigrated to the United es in 1884, Te invented polyphase electric power systems and the induction motor and pioneered moder AC electric power systems. His name is used to represent the unit of magnetic flux density 1.5 SYSTEM OF UNITS This book employs the Intemational System of Units (also called SI, from the French Sysiéme faternational des Unites), SI units are commonly adhered to by virtually all engineering professions societies, This section summarizes ST units and will serve as a useful reference in reading the book SI units are based on six fmdamental quantities, listed in Table 1.3, All other units may be derived in terms of the fumdamental units of Table 1.3, Since, in practice, one often needs to describe quantities that occur in large multiples or small fractions of 9 unit, standard prefixes are used to denote powers of 10 af Sl (and derived) units. These prefixes are listed in Table 1.4, Note that, in general, wincering units are expressed in powers of 10 that are multiples of 3 Table 1.3 Slunits Table 1.4 Standard prefixes Quantity U Symbul Prefix Symbol Power Lonett Meter om ato ire Mass Kilosian ke temo f Tine Seconds ico p Floste curren’ Ampere nano ‘Temperature Kelvin K niet Luminous imensity Candela el milli conti decid dieka da kilo ot mega M up Inoduction to Flsctreal Engineering u For example, 104s would be referred to as 100 107! s, or 100pt8 (or, less frequently, 0.1 ms) 1.6 SPECIAL FEATURES OF THIS BOOK This book inclucies a number of special features designed to make learning andalso toallow students to explore the subject matter of the book in more depth, if so desired, through the use of computer-aided tools and the internet. The principal features af the book are described below ssier EXAMPLES the examples in the book have also been set aside som the main text so that they ean be easily identified. Al © solved by Following the same basic methodology: clear and sinyple problem statement is given, Fallowed by a solution, The solation consists of several parts: All known quantities in the problem are summarized. and the problem statement is translated into a spocilic objective (ez. Find the equivalent resistance. RY. Newt. the given data and assumptions are listed. and finally the analysis is presented the analysis method is based on the following principle: All problems are solved symbolically first to obtain more general solutions that may guide the student in solving homework problem; the numerics! solution is provided atthe very end of the analysis Each problem closes with comments summarizing the findings and tying the esample to ther sections of the book he solution methodology used in this book can be used asa general guide 10 problem-solving techniques well beyond the material taught in the mtrodactory electrical engineering courses. The examples contained inthis book are intended to help you develop sound problem-solving habits forthe remainder of your en, amples Focus on Computer-Aided Tools, Virtual Lab One of the very important changes to en education inthe 1991s has been the evermore common use of computers for analysis, design, data acquisition, and control, This book is designed to permit students and instructors 0 experiment with various computer-aided design and analysis tools, Some of the tools used generic computing tools that sre likely 10 be in use in most engineering schools (e.g., Matlab, MathCad), Many examplesare supplemented by electronic solutions that cre intended to teuch you how to solve typical electrical en problems using such computer aids, and to stimulate you to experiment in developing your ‘own solution methods. Many of these methods will also be useful later in your curriculum ineerin; incering, Some examples (and also some of the figures in the main text) are supple- mented by circuit simulation created using Electnmnies Workbench'™! analysis and simulation program that has a particularly friendly userinterfave, and 1a cireuit thay permits a more in-depth analysis of realistic electrical eleetronie cireuits and devices, Use of this feature could be limited to just runing a simulated cireuit to observe its behavior (with virtually no new leaming required), or eould be more involved and result in the design of sew eitcuit simulations. You might find it Chapter | Introduction to Flecrieal Engineering FOCUS ONMETHODOLOGY Each chapter, especially the early ones, includes “boxes” titled “Focus on Methodology.” The content of these boxes (which are set aside from the main text) is to summarize important methods and procedures for the solution of common problems, They usually consist of step-by-step instructions, and are designed to assist you in methodically solving problems, useful to Learn how to use this tool for some of your homework and project assign- ments, The electronic examples supplied with the book form a veritable Firmat J and Electronic Circuits Laboratory. The use of these computer aids is not mandatory, but you will ind that the electronie supplements to the bvk may become a formidable partner and teaching assistant Electric Find It on the Web! The use of the Intemet as a resource for knowledge and information is becoming increasingly common, In recognition of this Fact, Web site references have been included in this book to give you. starting point in the exploration of the world of electrical engineering. Typical Web references give you information on electrical engincering companies, products, and methods. Some of the sites contain tutorial material that may supplement the book’ contents. CD-ROM Content The inclusion of a CD-ROM in the book allows you to have a wealth of supple: ments. We lista few major ones: Matlab, MathCad, and Elect eleetronic files: demo version of Electronics Workbencle, Viral Laboratory ex- periments; data sheets for common eleetricaliclectronic circuit components: addi- ial y Workbench tional reference mat As stated many times inthis book, the need for measurements is a common thread to all engineering and scientifc disciplines. To emphasize the great relevance of electrical engineering to the science and practice of measurements, a special set of examples focuses on measurement problems. These examples very often relate 10 disciplines outside electrical engineering (c.g., biomedieal, mechanical, thermal, Hud system measurements). The Focus on Measurements” sections are intended (o stimulate your thinking about the many possible applications of electrical engineering to measurements in your chosen Field of study, Many of these examples are a dirget result of the author's work as teacher and researcher in both mechanical and electrical engineering ical Fnginvering 3 Web Site The list of features would not be complete without a reference to the book's Web site, http:!!wwu.mbhe.comengesieleetrieal'rizzoni. Create a bookmark for this site now! The site is designed 10 provide up-to-date additions, examples, errata, and other important information HOMEWORK PROBLEMS 4.4. List ive applications of electric motors in the ¢. Your household, common household d.Achemival process control plant 1.2. By analogy with the discussion of electrical systems 1.3 Electric power systems provide energy ina variety ‘cal and industrial settings. Make a list of inthe automobile list examples of applic electical engineering disciplines of Table 1.1 for each systems ind vies tat recene eesti poser in of the Follow engineering systems a. A large olice building a, A ship. bb. A factory floor b, A commeteial passenger aiteratt ¢. Aconsinaction site PART I CIRCUITS Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Resistive Network Analysis AC Network Analysis Transient Analysis Frequency Response and System Concepts AC Power C HAPTER Fundamentals of Electric Circuits his chapier presents the fundamental laws of circuit analysis and serves as the foundation for the study of electrical cireuits. The fundamental concepts developed in these first pages will be called upon throughout the book The chapter starts with definitions of charge, current, voltage, and power. and with the introduction of the basic laws of electrical eitcuit analysis: Kirchhot?"s laws, Next, the hasic circuit elements are introduced, first in their ideal form, then including the most important physical limitations. The elements discussed in the chapter include voltage and current sources, measuring instruments, snd the resistor, Once th 1 presente ofan electrical circuit is introduced, and some simple circuits are analyzed using Kirchhoff'sand Ohm’s laws, The student should appreciate the fact that, although the material presentedac thiscarly stage is strictly inttoductory,itisalready possible to discuss some usefil applications of electric circuits to practical engineering problems, To this end, 1wo examples are introduced which discuss simple resistive devices that cam measure displacements and forces. The topics introduced in Chapter 2-form the foundations for the remainder of this book and should be mastered thoroughly. By the end of the chapter, you should have accomplished the following lear basic circuit elements have be he concept jectives: + Application of Kirchhoff’s and Ohm's laws to elementary resistive circuits. Chaves Coulomb (1736-1806), Photo ir Emass: Mash the flow of charge thr the Figure 2.4 Cr an electric conductor Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits + Power computation For a circuit element + Use of the passive sign convention in determining voltage and current direetions + Solution of simple voltage and current divider circuits + Assigning node voltages and mesh currents in an electrival circuit + Writing the circuit equations for linear resistive circuit by applying Kirchhoft’s voltage law and KirchhoiT’s current law 2.1 CHARGE, CURRENT, AND KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW The carliest accounts of electricity date from about 10, when it was discovered that static charge on a piece of amber was capable of attracting very light objects, such as feathers, The word itsel?