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Introduction and Overview 10 mins

The MBTI® Instrument 30 mins
Understanding MBTI Preferences 20 mins
Verifying your MBTI® Results 15 mins
Preference Splitting Exercises 15 mins
Coping with Stress using Type 15 mins
Problem Solving and Giving Feedback using Type 15 mins
Learning Objectives

After completing this session, you should be able to:

• Discuss how team interactions are influenced by
the individual preferences and type of team
• Understand how to communicate and work
effectively with others using type
• Develop strategies to work others with opposite
preferences to yourself
Understanding Your Type

• During the program we will explain the ideas underlying

the MBTI® tool and ask you to undertake a self
• The score you record on the MBTI® instrument will report
one of 16 different types as your results
• You will use your self-assessment, your results, and
Introduction To Type® booklet to decide which type fits
best for you
• The exercises in this program to show you how the types
differ from one another and to help you clarify what your
type means for you as a leader
About the MBTI ® Instrument

• An indicator – not a test

• Forced-choice questions
• No right or wrong answers –Takes about 20-40
minutes to complete
• Your results are confidential
• The MBTI® questionnaire looks only at normal
• There are no good or bad types – all types have
some natural strengths and some possible pitfalls
or blind spots
Now Let’s Take the MBTI ® Questionnaire

• As you answer the

• Think of what you prefer
when you do not have
outside pressures to
behave in a particular way
• Think of yourself, outside of
the roles you play at work
or in personal life.
Complete the MBTI Questionnaire Form M

1. Read the instructions on the front

2. Answer the 93 questions – use a ball point pen
and a hard surface
3. Do not tear off the side strips and open – we’ll do
this together later
Behind MBTI
Jung's Theory – Basic Mental Processes

We make decisions about

We take in information

Perception Judgement

Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling

You can't use both methods of taking You can't use both methods of making
in information simultaneously, so we judgments simultaneously, so we
develop a preference for using one develop a preference for using one
method over another method over another
Behind MBTI
Jung's Theory – Orientation of Energy

Extraversion Introversion

Focus on the outer Focus on the inner

world of things, world of thoughts,
people, and events feelings, and
Jung’s Theory

• Jung believed that preferences are an innate

inborn predisposition
• He also recognised that our innate preferences
interact with and are shaped by environmental
– Family
– Country
– Education
– and many more…
Jung’s Theory

• We will look at four sets of opposites – like our

right and left hands
• We all use both sides, but one is our natural
• Jung believed that our preferences do not
change – they stay the same over our lifetime
• What changes is how we use our preferences
and often the accuracy with which we can
measure the preferences
Extraversion or Introversion

The direction we focus our

attention & energy
Extraversion or Introversion

People who prefer Extraversion:

• Focus their energy and attention outward
• Are interested in the world of people and things
People who prefer Introversion:
• Focus their energy and attention inward
• Are interested in the inner world of thoughts and

We all use both preferences but usually not with equal comfort.
People Who Prefer Extraversion:

• Are attracted to the outer world of people and

• Are aware of who and what is around them
• Enjoy meeting and talking with new people
• Are friendly, often verbally skilled and easy to
• Tend to speak out easily and often at meetings
• May not be as aware of what is going on inside
People Who Prefer Introversion:

• Are attracted to the inner world of thoughts,

feelings, and reflections
• Are usually very aware of their inner reactions
• Prefer to interact with people they know
• Are often quiet in meetings and seem uninvolved
• Are often reserved and harder to get to know
• May not be as aware of the outer world around
Where do you prefer to focus your attention?
Where do you get energy?

• Review the characteristics of Extraversion and

Introversion on Page 6 of Introduction to Type
• Tick the one that you think describes your natural
way of doing things?
Sensing or iNtuition

The way we take in information and the

kind of information we like and trust
Sensing or Intuition

People who prefer Sensing:

• Prefer to take in information using their five senses – sight,
sound, feel, smell, and taste
People who prefer iNtuition:
• Go beyond what is real or concrete and focus on meaning,
associations, and relationships

We all use both ways of perceiving but we typically prefer and trust one
People Who Prefer Sensing:

• See and collect facts and details

• Are practical and realistic
• Start at the beginning and take one step at a time
• Are specific and literal when speaking, writing,
and listening
• Live in the present, dealing with the here and now
• Prefer reality to fantasy
People who prefer iNtuition:

• See patterns, possibilities, connections, and

meanings in information
• Are conceptual and abstract
• Start anywhere and may leap over basic steps
• Speak and write in general, metaphorical terms
• Live in the future – the possibilities
• Prefer imagination and ingenuity to reality
How do you prefer to take in information?

