Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction to Electrical
Engineering 1
4.10 blecirical bs
1.2. blectrical b:
of Mechatronic S)
4.3 Fundamentals of
Review. §
4.4, Brier History of Fle
455 Sister of Units 10
436. Special Features of This Book 11
Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Electric
Circuits 15
2.4 Charge, Came, snd Kirchlio’s
Current Law 16
2.2. Voltage and Kirchhotl’s Vol
2.3 ideal Voltage and Cu
Ideal Voltage Sour
Ideal Current Sources 25
Dependent (Controlled) Sources
2.4 slecric Power and Si
B!5 Circuit Elements and thei
i yCharacteristies 29
2.6 Resistance and Ohv’s Law 30
Gpen snd Short Circuits 38
Series Resistors and the Vola.
Divider Rule 39
Parallel Resistors and the Curent
Divider Rule 42
2.7. Proctcal Voltage and Curent Sources 49
28
n Convention
The Ohi
The Ammeter
The Violometer
Network A
Circuit Variables 36
Ground 57
Chapter 3 Resistive Network
Analysis 74
3.4 ‘The Node Voltge Method 72
Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source
3.2. ‘The Mesh Cartent Method 7S
Mesh Analysis with Carre Sources
ll and Mesh Anolssis with Controle
Sources 84
Remarks on Node Volk
Methods” 86
3.4. The Principle of Superposition 86
3.5. OnePort Networks and Equivalent
Circuits 89
“Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Cireaits 90
Detenination of Norton ur Thévenin
Equivalem Resistance 91
Compating the Thevenin Voltage 9S
ompating the Noston C
Source ranshormations 101
perimental Determination of Thévenin
and Norton Fquislents.» 104
3.6 Moximumm Power Tansier 107
3.7) Nonlinear Cirewit Flements 110,
Description of Nonlncar Hlements 100,
Graphical (LoadLine) Analysis of Nonkinea
Cieuits 111
and Mesh Current
Chapter 4 AC Network
Analysis 125
4A. EnergyStorage (Dynamic) Cieait
Elements 126
the Ideal Capacitor 126
rage in Capacitors 130
tor 133
in Inductors 137
dent Signal Sources 141
Why Sinusoids? 61
Average and RMS Values 1424.3 Solution of Circuits Contsinin
Blements 145
Forced Response of Circuits Excited
dal Sources 146
4.4. phasors and Impedimee 148
Bers Klentity HS
Phasors 149
Superpesiti
Impedance
“The Resistor
‘The Inductor
The Capacitor
Admittance 161
AC Circuit Analysis Methods
AC Eiquivalent Circuits 166
Dynamic
by Simuso
of AC Signals 151
153
153
154
155
45
162
Chapter 5 Transient Analysis 181
$1 ntiduction 181
5.2. Solution of Circuits Containing Dynamic
Elements 18°
5.3. ‘Transiont Response of FinOndsr
Circuits 186
Natural Response of FinOnder Cireuits 187
anu Complete Response of FirstOrder
Giteuits 191
Continuity of Capzcitor Voltages and Inductor
Circuits 192
Complete Solution of FirsOnder Circuits 194
5.4. “Trasiont Respunse of FirsOnder
Circuits 203
Deriving the Differential Equations
For SecondOn am
‘Natural Response of SecoraOnler
Cireuits 208
Overtamped Solution 208
Critically Darnped Solution 209
Undendamped Solution 209
Foreed and Complete Response
of SecondOrder Circuits 200)
Chapter 6 Frequency Respose
and System Concepts 231
6.4. Sinisoidal Frequency Respomse
62 Files 23
Low=Pass Filters
HighPoss Filters
BandPos Filkers
Ds
Decivel (db) or Bode Plots 257
6.3. Complex Froqucney and
‘ransom 261)
The Lapkice Transform 263,
Transfer Functions, Poles, amd Zeros 267
Chapter 7 AC Power 281
7.1 Power in AC Circuits 282
Instantaneous and Aver
AC Power Notation
Power Factor 288
Complex Power 289
Power Factor, Revisited
Transformers 308
The Ideal Translormer 309
Impedance Reflection and Power
Transier 311
ThngePhase Power 315
Balanced Wye Loads 318
Balanced Dela Loads 319
Residential Wiring: Groundin,
anid Safety
Power 2
7.2
7.3
204
7.4
7.5
7.6 Generation and Distribution of AC Power 325
PART I SELECTRONICS
Chapter 8 Semiconductors
and Diodes 337
8.1. Electrics Conduction in Sernicondctor
Devices 338
8.2. The pr Junction and the Semiconductor
Diode 40
B.3 Circuit Models forthe Semiconductor
Diole M3
LargeSignal Diode Models 243
SrrallSignal Diode Models 351
Piecewise Linear Diode Movlel 387
8.4 Prsctical Diode Circuits 360
The FullWase Rectifier 360
“The Bridye Rectifier 362
DC Power Supplies. Zener Dives
and Yollage Regulation 364
SignalProcessing Applications 370
Phostodiodes¥
Chapter 9 Transistor
Fundamentals 391
9.4. “Transistors as Amplifiers and Switches 592
9.2 ‘the lipolar anction Transistor (3IT) 594
Determining the Operating Region
Se BIT 307
Selecting an Operating Point fora BIT 3993 407
a paBIT 407
9.4 FieldFfleet Transistors 415
9.5 Overview of EnhancementMo
MOSFETs 415
Operation of the Channel Enhancement
Mode MOSFET 416
Channel MOSFETS andl CMOS
Devices 421
9.6 Depletion MOSHE Ts and JFETs 423
Depletion MOSFETs 423
Junction PieldEf fect Transistors 424
Depletion MOSFET and IFFT
I:quations 436
Chapter 10. Transistor Amplifiers
and Switches 437
410.1 SiallSignal Models ofthe BUT 438
‘Transconductance 441
410.2. IT SivallSignsl Amplitiens 483
DC Analysis ofthe ConmmenEitter
Amplifier 446
AC Analysis of the Commonbiitr
Amplitier 453
Other BIT Amplifier Circuits 457
10.3. FET SmallSignal Amplifiers 4
The MOST CommonSource
Amplifier 461
‘The MOSFET Source Follower 465
10.4. Transistor Amplifiers 468
Frequency Response of SmellSignal
Amplifiers 468
Multistage Amplifier 470
40.5 Transistor Gates and Switches 472
Anclog Gates 473
Digital Gates 475
Chapter 11 Power Electronics 495
11.1 Classifi
cation of Power Electronic
Devices 496
14.2 Classification of Power Electronic
Cireuits 497
41.3 Voitare Regulators 499
11.4 Power Amplifiers and Transistor
Switches 302
Power Amplifiers
BIT Switching Chara
istics S04
Power MOSFETs $0:
InsulatedGate Bipolar Transistors
(IGBIs) 30s,
14.5 Rectifiers snl Contvolled Rectifiers
(ACDC Converters) 508
UiheePhase Rectifiers “S11
Thsristors and Controlled Rectifiers
14.6. Lleciie Motor Drives S18
Choppers (DCDC Converters)
Inverters (DCAC Con enters
Chapter 12. Operational
Amplifiers 534
12.4 Aplin $32
Ideal Amplifier Characteristics:
12.2. The Operational Amphitier
The OpenLoop Model 534
‘The Operational Amplifier
in the ClosedLoop Mode
12.3 Active filters 553
42.4 invcerator ata Dilerenintor Circuits $89
‘he deal Differentiation $62
12.5. Analog Computers 562
Scaling in Analog Computers S64
12.6 Physical Limitations of OpAinps $69
Voltage Supply Limits $69
Frequency Response Limits 371
Input Set Nolage 574
Input Bias Curents
Outpan OF Adjustment $76
Slew Rate Limit’ 577
ShotCireuit Output Current $79
ConmanMode Rejection Ratio. 58
Chapter 13 Digital Logic
Circuits 599
13.1 Analog and Digital Signals 600
13.2 ‘The Binary Number Syste
Addition and Subtraction 6002
Multiplication and Division 603
Conversion from Decimal to Binary 60%
Complements and Negative Numbers 604
‘The Hexadecimal System 606
Binary Codes 606
13.3 Boolean Algebra 610
AND and OR Gates 610
NAND andl NOR Gates 67
The NOR (Pslusive OR} Gate 61913.4 Kemugh Maps and Logic Design 620
SumolProducts Realizations 62%
ProdctolSus Realizations 627
Dnt Care Conitions 631
13.5 Combinational Logic Modules 634
Multiples 64
ReadOnly Memory (ROM) 635
Decoders and Read and Write Memory 638
Chapter 14. Digital Systems 647
14.1 Sequential Logic Modules 648
Latches and FlipFlops. 648,
Digital Counters 655
Re 602
Sequential Ls
2 Design 664
3. Microcomputers 667
24 Microcomputer Architecture 670
5 Microcontrollers 671
Computer Atehitectare 6
Nutnder Spates ard Number Codes
in Digital Computers 674
Memory Organization 675
Operation ofthe Cental Processing Unit
(CPU) 677
Interrupts 67
Instruction Sat fr the MC@SIHCDS
Microcontroller 679
Pro and Application Development
ina Microcontroller 688
14.6 A Typical Automotive Engine
Mictoconttaller 68
 Deseription 680
Processor Section 681
Memory 682
Inputs." 684
Oiuspas 685
Chapter 15 Electronic
Instrumentation
and Measurements 689
15.1 Measurer sand Transducers 690)
Mezsurement Systems 691)
Sensor Classification 699
Motion and Dimensional
Messurements 691
Fores, Torq, and Pressure
Messurements 691
Flow Measurements 693
‘Temperature Measurements 693
15.2 nding, and Noise 695
al Sources and Measirement System
gurations 695
Noise Sources and Coupli
Mechanisins  697
Doise Reduction 69S
15.3 Signal Conditioning 699
Instrumentation Amplifiers 699
Active Filters 704
15.4 naloytoDigial and DigtaloAna
Conversion 713
DigitabtoAnalag Comerters 714
AalogeteDigital Converters 718
Data Acquisition Systems 723
15.5. Comparator and Tiining Circuits
The OpAmp Comparator 728
Uhhe Schmit Trigger 731
‘The OpAmp Astuble Multvibrator  738
‘The OpAmp Monostable Muivibrator
(OneShot 737
Timer ICs: The NESS:
15.6 Other Instrumentation h
Amplifiers 742
DACS and ADCS
FrequenesioVott
VoltogetoFrequency Converters,
and PhaseLocked Loops 73
er Sensor and Signal Conditioning
Circuits 743
15.7. Data Transmiss
Instruments 748
the IEEE 488 Bus 749
The RS282 Standand 75%
rated Circuits
in Digital
ARAM) TABOR NTO) Vee EAN ie
Chapter 16 Principles
ofElectromechanics 767
16.4 Flectivity and Magnetism 768
The Magnetic Field and Faraday’s Law 768
Sean Mutual Inluctance
Ampare’s Law 77S
2° Mognetic Circuits 779
3 netic Materials and BFf Circuits 793
5.4 Transformers 795
5 Electromechanical Energy Conversion 799
Forees in Magnetic Structures — $00
wlron Transducers $00
il Transducers $09
1Chapter 17 Introduction
to Electric Machines 827
17.1 Rotating Hleetric Machines 828
Basie Classification of Electric Machines S28
Performance Characteristics of Electric
Machines $30
Basie Operation of All blectrie
Machines $37
Magnetic Poles in kleetric Machines 8
17.2. DirectCurvent Machines 840,
Physical Structure of DC Machines _ $40
Configuration of DC Machines $42
DC Machine Models $42
17.3 DireciCurrent Generators S45.
17.4 DirectCurrent Motors 849.
SpeedTorque and Dynamic Characteristics
‘of DC Motors 830)
DC Drives and DC Motor Speed
Control 860)
17.5 AC Machines 862
Rovating Magnetic Fields 862
17.6 ‘The Alternator (Synchronous
Generator) 864
17.7 ‘The Synchronous Motor 866
17.8 The Induction Motor 870
Performance of Induction Motors 87
and Torque Control $79
AdjustableFrequency Drives $80
Chapter 18 SpecialPurpose
Electric Machines 889
18.1. Brushless DC Motors
18.2. Stepping Motors 897
18.3 Switched Reluctance Motors 905
Operating Principles of SR Machine 906
18.4 SinglePhase AC Motors 908)
The Universal Motor 909
SinglePhase Induction Motors 91
(Classification of SinglePhase Induction
Motors 917
Summary of Sing
Characteristics
Motor Selection and Application
Motor Performance Calculations
Motor Selection 926
Phase Motor
18.5
933
923
Find Chapter 19 on the Web
Fup: seseimbbhe.comengesielectriealrizzoni
Chapter 19 Introduction
to Communication
Systems
191 ingoduction to Communication Systems
Information, Modultion, and Canes
Communications Channels
Classification of Communication Systems
nals and Their Spectra
mal Spec
jodic Signals: Fourier Ser
NonPetiodic Signals The Fourier Transform
Bandwidth
19.3 Ample Modulation snd Demodilstion
Basic Principle of AM
AM Demodblaton: ntgrated Cireait Receivers
Commenton AM Applictions
19.4 Frequemey Modulation and Demedalation
Baie Principle of FM
FM Signal Models
FM Demodkaton
19.5 Examples of Communication Systems
Global Position: ystem
Sone
Rada
Cellular Phones
Locale Compater
orks:
Appendix A Linear Algebra
and Complex Numbers 933
Appendix B_ Fundamentals
of Engineering
(FE) Examination 941
Appendix © Answers
to Selected Problems 955
Index 961C HAPTER
Introduction to Electrical
Engineering
he aim of this chapter isto introduce elecirical engineering. ‘The chapter is
organized to provide the neweomer with a view of the different specialties
making up electrical engineering and to plave the intent and organization
of the book into perspective. Perhaps the first question that surfaces in the:
mind ofthe student approaching the subject is, Why electrical engineering? Since
this book is directed at a readership having a mix of enginecring bac
(including electrical engineering), the question is well justified and deserves some
discussion, The chapter begins by desining the various branches of electrical engi
neering, showing some of the interactions among them, and illustrating by means
comnected to many
other engineering disciplines. In the second section, mechatronic systems engi
nnceringis introduced, with an explanation of how this book can kay the foundation
for interdisciplinary mechatronic product design. This design approach is illus
trated by an example. The next section introduces the EngineerinTraining (EIT)
national examination. A brie historical perspective isalso provided, to outline the
growth and development of this relatively young engineering specialty, Next, the
fimdamental physical quantities and the system of unitsare defined, to set the st
for the chapters that follow. Finally, the organization af the book is discussed, 10
give the student, as well as the teacher, a sense of continuity in the development
ofthe different subjects covered in Chapters 2 through 18
grounds
ofa practical example how electrical engineering is intimateChapter  Introduction to Flecrieal Engineering
1.1 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
The typical curriculum ofan undergraduate electrical e ng student includes
the subjects listed in Table 1.1, Although the distinction between some of these
subjects is not akways clearcut, the table is sufficiently representative to Serve our
purposes. Figure 1.1 illustrates a possible interconnection between the disciplines
of Table 1.1. The aim of this book is to insrodace the nonelectrical engineering
student to those aspec's of electrical engineering that are likely to be most relevant
to his or her professional career. Virtually all of the topies of Table 1.1 will be
touched on in the book, with varying degrees ofemphasis. The following example
illustrates the pervasive presence of electrical, electronic, and eleetromechanical
devices and systems in a very common application: the aaromobile, As you read
through the example, it will be instructive to refer to Figure 1.1 and Table 1.1
Cire analysis
Electomagneries Enginvering
Solidstate electronics applications
Fleetric machises
Electtc power systems Power
Dai cin —N\
Flectroopties Mathematical [7] machiner Physical
Instrumentation systems foundations:
‘reo erst magnetics
System TP comsunr Cotes
Figure 1.4 Elecica! a
EXAMPLE 1.1 Electrical Systems in a Passenger Automobile
engineering actually in
system: the automobile, Figure 1.2 presents view of electrical engingering systems in a
craet to permit the operation ofa very Femniliar enginical Fnginvering
Hoy
eetioies
Vehicle Power in
sont
varhags ‘ntlock bake Frgine
Cimate Traction Transmission
Security and
kegless ent
Suspension Chargin
Cooling an
sao els
wheel seer
Memory minor
MUX
4 wheel drive
Insnunanstion FEnertiiomont
rllog dash Celular shone
Digital dish cpDat
Ravigaton AMM ral
Digital radio
Figure 4.2 Flectrical esgincering systems in the astomolle
‘modem automobile, Even in older vehicles, the electrical system in eee, an elec trie
ie—plays a very important part in the overall operation. An inductor co
salficiently high volt
the air und fuel misty
battery, In addition to providing the
et allows a spark to form across the spark ph
te col is supplied by a DC voltage provided by le
for the ignition circuits, the battery a
supplies power to many other el the
‘rieal components, the raost obvious of which a
lights, the windshield wipers, and the radio. Eleeteie power is carried from the battery to
sborae
lectronie devices ealled fransistors
of tensistorized ignition
Jer reliability, ease of control
all of these components by means of wire harness, which constitutes & rather el
electrical circuit, In recent years. the conventional electrical ystem has by
ie ignition; that is, solidstate
points, The adsant
systems over the conventional mechanical ones is their
and life span (mechanical breaks
Other electrical engineering diseiplines are fairly obs ious in the nutomobile. “T
onbo:
communication
1 systems thal exploitefectromagneties are CB radios and the ever more
common cellular phones, [ut this is not all! ‘The battery is, i effeet, a sel!containe
I2VDCelec entioned
fimetions. In order for the battery to have @ useful lifetime. a charging systera, compo:
ent in every automobile, The
supplanted by efeen
have replaced the traditional break:
points are subject to wear)
rl radio receives electromagnetic waves by means of the antenna, and decodes the
als o reproduce sounds and speech of remote origins other common
power system, providing the energy for all of the aforer
oan alternator and of power
alternator is aneleetrc
windows, pow
icctronic devives. is pr
tavhine, as are the motors that drive the power mitrors, pow er
cals, and other convenience features found in lusury ears, Incidental
the loudspeakers ate also electric machinesChapter  Introduction to Flecrieal Engineering
The lst does not end here, though. In fet, some of the more interesting anplieations
of elzirieal engineering ta the automobile hase not been discussed yet, Consider
computer sextoms. You are certainly aware that in the kst to decades, environmental
cncems related f0 exhaust emissions trom automobiles have fed 1 the introdaction of
sophisticated engine emission contra! systems, ‘The heart af such control systems is a pe
oF computer ealled a iemprocessor The micrapracessor receives signals from devices
(called sensors) that measure relevant variibls—such as the engine speed the
on of oxygen in the exhaust gases, the position ofthe throttle valve (ie. the
driver's demand for engine power. snd the aniount of air aspirated by the en
subsequently computes the optimal simount of fuel and the eorreet timing af the spark (©
result in the eleanest combustion possible under the cireumstances. The measurement of
the aforementioned variables falls under the heading of fastramentation, and the
inerconnection between the sensors and the mic ap of digital
civciits. Finally. asthe presence of computers on board becomes more pervasive—in,
areas such as antilock braking, electronically controlled suspensions, fourwheel ste
systems, and electronic eruise coniro#vammunications among the various 0
computers will have to oecur at fester and faster rates, Some dey in the notsoistant
Tuturs, these communications may oecur over a fiber optic network, sndetectroopties
will replace the conventional wire hare
present in some of the more advanced displays that sre port ofan automotive
instrumentation system,
concent
ian
processor is uswelly me
should be noted that
‘roopties is already
1.2 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
AS A FOUNDATION FOR THE DESIGN
OF MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS
Many of today
mobiles,
Computer eoatrol of machines aad processes is comtmioa to the automotive, chem
ical, aerospace, manufacturi: jon, consumer, and industrial
eleetronivs industries. The extensive use of microelectronies in mamufucturing
ito
*s machines and processes, om chemical plants to 2
quire some form of electronic or computer control for proper operation,
test and instruments
systems and in engineering products and processes has led to new approach to
the design ofsuch engineering systems. To use a term coined in Japan and widely
adopted in Europe, mechanonie design has surfuced as @ new philesophy of de
sian, based on the inezravion oF existing disviplines—primarily mechanical, and
electrical, electronic, and software engineer
slected in a strictly disciplinary approach
A very important issue, often ne;
to engineering education, is the integrated aspect af engineering practice, which
is unavoidable in the design snd analysis of large seale andior complex systems,
One aim of this book is to give engineering students of different backgrounds
exposure tothe integration oF electrical, electronic, and software engineering into
their domain, This is accomplished by making use of modern computeraided
tools and by providing ant examples and references. Section 1.6 describes
how some of these goals are accomplished
D. A. Bradley, D. Dasson, N.C. Burd, A.J, Loader, 1991, Moshatronies, Electronics in Products
and Processes, Chapman and Hall, London. Soe also ASME AIEEE Transsetians on Mechatenies
Nol LN. 1. 1996Inrodstion 00
ical Fnginvering 5
Example 1.2 illustrates some of the thinking behind the mechatronic system
design philosophy through a practical example drawn from the design experience
of undergradate students at a number of U.S, universities
EXAMPLE 1.2 Mechatronic Systems—Design of a Formula
Lightning Electric Race Car
he Formule Lightning electric race ear competition isan imenuniversity® competition
project that has been aetise since 1994, This project involves the design. anak
testing of an electric openewsheel rave car A photo and the generie layout ofthe ear are
shown in Figares 1 and [4 The studentdesigned propulsion and energy stor
systems have been tested in interunivetsity camnpetitions since 1994. Projects have
ncluded vehicle dynamics and race tack simlation, motor and battery pack sees
battery pack and loading system design, and transmission amd driveline design, ‘Ths is am
‘ongoing competition, and new projects are defined in advance of exch rave season, ‘The
objective of this competitive series is to demonstrate sdhancement in electric drive
technology for propulsion applications using motorsports as a means of extensling existin
{echnology to its performance limit, This example deserides some of the development that
hhas token place a the Ohio State University, The deseription given below is representative
fof work done at all oF the participating universities,
‘
nor =
Buckeye
Design Constraints:
‘The Formula Li cation chassis; thus, extensive
modifications to the frame, suspension, brakes, anxl body are not permitted, ‘The focus af
the competition is therefore to optimize the performance of the spec vehicle by selecting a
ies is based on a spe
Universities sha have participated in this competition ate Arizona State University. Bowling Gr
niversity. Georgi Institute of
State University. Case Westem Reserve University. Ket
Tecan
Not
University of Oklahoma, and Wright State (iniversity
Todiana Universine=Pusdue Univesity at Iniasapolis, Northern Atizoaa University
Dame University: Ohio State Universi hve University, Rennsslar Polytschinie IntiChapter  Introduction to Flecrieal Engineering
suitable combination of drivetrain and energy stor
ponents, In addition, sinee the
nner, qu
vehicle is intended to compete ina race series, issues such as energy mana
and eflcient pit stops for battery pack replacement, and the ability to adapt system
performan
constraints
race conditions and diflerent race
aacks are also important
Design Solutions:
Teans of undergraduate aerospace, electrical, industrial, and mechanical engineering
students parteipate in the design ofthe alleleetrie Formula Li visetrain throw
sal design coutse, made available especialy for student design competitions
Ina representative course at Ohio State, the student team was divided into four
jou: battery system selection, motor snd controller selection, transmission and
lriveline design, and instrumentation and vehicle dynamies. Each of thes
charged with the responsibility of determining the rechnology that woukd be hest suited 10
rateching the requirements ofthe competition and result in 2 highly competitive vehicle
Figure 1.5 illustrates the interdiseiplinary mecharmnies team approach: it apparent
thot, to arrive at an optimal solution, an iterative process had to be followed and that the
various iterations required significant interaction between different teams
To begin the process, a gross vehicle weight wos assumed and energy storage
limitations were ignored ina dynamic computer simulation o° the vehicle on a simulated
road course (the Cleveland Grend Prix Burke Lakefront Airport racetrack site of he first
race in the series). The simalation employes realistic model ofthe vehicle and ti
namics, but a simple model of an eletrie drive—eneray storage limitations would be
considered fer
Vehicle ight and Motor
vsighdsrvation nergy ‘Toraiesdoot
‘Gear and fal  EY PRS] pastine
crise ato, [Saisie nes
egnanic sation
1 Toray
Motor

Transmission
selection
i
Bastery
selecion
Figure 1.5 leratve des
car drivers
process for electie ave
The simulation was exercised under various scenarios to determine the limit,
performance of the vehicle and the choice of a proper drivetrain design, The first round of
simulations led to the conclusion that a mullispeed gearbox would be a necessity for
3K. Grider. G. Rizzoni, Design of he Ohio State University elect race cur, SAF Techical Paper
inPmoediny, 196 SAE NisospnsCenfetec anlponto, Dean MIDae 213
i006ical Fnginvering
competitive performance on a road course, and also showed the need for a very high
performance AC drive as the propulsion system, The motor and contra picted in
ure 16 a
ees
Figure 1.6 Morr and comreller
Figure 1.7 Open side po
with barter pach and si
Ones te elecirie drive ha been selected he results ot batters tests performed by the
battery team were evaluated to determine the proper batery technologs. and the resting
comely and weight distidation of the datery packs, With te prefered bat
hnology identifi (see Figure 1.7), energy erteria was ineladed in the sinnlation, a
lap times an consumption were predicted. Finelly, appropriate instrumentation
was designed to permit monitoring ofthe most important functions inthe vehicle (2
battery voltage and current, motor temperature, vehicle ad motor sp. 
depicts the vehicle dashboard, Table 1.2 gives the specifications far the vehicle
Table 1.2. Smokin’ Bickeyespectications
Drive system:
‘Voctor coattolled AC peopulsion model 180
Mosor type! thneephase duction, 130 KY
Weight: mror 1401, controller 75 Ih
Mocor dimensions: [2in diameter 15n lengt!