*—electrieif—originated about 600 Be: it comes from elektron which was the «icient Greek word fer amber, The ime nature of electricity was not understood until much later, however. Following the work of Alessandro Volta! and his invention of the copperzine battery, it was determined that static electricity smd the current that flow’ in metal wires connected to battery are due to the same fundamental mechanism: the atomic structure of acter, consisting of nucleus neutrons snd protons surrounded by electrons The fundamental electric quantity is charge, and the smallest amount of change that exists isthe charge carried by an electron, equal 10 2.500 years a qe = ~ 1.4602 x 107°C QD As you ean see, the amount of change associated with an electron is rather small. This, of course, has to do with the size of the unit we use to measure charge, the coulomb (C), named alter Charles Coulomb? Flowever, the definition of the coulomb leads to an appropriate unit when we define electric current, since current consists of the flow of very large numbers of charge particles. The other charge-carrying particle in wn atom, the proton, is assigned x positive sign, and the same magnitude, The charge of a prot mis dp = +1602 x 107" C 2) Electrons and protons are often referred (o as elementary charges. Electric current is defined as the time rate of change of charge passing through a predetermined area, Typically, this area is the cross-sectional area of a metal wire: however, there are & number of cases we shall explore later in this book where the current-carrying material is not a conducting wire, Figure 2.1 picts a macroscopic view of the flow of change in a wire, where we imagine Ag units of charge flowing through the cross-sectional area in Ag units af time, The result current.é, is then given by Aq © ind © 2.3) At & eo) Parl Circuits If we consider the effvet of the enormous number of elementary charges xetually flowing, we can write this relationship in differential form dq C ig = 4) The units of current are calledamperes (A), where 1 ampere=1 coulomb’sevond The name of the anit isa tribute to the French scientist Andié Marie: Ampére.> The electrical engineering convention states that the positive direction of current ‘ow is that of positive charges, In metallic conductors, however, current is eartied by negative charges: these charges are the free electrons in the conduction band, which are only weakly attracted to the atomie stra are therefore easily displaced in the presence af ch ure in metalhe elements and ctrie fields, EXAMPLE 2.1 Charge and Current in a Conductor Problem Find! the total Howsing in the wine ina eylindrival conductor (solid wire) and compute the current Solution Known Quantities: Conductor geometry, charge density, charg Find: “Total charge of s,Q; current in the wire, Z Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Conductor length: L= 1m Conductor diameter: 2 = 2x 107m, eottom: qe = =1.002 x 10", 199. 10 m’s cearier yeloeity Assumptions: None. determine the volume of Analysis: To compute the total charge in the conductor. we Volume = Length x Cross-sectional area Nest, we compute the number of earriers (electrons) in the conductor and the total Number of carriers = Volume x Carrier densit riers Vxne crx 10%!) x (10% SH we 7 (Charge = number of carriers x chy (10° caters) Q=Nxa x (-1s sgrsaia) carrier 2 Paidomnontas of F ie Cine To compute the current, we eonsider the velocity ot the charge caries, and the charge density per unit length of the conductor Current = Canrier char sh x Carrier velocity 12 ($5) x(2)=(-0a 3x10 S)x(in9x10 Comments: Ch: isa function oft density per unit ge car plied elect fi Jensity isa funetion of material properties, Carrier velocity Ie 1 Canon losin incloscd cit Ls bsanery 3 2 Figure 2.2 A simple slectricalcirewin a 299 Rode? Uysttion of KEL at Figure 2.3 Ilstaric Kirehlhof? curren nf In order for current to flow there must exist « closed circuit, Figure depicts a simple cireuit, composed of a battery (e.g. a dry-cell or alkaline 1.5 battery) and a light bully Note that in the circuit of Figure 2.2, the current. é, flowing from the battery to the fight bull is equal to the current flowing. from the light bulb to the battery In other words, no current (and therefore no charge) is “lost” around the closed circuit, This principle was observed by the German scientist G. R. KirchhoiT* and is now known as Kirehhoff’s current law (KCL), Kirchhol?s current [avy states that beesuse charge cxrinot be ereated bu must be conserved. the sta of th currents at a node must equal zero (in an electrical circuit, anode is the junction of two or more conductors), Formally Kirchhof?"s current kay Qs) The significance of Kirchhot?s current faw is illustrated in Figure 2.3, where the simple circuit of Figure 2.2 has been augmented by the addition of two light bulbs (nove how the swvo nodes that exist in this eircuit have been emphasized by the shaded areas). In applying KCL, one usually defines currents entering a node as being negative and currents exiting the node as being positive, Thus, the resul ng expression for node 1 of the eiteuit of Figure 2.3 is: 0 Kirchhols current kaw is ong of the fundamental laws of eircuit analysis, aking it possible to express currents in a circuit in terms of each other: for example, one can express the current Ieaving & node in terms of all she other currents at the node, The ability t© write such equations is a great aid in the systematic solution of large electric circuits, Much af the material presented in Chapter 3 will be an extension of this concept ins systematic nal in terms of ts Gustav Robert Kitchof¥ (1824-1887), Gorman scientist, whe published description of the laws of cteuit analysis. His gontution ho sciemtic content forms th 2 ass of al ciecuitanalsis, Parl Circuits 9 EXAMPLE 2.2 Kirchhoff’s Current Law Applied to an Automotive Electrical Harness Problem Figure 2.4 shows an automotive battery connected to a variety of circuits in an automobile. The eireuts include headlights, tail fan. power Tocks, ad dashboard panel. The battery must supply enough current to independently satisfy the requirements of each of the load" citeuits. Apply KCL to the automotive circuits © Figure 2.4 (x) Awomotive cicuits(b) equivalent elettical sireuit Solution Known Quantities: Components af electrical hamess: headlights taillights, starter motor, fan, power locks, and dashbosrd panel Find: expression relating battery current to load currents ‘Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Figure 2.4 Assumptions: None. 0 Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits Printed ciouit oat eonnectons motor fe wie ‘stl and kim Cigar Jo keyean buvzer Fo key-lam, Jo wipersstten To jentom sith am Fo intermient pe Jotart Rear wie a! wash stl and Ln Kody MeZ Stns oeitkers MAM heap liner se Jo Jett door speakers Fo rear wipe nas To ated wea winds switch ‘oil site wing To spond contol bake ing Fo body wiring Fosse contol etch sith To spoe! conta ser Hauke disconnect rc) Figure 2.4 (c) Automotive wiring harness Cop Information Center: 48! vights reserved ©1995 by Delmar Publishers. Copnr' ccurrent supplied b KCL to the equivalent eireuit of b the various cireuits. The application of 2.4 requites that Toy Irons =f = Bost =H Hos Comments: “this illustration is mean der an intuitive feel for the of KCL will be pr istors are defined mo Parl Circuits 2.2 vow Ace AND KIRCHHOFF’S VOLTAGE L Chargemovinginan cleetriceirouit gives rise oa current, as stated in the preceding section, Naturally, it must take some work, or energy, for the charge 10 move between wo points in a cireuit, say, from point @ to point b. The total ork per tunit charge associated with the motion of charge between bvo points is called voltage. Thus, the units of voltage are those of energy per unit charge; they have been called volts in honor of Alessandro Volta —— (2.6) oulomb eo or potential difference, between two points ina circuit indicates the reqjired to move charge from one point io the her. As will be presently show, the dteetion, oF polarity, of the vokage is closely tied :0 whether energy is being dissipated or generated in the process, The seemingly abst congept of work boing done im moving char clecitial eineuiss consider again the simple eireit consisting of a bastery and a Fight bulb. The circuit is drawn again for convenience in Figure 2.5, with nodes defined by the letters @ and B.A series of carefully condicted experimental observations regarding the nature of voltages in an electric eireuit led Kirchhoff to the formulation of the second of hs laws, Kirehhof’s voltage layor KVL. The principle underiying KVL is that no energy is lost or ereated in an electric eit in eireit toms, the sum 0 ene all voltages associated with sources must equal the sim of the load voltages, so that he ner voltage around a closed circuit is zero. IP this were not the case, we would need fo find « physical explimation forthe excess (or missing) energy not accounted for in the volrages around circuit, Kirehhow?s voltage law may be stared in a form similar co that used for KCL: Kirchhof?s voltage kaw 7) where the yy are the individual voleages sround the closed cireuit. Making refer- cence to Figure 2.5, we see that it must follow from KVL tht the work generated by the battery is equal