• Review the characteristics of Sensing and

iNuition on Page 6 of Introduction to Type
• Tick the one that you think describes your natural
way of doing things?
Thinking or Feeling

The way we make decisions

Thinking or Feeling

People who prefer Thinking:

• Make their decisions based on impersonal, objective logic
People who prefer Feeling:
• Make their decisions with a person-centered, value-based

Both processes are rational and we use both of

them, but usually not equally easily.
People who prefer Thinking:

• Use logic to analyse the problem, assess pros and

• Focus on the facts and the principles
• Are good at analysing a situation
• Focus on problems and tasks – not relationships
• May overlook the personal impacts of decisions,
their emotions or those of others
People who prefer Feeling:

• Use their personal values to understand the

• Focus on the values of the group or organisation
• Are good at understanding people and their
• Concentrate on relationships and harmony
• May overlook logical consequences of individual
How do you make decisions?

• Review the characteristics of Thinking and

Feeling on Page 7 of Introduction to Type
• Tick the one that you think describes your natural
way of doing things?
Judging or Perceiving

Our attitude to the external world and

how we orient ourselves to it
Judging or Perceiving

People who prefer Judging:

• Want the external world to be organised and orderly
• Look at the world and see decisions that need to be made
People who prefer Perceiving:
• Seek to experience the world, not organise it
• Look at the world and see options that need to be

We all use both attitudes but usually not with equal comfort
People Who Prefer Judging:

• Like to make plans and follow them

• Like to get things settled and finished
• Like environments with structure and clear limits
• Enjoy being decisive and organising others
• Handle deadlines and time limits comfortably
• Plan ahead to avoid last minute rushes
People Who Prefer Perceiving:

• Like to respond resourcefully to changing

• Like to leave things open, gather more information
• Like environments that are flexible; dislike rules
and limits
• May not like making decisions, even when pressed
• Tend to think that there is plenty of time to do
• Often have to rush to complete things at the last
How do you deal with the outer world?

• Review the characteristics of Judging and

Perceiving on Page 6 of Introduction to Type
• Tick the one that you think describes your natural
way of doing things?
Combined your preferences to estimate your type

What do you estimate your

E or I type to be?

S or N ___ ___ ___ ___

T or F
J or P
There is variation within each type and type
does not measure:

• Intelligence • Illness
• Affluence • IQ
• Normalcy • Stress
• Maturity • Trauma
• Emotions • Psychiatric Illness
Scoring Your Responses

• Tear the perforated left side of

the form to open the scoring
• Count the number of Xs in each
row and write the number in the
shaded area at the end of that
• Tally each column at the bottom
of the page
• Copy you score into the Raw
Points box
• Determine your Reported Type
• Determine your preference
Using the Self-Scorable Form M

• Participants tear off and keep the cover sheet

• Facilitator to collect the rest of the form
Tied Scores for Reported Type:

• A tied score is when you answered an equal number of

questions on each side of the dichotomy:
– E.g.. E = 10 I = 10
We use a tie-breaking formula:
– I slight
– N slight
– F slight
– P slight
Cultural Norms

• E, S, T, and J are the cultural norms in the USA

– I, N, F and P are less preferred
• If a person is close or tied, there is probably some
environmental pressure from the cultural norms
• Something is pulling them in the direction that is
opposite to the cultural norms – their inborn
Reported and Self-Estimate Type

• If these are the same – look up the one-page

profile in Introduction to Type® booklet and decide
if it describes how you usually think and act
• If they are different, read the profiles for both self-
estimate and reported MBTI® type in Introduction
to Type® booklet and decide which is the more
Levels of Confidence

True Type (never sure)

‘Best-fit’ Type

Self-estimate Type & Reported Type

Agreement on Reported Type

• 2/3 – 3/4 of any group will agree with their reported

• They will report general agreement with the
Introduction To Type® profile
• When people disagree, it’s usually on one
preference – and often one where they had a
slight result
Have I Changed Type?

• When people report having ‘changed type,’ they

are most likely to have had an incorrect
administration – the mind set was not done
properly, resulting in the reporting of ‘work type’
or ‘ideal type.’
Why isn't everyone like me?

• What would an organisation be like if it were run

entirely by people who shared your preferences?
• You can determine the type of a workgroup by
constructing a "Type Table"
Type Table

# = ___
E= ___ I = ___
S= ___ N = ___
J= ___ P = ___

Modal Type (Most Frequent Type) ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP

__ __ __ __
Group Type (Most Frequent
__ __ __ __
Working with the Type Table

• What challenge exists in working in a group that

has a different "group type" than your own type?
• What actions might you take to work together
E–I Splitting Exercise

• In your groups, create 3 questions that will give

you better insight into the opposite to your
preference on this dichotomy
(5 minutes)
• Elect a spokesperson who will actually ask the
E–I Splitting Exercise