Transmission chotel
‘Webster fourspeed supplied by Taylor Race Engineerin
Tilton metalic che
Bu
Figure 1.8 Dashboard
Total voltage: 372 V (sominaly
iso Ih
atteries: 31
Bary: Optima spralwonad leadacid gelcell barery
‘Contigaration: 16 barery packs. [2 or 24 V each
Instrumestaion:
‘Ohio Semitranies model EVI cleric vohicle monitor
Stack model SR S04 Data Acgusiton
Vehicle dimensions:
Woeelhase: 11Sin
Total length: 163
Widths 77 in
Weighs: 2690 Ih
Stock components
Tines: Yokohama
Cassis: 1994 Stewart Rac
Springs: Bibs
Shocks. Penske racing coilover shucks
Brakes. Wilwood Dynalie
‘rial Ligh Introduction to Floctries! Fnginvering
ner approximately 30 students from different engineering disciplines
participated in the initial design process. They received eredi for their efTort either
through the courss—ME S80.04, Analysis, Design, Testing and Fabrication of Alternative
\Vehicles—or through a senior design project. As noted, interaction among teas and
is from different disciplines was an integral part of the design pro
among st
Comments: ‘Ihe example illustrates the importance of interdisciplinary thin
design of mechatronies systems, The aim of this book is o provide students in different
engineering disciplines with the Founktations of electrical
necessary to eflsctively participate in interdiseiplinary en
next 17 chapters will present the foundations and vocabulary oF
1.3. FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING
EXAM REVIEW
Each of the 50 states regulates the engineering profession by requiring individuals
who intend to practice the profession to become registered professional engineers.
To become a professional engineer, it is nevessary to satisfy four requirements
The firs is the completion of a B.S. degree in engineerin
college or university (although it is theoretically possible to be registered with
we). The second is the successful completion of the
\g(PE) Examination. This is an eighthour exam that
covers general engineering undergraduate education. The third requirement is
‘ovo 10 four years of engineering experience after passing the FE exam, Finally,
the fourth requirement is successful completion of the Principles and Practice of
Engineering or Professional Engineer (PE) Examination.
The FE exam isa twopart national examination given twive x yeur (in April
and October). The exam is divided into nwo 4hour sessions. The morning session
consists of 140 muliple choice questions (Five possible answers are givenis the
aflernoon session consists of 70 questions, The exam is prepared by the State
Board of Engineers for each state
One of the aims of this book is to assist you in preparing for one part of
the FE exam, entitled Electrical Cireuits. This part of the examination consists of
«total of 18 questions in the momting session and 10 questions in the afternoon
session, The examination topics for the electrical cineuits part are the following
from an accredited
out having completed a de
Fundamentals af Engineer
DE Cireuits
AC Circuits
ThreePhase Circuits
Capacitinee and Inductance
Transients
Diode Applications
Operational Amplifiers (Ideal)
Electric and Magnetic Fields
Elevirie Machinery
Appendix B contains a complete review of the Electrical Cireuits portion
of the FE examination, In Appendix B you will find a detailed listing of theChapter  Introduction o Flecrieal Engineering
twpies covered in the examination, with references to the relevant material in the
book. The appendix also contains a collection of sample problems similar to those
found in the examination, with answers, These sample problems are arranged in
two sections: The first includes worked examples with a full explanation af the
solution; the second consists of a sample exam with answers supplied separately
This material is based on the author's experience in teaching the FE Elvetrical
Circuits review course for mechanical engineering seniors at Ohio State University
over several y
1.4 BRIEF HISTORY OF ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
The historical evolution of electrical engineering ean be attributed, in part, to
the work and discoveries of the people in the following list, You will find these
scientists, mathematicians, and physicists referenced throughout the text
William Gilbert (15401603), English physi
science, published De Maynete, a treatise on mag
Charles A, Coulomb (17361806), French engineer and physicist.
published the laws of electrostatics in seven memoirs to the French
Academy of Science between 1785 snd 1791, His name is associated with
the unit of cha
netic
James Watt (17361819), E
Tis name is used to represent the unit of power
ish inventor, developed the steam engine
Alessandro Volta (17451827), lialian physicist, discovered the electric
pile, The unit of electric potential and the alternate name of this quantity
(volsage) are named after him.
Hans Christian Oersted (17771851), Danish physicist, discovered the
connection hetween elvetricty and magnetism in 18211, The unit of
magnetic field strength is named alter him
André Marie Ampere (17751836), French mathemiatician, chemist, and
physicist, experimentally quinified the relationship between electric
current and the magnetic field. His works were summarized in a treatise
published in 1827. The unit of elecitie current is named after hin.
Georg Simon Ohm (17891854), German mathematician, investigated the
relationship between voltage and current and quantified the phenomenon of
resisiance, His firs results were published in 1827, His name is used to
repre:
Michael Faraday (17911867), English experimenter, demonstnsied
clectromagnetie induetion in 1831. His electrical transformer and
eleezramagnetie generator marked the beginning of the age of electric
‘nt the unil of resistance.
power. His name is associated with the unit of capacitance.
Joseph Henry (17971878), American physicist, discovered
sellinduction around 1831, and his name has been designated to represent
the unit of inductance, He had also recognized the essential structure of the
telegraph, which was kater perfected by Samuel F, B. Morse
Carl Friedrich Gauss (177 man mathematician, and
Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1801891), German physicist, published a
° Introduction to Floctries! Fnginvering
treatise in 1833 describing the measurement of the earth's magnetic field
The gauss isa unit of magnetic field strength, while the weber isa unit of
magnetic flux
James Clerk Maxwell (18311879), Scottish physicist discovered the
electromagnet theory of light and the kaws of cleetrodynamies, The
modern theory of elvetromugneties is entirely founded upon Maxwell's
equations.
Ernst Werner Siemens (18161892) and Withelm Siemens (18231883),
German inventors and engineers, contributed to the invention and
development of electric machines, as well as to perfecting electrical
science. The modem unit of conductance is named after them
Heinrich Rudolph Hertz (18571894), German scientist and
experimenter, discovered the nature of electromagnetic waves and
published his findings in I888, His name is associated with the unit of
frequency
Nikola Tesla (18561943), Croatian inventor, emigrated to the United
es in 1884, Te invented polyphase electric power systems and the
induction motor and pioneered moder AC electric power systems. His
name is used to represent the unit of magnetic flux density
1.5 SYSTEM OF UNITS
This book employs the Intemational System of Units (also called SI, from the
French Sysiéme faternational des Unites), SI units are commonly adhered to by
virtually all engineering professions societies, This section summarizes ST units
and will serve as a useful reference in reading the book
SI units are based on six fmdamental quantities, listed in Table 1.3, All
other units may be derived in terms of the fumdamental units of Table 1.3, Since,
in practice, one often needs to describe quantities that occur in large multiples or
small fractions of 9 unit, standard prefixes are used to denote powers of 10 af Sl
(and derived) units. These prefixes are listed in Table 1.4, Note that, in general,
wincering units are expressed in powers of 10 that are multiples of 3
Table 1.3 Slunits Table 1.4 Standard prefixes
Quantity U Symbul Prefix Symbol Power
Lonett Meter om ato ire
Mass Kilosian ke temo f
Tine Seconds ico p
Floste curren’ Ampere nano
‘Temperature Kelvin K niet
Luminous imensity Candela el milli
conti
decid
dieka da
kilo ot
mega M upInoduction to Flsctreal Engineering u
For example, 104s would be referred to as 100 107! s, or 100pt8 (or, less
frequently, 0.1 ms)
1.6 SPECIAL FEATURES OF THIS BOOK
This book inclucies a number of special features designed to make learning
andalso toallow students to explore the subject matter of the book in more depth, if
so desired, through the use of computeraided tools and the internet. The principal
features af the book are described below
ssier
EXAMPLES
the examples in the book have also been set aside som the main text so that they ean be
easily identified. Al © solved by Following the same basic methodology:
clear and sinyple problem statement is given, Fallowed by a solution, The solation consists
of several parts: All known quantities in the problem are summarized. and the problem
statement is translated into a spocilic objective (ez. Find the equivalent resistance. RY.
Newt. the given data and assumptions are listed. and finally the analysis is presented
the analysis method is based on the following principle: All problems are solved
symbolically first to obtain more general solutions that may guide the student in solving
homework problem; the numerics! solution is provided atthe very end of the analysis
Each problem closes with comments summarizing the findings and tying the esample to
ther sections of the book
he solution methodology used in this book can be used asa general guide 10
problemsolving techniques well beyond the material taught in the mtrodactory electrical
engineering courses. The examples contained inthis book are intended to help you
develop sound problemsolving habits forthe remainder of your en,
amples
Focus on ComputerAided Tools, Virtual Lab
One of the very important changes to en education inthe 1991s has been
the evermore common use of computers for analysis, design, data acquisition, and
control, This book is designed to permit students and instructors 0 experiment
with various computeraided design and analysis tools, Some of the tools used
generic computing tools that sre likely 10 be in use in most engineering schools
(e.g., Matlab, MathCad), Many examplesare supplemented by electronic solutions
that cre intended to teuch you how to solve typical electrical en problems
using such computer aids, and to stimulate you to experiment in developing your
‘own solution methods. Many of these methods will also be useful later in your
curriculum
ineerin;
incering,
Some examples (and also some of the figures in the main text) are supple
mented by circuit simulation created using Electnmnies Workbench'™!
analysis and simulation program that has a particularly friendly userinterfave, and
1a cireuit
thay permits a more indepth analysis of realistic electrical eleetronie cireuits and
devices, Use of this feature could be limited to just runing a simulated cireuit to
observe its behavior (with virtually no new leaming required), or eould be more
involved and result in the design of sew eitcuit simulations. You might find itChapter  Introduction to Flecrieal Engineering
FOCUS ONMETHODOLOGY
Each chapter, especially the early ones, includes “boxes” titled “Focus on
Methodology.” The content of these boxes (which are set aside from the main
text) is to summarize important methods and procedures for the solution of
common problems, They usually consist of stepbystep instructions, and
are designed to assist you in methodically solving problems,
useful to Learn how to use this tool for some of your homework and project assign
ments, The electronic examples supplied with the book form a veritable Firmat
J and Electronic Circuits Laboratory. The use of these computer aids is
not mandatory, but you will ind that the electronie supplements to the bvk may
become a formidable partner and teaching assistant
Electric
Find It on the Web!
The use of the Intemet as a resource for knowledge and information is becoming
increasingly common, In recognition of this Fact, Web site references have been
included in this book to give you. starting point in the exploration of the world of
electrical engineering. Typical Web references give you information on electrical
engincering companies, products, and methods. Some of the sites contain tutorial
material that may supplement the book’ contents.
CDROM Content
The inclusion of a CDROM in the book allows you to have a wealth of supple:
ments. We lista few major ones: Matlab, MathCad, and Elect
eleetronic files: demo version of Electronics Workbencle, Viral Laboratory ex
periments; data sheets for common eleetricaliclectronic circuit components: addi
ial
y Workbench
tional reference mat
As stated many times inthis book, the need for measurements is a common
thread to all engineering and scientifc disciplines. To emphasize the great
relevance of electrical engineering to the science and practice of
measurements, a special set of examples focuses on measurement problems.