to the energy dissipated in the light bulb in order 1 s the current flow and to convert the electric energy to heal and stain Yap = Ya or v One may think of the work done in moving a charge from point a to point and the work dane moving it buck frum b 10a as corresponding directly ta the voltages across individual circuit elements. Lot Qbe the total charge that moves around the circuit per unit time, giving rise to the current Then the work dane in moving Q from b toa (i... across the battery) is Woa=Ox1sV (2.8) can be directly applied to the analysis of Gustay Robert Kise hot? (USEI8ST), Photo Deuisces aie 2 Paidomnontas of F Chap ie Cine Similarly, work is done in moving Q froma to b that is, across the Hight bulb, Note that the word potential is quite appropriate asa synonym of voltage, in that voltag represents the potential energy between two points ina circuit: ifwe remove Tight bulb from its connections to the battery, there still exisis # voltage avross the (now disconnected) terminals b and a, This is illustrated in Figure 2.6 A moment’s reflection upon the signifance of voltage should suggest that it for this quantity, Consider, celloralkaline battery, where, by virtue ofan electrochemically induced separation of charge, 1 1.5-V potential difference is generated, ‘The potential generated by the batiery may be used to move change ina circuit, The rate at which chang moved once a elosed circuit is established (ie., the current draw by the circuit connected to the buttery) depends now on the circuit element we choose to comect tothe battery. Thus, while the vol:age across the battery represenisthe potential for providing energy to a eircut, the voltage across the light bulb indicates the amount ‘of work done in dissipating energy. In the firs case, energy is generated; in the second, itis consumed (note that energy may’ also be stored, by suitable circuit clements yet to be introduced). This fundamental distinction requires attention in defining the sign (or polarity) of voltage: We shall, in general, refer to elements that provide energy as sourees, and to elements that dissipate energy asToads. Standard symbols for a generalized gure 2.7, Formal definitions will be given must he necessary to specify asi source-and-load circuit are shown in Fig ina later section The presence of a voll bois reaesentation of the scros these termine sa haters ight aula eineit ot Figure inscates the potential enersy thal 38 in eile the mation of charg, « nea close ecu ests = to alls current to fe ' —_— Sone Load ' ' ‘isy 2 — Lo, Figure 2. Figure 2.6 Concept of oltage as potential diference EXAMPLE 2.3 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law—Electric Vehicle Battery Pack Problem that make up the Figure 2.8a depiets the battery pack in the Smokin? Buckeye el example we apply KVL to the series connection of 31 12 batte Parl Circuits 2 Allele ra ae kasi Figure 2.8 Electic vehicle humery pack: iluseation of KVL Solution Known Quantities: Nominal eharacteristics of Optima!™ lead-acid batteries. nora Find: Espression relating battery and electric motor drive voltages, Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: V.yy = 12 V. Figure 2 Stab, (b) and (¢) Assumptions: Now Analysis: igure 2 8(b) depicts the equivalent elzetical eircuit illustrating how Supplied by the battery are applied across the electric drive that powers t sehicle’s 150-KW three-phase induction motor. The applieation of KVL to the equivalent Thus. the eleetrie drive is nominally supplied by @ 31 x 1 reality. the vol ofthe battery. When fully changed, the bat round 400 V (ie. around 13 V per battery) = 372-V battery pack. In c supplied by lead-acid batteries varies depending on the state of change 1 2.8ta} is loser to supply y pack of I ce the render an intuitive feel forthe PKVL will be presented later in we and current sourees and resistors are defined more precisely Comments: This illustration is meant significance of KVL: more detailed numer this chapter. when volta 2.3. IDEAL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT SOURCES In the examples presented in the preceding sections, a battery was used as.a source of energy, under the unspoken assumption that the voltage provided by the bat (e.g. 15 volts fora dry-cell oralkaline battery, or 12 volts for an automotive lead acid battery) is fixed. Under such art assumption, we implicitly treat the battery as aan ideal source, In this section, we will formally define i aan ideal source is a source that ean provide an arbitrary ami soureesare divided into two types: volta | sourees, Intuitively unt of energy. Tdeal sources and current sources. OF these, ‘General ym for et! volge soutee. 4) nay estat ADR souree)| A special ease: De voltage Soo al Figure 2.9 [deal Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits youare probably more Familiar withthe firs, since dry-cell. alkafine, and leud-aeid ibatteries are all voltage sources (they are not ideal, of course). You might have to think harder to come up witht physical example that approximates the behavior of aan ideal current source; however, reasonably good approximations of ideal current sources also exist. For instance, a voltage source connected in series with a circuit clement that has a large resistriee to the flow’ of current from the source provides a nearly canstantshough small-current and therefore ats very nearly like an ideal current source Ideal Voltage Sources An ideal voltage source is voltage at its terminals, The ability of an ideal voltage source to generate its output voltage is not affected by the current it must supply’ to the other circuit elements, Another way to phrase the sume idea is as follows an electrical devive that will generate a prescribed An ideal voltage source provides a prescribed voltage across its terminals imespeetive of the current lowing through it, The amount ef current supplied by the source is determined by the circuit connected t0 it Figure 2.9 depiets various symbols for voltage sources that will be employed throughout this book, Note that the output voltage of an ideal souree can be a function of time, In general, the following notation will be employed in this book unless otherwise noted. A generic voltage source will be denoted by a lowercase v, Iitismecessiry 10 emphasize that the source produces a time-varying voltage, then the notation v(¢) will be employed. Finally, a constant, ordireet current, OF DC, voltage souree will he denoted by the uppercase character V. Note that by convention the direction of positive current flow out of a volta e source isour of the positive termin The notion of an ideal voltage source is best appreciated within the context of the soaree-oad represenation of elesrieal cites. which will fequently be referred to in the remainder of this book. Figure 2.10 depicts the connection of an energy source with a passive circuit (i... circuit that can absorb and dissipate for example, the headlights:and light bulb of our earlier examples). Three different representations are shown to illustrate the conceptual, symbolic, and physical significance of this source-load ides ener Source Loa = = rs R = Heoalight ae 3. “ Ponti (Concept 5) Syisale denen) (6) Physical representation representa reoresentatin Figure 2.40 Vion sepreseatations of an eleevical system, Parl Circuits In the analysis of electrical circuits, we choose 10 represent the physical reality of Figure 2.10(c} by means of the approximation provided by ideal circuit clements, as depicted in Figure 2.10(b) Ideal Current Sources An ideal current souree is a device that ean generate & prescribed current inde= pendent of the cireuit itis connected 10. To do so, it must be able to generate an anbitrary voltage across its terminals, Figure 2.11 depicts the symbol used to represent ideal current sourves, By amulogy with the definition of the deal voltage source stated in the previous section, we write An ideal current source provides a preseribed current to any eireuit comected to it, The voltage generated by the souree is determined by the cirenit eonneeted to it The same upperease and lowercase convention used for voltage sourves will be employed in denoting current sources Dependent (Controlled) Sources The sourees describ so far have the capability of generating « prescribed volt or current independent of any other clement within the circuit, Thus, they are termed independent sources. There exists smother category of sources, however, whose output {current or voltage) is function of some other voltage or current ina circuit, These are called dependent (or controlled) sources. A difTerent symbol, in the shape of a diamond, is used to represent dependent sources and to distinguish them from independent sources. The symbols typically used to represent dependent sources are depicted in Figure 2.12: the tuble illustrates the relationship between the source voltage or current and the voltage or current it depends omm=vy or dx, respectivelysavhich can be any voltage or current in the cireuit Voltage contiled voltage source (VW OVS) Current contr ed wage saree ENS) Voltage cand cutret source IVCCS) Carre cared cute sone (CCS) Figure 2.42 Symbols for Dependent sources ure very usefial in deseribing versain types of electronic cireuits. You will encounter dependent sources again in Chapters 9, 10, smd 12, when electronic amplitiers are discussed sh Figure 2.14 Symbol Sw ideal ceutent source 26 Lo Power dissipate Sent yaw ener 8 Figure 2.43 the pissive convent Chapter? Fundamentals of ste Circuits 2.4 ELECTRIC POWER AND SIGN CONVENTION The definition of voltage as work per unit change lends itself very conveniently to the introduction