These examples very often relate 10 disciplines outside electrical engineering
(c.g., biomedieal, mechanical, thermal, Hud system measurements). The
Focus on Measurements” sections are intended (o stimulate your thinking
about the many possible applications of electrical engineering to
measurements in your chosen Field of study, Many of these examples are a
dirget result of the author's work as teacher and researcher in both
mechanical and electrical engineeringical Fnginvering 3
Web Site
The list of features would not be complete without a reference to the book's Web
site, http:!!wwu.mbhe.comengesieleetrieal'rizzoni. Create a bookmark for this
site now! The site is designed 10 provide uptodate additions, examples, errata,
and other important information
HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
4.4. List ive applications of electric motors in the ¢. Your household,
common household d.Achemival process control plant
1.2. By analogy with the discussion of electrical systems 1.3 Electric power systems provide energy
ina variety
‘cal and industrial settings. Make a list of
inthe automobile list examples of applic
electical engineering disciplines of Table 1.1 for each systems ind vies tat recene eesti poser in
of the Follow
engineering systems a. A large olice building
a, A ship. bb. A factory floor
b, A commeteial passenger aiteratt ¢. Aconsinaction sitePART I
CIRCUITS
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Fundamentals of Electric
Circuits
Resistive Network Analysis
AC Network Analysis
Transient Analysis
Frequency Response and System
Concepts
AC PowerC HAPTER
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits
his chapier presents the fundamental laws of circuit analysis and serves
as the foundation for the study of electrical cireuits. The fundamental
concepts developed in these first pages will be called upon throughout
the book
The chapter starts with definitions of charge, current, voltage, and power. and
with the introduction of the basic laws of electrical eitcuit analysis: Kirchhot?"s
laws, Next, the hasic circuit elements are introduced, first in their ideal form,
then including the most important physical limitations. The elements discussed in
the chapter include voltage and current sources, measuring instruments, snd the
resistor, Once th 1 presente
ofan electrical circuit is introduced, and some simple circuits are analyzed using
Kirchhoff'sand Ohm’s laws, The student should appreciate the fact that, although
the material presentedac thiscarly stage is strictly inttoductory,itisalready possible
to discuss some usefil applications of electric circuits to practical engineering
problems, To this end, 1wo examples are introduced which discuss simple resistive
devices that cam measure displacements and forces. The topics introduced in
Chapter 2form the foundations for the remainder of this book and should be
mastered thoroughly. By the end of the chapter, you should have accomplished
the following lear
basic circuit elements have be he concept
jectives:
+ Application of Kirchhoff’s and Ohm's laws to elementary resistive
circuits.Chaves Coulomb (17361806), Photo
ir Emass: Mash
the flow of charge thr the
Figure 2.4 Cr
an electric conductor
Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits
+ Power computation For a circuit element
+ Use of the passive sign convention in determining voltage and current
direetions
+ Solution of simple voltage and current divider circuits
+ Assigning node voltages and mesh currents in an electrival circuit
+ Writing the circuit equations for linear resistive circuit by applying
Kirchhoft’s voltage law and KirchhoiT’s current law
2.1 CHARGE, CURRENT, AND KIRCHHOFF’S
CURRENT LAW
The carliest accounts of electricity date from about 10, when it was
discovered that static charge on a piece of amber was capable of attracting very
light objects, such as feathers, The word itsel?*—electrieif—originated about 600
Be: it comes from elektron which was the «icient Greek word fer amber, The
ime nature of electricity was not understood until much later, however. Following
the work of Alessandro Volta! and his invention of the copperzine battery, it was
determined that static electricity smd the current that flow’ in metal wires connected
to battery are due to the same fundamental mechanism: the atomic structure of
acter, consisting of nucleus neutrons snd protons surrounded by electrons
The fundamental electric quantity is charge, and the smallest amount of change
that exists isthe charge carried by an electron, equal 10
2.500 years a
qe = ~ 1.4602 x 107°C QD
As you ean see, the amount of change associated with an electron is rather
small. This, of course, has to do with the size of the unit we use to measure
charge, the coulomb (C), named alter Charles Coulomb? Flowever, the definition
of the coulomb leads to an appropriate unit when we define electric current, since
current consists of the flow of very large numbers of charge particles. The other
chargecarrying particle in wn atom, the proton, is assigned x positive sign, and the
same magnitude, The charge of a prot
mis
dp = +1602 x 107" C 2)
Electrons and protons are often referred (o as elementary charges.
Electric current is defined as the time rate of change of charge passing
through a predetermined area, Typically, this area is the crosssectional area of
a metal wire: however, there are & number of cases we shall explore later in this
book where the currentcarrying material is not a conducting wire, Figure 2.1
picts a macroscopic view of the flow of change in a wire, where we imagine Ag
units of charge flowing through the crosssectional area in Ag units af time, The
result
current.é, is then given by
Aq ©
ind © 2.3)
At & eo)Parl Circuits
If we consider the effvet of the enormous number of elementary charges xetually
flowing, we can write this relationship in differential form
dq C
ig = 4)
The units of current are calledamperes (A), where 1 ampere=1 coulomb’sevond
The name of the anit isa tribute to the French scientist Andié Marie: Ampére.>
The electrical engineering convention states that the positive direction of current
‘ow is that of positive charges, In metallic conductors, however, current is eartied
by negative charges: these charges are the free electrons in the conduction band,
which are only weakly attracted to the atomie stra
are therefore easily displaced in the presence af ch
ure in metalhe elements and
ctrie fields,
EXAMPLE 2.1 Charge and Current in a Conductor
Problem
Find! the total
Howsing in the wine
ina eylindrival conductor (solid wire) and compute the current
Solution
Known Quantities: Conductor geometry, charge density, charg
Find: “Total charge of
s,Q; current in the wire, Z
Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Conductor length: L= 1m
Conductor diameter: 2 = 2x 107m,
eottom: qe = =1.002 x 10",
199. 10 m’s
cearier yeloeity
Assumptions: None.
determine the volume of
Analysis: To compute the total charge in the conductor. we
Volume = Length x Crosssectional area
Nest, we compute the number of earriers (electrons) in the conductor and the total
Number of carriers = Volume x Carrier densit
riers
Vxne crx 10%!) x (10%
SH we
7
(Charge = number of carriers x chy
(10° caters)
Q=Nxa
x (1s sgrsaia)
carrier2 Paidomnontas of F
ie Cine
To compute the current, we eonsider the velocity ot the charge caries, and the charge
density per unit length of the conductor
Current = Canrier char sh x Carrier velocity
12 ($5) x(2)=(0a 3x10 S)x(in9x10
Comments: Ch:
isa function oft
density per unit
ge car
plied elect fi
Jensity isa funetion of material properties, Carrier velocity
Ie
1 Canon losin
incloscd cit
Ls
bsanery 3
2
Figure 2.2 A simple
slectricalcirewin
a 299
Rode?
Uysttion of KEL at
Figure 2.3 Ilstaric
Kirehlhof? curren
nf
In order for current to flow there must exist « closed circuit, Figure
depicts a simple cireuit, composed of a battery (e.g. a drycell or alkaline 1.5
battery) and a light bully
Note that in the circuit of Figure 2.2, the current. é, flowing from the battery
to the fight bull is equal to the current flowing. from the light bulb to the battery
In other words, no current (and therefore no charge) is “lost” around the closed
circuit, This principle was observed by the German scientist G. R. KirchhoiT*
and is now known as Kirehhoff’s current law (KCL), Kirchhol?s current [avy
states that beesuse charge cxrinot be ereated bu must be conserved. the sta of th
currents at a node must equal zero (in an electrical circuit, anode is the junction
of two or more conductors), Formally
Kirchhof?"s current kay Qs)
The significance of Kirchhot?s current faw is illustrated in Figure 2.3, where the
simple circuit of Figure 2.2 has been augmented by the addition of two light bulbs
(nove how the swvo nodes that exist in this eircuit have been emphasized by the
shaded areas). In applying KCL, one usually defines currents entering a node as
being negative and currents exiting the node as being positive, Thus, the resul
ng
expression for node 1 of the eiteuit of Figure 2.3 is:
0
Kirchhols current kaw is ong of the fundamental laws of eircuit analysis,
aking it possible to express currents in a circuit in terms of each other: for
example, one can express the current Ieaving & node in terms of all she other
currents at the node, The ability t© write such equations is a great aid in the
systematic solution of large electric circuits, Much af the material presented in
Chapter 3 will be an extension of this concept
ins systematic
nal in terms of ts
Gustav Robert Kitchof¥ (18241887), Gorman scientist, whe published
description of the laws of cteuit analysis. His gontution ho
sciemtic content forms th
2 ass of al ciecuitanalsis,Parl Circuits 9
EXAMPLE 2.2 Kirchhoff’s Current Law Applied
to an Automotive Electrical Harness
Problem
Figure 2.4 shows an automotive battery connected to a variety of circuits in an
automobile. The eireuts include headlights, tail fan. power Tocks, ad
dashboard panel. The battery must supply enough current to independently satisfy the
requirements of each of the load" citeuits. Apply KCL to the automotive circuits
©
Figure 2.4 (x) Awomotive cicuits(b) equivalent elettical sireuit
Solution
Known Quantities: Components af electrical hamess: headlights taillights, starter
motor, fan, power locks, and dashbosrd panel
Find: expression relating battery current to load currents
‘Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Figure 2.4
Assumptions: None.0 Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits
Printed ciouit
oat eonnectons
motor fe wie
‘stl and kim
Cigar
Jo keyean buvzer
Fo keylam,
Jo wipersstten
To jentom sith am
Fo intermient pe
Jotart
Rear wie a! wash
stl and Ln
Kody MeZ
Stns
oeitkers MAM
heap
liner se Jo Jett door speakers
Fo rear wipe nas
To ated wea winds
switch
‘oil site wing
To spond contol bake ing
Fo body wiring
Fosse contol etch sith
To spoe! conta ser Hauke disconnect
rc)
Figure 2.4 (c) Automotive wiring harness Cop
Information Center: 48! vights reserved
©1995 by Delmar Publishers. Copnr'
ccurrent supplied b
KCL to the equivalent eireuit of b
the various cireuits. The application of
2.4 requites that
Toy Irons =f = Bost =H Hos
Comments: “this illustration is mean der an intuitive feel for the
of KCL will be pr
istors are defined moParl Circuits
2.2 vow Ace AND KIRCHHOFF’S VOLTAGE
L
Chargemovinginan cleetriceirouit gives rise oa current, as stated in the preceding
section, Naturally, it must take some work, or energy, for the charge 10 move
between wo points in a cireuit, say, from point @ to point b. The total ork per
tunit charge associated with the motion of charge between bvo points is called
voltage. Thus, the units of voltage are those of energy per unit charge; they have
been called volts in honor of Alessandro Volta
—— (2.6)
oulomb eo
or potential difference, between two points ina circuit indicates the
reqjired to move charge from one point io the her. As will be presently
show, the dteetion, oF polarity, of the vokage is closely tied :0 whether energy
is being dissipated or generated in the process, The seemingly abst congept
of work boing done im moving char
clecitial eineuiss consider again the simple eireit consisting of a bastery and a
Fight bulb. The circuit is drawn again for convenience in Figure 2.5, with nodes
defined by the letters @ and B.A series of carefully condicted experimental
observations regarding the nature of voltages in an electric eireuit led Kirchhoff to
the formulation of the second of hs laws, Kirehhof’s voltage layor KVL. The
principle underiying KVL is that no energy is lost or ereated in an electric eit
in eireit toms, the sum 0
ene
all voltages associated with sources must equal the
sim of the load voltages, so that he ner voltage around a closed circuit is zero. IP
this were not the case, we would need fo find « physical explimation forthe excess
(or missing) energy not accounted for in the volrages around circuit, Kirehhow?s
voltage law may be stared in a form similar co that used for KCL:
Kirchhof?s voltage kaw 7)
where the yy are the individual voleages sround the closed cireuit. Making refer
cence to Figure 2.5, we see that it must follow from KVL tht the work generated
by the battery is equal to the energy dissipated in the light bulb in order 1 s
the current flow and to convert the electric energy to heal and
stain
Yap = Ya
or
v
One may think of the work done in moving a charge from point a to point
and the work dane moving it buck frum b 10a as corresponding directly ta the
voltages across individual circuit elements. Lot Qbe the total charge that moves
around the circuit per unit time, giving rise to the current Then the work dane
in moving Q from b toa (i... across the battery) is
Woa=Ox1sV (2.8)
can be directly applied to the analysis of
Gustay Robert Kise hot?
(USEI8ST), Photo
Deuisces
aie2 Paidomnontas of F
Chap ie Cine
Similarly, work is done in moving Q froma to b that is, across the Hight bulb, Note
that the word potential is quite appropriate asa synonym of voltage, in that voltag
represents the potential energy between two points ina circuit: ifwe remove
Tight bulb from its connections to the battery, there still exisis # voltage avross the
(now disconnected) terminals b and a, This is illustrated in Figure 2.6
A moment’s reflection upon the signifance of voltage should suggest that it
for this quantity, Consider,
celloralkaline battery, where, by virtue ofan electrochemically induced separation
of charge, 1 1.5V potential difference is generated, ‘The potential generated by
the batiery may be used to move change ina circuit, The rate at which chang
moved once a elosed circuit is established (ie., the current draw by the circuit
connected to the buttery) depends now on the circuit element we choose to comect
tothe battery. Thus, while the vol:age across the battery represenisthe potential for
providing energy to a eircut, the voltage across the light bulb indicates the amount
‘of work done in dissipating energy. In the firs case, energy is generated; in the
second, itis consumed (note that energy may’ also be stored, by suitable circuit
clements yet to be introduced). This fundamental distinction requires attention in
defining the sign (or polarity) of voltage:
We shall, in general, refer to elements that provide energy as sourees, and
to elements that dissipate energy asToads. Standard symbols for a generalized
gure 2.7, Formal definitions will be given
must he necessary to specify asi
sourceandload circuit are shown in Fig
ina later section
The presence of a voll bois reaesentation of the
scros these termine sa haters ight aula eineit ot Figure
inscates the potential enersy thal 38
in eile the mation of charg, «
nea close ecu ests =
to alls current to fe
'
—_—
Sone Load
' '
‘isy 2 —
Lo, Figure 2.
Figure 2.6 Concept of
oltage as potential diference
EXAMPLE 2.3 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law—Electric Vehicle
Battery Pack
Problem
that make up the
Figure 2.8a depiets the battery pack in the Smokin? Buckeye el
example we apply KVL to the series connection of 31 12 batteParl Circuits 2
Allele
ra
ae kasi
Figure 2.8 Electic vehicle humery pack: iluseation of KVL
Solution
Known Quantities: Nominal eharacteristics of Optima!™ leadacid batteries. nora
Find: Espression relating battery and electric motor drive voltages,
Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: V.yy = 12 V. Figure 2 Stab, (b) and (¢)
Assumptions: Now
Analysis: igure 2 8(b) depicts the equivalent elzetical eircuit illustrating how
Supplied by the battery are applied across the electric drive that powers t
sehicle’s 150KW threephase induction motor. The applieation of KVL to the equivalent
Thus. the eleetrie drive is nominally supplied by @ 31 x 1
reality. the vol
ofthe battery. When fully changed, the bat
round 400 V (ie. around 13 V per battery)
= 372V battery pack. In
c supplied by leadacid batteries varies depending on the state of change
1 2.8ta} is loser to supply
y pack of I
ce the render an intuitive feel forthe
PKVL will be presented later in
we and current sourees and resistors are defined more precisely
Comments: This illustration is meant
significance of KVL: more detailed numer
this chapter. when volta
2.3. IDEAL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT
SOURCES
In the examples presented in the preceding sections, a battery was used as.a source
of energy, under the unspoken assumption that the voltage provided by the bat
(e.g. 15 volts fora drycell oralkaline battery, or 12 volts for an automotive lead
acid battery) is fixed. Under such art assumption, we implicitly treat the battery as
aan ideal source, In this section, we will formally define i
aan ideal source is a source that ean provide an arbitrary ami
soureesare divided into two types: volta
 sourees, Intuitively
unt of energy. Tdeal
sources and current sources. OF these,‘General ym
for et! volge
soutee. 4)
nay estat
ADR souree)
A special ease:
De voltage
Soo al
Figure 2.9 [deal
Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits
youare probably more Familiar withthe firs, since drycell. alkafine, and leudaeid
ibatteries are all voltage sources (they are not ideal, of course). You might have to
think harder to come up witht physical example that approximates the behavior of
aan ideal current source; however, reasonably good approximations of ideal current
sources also exist. For instance, a voltage source connected in series with a circuit
clement that has a large resistriee to the flow’ of current from the source provides
a nearly canstantshough smallcurrent and therefore ats very nearly like an
ideal current source
Ideal Voltage Sources
An ideal voltage source is
voltage at its terminals, The ability of an ideal voltage source to generate its
output voltage is not affected by the current it must supply’ to the other circuit
elements, Another way to phrase the sume idea is as follows
an electrical devive that will generate a prescribed
An ideal voltage source provides a prescribed voltage across its terminals
imespeetive of the current lowing through it, The amount ef current
supplied by the source is determined by the circuit connected t0 it
Figure 2.9 depiets various symbols for voltage sources that will be employed
throughout this book, Note that the output voltage of an ideal souree can be a
function of time, In general, the following notation will be employed in this book
unless otherwise noted. A generic voltage source will be denoted by a lowercase
v, Iitismecessiry 10 emphasize that the source produces a timevarying voltage,
then the notation v(¢) will be employed. Finally, a constant, ordireet current, OF
DC, voltage souree will he denoted by the uppercase character V. Note that by
convention the direction of positive current flow out of a volta
e source isour of
the positive termin
The notion of an ideal voltage source is best appreciated within the context
of the soareeoad represenation of elesrieal cites. which will fequently be
referred to in the remainder of this book. Figure 2.10 depicts the connection of
an energy source with a passive circuit (i... circuit that can absorb and dissipate
for example, the headlights:and light bulb of our earlier examples). Three
different representations are shown to illustrate the conceptual, symbolic, and
physical significance of this sourceload ides
ener
Source Loa =
= rs R =
Heoalight
ae 3. “
Ponti
(Concept 5) Syisale denen) (6) Physical
representation representa reoresentatin
Figure 2.40 Vion sepreseatations of an eleevical system,Parl Circuits
In the analysis of electrical circuits, we choose 10 represent the physical
reality of Figure 2.10(c} by means of the approximation provided by ideal circuit
clements, as depicted in Figure 2.10(b)
Ideal Current Sources
An ideal current souree is a device that ean generate & prescribed current inde=
pendent of the cireuit itis connected 10. To do so, it must be able to generate
an anbitrary voltage across its terminals, Figure 2.11 depicts the symbol used to
represent ideal current sourves, By amulogy with the definition of the deal voltage
source stated in the previous section, we write
An ideal current source provides a preseribed current to any eireuit
comected to it, The voltage generated by the souree is determined by the
cirenit eonneeted to it
The same upperease and lowercase convention used for voltage sourves will be
employed in denoting current sources
Dependent (Controlled) Sources
The sourees describ so far have the capability of generating « prescribed volt
or current independent of any other clement within the circuit, Thus, they are
termed independent sources. There exists smother category of sources, however,
whose output {current or voltage) is function of some other voltage or current
ina circuit, These are called dependent (or controlled) sources. A difTerent
symbol, in the shape of a diamond, is used to represent dependent sources and
to distinguish them from independent sources. The symbols typically used to
represent dependent sources are depicted in Figure 2.12: the tuble illustrates the
relationship between the source voltage or current and the voltage or current it
depends omm=vy or dx, respectivelysavhich can be any voltage or current in the
cireuit
Voltage contiled voltage source (VW OVS)
Current contr ed wage saree ENS)
Voltage cand cutret source IVCCS)
Carre cared cute sone (CCS)
Figure 2.42 Symbols for
Dependent sources ure very usefial in deseribing versain types of electronic
cireuits. You will encounter dependent sources again in Chapters 9, 10, smd 12,
when electronic amplitiers are discussed
sh
Figure 2.14 Symbol Sw ideal
ceutent source26
Lo
Power dissipate
Sent yaw
ener 8
Figure 2.43 the pissive
convent
Chapter? Fundamentals of ste Circuits
2.4 ELECTRIC POWER AND SIGN
CONVENTION
The definition of voltage as work per unit change lends itself very conveniently to
the introduction of power, Recall that power is defined as the work done per unit
time, Thus, the power, P, either generated or dissipated by a cireuit element ean
be represented by the following relationship
Work _ Work Charge
Tine ~ Charge Tine
Power = Voltage x C
2.9)
Thus.
The electrical power generated by an active clement, or shat dissipated or
stored by a passive clement, is equal to the produet of the voltage sctoss
the element and the current fesing through it
P=vVI (2.10)
It is easy to verity that the units of voltage (joules/coulomb) times current
(coulombs’sevond) are indeed those of power (joules’second, or wats).
It is important to realize that, just like voltage, power is a signed quantity
and that itis necessary to make a distinction between positive and negative power
This distinction ean be understood with reference to Figure 2,13, in which a source
anda load are shown side by side. The polarity ofthe voltage aeross the source and
the direction ofthe current through ir indicate thatthe voltage soureeis ving work
in moving charge fiom a lower potential © a higher porental, On the other hand,
because the direetion of the current ind
ar potential to.a lower potential. To avoid
the load is dissipating ener ates that
charge is being
confusion with regard to the sign of power, the electrical engineering
uniformly adopts the passive sign convention, which simp!
by a load isa positive quantity (or, conversely, that the power generated
placed fiom a I
community
states thal the porrer
by 1 source is & positive quamntity), Another way of phrasing the same concept is
to state that if current lows froma higher to lower voltage (F £0 —), the power
is dissipated and will be a positive quantity
It is important to note also that the actual numerical values of voltages and
currents do not matter; once the proper reference directions have been established
and the passive sign convention has been applied consistently, the answer will
be correct regardless of the ref
illustrate this point
fence dirvetion chosen, The following examples
FOCUS ON METHODOLOGY
‘The Passive Sign Convention
1, Choose an arbitrary direction of current flow
2, Label polarities ofall active elements (voltage and current sources)Parl Circuits 7
FOCUS ONMETHODOLOGY
3, Assign polarities to all passive elements (resistors and other loa
passive elements, current always flows into the positive terminal
5} for
4, Compute the power dissipated by each clement according to the
following rule: If positive current flows into the positive terminal of an
clement, then the power dissipated is positive (ie. the element absorbs
power): ifthe current leaves the positive terminal of an element, then
the power dissipated is nega
Wve (i.e., the element delivers power}.
EXAMPLE 2.4 Use of the Passive Sign Convention
Problem
Apply the passive sign convention to the eireuit of Figure 2.14.
Solution eT)
Known Quantities: Voli) pen; Curent in eireuil
Find: Power dissipated or generated by each element
Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Figure 2.15(a\aml('s). The voltage
dirop setoss Loud 1 is 8 V. that across Load 2 is 4 Vthe current in the eiteuit is 0.1 A Figure 2.14
Assumptions: No
Analysis: Following the passive sign convention, we first select an arbitrary direct
the current in the circuit; the example will be repeated for both possidle directions of
currentflow to demonstrate that the methodology is sound.
1. Assume elockivise direction of eurrent flow. es shown in Figure 2.15(2)
2. Label polarity of votag
ouree. as shown in Figu the arbitra
chosen direction of the curtent is consistent with the irae polarity af the voltage
source the source voltage will bea positive quantity
5 polerty to each passive element, as shown in Figure 2.15(2). soy egy
4. Compute the power dissipated by cach element: Since current flows from —to + °
through the battery the power dissipated by this clement wil be a negative quantity
Py = —up x i= —C2V) x (ul AY= 12. W :
that is, the battery generates
“The power dissipated by the two loads will bea
positive quantity im both eases, since curtent Hows from f 10 =!
Pau xi =OV)X Ol AV=OSW 6
Pyamxi=@v)x @1 Ay=0AW
Next, we repeat the analysis assuming counterclockwise eurrent direction,
1. Assume counterclockwise direction of current flow, as shown in Figure 2.15(b)
2. Label polarity of voltage soutoe, as shown in Figure 2.15(b)
chosen diroction ofthe current is not consisent with the true polarity ofthe vollage Figure 2.45
source, the source voltage will be « negative quantiFandornontals of F
ie Cine
polerty to each passive element, as shown in Figure 2.15(b)
4. Compute the power dissinated by each element: Sines current flows font 10—
through the tery the power dissipated by this element will bea positive quantity
however, the source voltage is a negative quantity
Pa
myx i= (12 Vx CuI ADS =H
that is, the battery generates 1.2 W, as in the previous case, ‘The power dissipated by
0 loads will be a positive quantity in both eases. since eurrent flows from ++ to
Psu xi=@V)x Ol A=ORW
PoamxisGv)x@l Asa
Comments: It should be apparent thatthe most important step in the exemple is the
orect ass of source voltage; passive elements will alsays result in positive pow
dissipation, Note also that energy 1s Conserved. 2s the sum of the power dissipated by
sourve and loads is zero, In other words: Power supplied always equals power dissipated
EXAMPLE 2.5 Another Use of the Passive Sign Convention
Problem
Determine whetlier a given element is dissipati
volt
nerating power fram known
sand currents,
Solution
Known Quantities: Voltages across each circuit element: current in circuit,
Find: Which clement dissipates power and which generates it.
gps ‘Schematics, Diagrams, Cirevits, and Given Data: Voltage ners element A: 1.000
omen  Hemem Current flowing into element A: 420 A
um jie # See Figure 216(a) for voltage polarity and eurent direction,
‘ Analysis: According wo the passive sign convention, an clement dissipates power when
coatren flows from a point of higher potential to one of lower potential thus, element A
yn ets as load. Sinze power must be conserved, clement B must he a source Fig
 216th)]. Element A dissipates (1.000 V) x (420 A) =
vo . same amount of poser
° Comments: ‘The procedure described inthis example cun be easily vonducted
by experimentally, by performing simple eutrent and sollage measurements, Measutin
Figure 2.16 devices are discussed in Section 2.8
Check Your Understanding
2.4 Compute the current flowing thro
Ihchalight has @ power rating of 30 W. How much power isthe battery providi
each ofthe headlights of Example 2.2 PeachParl Circuits
2.2 Determine which creat element in the illustration (below, lef) is supplying power
and which is dissipating power, Also determine the amount af power dissipated and sp
plied,
2.3 1fvhebatery in the accompanying diagram (above, right supplies a foal af 10 mW
tothe hee elernens shown and fy = 2 mA and fy = 1S mA what is the current A? I
Ha lma andi 15 mA, whats?
2.5 CIRCUIT ELEMENTS AND THEIR iv
CHARACTERISTICS
The relationship between current and voltage at the terminals of a cirenit element
dlfines the behavior of that element within the eitcuit, In this section we shall
introduce a graphical means of representing the terminal characteristics of circuit
clemenis, Figure 2.17 depicts the representation that will be employed throughout
the chapter to denote « generalized circuit element: the variable ¢ represents the
sntflowing through the element, whilev isthe potential difference, or voltage,
across the element
ag
cur
Suppose now that a known voltage were imposed across a cirenit element
The current that would flow asa consequence of this voliage, sid the voltage itself,
form a unique pair of values. Ifthe voliage applied to the element were varied
and the resulting current measured, it would be possible to construct « functional
relationship between voltage and current known as ther eharacteristic (or volt
ampere characteristic). Such a relationship defines the circuit element, in the
sense that if we impose any prescribed voltage (or current, the resulting. current
(or voltage) is directly obtainable from the vcharacteristic, A direct consequence
is that the power dissipated (or generated) by the element may also be determined
from the iveurve.