of power, Recall that power is defined as the work done per unit time, Thus, the power, P, either generated or dissipated by a cireuit element ean be represented by the following relationship Work _ Work Charge Tine ~ Charge Tine Power = Voltage x C 2.9) Thus. The electrical power generated by an active clement, or shat dissipated or stored by a passive clement, is equal to the produet of the voltage sctoss the element and the current fesing through it P=vVI (2.10) It is easy to verity that the units of voltage (joules/coulomb) times current (coulombs’sevond) are indeed those of power (joules’second, or wats). It is important to realize that, just like voltage, power is a signed quantity and that itis necessary to make a distinction between positive and negative power This distinction ean be understood with reference to Figure 2,13, in which a source anda load are shown side by side. The polarity ofthe voltage aeross the source and the direction ofthe current through ir indicate thatthe voltage soureeis ving work in moving charge fiom a lower potential © a higher porental, On the other hand, because the direetion of the current ind ar potential to.a lower potential. To avoid the load is dissipating ener ates that charge is being confusion with regard to the sign of power, the electrical engineering uniformly adopts the passive sign convention, which simp! by a load isa positive quantity (or, conversely, that the power generated placed fiom a I community states thal the porrer by 1 source is & positive quamntity), Another way of phrasing the same concept is to state that if current lows froma higher to lower voltage (F £0 —), the power is dissipated and will be a positive quantity It is important to note also that the actual numerical values of voltages and currents do not matter; once the proper reference directions have been established and the passive sign convention has been applied consistently, the answer will be correct regardless of the ref illustrate this point fence dirvetion chosen, The following examples FOCUS ON METHODOLOGY ‘The Passive Sign Convention 1, Choose an arbitrary direction of current flow 2, Label polarities ofall active elements (voltage and current sources) Parl Circuits 7 FOCUS ONMETHODOLOGY 3, Assign polarities to all passive elements (resistors and other loa passive elements, current always flows into the positive terminal 5} for 4, Compute the power dissipated by each clement according to the following rule: If positive current flows into the positive terminal of an clement, then the power dissipated is positive (ie. the element absorbs power): ifthe current leaves the positive terminal of an element, then the power dissipated is nega Wve (i.e., the element delivers power}. EXAMPLE 2.4 Use of the Passive Sign Convention Problem Apply the passive sign convention to the eireuit of Figure 2.14. Solution eT) Known Quantities: Voli) pen; Curent in eireuil Find: Power dissipated or generated by each element Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Figure 2.15(a\aml('s). The voltage dirop setoss Loud 1 is 8 V. that across Load 2 is 4 Vthe current in the eiteuit is 0.1 A Figure 2.14 Assumptions: No Analysis: Following the passive sign convention, we first select an arbitrary direct the current in the circuit; the example will be repeated for both possidle directions of currentflow to demonstrate that the methodology is sound. 1. Assume elockivise direction of eurrent flow. es shown in Figure 2.15(2) 2. Label polarity of votag ouree. as shown in Figu the arbitra chosen direction of the curtent is consistent with the irae polarity af the voltage source the source voltage will bea positive quantity 5 polerty to each passive element, as shown in Figure 2.15(2). soy egy 4. Compute the power dissipated by cach element: Since current flows from —to + ° through the battery the power dissipated by this clement wil be a negative quantity Py = —up x i= —C2V) x (ul AY= 12. W : that is, the battery generates “The power dissipated by the two loads will bea positive quantity im both eases, since curtent Hows from -f 10 =! Pau xi =OV)X Ol AV=OSW 6 Pyamxi=@v)x @1 Ay=0AW Next, we repeat the analysis assuming counterclockwise eurrent direction, 1. Assume counterclockwise direction of current flow, as shown in Figure 2.15(b) 2. Label polarity of voltage soutoe, as shown in Figure 2.15(b) chosen diroction ofthe current is not consisent with the true polarity ofthe vollage Figure 2.45 source, the source voltage will be « negative quanti Fandornontals of F ie Cine polerty to each passive element, as shown in Figure 2.15(b) 4. Compute the power dissinated by each element: Sines current flows font 10-— through the tery the power dissipated by this element will bea positive quantity however, the source voltage is a negative quantity Pa myx i= (12 Vx CuI ADS =H that is, the battery generates 1.2 W, as in the previous case, ‘The power dissipated by 0 loads will be a positive quantity in both eases. since eurrent flows from ++ to Psu xi=@V)x Ol A=ORW PoamxisGv)x@l Asa Comments: It should be apparent thatthe most important step in the exemple is the orect ass of source voltage; passive elements will alsays result in positive pow dissipation, Note also that energy 1s Conserved. 2s the sum of the power dissipated by sourve and loads is zero, In other words: Power supplied always equals power dissipated EXAMPLE 2.5 Another Use of the Passive Sign Convention Problem Determine whetlier a given element is dissipati volt nerating power fram known sand currents, Solution Known Quantities: Voltages across each circuit element: current in circuit, Find: Which clement dissipates power and which generates it. gps ‘Schematics, Diagrams, Cirevits, and Given Data: Voltage ners element A: 1.000 omen | Hemem Current flowing into element A: 420 A um jie # See Figure 216(a) for voltage polarity and eurent direction, ‘ Analysis: According wo the passive sign convention, an clement dissipates power when coatren flows from a point of higher potential to one of lower potential thus, element A yn ets as load. Sinze power must be conserved, clement B must he a source Fig | 216th)]. Element A dissipates (1.000 V) x (420 A) = vo . same amount of poser ° Comments: ‘The procedure described inthis example cun be easily vonducted by experimentally, by performing simple eutrent and sollage measurements, Measutin Figure 2.16 devices are discussed in Section 2.8 Check Your Understanding 2.4 Compute the current flowing thro Ihchalight has @ power rating of 30 W. How much power isthe battery providi each ofthe headlights of Example 2.2 Peach Parl Circuits 2.2 Determine which creat element in the illustration (below, lef) is supplying power and which is dissipating power, Also determine the amount af power dissipated and sp- plied, 2.3 1fvhebatery in the accompanying diagram (above, right supplies a foal af 10 mW tothe hee elernens shown and fy = 2 mA and fy = 1S mA what is the current A? I Ha lma andi 15 mA, whats? 2.5 CIRCUIT ELEMENTS AND THEIR i-v CHARACTERISTICS The relationship between current and voltage at the terminals of a cirenit element dlfines the behavior of that element within the eitcuit, In this section we shall introduce a graphical means of representing the terminal characteristics of circuit clemenis, Figure 2.17 depicts the representation that will be employed throughout the chapter to denote « generalized circuit element: the variable ¢ represents the sntflowing through the element, whilev isthe potential difference, or voltage, across the element ag cur Suppose now that a known voltage were imposed across a cirenit element The current that would flow asa consequence of this voliage, sid the voltage itself, form a unique pair of values. Ifthe voliage applied to the element were varied and the resulting current measured, it would be possible to construct « functional relationship between voltage and current known as ther eharacteristic (or volt ampere characteristic). Such a relationship defines the circuit element, in the sense that if we impose any prescribed voltage (or current, the resulting. current (or voltage) is directly obtainable from the -vcharacteristic, A direct consequence is that the power dissipated (or generated) by the element may also be determined from the i-veurve. Figure 2.18 depicts an experiment for empirically determining the i-v char- acteristic of « tungsten filament light bulh, A variable voltage source is used to apply various voltages, and the current flowing through the clement is measured for eich applied voltage We could ceriainly express the /-v characteristic ofa circuit element in func tional form: i=f) v=ali) QAb In some circumstances, however, the graphical representation is more desirable, especially if there is no simple Functional form relating voltage to current. The simplest form of the #-v characteristic fora circuit element is a straight line, that (2.12) Figure 2.47 Genosalizol representation of eiteuit elements Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits Tainan nile a Figure 2.48 Voltampote charsetenstic of a mngse Foy, ores i chanseenstie 3s3 euvtent source of + charsetensie ofa 6 vatage sauce Figure 2.19 ‘ou with & a constant, In the next section we shall sce how this simple model of a cirwuit element is quite useful in practice and cm be used to define the most common circuit elements: id We can also relate the graphical v representation of circuit elements to the power dissipated or generated by circuit element. Forexample, the graphical rep resentation of the light bulb fv characteristic of Figure 2,18 illustrates that when a positive current lows through the bulb, the voltage is