Figure 2.18 depicts an experiment for empirically determining the iv char
acteristic of « tungsten filament light bulh, A variable voltage source is used to
apply various voltages, and the current flowing through the clement is measured
for eich applied voltage
We could ceriainly express the /v characteristic ofa circuit element in func
tional form:
i=f) v=ali) QAb
In some circumstances, however, the graphical representation is more desirable,
especially if there is no simple Functional form relating voltage to current. The
simplest form of the #v characteristic fora circuit element is a straight line, that
(2.12)
Figure 2.47 Genosalizol
representation of eiteuit elementsChapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits
Tainan
nile a
Figure 2.48 Voltampote charsetenstic of a mngse
Foy,
ores
i chanseenstie
3s3 euvtent source
of
+ charsetensie
ofa 6 vatage sauce
Figure 2.19
‘ou
with & a constant, In the next section we shall sce how this simple model of
a cirwuit element is quite useful in practice and cm be used to define the most
common circuit elements: id
We can also relate the graphical v representation of circuit elements to the
power dissipated or generated by circuit element. Forexample, the graphical rep
resentation of the light bulb fv characteristic of Figure 2,18 illustrates that when a
positive current lows through the bulb, the voltage is positive, and that, conversely,
a negative current flow corresponds to t negative voltage. In both eases the power
dissipated by the deviee is a positive quantity, as it should be, on the basis of the
discussion of the preceding section, since the light bulb is a passive device. Nowe
that the/v characteristic appears in only two oF the Four possible qustdrants in the F
phone, In the other two quadrants, the product af voltage and current (ie. power)
isnegative, and an veurve with a portion in either of these qudrants would there
fore correspond to power generated, This isnot possible for passive Load such as
a light bulb: however, there are electronic devices that can operate, forexample, in
three of the four quradrants ofthe jvcharacteristic and can therefore act as Sout
of energy for specific combinations of voltages and currents, An example of this
dual behavior is introduced in Chapter 8, where it is shown that the photodiode ean
act either in a passive mode (as lights
The /v characteristics of ideal current and voleage sourves can also be use
ful in visually representing their behavior, An ideal voltage source generates
prescribed voltage independent of the current drawn ftom the load; thus, its iv
characteristic is a straight vertical line with a voltage axis intercept corresponding
to the source voltage. Similarly, the /v charaeteristic of an ideal current source is
a horizontal line with a current axis intercept corresponding to the source current
Figure 2.19 depicts these behaviors,
TRFUR +R
TTR FURRa
2 Paidomnontas of F
Chap ie Cine
One can easily see that the current in a parallel eireuit divides in inverse proportion
tw the resistanees of the individual parallel elements, The general expression for
the current divider for cireuit with N parallel resistors is the following:
_ UR se Come
TR PUR Fo 7B to IRN GE  (2.23)
divider
Example 2.9 illustrates the application of the current divider rule
Figure 2.33,
EXAMPLE 2.9 Current Divider
Problem
Determine the current in the circuit of Figure 2
Solution
Known Quantities: Source current, resistance values
Find: Unknown current iy.
‘Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data:
Ry = 102 Ry = 2D Ry = Qe =4 A.
Analysis: Application of the current divider tule yields
x 0.6154 4
RtRtR
Comments: While application of the current divider rule to parallel cieuit is very
sirightforatd, iis sometimes not so obvious whether 180 oF m9
in poral.
cexplored later in tis section, and in Exemple 2.10
ients are conngeted in parallel is
Focus on ComputerAided Tools: Yow will i the EW™ version of the circuit of
Figure 2.33 in the eleetonie files that agcornpany this book in CDROM format, This
simple example may serve asa workbench ta practice your own skills i const
circuits using Bec Workbench
Interactive Experiments
Much of the resistive network analysis that will be introduced in Chapter 3 is
buised on the simple principles of the voliagesmnd current dividers introduced in this
section, Unfortunately, practical cituits are rarely composed only of parallel or
allowing examples and Check Your Understanding
ily more advanced eireuits that combine
nly of series elements. The
exercises illustrate some simple and sh
parallel and series elements,Parl Circuits 45
EXAMPLE 2.10 SeriesParallel Circuit
Problem
Determine the volia
vin the cireuit of Figure 2.34
Solution
Known Quantities; Source vollage, resistance values
Find: Unknown voltage v
‘Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: See
ey [Fllienis i parallel
Air 7
wi
Dee. es sor) »Brsllas
Eqanalent reuit
Figure 2.34
Figure 2.35
Analysis: “The circuit of Figure 2.34 ist
following two conditions do not apply
1 Th
2. The voltage across al resistors is the same (parallel circuit condition)
ther a series nor a parallel circuit because the
urrent through all resistors is the same (series circuit condition)
“The circuit takes 2 much simplier appearance once it becomes evident that the same
voltage appears across both Ry and Rand. therefore, that these alle
sents are np
@ the
18 2.35 is obtained. Note that now
these nyo resistors are
.
quivalent circuit is a simple series circuit andthe vol
that
eplaved by a single equivalent resistor accord
procedures deseribed inthis section, the eireuit of Fi
i
fo deter
divider rule eam be applied
while the current is found ta be
> RF RG
Comments: Systematic methods for analyzing arbitrary circuit configurations are
explored in Chapter 3,46
Figure 2.36 Wheatsione
bvidge eiuits
2 Paidomnontas of F
ie Cine
EXAMPLE 2.11 The Wheatstone Bridge
Problem
{he Wheatstane bridge is resistiseeireit shat is Hequeniy encountered ina savety of
measurement circuits, The general form of the bridge circuit is shown in Figare 2.3613)
where Re Re, and Re are known while Ry i an anknown resistance, tobe determined
awn as shown in Figure 2,36(b). The latter eireit will be wed
he use ofthe vllage divider rule in a mised seriesparallel circuit. The
objecting isto determine the unknown resistance, Ry
1. Find the value of the vollage vg = vg — ma in terms ofthe four resistances amd the
source voltage. us. Note thal sinee the reference point d is the same for both
voltages, we cam also Write Ugg = Up — the
2. WR) = R= R= TKD v=
Veand vj = 12 mV, what isthe value of Re?
Solution
Known Quantities: Source voltage, resistance values, bridge voto
Find: Unknown resist
ice Re
ne 2.36
Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: See Ii
Ri = Ro= Re= 1 AQ S= 12 Ve gh = 12 mV
Analysis:
1. First, we observe that the circuit consists of the parallel combination of three
subeircuits: the vollage source. the series combination of Ry and Ry, rnd the series
combination of Reand Ry. Since th
wall
Uree subcircuits are in parallel. the same
c will uppcar across each of tl the source voltage. vss
‘Thus. the souree voltage divides ch resistor pair, Ri = Road Rs = Re.
accor divider rale: vy is the Fraction of the source voll
1 the vo
appeurng aro A, while vis the voltage sppearing across Re
R,
and w= ORE
Finally. the voltage difference berseen points and bis given by
Ua = th — vp = vp( —R_ _ _Be
eee SINR ER RAR
7
In order to solve for the unknown resistanes, we substitute the numerical values im
This result is very wsefil and quite
the preeeding equation to obtain
100)
000 T0005 Ry
0012 =Parl Circuits ar
ashich may be solved for Re to yield
9962
Comments: ‘The Whetstone bri
instru:
ils application in many measurement circuits and
Is.
Focus on ComputerAided Tools: Virtual Lab You will find 2 Vin
circuit of Figure 2.36 in the electronic files that accompany this book. 1
practiced building some simple circuit asin
be convineed tha this i an invaluable tol in valida
anid in exploring more san
version of the
ou have
mies Workbench, you should by now
jumerical solutions to problems,
J concepts.
The Wheatstone Bridge and Force Measurements
Strain gauges, which were introduced in a Focus on Measurements section
caligr in this chapter, are frequently employed in the measurement of Force
One of the simplest applications of strain giuges is in the measurement of
the force applied to a cantilever beam, as illustrated in Figure 2.37, Four
strain gauges are employed in this ease, of which swo are bonded to the
upper surface of the beam at distance Z from the point where the external
force, F, is applied and two are bonded on the lower surface, also at a
distance L, Under the influence of the external forve, the beam deforms and
cc1uses the upper gauges to extend and the lower gauges to compress. Thus,
the resistance of the upper gauges will inerease by an amount AR. and that
ofthe lower gauges will decrease by an equal amount, assuming that the
sgiuges are symmetrically placed, Let Ry and Ry be the upper gauges and Re
and Ry the lower gauges, Thus, under the influence of the external forve, we
have
Ri=Ri=Ro+AR
Ry AR
where Rois the zero strain resistance of the gauges. I ean be shown from
clementary statics that the relationship between the strain € and a force F
Fo, bonded
tw hotlam sree
Beam eros section
4
F
Figure 2.37 4 forvemessuring instmanent48
Fado mortals of Floste Cirewits
applied ata distance L fora cantilever beam is
eo OLE
wir¥
where hand w are as defined in Figure 2.37 and L is the beams modulus of
chastity
Inthe circuit of Figure 2.37, the curents ig aind dp are given by
vy,
=a o™ bE
The bridge output voltage is defined by tp = Up — eand may be found from
the following expression
Ry—AR
= SRTARTR)—AR RF ARTR—AR
AR ~
se = ws Ge
where the expression for AR/Ry was obtained in “Focus on Measurements
Resistance Strain Gauges” seetion, Thus, itis possible 10 obtain a
relationship between the output voltage ofthe brid
Fas follows
cireuit and the force,
6LF _ 6v;
whe
where kis the calibration constant for this foree transducer
v, = Us Ge = ws G Fo=kF
Comments— Strain
meehamical, chem
engincering applic
pressure, ‘orgue, stress, oF strain are sought)
sauge bridges are commonly’ used in
rosprice, biomedical, and civil
ions (and wherever measurements of force,
eof
Unknossn
cement
Check Your Understanding
2.4 Repeat Lsample 2.8 hy reversing the relerence direetion ofthe eurrent, to show that
the same results obtained
2.5. ‘The cireuit in the accompanying illustration contains » battery, @ resistor, ancl an
unknown eiteuit eterna
1. [the voltage V,
2 Repeat part 1if7= 2 mA
iy is LAS V and? =5 mA. fina power supplied to or by the battery
2.6 The battery in the accompanying cireait supp
Ra, Use KCL to determine the current ip, and find
Venn = 3Parl Circuits
Fee @) Ry Re Rs
forozma ]f od ma
fh the voltage
Does
2.7. Usethe results of part of Example 2.11 co find the condition for sh
Unb = Va — Ub is equal to zero (this is called the balanced condition for the
this result neeessarly require tht all four resistors be identical? Why?
2.8 Verily that KCL is satisfied by the current divider rule and thot the source current
fg divides in inverse propomtion to the parallel resistors Ri Re. and Re in the cieuit of
Figure 2.83, (This should not be surprise since we would expeet fo see more current flow
through the smaller resistance.)
2.9 Compute the fullscale tic. largest) output voltage fr the foreemeasuting ap
peratus of Focus on Measurements: The Wheatstone Bridge and Force Meascrements"
Assume thal the stain gauge bride ts to measure forces ranging from O10 SON. = 0.3
vn. w= 0.05 m4 = 401 m, G= 2, and the modalus 0” elasticity forthe bear is 69 10"
Nin (aluminum), ‘The source voltage is 12 V. What i the calibration constant ofthis force
transde
2.10 Repeat she derivation of the current divider law by ysing condactanes element—
that is, by replacing each resistance with its equivalent conductance. G = 1/R.
2.7 PRACTICAL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT
SOURCES
The idealized models of voltage and current sources we discussed in Section 2.3
fail 10 consider the internal resistance of practical voltage and current sources, The
objective of this section is to extend the ideal models to models that are eapuble
of deseribing the physical limitations of the voltage and current sourees used in
practice, Consider, Zor example, the model of an ideal voltage source shown in
Figure 2.9, As the load resistance (R) de
increasing amounis of current 10 maintain the Voltag
ases, the Source is required to provide
is(F) across its terminals:
vs(t)
i=
2.24)
This circuit suggests thatthe ideal voltage source is required to provide an infinite
amount of eurrent tthe load i the limit as t
Naturally, you can see shat this isimpossible; for example, think about the ratings of
conventional car battery: 12 V, 450 Ah (amperehours), This implies that there
isa limit (albeit a large one) to the amount of eurrent a practical souree can deliver
to:load, Fortunately it will not be necessary to delve too deeply into the physical
nature of each type of source in order to describe the behavior ofa practical volt
e source: The limitations of practical sources cx be approximated quite simply
the model
¢ load resistance approaches zero.
byexploiting the notion of the internal resistance ofa source, Althoug
9Figure 2.38 Prsctical
Figure 2.39 Prsctical
Chapter 2 und mentals of Floste Cirewits
described in this scetion are only approximations of the actual behavior of energy
sources, they will provide good insight into the limitations of practical voltage
and current sourves. Figure 2.38 depicts a model fr a practical voliage source,
composed of an ideal voltage souree, ys. in series with a resistance. ry. The
resistancers in effect poses a limit to the maximum current the voltage source ean
provide
is
(2.25)
rs
Typically. rs is small. Note, however, that its presence affects the voltage
across the load resistance: Now this voltage is no longer equal tothe source voltage.
Since the current provided by the source is
us
s=— 2.
rs + Rv e298)
the load voltage can be determined to he
ww =isR 27)
Thus, in the limit as the souree internal resistance, rs, approaches zero, the load
voltage. vp, becomes exactly equal tothe souree voltage. Itshould be apparent that
a desirable Festure of an ideal voltage source isa very small internal resistance, so
that the current requirements of an arbitrary load may be satisfied, Often the effec
tive internal resistince of a voltage Souree is quoted in the technical specifications
for the source, so that she user may take this parameter into account
A similar modification ofthe ideal eurrent source model is usctul to describe
the behavior of a practical current source, ‘The circuit illustrated in Figure 2.39
dgpicts a simple representation of a practical current source, consisting of an ideal
source in parallel with a resistor. Note that as the load resistance approaches
infinity (ic. open circuit), the output voltage of the current source approaches
ins limit
Usman = Ast. (2.28)
A good current source should be able to approximate the behavior of an ideal
current source, Therefore, « desirable charscteristic for the intemal resistance of
4 current source is that it be as large as possible
2.8 MEASURING DEVICES
In this section, you should gain a basic understanding of the desirable properties
of practical devices for the measurement of electrical parameters. The measure
ments most often of interest are those of current, voltage, power, ad resistance.
In analogy with the models we have just developed to describe the nonideal be
havior of voltage and current sources, we shall similarly present circuit models for
practical measuring instruments suitable for describing the nonideal properties of
these deviews,
The Ohmmeter
The ohmmeter is a device that, when connected seross a circuit element, ean
measure the resistance of the element, Figure 2.40 depicts the circuit conection
ofan ohmmeter to a resistor, One imporsant rule needs to be rememberedParl Circuits 51
The resistance of an element can be measured only when the element is
disconnected from any other cireuit
The Ammeter
The ammeter is @ device that, when conngeted in series with a circuit element. symisal tor Citewi tor the
can measure the curtent flowing through the element, Figure 2.41 illustrates this chnmeter —me:sirement of
idea, From Figure 2.41, two requirements are evident for obtaining a correct pestines
measurement of current Figure 2.40 Ohmmetsr
and measurement of
stance
i \ be,
C, moO
Jy
Symbal or A series Cincuit fe she meesurement
cians ‘set nthe eurent
Figure 2.41 Meassremen: of eurom
1, The ammeter must be placed in series with the element whose current is 10
bbe measured (¢.., resistor Rp).
The ammeter should not restrict the flow of current fic., cause a voltage
drop), or cls a the circuit
An idea! anmet
it will not be measuring the true current flowing
zero internal
has sistance
The Voltmeter
The voltmeter is a device that can measure the voltage across «circuit element
Since voltage is the difference in potential between two points ina eireuit, the
voltmeter needs to be connected across the element whose voltage we wish to
measure, A yollmeter must also fulfill (wo requirements:
1. The voltmeter must be placed in parallel with the element whose voltage it is
measuring
2. The voltmeter should draw no current away from the element whose voltage
weross that
itis measuring, or else it will not be measuring the true voltage
element, Thus.an ideal voltmeter has ini
nal resistance,
Figure 2.42 illustrates these to points,
Once again, the definitions just stated for the ideal voltmeter and ammeter
need to be augmented by considering the practical limitations of the devices. A
prictical ammeter will contribute some series resistance to the circuit in which
itis measuring current; a practical voltmeter will not act as an ideal open circuit
but will always draw Some current from the measured circuit. The homework
problems verily that these practical restrictions do not necessarily pose a limit to
the accuracy of the measurements obtainable with practical measuring devices,
as Tong as the internal resistance of the measuring devives is known,
depicts the circuit models forthe practical ammeter and voltmeterPractica
sale
Figure 2.43 Models for
practical ammeter and voltmeter
2 Fundamentals of Floste Cirewits
A series lec Cincuit ae she mesurement
‘seu voltmeter ‘ofthe valtaye
Figure 2.42 Messurement of voltane
All of the considerations that pertain to practical ammeters and voltmeters
ean be applied to the operation of a wattmeter, a measuring instrument that
provides measurement of the power dissipated by a circuit element, sinee the
wattmeter is in effect made up of a eombination of @ voltmeter and an ammeter
Figure 2.44 depicts the typical connection of a wattmeter in the same series circuit
used in the preceding paragraphs. In effect, the wattmeter measures the current
flowing through the load and, simultateously, the voltage across it and maliplies
the two to provide a reading of the power dissipated by the load. The internal power
xumption ofa practical wattmeter is explored in the homework problems
can
fy _ fy
© BO :
Messrement of the power Inger wattmeter connections
isonet nthe resistor
Figure 2.44 Messucement of power
2.9 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS
In the previous sections we have outlined models for the busi circuit elements:
sources, resistors, and measuring instruments, We have assembled all she tools
and parts we need in order to define aneleetrieal network. It is appropriate at this
stage to formally define the clements of the electrival cireuit: he definitions that
follow are part of standard electrical engineering terminology
Branch
A branch is any portion of a circuit with nvo terminals connected to it. A branch
ay consist of one or more circuit elements (Figure 2.45), In practice, any circuit
element with two terminals connected to it a branchParl Circuits
a
Branch Branch
lag ccurent
L___»
eal sate Practical
Figure 2.45 Definition of branch
DC Measurements with the Digital MultiMeter Cora
(Courtesy: HewlettPackard)
Digital multimeters (DMMs) are the workhorse of all measurement
laboratories. Figure 2.46 depicts the front pane! of atypical benchtop DMM.
Tables 2.3 and 2.4 list the features and specifications of the multimeter
HP 34401A Benchtop Digital Multimeter
Figure 2.46 HeslstePackand 43014 6 Saigit mltineter
Table 2.3 Features of the $4401 multimeter
‘#6 3digitesolution uncovers the dats that hide fom ocher DMMs
f Accuracy you can cont om» ODS fr de, 16% fo as
‘SPorfzct or your bonch  mote than dozen functions one orn key peesses
MS AC volts and current
ior your syste = 1H régs'sse in ASC format aero the PTE
“9 RS282 and PAB Standard
The Measurements section in the accompanying
CDROM contains interactive programs that illustrate the use of
the DMM and of other common measuring instruments,ie Cine
Table 2.4 Specifications for the 244014 multimeter
DC Voltage Aecuracy specs
Range de 6.8 Digits Accuraey>  your
Resolution aveading+ Pitan
Loom 0.0080+ 4.008 IO Mar>l0 2
WN vin} aonOT Io Meor=10
liye’ 9.00354 6.0008 Io Meor=10 GQ
ney. + 4.0006 lo Me
ova Tmv— p.0084 00010 Io
“True RMS AC Voltage Accu
Acouragy: yew
reang + nang
100 mv
iW .a0+008
SHOT 0384004
LOT kliz 0.064008
DWKimsOKil? 0124004
KILO KH 0504 0.08
WOKH200KH? 40044050
Rims tle Lapa
SHAW ox8003
LOTQvkliz 6.0640
LOM SK 0134005
SU kloI00 kl? 0. 90008
WOK A200 RH? 40044 80
Resistance Accuracy specs
Aceuragy: 1 year
Range Resolution fareading + 8x Custent Sou
WWdobm — 100Q_—— Gat. Ta
Ike Im@ — G.0)04 0001 Ima,
102 mQ_—G.a104 Gon 100 a
WOkohm — Jad AIO GORI on
ING IQ Galofaoal Spd
1OMR 2 G.adD G08 S00 na,
[WO Mohm 1B GOD ADIO 500 08,
Other Accuracy specs (basie year aecuraey)
(oma 3a
0.1% of reading +
bod of range
Froquaney (and Periods: 0.441% of reading
Viz to AKT
usec)
Cominsity 0.4% of wading +
(1000 Gran, 2% of
[ond test cuir
Diode wes: 0.1% of wai
PV range, a2 of rings
mA test currParl Circuits
Node
A node is the junction of two or more branches (ane often refers to the junction
of only two branches as a rival node), Figure 2.47 illustrates the concept. In
cffget, any connection that can be accomplished by soldering various terminals
together is a node, It is very important to identily nodes properly in the analysis
of electrical networks.
. . Node a
Nad ¢ Nae
Node
Aoxle
Nowe
niles of retesn pastel ius
Figure 2.47 Defnition of a nods
Loop
A foop is any closed connection of branches. Various loop configurations are
illustrated in Figure
Sate ha: bo ferent lps
inthe same cireuit may in ky
Cee tine = =
inca aes AQ AN.
SIU LY . “
Ton = pet Spa
Figure 2.48 Defnition of « loop
Mesh
A mesh is loop that does not contain other loops. Meshes are an important
aid 10 certain analysis methods. In Figure 2.4%, the circuit with loops 1, 2, and
3 consists of two meshes: loops 1 and 2 are meshes. but loop 3 is not a mesh
because it encircles both loops I and 2. The oneloop circuit of Figure 2.48 is also
onemesh circuit, Figure 2.49 illustrates how meshes are simpler to visualize in
complex networks than loops are.
Network Analysis
The analysis of an electrical network consists of determining exch af the unknown,
branch currents and node voltages. 1 is therefore important to define all of the
Figure 2.50 Variables ina
network analsis problem
2 Paidomnontas of F
ie Cine
Rs
How miny jogs can yo
idea this four mies et
cca Aner}
Figure 2.49 Defnition of a mesh
relevant variables as clearly as possible, and in systematic ishion, Onee the
known and unknown variables have been identified, a set of equations relating
these variables is constructed, and these are solved by mess of suitable techniques.
The analysis of electrical circuits consists of writing the smallest set of equations
sufficient to solve for all of the unknown variables. The procedures requited 10
write these equations are the subject of Chapter 3 and are very well documented
and codified in the Form of simple rules, The analysis of electrival circuits is
greatly simplified if some standard conventions are Followed. The objective of
this seetion is precisely to outline the preliminary procedures that will render the
task of analyzing an electrical circuit manageable
Circuit Variables
The firs: observation to be made is that the relevant variables in network analysis
are the node voltages and the branch currents. This fact is really nothin
than a consequence of Ohms law, Consider the branch depiczed in
consisting of single resistor. Here, once a vollagevg is defined across the resistor
R. a curvent ig will flow through the resistor, according t0 ug = igR. But the
voltage vg, which causes the current to flow, is really the difference in electric
potential between nodes a and b:
R= ev 2.29)
What meaning do we assign to the variables uy and vy; Was it not stuted that
voltage is a porential difference? Is it then legitimate 0 define the voliage at a
single point (node} in a circuit? Whenever we referenve the voltage at a node in
circuit, we imply aan assumption that the volkage at that node is the potential
difference benween the node itself and a reference node called ground, which is
located somewhere else inthe circuit and which for convenience has been assigned
potential of zero volts, Thus. in Figure 2.50, the expression
UR =U, —v,
really signifies that vg is the difference between the voliage differences Yq — te
and Up — Ye, where ve is the arbitrary) ground potential, Note that the equation
ug = Y4—Y, Would hold even ifthe reference node.c, were not assigned. potential
of zero volts, since
UR= Uy — = (Ya —W)— (HW) 2.30)
What, then, is this ground or reference voltaParl Circuits 5
Ground
The choice of the word ground is not arbitrary, This point can be illustrated by
simple analogy with the physics offiuid motion, Consider a tank of water, as
shown in Figure 2.51, located at a certain height above the ground, The potential
energy due to gravity will cause water to flow out of the pipe at a certain flow
rate, The pressure that forves water out of the pipe is directly related to the hex
(hy hp), in such a way that this pressure is zero when ha = hy, Now the point hs.
corresponding to the ground level, is defined as having zero potential energy. Th
should be apparent that the pressure acting on the fluid in the pipe is really
by the difference in potential energy, (11 — Hs) — (ly — fs). It can be seen,
that itis not necessary to assign a precise energy level to the height fs: in fact, it
‘would be extremely cumbersome to do so, since the equations describing she flow
of water would then be different, say, in Denver (hs = 1,600 m above sea level)
from those that would apply in Miami (2s = Om above sea level). You see, then,
thas itis the relative difference in potential energy that matters in the water tank
problem
sya for symbol for
ih. rh ground I. sue mand
caused
then,
Tho a
D.