positive, and that, conversely, a negative current flow corresponds to t negative voltage. In both eases the power dissipated by the deviee is a positive quantity, as it should be, on the basis of the discussion of the preceding section, since the light bulb is a passive device. Nowe that the/-v characteristic appears in only two oF the Four possible qustdrants in the F phone, In the other two quadrants, the product af voltage and current (ie. power) isnegative, and an -veurve with a portion in either of these qudrants would there fore correspond to power generated, This isnot possible for passive Load such as a light bulb: however, there are electronic devices that can operate, forexample, in three of the four quradrants ofthe j-vcharacteristic and can therefore act as Sout of energy for specific combinations of voltages and currents, An example of this dual behavior is introduced in Chapter 8, where it is shown that the photodiode ean act either in a passive mode (as lights The /-v characteristics of ideal current and voleage sourves can also be use ful in visually representing their behavior, An ideal voltage source generates prescribed voltage independent of the current drawn ftom the load; thus, its i-v characteristic is a straight vertical line with a voltage axis intercept corresponding to the source voltage. Similarly, the /-v charaeteristic of an ideal current source is a horizontal line with a current axis intercept corresponding to the source current Figure 2.19 depicts these behaviors, TRFUR +R TTR FURR a 2 Paidomnontas of F Chap ie Cine One can easily see that the current in a parallel eireuit divides in inverse proportion tw the resistanees of the individual parallel elements, The general expression for the current divider for cireuit with N parallel resistors is the following: _ UR se Come TR PUR Fo 7B to IRN GE | (2.23) divider Example 2.9 illustrates the application of the current divider rule Figure 2.33, EXAMPLE 2.9 Current Divider Problem Determine the current in the circuit of Figure 2 Solution Known Quantities: Source current, resistance values Find: Unknown current iy. ‘Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Ry = 102 Ry = 2D Ry = Qe =4 A. Analysis: Application of the current divider tule yields x 0.6154 4 RtRtR Comments: While application of the current divider rule to parallel cieuit is very sirightforatd, iis sometimes not so obvious whether 180 oF m9 in poral. cexplored later in tis section, and in Exemple 2.10 ients are conngeted in parallel is Focus on Computer-Aided Tools: Yow will i the EW™ version of the circuit of Figure 2.33 in the eleetonie files that agcornpany this book in CD-ROM format, This simple example may serve asa workbench ta practice your own skills i const circuits using Bec Workbench Interactive Experiments Much of the resistive network analysis that will be introduced in Chapter 3 is buised on the simple principles of the voliagesmnd current dividers introduced in this section, Unfortunately, practical cituits are rarely composed only of parallel or allowing examples and Check Your Understanding ily more advanced eireuits that combine nly of series elements. The exercises illustrate some simple and sh parallel and series elements, Parl Circuits 45 EXAMPLE 2.10 Series-Parallel Circuit Problem Determine the volia vin the cireuit of Figure 2.34 Solution Known Quantities; Source vollage, resistance values Find: Unknown voltage v ‘Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: See ey [Fllienis i parallel Air 7 wi Dee. es sor) »Brsllas Eqanalent reuit Figure 2.34 Figure 2.35 Analysis: “The circuit of Figure 2.34 ist following two conditions do not apply 1 Th 2. The voltage across al resistors is the same (parallel circuit condition) ther a series nor a parallel circuit because the urrent through all resistors is the same (series circuit condition) “The circuit takes 2 much simplier appearance once it becomes evident that the same voltage appears across both Ry and Rand. therefore, that these alle sents are np @ the 18 2.35 is obtained. Note that now these nyo resistors are . quivalent circuit is a simple series circuit andthe vol that eplaved by a single equivalent resistor accord procedures deseribed inthis section, the eireuit of Fi i fo deter divider rule eam be applied while the current is found ta be > RF RG Comments: Systematic methods for analyzing arbitrary circuit configurations are explored in Chapter 3, 46 Figure 2.36 Wheatsione bvidge eiuits 2 Paidomnontas of F ie Cine EXAMPLE 2.11 The Wheatstone Bridge Problem {he Wheatstane bridge is resistiseeireit shat is Hequeniy encountered ina savety of measurement circuits, The general form of the bridge circuit is shown in Figare 2.3613) where Re Re, and Re are known while Ry i an anknown resistance, tobe determined awn as shown in Figure 2,36(b). The latter eireit will be wed he use ofthe vllage divider rule in a mised series-parallel circuit. The objecting isto determine the unknown resistance, Ry 1. Find the value of the vollage vg = vg — ma in terms ofthe four resistances amd the source voltage. us. Note thal sinee the reference point d is the same for both voltages, we cam also Write Ugg = Up — the 2. WR) = R= R= TKD v= Veand vj = 12 mV, what isthe value of Re? Solution Known Quantities: Source voltage, resistance values, bridge voto Find: Unknown resist ice Re ne 2.36 Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: See Ii Ri = Ro= Re= 1 AQ S= 12 Ve gh = 12 mV Analysis: 1. First, we observe that the circuit consists of the parallel combination of three subeircuits: the vollage source. the series combination of Ry and Ry, rnd the series combination of Reand Ry. Since th wall Uree subcircuits are in parallel. the same c will uppcar across each of tl the source voltage. vss ‘Thus. the souree voltage divides ch resistor pair, Ri = Road Rs = Re. accor divider rale: vy is the Fraction of the source voll 1 the vo appeurng aro A, while vis the voltage sppearing across Re R, and w= ORE Finally. the voltage difference berseen points and bis given by Ua = th — vp = vp( —R_ _ _Be eee SINR ER RAR 7 In order to solve for the unknown resistanes, we substitute the numerical values im This result is very wsefil and quite the preeeding equation to obtain 100) 000 T0005 Ry 0012 = Parl Circuits ar ashich may be solved for Re to yield 9962 Comments: ‘The Whetstone bri instru: ils application in many measurement circuits and Is. Focus on Computer-Aided Tools: Virtual Lab You will find 2 Vin circuit of Figure 2.36 in the electronic files that accompany this book. 1 practiced building some simple circuit asin be convineed tha this i an invaluable tol in valida anid in exploring more san version of the ou have mies Workbench, you should by now jumerical solutions to problems, J concepts. The Wheatstone Bridge and Force Measurements Strain gauges, which were introduced in a Focus on Measurements section caligr in this chapter, are frequently employed in the measurement of Force One of the simplest applications of strain giuges is in the measurement of the force applied to a cantilever beam, as illustrated in Figure 2.37, Four strain gauges are employed in this ease, of which swo are bonded to the upper surface of the beam at distance Z from the point where the external force, F, is applied and two are bonded on the lower surface, also at a distance L, Under the influence of the external forve, the beam deforms and cc1uses the upper gauges to extend and the lower gauges to compress. Thus, the resistance of the upper gauges will inerease by an amount AR. and that ofthe lower gauges will decrease by an equal amount, assuming that the sgiuges are symmetrically placed, Let Ry and Ry be the upper gauges and Re and Ry the lower gauges, Thus, under the influence of the external forve, we have Ri=Ri=Ro+AR Ry AR where Rois the zero strain resistance of the gauges. I ean be shown from clementary statics that the relationship between the strain € and a force F Fo, bonded tw hotlam sree Beam eros section 4 |F Figure 2.37 4 forve-messuring instmanent 48 Fado mortals of Floste Cirewits applied ata distance L fora cantilever beam is eo OLE wir¥ where hand w are as defined in Figure 2.37 and L is the beams modulus of chastity Inthe circuit of Figure 2.37, the curents ig aind dp are given by vy, =a o™ bE The bridge output voltage is defined by tp = Up — eand may be found from the following expression Ry—AR = SRTARTR)—AR RF ARTR—AR AR ~ se = ws Ge where the expression for AR/Ry was obtained in “Focus on Measurements Resistance Strain Gauges” seetion, Thus, itis possible 10 obtain a relationship between the output voltage ofthe brid Fas follows cireuit and the force, 6LF _ 6v; whe where kis the calibration constant for this foree transducer v, = Us Ge = ws G Fo=kF Comments— Strain meehamical, chem engincering applic pressure, ‘orgue, stress, oF strain are sought) sauge bridges are commonly’ used in rosprice, biomedical, and civil ions (and wherever measurements of force, eof Unknossn cement Check Your Understanding 2.4 Repeat Lsample 2.8 hy reversing the relerence direetion ofthe eurrent, to show that the same results obtained 2.5. ‘The cireuit in the accompanying illustration contains » battery, @ resistor, ancl an unknown eiteuit eterna 1. [the voltage V, 2 Repeat part 1if7= 2 mA iy is LAS V and? =5 mA. fina power supplied to or by the battery 2.6 The battery in the accompanying cireait supp Ra, Use KCL to determine the current ip, and find Venn = 3 Parl Circuits Fee @) Ry Re Rs forozma ]f od ma fh the voltage Does 2.7. Usethe results of part of Example 2.11 co find the condition for sh Unb = Va — Ub is equal to zero (this is called the balanced condition for the this result neeessarly require tht all four resistors be identical? Why? 2.8 Verily that KCL is satisfied by the current divider rule and thot the source current fg divides in inverse propomtion to the parallel resistors Ri- Re. and Re in the cieuit of Figure 2.83, (This should not be surprise since we would expeet fo see more current flow through the smaller resistance.) 2.9 Compute the full-scale tic. largest) output voltage fr the foree-measuting ap- peratus of Focus on Measurements: The Wheatstone Bridge and Force Meascrements" Assume thal the stain gauge bride ts to measure forces ranging from O10 SON. = 0.3 vn. w= 0.05 m4 = 401 m, G= 2, and the modalus 0” elasticity forthe bear is 69 10" Nin (aluminum), ‘The source voltage is 12 V. What i the calibration constant ofthis force transde 2.10 Repeat she derivation of the current divider law by ysing condactanes element— that is, by replacing each resistance with its equivalent conductance. G = 1/R. 2.7 PRACTICAL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT SOURCES The idealized models of voltage and current sources we discussed in Section 2.3 fail 10 consider the internal resistance of practical voltage and current sources, The objective of this section is to extend the ideal models to models that are eapuble of deseribing the physical limitations of the voltage and current sourees used in practice, Consider, Zor example, the model of an ideal voltage source shown in Figure 2.9, As the load resistance (R) de increasing amounis of current 10 maintain the Voltag ases, the Source is required to provide is(F) across its terminals: vs(t) i= 2.24) This circuit suggests thatthe ideal voltage source is required to provide an infinite amount of eurrent tthe load i the limit as t Naturally, you can see shat this isimpossible; for example, think about the ratings of conventional car battery: 12 V, 450 A-h (ampere-hours), This implies that there isa limit (albeit a large one) to the amount of eurrent a practical souree can deliver to:load, Fortunately it will not be necessary to delve too deeply into the physical nature of each type of source in order to describe the behavior ofa practical volt- e source: The limitations of practical sources cx be approximated quite simply the model ¢ load resistance approaches zero. byexploiting the notion of the internal resistance ofa source, Althoug 9 Figure 2.38 Prsctical Figure 2.39 Prsctical Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits described in this scetion are only approximations of the actual behavior of energy sources, they will provide good insight into the limitations of practical voltage and current sourves. Figure 2.38 depicts a model fr a practical voliage source, composed of an ideal voltage souree, ys. in series with a resistance. ry. The resistancers in effect poses a limit to the maximum current the voltage source ean provide is (2.25) rs Typically. rs is small. Note, however, that its presence affects the voltage across the load resistance: Now this voltage is no longer equal tothe source voltage. Since the current provided by the source is us s=— 2. rs + Rv e298) the load voltage can be determined to he ww =isR 27) Thus, in the limit as the souree internal resistance, rs, approaches zero, the load voltage. vp, becomes exactly equal tothe souree voltage. Itshould be apparent that a desirable Festure of an ideal voltage source isa very small internal resistance, so that the current requirements of an arbitrary load may be satisfied, Often the effec tive internal resistince of a voltage Souree is quoted in the technical specifications for the source, so that she user may take this parameter into account A similar modification ofthe ideal eurrent source model is usctul to describe the behavior of a practical current source, ‘The circuit illustrated in Figure 2.39 dgpicts a simple representation of a practical current source, consisting of an ideal source in parallel with a resistor. Note that as the load resistance approaches infinity (ic. open circuit), the output voltage of the current source approaches ins limit Usman = Ast. (2.28) A good current source should be able to approximate the behavior of an ideal current source, Therefore, « desirable charscteristic for the intemal resistance of 4 current source is that it be as large as possible 2.8 MEASURING DEVICES In this section, you should gain a basic understanding of the desirable properties of practical devices for the measurement of electrical parameters. The measure- ments most often of interest are those of current, voltage, power, ad resistance. In analogy with the models we have just developed to describe the nonideal be- havior of voltage and current sources, we shall similarly present circuit models for practical measuring instruments suitable for describing the nonideal properties of these deviews, The Ohmmeter The ohmmeter is a device that, when connected seross a circuit element, ean measure the resistance of the element, Figure 2.40 depicts the circuit conection ofan ohmmeter to a resistor, One imporsant rule needs to be remembered Parl Circuits 51 The resistance of an element can be measured only when the element is disconnected from any other cireuit The Ammeter The ammeter is @ device that, when conngeted in series with a circuit element. symisal tor Citewi tor the can measure the curtent flowing through the element, Figure 2.41 illustrates this chnmeter —me:sirement of idea, From Figure 2.41, two requirements are evident for obtaining a correct pestines measurement of current Figure 2.40 Ohmmetsr and measurement of stance i \ be, C, moO Jy Symbal or A series Cincuit fe she meesurement cians ‘set nthe eurent Figure 2.41 Meassremen: of eurom 1, The ammeter must be placed in series with the element whose current is 10 bbe measured (¢.., resistor Rp). The ammeter should not restrict the flow of current fic., cause a voltage drop), or cls a the circuit An idea! anmet it will not be measuring the true current flowing zero internal has sistance The Voltmeter The voltmeter is a device that can measure the voltage across «circuit element Since voltage is the difference in potential between two points ina eireuit, the voltmeter needs to be connected across the element whose voltage we wish to measure, A yollmeter must also fulfill (wo requirements: 1. The voltmeter must be placed in parallel with the element whose voltage it is measuring 2. The voltmeter should draw no current away from the element whose voltage weross that itis measuring, or else it will not be measuring the true voltage element, ideal voltmeter has ini nal resistance, Figure 2.42 illustrates these to points, Once again, the definitions just stated for the ideal voltmeter and ammeter need to be augmented by considering the practical limitations of the devices. A prictical ammeter will contribute some series resistance to the circuit in which itis measuring current; a practical voltmeter will not act as an ideal open circuit but will always draw Some current from the measured circuit. The homework problems verily that these practical restrictions do not necessarily pose a limit to the accuracy of the measurements obtainable with practical measuring devices, as Tong as the internal resistance of the measuring devives is known, depicts the circuit models forthe practical ammeter and voltmeter Practica sale Figure 2.43 Models for practical ammeter and voltmeter 2 Fundamentals of Floste Cirewits A series lec Cincuit ae she mesurement ‘seu voltmeter ‘ofthe valtaye Figure 2.42 Messurement of voltane All of the considerations that pertain to practical ammeters and voltmeters ean be applied to the operation of a wattmeter, a measuring instrument that provides measurement of the power dissipated by a circuit element, sinee the wattmeter is in effect made up of a eombination of @ voltmeter and an ammeter Figure 2.44 depicts the typical connection of a wattmeter in the same series circuit used in the preceding paragraphs. In effect, the wattmeter measures the current flowing through the load and, simultateously, the voltage across it and maliplies the two to provide a reading of the power dissipated by the load. The internal power xumption ofa practical wattmeter is explored in the homework problems can fy _ fy © BO : Messrement of the power Inger wattmeter connections isonet nthe resistor Figure 2.44 Messucement of power 2.9 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS In the previous sections we have outlined models for the busi circuit elements: sources, resistors, and measuring instruments, We have assembled all she tools and parts we need in order to define aneleetrieal network. It is appropriate at this stage to formally define the clements of the electrival cireuit: he definitions that follow are part of standard electrical engineering terminology Branch A branch is any portion of a circuit with nvo terminals connected to it. A branch ay consist of one or more circuit elements (Figure 2.45), In practice, any circuit element with two terminals connected to it a branch Parl Circuits a Branch Branch lag ccurent L___» eal sate Practical Figure 2.45 Definition of branch DC Measurements with the Digital MultiMeter Cora (Courtesy: Hewlett-Packard) Digital multimeters (DMMs) are the workhorse of all measurement laboratories. Figure 2.46 depicts the front pane! of atypical benchtop DMM. Tables 2.3 and 2.4 list the features and specifications of the multimeter HP 34401A Benchtop Digital Multimeter Figure 2.46 HeslstePackand 43014 6 Saigit mltineter Table 2.3 Features of the $4401 multimeter ‘#6 3digitesolution uncovers the dats that hide fom ocher DMMs f Accuracy you can cont om» ODS fr de, 16% fo as ‘SPorfzct or your bonch - mote than dozen functions one orn key peesses MS AC volts and current ior your syste = 1H régs'sse in ASC format aero the PTE “9 RS-282 and PAB Standard The Measurements section in the accompanying CD-ROM contains interactive programs that illustrate the use of the DMM and of other common measuring instruments, ie Cine Table 2.4 Specifications for the 244014 multimeter DC Voltage Aecuracy specs Range de 6.8 Digits Accuraey> | your Resolution aveading-+ Pitan Loom 0.0080-+ 4.008 IO Mar>l0 2 WN vin} aonOT Io Meor=10 liye’ 9.00354 6.0008 Io Meor=10 GQ ney. + 4.0006 lo Me ova Tmv— p.008-4 00010 Io “True RMS AC Voltage Accu Acouragy: yew reang + nang 100 mv iW .a0-+008 SHOT 038-4004 LOT kliz 0.064008 DWKimsOKil? 