Hoss of water
‘Fam pine
HTT
Figure 2.51 Analogy hereon electcal and exh ground
In analogous fashion, in every circuit @ point can be defined that is recog
nized as “ground” and is assigned the electric potential of zero volts for con
nience. Note that, unless th
two completely separate circuits are not necessarily at the same potential, This
last statement may seem puzzling, but Example 2.12 should ckinf
are purposely conneeted together, the grounds in
His auserl exereise at this point to put the concepts iustrated inthis chapter
into practice by identifying the relevant variables in @ few examples of electrical
circuits. In the following example, we shall illustrate how it is possible to define
unknown voltages and currents in a circuit in terms of she source voltages and
currents and of the resistances in the eireuit
EXAMPLE 2.12
entity the branch and node voltages and the loop and mesh currents in the circuit ofFado mortals of Floste Cirewits
Solution
The following
ue voltages may be identitied
Node voltages Branch voltages
ng =U (source volage) wy wt =a
w=UR
or
— aj = (ground)
Figure 2.52
Comments: Caurents gsi andl fate loop cuments, but only fg and iy are mesh currents
11 should be clear at this stage that some method is needed to or
‘wealth of information that can be generated simply by applying
branch ina circuit, What would be desirablestt this point is ame:
number of equations needed to salve circuit to the minimum necessary, that is,
method forobiaining N’ equations in 2
unknowns. The next chapter is devoted 
the development of systematic circuit analysis methods that will greatly simplity
the solution of electrical network problems,
Check Your Understanding
2.11 Write expressions forthe volta
“of the mesh currents
across eaeh resistor in Example 2.12 in terms
2.12 Write expressions for the eusrent through each resistor in Exsimple 2.12 in terms
Conclusion
‘The objective of this chapter was to introduce the hacky
chapters for the analysis of linear resistive networks. Thy
needed in the following
imdamental laws of circuit
ni ss Kinehhoft’s voltage ns, and Ohm's fv, were introduced
with the basic eiteuit elements, and all were used to analy the most bs
‘and current dividers. Measuring devices und a few other practical circuits emplo
measurements were also introduced t provide a flavar of the
applicability of these basic ileas to practical engineering problems. The r.
book dkavis on the concepts developed in this chapter, Mastery of the principles exposed
in these frst pages is therefore of fundamental importance.
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING ANSWERS.
eyuad [p= fp =417 A: 100.8
eyu22 A, supplying 30.8 W: B. dissipating 30.8 W
cy fy 1 mAs =0 mA
cyurs P= 7.25 x 103 W tsupplied by: Bh =2.9 x 10 W (supplied to)cyU26 n=1SmA Py = SA mbv
cyun7 RR = BR
cyu29 (ull seale) = 626 mV; k = Oa
cyutat Uap) = dai: Up = (ia — ao) Ros 04
ot =, Ma Us 5 Mate
B
SeWeN
SiR
Parl Circuits 59
Ye
HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
Section 1: Charge and Kirchhoff's Laws;
Voltages and Currents
2.1 An isolated fiee electron is tae
electric fied from some initial point where its
Coulombic potential energy per nit charge (so#hage)
is 17 AIC and velocity =93 Mrvs to some fine! point
29 per anit charge
the change in veloeity ofthe
revitaional forces
where its Coulombie potential
is @ KH. Determi
electron, Neglect
is the volt, for eurrent the
the ohm, Using the
and resistanee, express
each quantity in fundamental MKS units
2.3 Suppose the current flowing
by the e
through a
re P23
ine is given
ive shown in
1)
Figure P2.3
a, Find the amount of charge.g. that ows through
the wire between; =Oond = 1s,
bb. Repeat purt a forts = 2.3, 4,5, 6.7.8, 9. and 10s,
teh g(t) fort Os.
pacity ofa car battery is usually specified in
hours. A battery rated at. say. 100 Ah shout
to supply 100.4 for  hour. 50.8 for 2 hours.
ford hours, 1 A for 100 hours. or any other
combination yielding a product of 100 Ab.
1, How many coulombs of charge should we be able
to draw from a filly charged 100) Ah battery?
b, How many ele
fons dees you answer to part a
requir
2.5 ‘he curent in semivondaetor device results trom
the motion ab two ifferent kinds 0° ehange erie
electrons and holes. The holes and electrons have
charge of equal magnitude bat opposite sign. Ina
particular device, suppose the elecuon density is
2.x 10! electrons tm an the le density is 5 x 10!
holes This device has crosssectional area of
nin Ite eletvons are moving to the let ata
Sefocity DS mis and the holes are movi
Fight a eloety of 0.2 mms, what ave
a. the
rection of the current in the semiconductor
bb. ‘The magnitude of the current in the device
2.6 The charg:
of afvorate
vyele shown in Figure P2.6 isan example
urge. The current is hel constant at $0)
mA for Sh, Then itis switched to 20 mA for the nest
Sh, Find
a, The total charge transferred to the battery
bb. The energy transferred to the battery
Hint: Recall that energy. a, isthe int
Figure P2.6ov Chap
2.7 Batteries cx. leadacid batteries} store chemical
energy and convert it to electrical energy on Int S496. 8hhe building is sited a distance d from the transform:
bank which can be modeled asan ideal soutee (see
Figure P24T}, [d= 85 m, determine the AWG of the
smallest condyctors which ean be used ina
rubberinsulated eable used to supply the Fa
co
On
Figure P2.41
2.42 rcan ising. a
Thorsepowser motor must be sited a distance d from a
portable generator (Figure 92.42), Assume the
perator cat be mpadeled as an ideal source with 1
volta The nameplate on the motor gives the
fated voltages and the carrespending full oad cument
Vein
Varooe = 105 We Bygrt = 76108
Virose = TV fart
he cable must have AWG #14 oF hay
camy a current of 7.103 A without ov
Determine the masta le rubber insulated
cable with AWG #14 conductors which can be used fo
conmect the motor and generator
F conductors to
Conte
oO
Figure P2.42
2.43
‘lant to house 2 proxlaction line, ‘The total eleetrical
ing iy 23 KAW, The nameplates on the
jana andl maximum voltages with
An additional building has been added to your
450
A46V ho S SISTA
S463 V > Myr) $49.68 A
Parl Circuits “
The building is sited a distance d from the transformer
bank which can be modeled as an ideal source (F
2.43), The cable must have AWG 4 of lr
nt of $1.57 A without
conductors 10 camry a cur
overheating, Determine the maximum lengthd of 3
rubberinstlated cab AWG 4 conductors which
ccan be used to connect the source tothe load
t
ov J 
Ge
Figure P2.43
2.44 In ihe bridg
terminals) C
Ri
re P2441 nok
and
ke
ISKQ
RAST R= WK
dletermine the equivalent resistance between the nodes
cor terminals Aand B.
Figure P2.44
2.45. Determine the voltoge between moves Aand B in
the circuit shown in Figure P2.45
Ve=i2V
1kQ R= 6NKO
22042 R= 0.22 mQ
Figure P2.45
2.46 Determine the voltage between the nodes A and B
inthe cireuit shown in Figure P28
R47
R= KL66 Chap
2.47 Determine the voltay
across Re in Figure P2.47
Vs=12V R= 17 n@
R=3kQ B= 1K
"
Figure P2.47
Sec!
n 4: Measuring Devices
2.48 A shermistorisa device whose terminal
changes with the temperature of ifs surround
resistance is an export
stance
sts
vial relationship:
Ry(T) = Rye?
where Ry isthe terminal resistance a 7 = 0°C and B
x material parameter with units [CT
a, IPRy = 100 Gand B =0410/C%, plot RT)
versus T lor 0< T < 100°C
bb, The thermistor is placed in parallel with a resistor
whose value is 1002
i. Find an expression for the equivalent
resistance,
i, Plot Ry(T)on th
parla,
sme plot you made in
2.49 A certain resistor hus the following
characteristic
R(x) = 1000"
where x isu normalized dispkicement, The nonlinear
resistor is fo be used to measure the displacement x 10
the circuit of Fis
Figure P2.49
a, Ithe total ke
expression forty
iol the resistor is 10 ex
bb. Hedy =4 Ne wha is the distance, x?
2.50 A moving coil meter movernent has a met
resistance Fy = 200 S2and fullscale defection is
caused by at meter current fy =
10. The moverer
must he used to indicate pressure measured by the
2 Paidomnontas of F
ie Cine
setisor up to a maximum of 100 KPa, See Fig
Fe
Sener Mer
10 =
Papsicy
Figure P2.50
all
sppropriate connections between the terminals of
the sensor and meter movement
a, Draw a citeuit required to do this show
bb. Determine the value of each component in the
circuit
©. What isthe linear r the minimum an
nvanimunn pressure that can accurately be
ressured?
2.51 A moving coil meter and pressure transducer are
used to monitor the pressure a ritcal point ina
system. The meter movement is rated at 1.8 kQ and
50 A (full scale) A nev ta
sducer must be installed
with the pressurevoltage characteristic shown in
Figure P2.51 (different from the previous transducer’
‘The maximum pressure that must be measured by the
monitoring system is 10 kPa
Fe
Sonor Mer
10 7
o L L
0 oy 108
Figure P2.51a, Redesign the meter eirewit required for these
specifications and draw the exrcuit beoween th
ininals of the sensor and meter show ing all
appropriate connections,
bb, Determine the value For each compenent in y
circuit
What isthe linear range (ie. the minimum a
vaximurn pressure that can accurately be
ineasured) of this system?
2.52 In the circuit shown in Figure 92.52 the
femperature sensor and moving coil meter movement
are used fo monitor the temperature ina chemical
process. The sensor has melfunctioned and must be
replaced with another sensor with the
ccurrenttemperature characteristic shown (not the same
asthe previous sensor), Temperatures up to a
maximum of 400°C must be measured, The meter is
rated at 2.5 kSQend 2501 mV (Hull sale), Redesign the
‘meter eiteuit for these specifications,
R
Mater
io
m0
Figure P2.52
1, Draw the circuit between the terminals af the sensor
and met all appropriate connections,
the value of each component in the
e i.e. the minimum and
maximum temperature that can accurately be
mesure) ofthe system?
2.52 In the circuit in
‘with the currenttemperature characteristic shown and
a Triplett Electric Manufacturing Company Model
321L movin
condenser temperati
se P2.53, a temperature sensor
coil meter will he used to monitor the
12 steam power plant
mperatures up to a maximum of 350°C must be
measured, The meter is rated at 1 Kand 100 eA (Fall
seale), Design a eireuit far these specifications,
Parl Circuits o
he
Ry
'
Fs
Sensor Mer
w 7 7
L L
200 Ty 00
nC)
Figure P2.53
A. Draw the cireuit between the terminals ofthe sensor
and meter showing all appropriate connections,
bb. Determine the vslue of each component it the
circuit
©. What is the minimum temperature that ean
accurately be measured?
2.52 ‘The circuit of Figure P2.54 is used to measure the
internal impedance ofa battery, The battery being
tested is @ zineeatbon dry cell
Pastery
Figure P2.54
a. A\ fiesh bartery is being tested, and it i fond that
the voltage, Vays is 164 V sith th
1,63 V with the switch elosed, Find the internal
resistance of the battery
bb. ‘The same battery is rested one sear later, and V,
found to be 1.6! with the swsiieh open but 0,17 V
with the switch closed, Find the internal resistance
of the battery
anmed in
“erin series
2.52 Consider the prutical aro
Figure P2.58, consisting of an ideal anh
with 2 2KO resistor, The meter sees fallseale
deflection shen the current through iis SOA, Ihe6 Chap
wished fo construct a multimange ammeter readin
fillscale values af ] mA, 10 mA, or 100 ma
eperiing on the setting ofa rotary switeh, what
should Rye Ro, andl Ry be?
Figure P2.55
2.56 circuit that measures the inemal resistance af a
Draetical ammeter is shown it Figure P236, where
Ry = 10,0002. Vs = 1 Y. and Rp isa variable
resistor thet ean be adjusted at will
Figure P2.56
a, Assume thats & 10,000. Estimate the current
b. [the meter displays a eurrent of 0.43 ma when
Rp = 7 Qn the internal resistance oF the meter.
2.57 A practical soltmeter has an internal resistane® fp.
What is the value offi the meter reads 9.89 V when
connected as shown i Figure P2.57
Toa
Reto
Figure P2.57
2 Paidomnontas of F
ie Cine
2.58 Usi
that the meter
following values:
the cireuit of Figure P2.57, find the voltage
Is iP ¥y= 10 V and Ryhas the
‘or spill) should the intemal resistance of
the meter be rekaiive (0 Rs?
2.59 A voltmeter is used to determine the voltage across
resistive element in the cireuit of Figure P2.59. The
instrument is modeled by an ideal voltmeter in parallel
with 97AS2 resistor as shows, The meter paced 10
measure the voltage across Ry, Let Ri = 10 KS Rs =
100 k&2, Ry = 40k and ty =90 mA. Find the
voltage across Reith and without the yolimeter in the
cite forthe Following values
fy
ma ©
Voltmeter
Figure P2.59
a R= 1002
b RT
©. R= 10kQ
4d 100 K
2.60 An ammeter is used as shown in Figure P2.60. ‘The
ammeter model consists ofan ideal ammeter in series
with a resistance, The ammeter model is placed in the
branch as shown in the figure. Find the current throug
both sith and without th er inthe circuit for
the followin, that Ve= 10 V. Ry
102, Ry = 1 KS and Ry = 100 82 (a) Ry =
T RSQ. (b) Ry = 100 @. (6) R= 102.) R= 1
Ame Pp
Circuit Ammeter model
Figure P2.60
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