012-4004 KILO KH 050-4 0.08 WOKH200KH? 40044050 Rims tle Lapa SHAW ox8-003 LOTQvkliz 6.0640 LOM SK 013-4005 SU klo-I00 kl? 0. 90-008 WOK A200 RH? 400-44 80 Resistance Accuracy specs Aceuragy: 1 year Range Resolution fareading + 8x Custent Sou WWdobm — 100Q_—— Gat. Ta Ike Im@ — G.0)0-4 0001 Ima, 102 mQ_—-G.a10-4 Gon 100 a WOkohm — Jad AIO GORI on ING IQ Galofaoal Spd 1OMR 2 -G.adD- G08 S00 na, [WO Mohm 1B GOD ADIO 500 08, Other Accuracy specs (basie year aecuraey) (oma 3a 0.1% of reading + bod of range Froquaney (and Periods: 0.441% of reading Viz to AKT usec) Cominsity 0.4% of wading + (1000 Gran, 2% of [ond test cuir Diode wes: 0.1% of wai PV range, a2 of rings mA test curr Parl Circuits Node A node is the junction of two or more branches (ane often refers to the junction of only two branches as a rival node), Figure 2.47 illustrates the concept. In cffget, any connection that can be accomplished by soldering various terminals together is a node, It is very important to identily nodes properly in the analysis of electrical networks. . . Node a Nad ¢ Nae Node Aoxle Nowe niles of retesn pastel ius Figure 2.47 Defnition of a nods Loop A foop is any closed connection of branches. Various loop configurations are illustrated in Figure Sate ha: bo ferent lps inthe same cireuit may in ky Cee tine = = inca aes AQ AN. SIU LY . “ Ton = pet Spa Figure 2.48 Defnition of « loop Mesh A mesh is loop that does not contain other loops. Meshes are an important aid 10 certain analysis methods. In Figure 2.4%, the circuit with loops 1, 2, and 3 consists of two meshes: loops 1 and 2 are meshes. but loop 3 is not a mesh because it encircles both loops I and 2. The one-loop circuit of Figure 2.48 is also one-mesh circuit, Figure 2.49 illustrates how meshes are simpler to visualize in complex networks than loops are. Network Analysis The analysis of an electrical network consists of determining exch af the unknown, branch currents and node voltages. 1 is therefore important to define all of the | Figure 2.50 Variables ina network analsis problem 2 Paidomnontas of F ie Cine Rs How miny jogs can yo idea this four mies et cca Aner} Figure 2.49 Defnition of a mesh relevant variables as clearly as possible, and in systematic ishion, Onee the known and unknown variables have been identified, a set of equations relating these variables is constructed, and these are solved by mess of suitable techniques. The analysis of electrical circuits consists of writing the smallest set of equations sufficient to solve for all of the unknown variables. The procedures requited 10 write these equations are the subject of Chapter 3 and are very well documented and codified in the Form of simple rules, The analysis of electrival circuits is greatly simplified if some standard conventions are Followed. The objective of this seetion is precisely to outline the preliminary procedures that will render the task of analyzing an electrical circuit manageable Circuit Variables The firs: observation to be made is that the relevant variables in network analysis are the node voltages and the branch currents. This fact is really nothin than a consequence of Ohms law, Consider the branch depiczed in consisting of single resistor. Here, once a vollagevg is defined across the resistor R. a curvent ig will flow through the resistor, according t0 ug = igR. But the voltage vg, which causes the current to flow, is really the difference in electric potential between nodes a and b: R= ev 2.29) What meaning do we assign to the variables uy and vy; Was it not stuted that voltage is a porential difference? Is it then legitimate 0 define the voliage at a single point (node} in a circuit? Whenever we referenve the voltage at a node in circuit, we imply aan assumption that the volkage at that node is the potential difference benween the node itself and a reference node called ground, which is located somewhere else inthe circuit and which for convenience has been assigned potential of zero volts, Thus. in Figure 2.50, the expression UR =U, —v, really signifies that vg is the difference between the voliage differences Yq — te and Up — Ye, where ve is the arbitrary) ground potential, Note that the equation ug = Y4—Y, Would hold even ifthe reference node.c, were not assigned. potential of zero volts, since UR= Uy — = (Ya —W)— (HW) 2.30) What, then, is this ground or reference volta Parl Circuits 5 Ground The choice of the word ground is not arbitrary, This point can be illustrated by simple analogy with the physics offiuid motion, Consider a tank of water, as shown in Figure 2.51, located at a certain height above the ground, The potential energy due to gravity will cause water to flow out of the pipe at a certain flow rate, The pressure that forves water out of the pipe is directly related to the hex (hy hp), in such a way that this pressure is zero when ha = hy, Now the point hs. corresponding to the ground level, is defined as having zero potential energy. Th should be apparent that the pressure acting on the fluid in the pipe is really by the difference in potential energy, (11 — Hs) — (ly — fs). It can be seen, that itis not necessary to assign a precise energy level to the height fs: in fact, it ‘would be extremely cumbersome to do so, since the equations describing she flow of water would then be different, say, in Denver (hs = 1,600 m above sea level) from those that would apply in Miami (2s = Om above sea level). You see, then, thas itis the relative difference in potential energy that matters in the water tank problem sya for symbol for ih. rh ground I. sue mand caused then, Tho a D. Hoss of water ‘Fam pine HTT Figure 2.51 Analogy hereon electcal and exh ground In analogous fashion, in every circuit @ point can be defined that is recog nized as “ground” and is assigned the electric potential of zero volts for con nience. Note that, unless th two completely separate circuits are not necessarily at the same potential, This last statement may seem puzzling, but Example 2.12 should ckinf are purposely conneeted together, the grounds in His auserl exereise at this point to put the concepts iustrated inthis chapter into practice by identifying the relevant variables in @ few examples of electrical circuits. In the following example, we shall illustrate how it is possible to define unknown voltages and currents in a circuit in terms of she source voltages and currents and of the resistances in the eireuit EXAMPLE 2.12 entity the branch and node voltages and the loop and mesh currents in the circuit of Fado mortals of Floste Cirewits Solution The following ue voltages may be identitied Node voltages Branch voltages ng =U (source volage) wy wt =a w=UR or — aj = (ground) Figure 2.52 Comments: Caurents gsi andl fate loop cuments, but only fg and iy are mesh currents 11 should be clear at this stage that some method is needed to or ‘wealth of information that can be generated simply by applying branch ina circuit, What would be desirablestt this point is ame: number of equations needed to salve circuit to the minimum necessary, that is, method forobiaining N’ equations in 2 unknowns. The next chapter is devoted | the development of systematic circuit analysis methods that will greatly simplity the solution of electrical network problems, Check Your Understanding 2.11 Write expressions forthe volta “of the mesh currents across eaeh resistor in Example 2.12 in terms 2.12 Write expressions for the eusrent through each resistor in Exsimple 2.12 in terms Conclusion ‘The objective of this chapter was to introduce the hacky chapters for the analysis of linear resistive networks. Thy needed in the following imdamental laws of circuit ni ss Kinehhoft’s voltage ns, and Ohm's fv, were introduced with the basic eiteuit elements, and all were used to analy the most bs ‘and current dividers. Measuring devices und a few other practical circuits emplo measurements were also introduced t provide a flavar of the applicability of these basic ileas to practical engineering problems. The r. book dkavis on the concepts developed in this chapter, Mastery of the principles exposed in these frst pages is therefore of fundamental importance. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING ANSWERS. eyuad [p= fp =417 A: 100.8 eyu22 A, supplying 30.8 W: B. dissipating 30.8 W cy fy 1 mAs =0 mA cyurs P= 7.25 x 10-3 W tsupplied by: Bh =2.9 x 10 W (supplied to) cyU26 n=1SmA Py = SA mbv cyun7 RR = BR cyu29 (ull seale) = 626 mV; k = Oa cyutat Uap) = dai: Up = (ia — ao) Ros 04 ot =, Ma Us 5 Mate B SeWeN SiR Parl Circuits 59 Ye HOMEWORK PROBLEMS Section 1: Charge and Kirchhoff's Laws; Voltages and Currents 2.1 An isolated fiee electron is tae electric fied from some initial point where its Coulombic potential energy per nit charge (so#hage) is 17 AIC and velocity =93 Mrvs to some fine! point 29 per anit charge the change in veloeity ofthe revitaional forces where its Coulombie potential is @ KH. Determi electron, Neglect is the volt, for eurrent the the ohm, Using the and resistanee, express each quantity in fundamental MKS units 2.3 Suppose the current flowing by the e through a re P23 ine is given ive shown in 1) Figure P2.3 a, Find the amount of charge.g. that ows through the wire between; =Oond = 1s, bb. Repeat purt a forts = 2.3, 4,5, 6.7.8, 9. and 10s, teh g(t) fort Os. pacity ofa car battery is usually specified in hours. A battery rated at. say. 100 A-h shout to supply 100.4 for | hour. 50.8 for 2 hours. ford hours, 1 A for 100 hours. or any other combination yielding a product of 100 A-b. 1, How many coulombs of charge should we be able to draw from a filly charged 100) A-h battery? b, How many ele fons dees you answer to part a requir 2.5 ‘he curent in semivondaetor device results trom the motion ab two ifferent kinds 0° ehange erie electrons and holes. The holes and electrons have charge of equal magnitude bat opposite sign. Ina particular device, suppose the elecuon density is 2.x 10! electrons tm an the le density is 5 x 10! holes This device has crosssectional area of nin Ite eletvons are moving to the let ata Sefocity DS mis and the holes are movi Fight a eloety of 0.2 mms, what ave a. the rection of the current in the semiconductor bb. ‘The magnitude of the current in the device 2.6 The charg: of afvo-rate vyele shown in Figure P2.6 isan example urge. The current is hel constant at $0) mA for Sh, Then itis switched to 20 mA for the nest Sh, Find a, The total charge transferred to the battery bb. The energy transferred to the battery Hint: Recall that energy. a, isthe int Figure P2.6 ov Chap 2.7 Batteries cx. lead-acid batteries} store chemical energy and convert it to electrical energy on Int S496. 8 hhe building is sited a distance d from the transform: bank which can be modeled asan ideal soutee (see Figure P24T}, [d= 85 m, determine the AWG of the smallest condyctors which ean be used ina rubber-insulated eable used to supply the Fa co On Figure P2.41 2.42 rcan ising. a T-horsepowser motor must be sited a distance d from a portable generator (Figure 92.42), Assume the perator cat be mpadeled as an ideal source with 1 volta The nameplate on the motor gives the fated voltages and the carrespending full oad cument Vein Varooe = 105 We Bygrt = 76108 Virose = TV fart he cable must have AWG #14 oF hay camy a current of 7.103 A without ov Determine the masta le rubber insulated cable with AWG #14 conductors which can be used fo conmect the motor and generator F conductors to Conte oO Figure P2.42 2.43 ‘lant to house 2 proxlaction line, ‘The total eleetrical ing iy 23 KAW, The nameplates on the jana andl maximum voltages with An additional building has been added to your 450 A46V ho S SISTA S463 V > Myr) $49.68 A Parl Circuits “ The building is sited a distance d from the transformer bank which can be modeled as an ideal source (F 2.43), The cable must have AWG 4 of lr nt of $1.57 A without conductors 10 camry a cur overheating, Determine the maximum lengthd of 3 rubber-instlated cab AWG 4 conductors which ccan be used to connect the source tothe load t ov J | Ge Figure P2.43 2.44 In ihe bridg terminals) C Ri re P2441 nok and ke ISKQ RAST R= WK dletermine the equivalent resistance between the nodes cor terminals Aand B. Figure P2.44 2.45. Determine the voltoge between moves Aand B in the circuit shown in Figure P2.45 Ve=i2V 1kQ R= 6NKO 22042 R= 0.22 mQ Figure P2.45 2.46 Determine the voltage between the nodes A and B inthe cireuit shown in Figure P28 R47 R= KL 66 Chap 2.47 Determine the voltay across Re in Figure P2.47 Vs=12V R= 17 n@ R=3kQ B= 1K " Figure P2.47 Sec! n 4: Measuring Devices 2.48 A shermistorisa device whose terminal changes with the temperature of ifs surround resistance is an export stance sts vial relationship: Ry(T) = Rye? where Ry isthe terminal resistance a 7 = 0°C and B x material parameter with units [CT a, IPRy = 100 Gand B =0410/C%, plot RT) versus T lor 0< T < 100°C bb, The thermistor is placed in parallel with a resistor whose value is 1002 i. Find an expression for the equivalent resistance, i, Plot Ry(T)on th parla, sme plot you made in 2.49 A certain resistor hus the following characteristic R(x) = 1000" where x isu normalized dispkicement, The nonlinear resistor is fo be used to measure the displacement x 10 the circuit of Fis Figure P2.49 a, Ithe total ke expression forty iol the resistor is 10 ex bb. Hedy =4 Ne wha is the distance, x? 2.50 A moving coil meter movernent has a met resistance Fy = 200 S2and full-scale defection is caused by at meter current fy = 10. The moverer must he used to indicate pressure measured by the 2 Paidomnontas of F ie Cine setisor up to a maximum of 100 KPa, See Fig Fe Sener Mer 10 = Papsicy Figure P2.50 all sppropriate connections between the terminals of the sensor and meter movement a, Draw a citeuit required to do this show bb. Determine the value of each component in the circuit ©. What isthe linear r the minimum an nvanimunn pressure that can accurately be ressured? 2.51 A moving coil meter and pressure transducer are used to monitor the pressure a ritcal point ina system. The meter movement is rated at 1.8 kQ and 50 A (full scale) A nev ta sducer must be installed with the pressure-voltage characteristic shown in Figure P2.51 (different from the previous transducer’ ‘The maximum pressure that must be measured by the monitoring system is 10 kPa Fe Sonor Mer 10 7 o L L 0 oy 108 Figure P2.51 a, Redesign the meter eirewit required for these specifications and draw the exrcuit beoween th ininals of the sensor and meter show ing all appropriate connections, bb, Determine the value For each compenent in y circuit What isthe linear range (ie. the minimum a vaximurn pressure that can accurately be ineasured) of this system? 2.52 In the circuit shown in Figure 92.52 the femperature sensor and moving coil meter movement are used fo monitor the temperature ina chemical process. The sensor has melfunctioned and must be replaced with another sensor with the ccurrent-temperature characteristic shown (not the same asthe previous sensor), Temperatures up to a maximum of 400°C must be measured, The meter is rated at 2.5 kSQend 2501 mV (Hull sale), Redesign the ‘meter eiteuit for these specifications, R Mater io m0 Figure P2.52 1, Draw the circuit between the terminals af the sensor and met all appropriate connections, the value of each component in the e i.e. the minimum and maximum temperature that can accurately be mesure) ofthe system? 2.52 In the circuit in ‘with the current-temperature characteristic shown and a Triplett Electric Manufacturing Company Model 321L movin condenser temperati se P2.53, a temperature sensor coil meter will he used to monitor the 12 steam power plant mperatures up to a maximum of 350°C must be measured, The meter is rated at 1 Kand 100 eA (Fall seale), Design a eireuit far these specifications, Parl Circuits o he Ry ' Fs Sensor Mer w 7 7 L L 200 Ty 00 nC) Figure P2.53 A. Draw the cireuit between the terminals ofthe sensor and meter showing all appropriate connections, bb. Determine the vslue of each component it the circuit ©. What is the minimum temperature that ean accurately be measured? 2.52 ‘The circuit of Figure P2.54 is used to measure the internal impedance ofa battery, The battery being tested is @ zine-eatbon dry cell Pastery Figure P2.54 a. A\ fiesh bartery is being tested, and it i fond that the voltage, Vays is 164 V sith th 1,63 V with the switch elosed, Find the internal resistance of the battery bb. ‘The same battery is rested one sear later, and V, found to be 1.6! with the swsiieh open but 0,17 V with the switch closed, Find the internal resistance of the battery anmed in “erin series 2.52 Consider the prutical aro Figure P2.58, consisting of an ideal anh with 2 2-KO resistor, The meter sees fallseale deflection shen the current through iis SOA, Ihe 6 Chap wished fo construct a multimange ammeter readin fillscale values af ] mA, 10 mA, or 100 ma eperiing on the setting ofa rotary switeh, what should Rye Ro, andl Ry be? Figure P2.55 2.56 circuit that measures the inemal resistance af a Draetical ammeter is shown it Figure P236, where Ry = 10,0002. Vs = 1 Y. and Rp isa variable resistor thet ean be adjusted at will Figure P2.56 a, Assume thats & 10,000. Estimate the current b. [the meter displays a eurrent of 0.43 ma when Rp = 7 Qn the internal resistance oF the meter. 2.57 A practical soltmeter has an internal resistane® fp. What is the value offi the meter reads 9.89 V when connected as shown i Figure P2.57 Toa Reto Figure P2.57 2 Paidomnontas of F ie Cine 2.58 Usi that the meter following values: the cireuit of Figure P2.57, find the voltage Is iP ¥y= 10 V and Ryhas the ‘or spill) should the intemal resistance of the meter be rekaiive (0 Rs? 2.59 A voltmeter is used to determine the voltage across resistive element in the cireuit of Figure P2.59. The instrument is modeled by an ideal voltmeter in parallel with 97-AS2 resistor as shows, The meter paced 10 measure the voltage across Ry, Let Ri = 10 KS Rs = 100 k&2, Ry = 40k and ty =90 mA. Find the voltage across Reith and without the yolimeter in the cite forthe Following values fy ma © Voltmeter Figure P2.59 a R= 1002 b RT ©. R= 10kQ 4d 100 K 2.60 An ammeter is used as shown in Figure P2.60. ‘The ammeter model consists ofan ideal ammeter in series with a resistance, The ammeter model is placed in the branch as shown in the figure. Find the current throug both sith and without th er inthe circuit for the followin, that Ve= 10 V. Ry 102, Ry = 1 KS and Ry = 100 82 (a) Ry = T RSQ. (b) Ry = 100 @. (6) R= 102.) R= 1 Ame Pp Circuit Ammeter model Figure P2.60