What are some of the Observable Behavioural

Differences you notice between E’s and I’s?
• E’s are more talkative, energetic, and overtly
enthusiastic about the task.
• I’s go silent when first asked a question.
• E’s answer questions immediately.
• I’s wait to see who will answer.
• E’s talk over one another.
• I’s preserve space between themselves.
• E’s rugby-huddle.
• In the E group, one or two look introverted.
• In the I group, one or two look extraverted.
E–I Splitting exercise

• What are the implications and applications of this

splitting exercise?
• Communication breakdown
• Conflict between the two Types
S–N Splitting Exercise

Look at the following picture for 11/2 minutes, in

silence, and then be prepared to share with the
group what you think you have been looking at.
People with a preference for S:

• Describe what they literally see:

– physical attributes of the picture (colour,
shapes, artist’s name, size)
• Then they try to make sense out of the shapes –
object sense
• We can usually agree with the interpretations of
the shapes.
People with a preference for N:

• Interpret the picture, seeing possibilities and

meanings that are highly personalised
• They often make up a story about the picture
• There is often an all-encompassing meaning or
What can we conclude?

• We all look at the same image but see different

• Who sees it correctly?
S–N Splitting Exercise

• What are the implications and applications of this

• We must remember that we all trust our own
perceptions, while knowing that there are many
other ways of seeing the same object/situation.
T–F Splitting Exercise

• Imagine that you have been invited to a party with

your partner or a close friend.
• Your partner/friend arrives, ready for the party,
and you look at what they are wearing and say to
yourself ‘Oh no! Are they really going to wear
• What do you do and say in these circumstances?
Discuss in your groups.
• T’s concentrate on achieving their desired
outcome – the partner/friend changes clothes or
they don’t go.
• T’s are frank and to-the-point in stating their views
about the clothing.
• F’s often say they don’t care what the person is
• F’s are often concerned about embarrassing the
person, take a tactful, indirect approach.
T–F Splitting Exercise

• What are the implications and applications of this

• T’s look for faults and helpfully point them out.
• F’s look for good things and point them out.
• Which is the best approach?
J–P Splitting Exercise 1

• There are two signs at opposite ends of the room

A. I have to get my work done before I can play

B. I can play anytime

• Form a line that indicates how much each of these

appeal to you, which comes closest to how you
usually feel or act
J–P Splitting Exercise 2

• Assuming that you are all friends, plan a social

picnic for your group
J–P Splitting Exercise 2

• J’s plan everything to the nth degree, liking to

cover every contingency.
• P’s leave things open, desiring flexibility.
J–P Splitting Exercise

• What are the implications and applications of this

• J’s form a poor opinion of P’s.
• P’s have to look like J’s if they are to succeed in
organisational settings.
• J’s pay a price for their need to organise everything
– continuous low-grade stress.
Sources of Stress

• Each of the preferences provide an indication of

where the source of stress may be for an
• Aim to understand what may cause stress for you,
or someone who does not share the same
preference as you, and what you could do to
minimise that stress
Typical Work Stressors for each of the Preferences

Stressors for Extraverts

• Working alone
• Having to communicate mainly by email
• Lengthy work periods with no interruptions
• Having to reflect before taking action
• Having to focus in depth on one thing
• Getting feedback in writing only

Stressors for Introverts

• Working with others
• Talking on the phone a lot
• Interacting with others frequently
• Having to act quickly without reflection
• Too many concurrent tasks and demands
• Getting frequent and verbal feedback
Coping with Being Different

Your Workgroup's
Preference Preference Consider these tactics:
• Networking with others outside your team
• Asking them to voice their ideas
• Paying attention to written notices and email
• Allowing others to think about your idea before they
provide feedback (count to three – or ten…)
Extraversion Introversion

Your Workgroup's Consider these tactics:

Preference Preference
• Arriving at work early to take advantage of quiet time
• Intentionally seeking out private/reflective time – take
the long way home
• Planning private breaks throughout the day to collect
your thoughts
• In meetings, voicing even partially thought-through
Introversion Extraversion perspectives
Typical Work Stressors for each of the Preferences

Stressors for Intuitive Types

• Having to attend to realities
• Having to do things the proven way
• Having to attend to details
• Checking the accuracy of facts
• Needing to focus on past experience
• Being required to be practical

Stressors for Sensing Types

• Attending to own and other's insights
• Having to do old things in new ways
• Having to give an overview without details
• Looking for the meaning in the facts
• Focussing on possibilities
• Too many complexities
Coping with Being Different

Your Workgroup's Consider these tactics:

Preference Preference • Getting involved in projects that require long-range or
future thinking
• Practice "brainstorming" with the rest of the team
• Preparing yourself for "roundabout" discussions –
look for patterns
• Going beyond specifics – try to discover meanings
Sensing Intuition and themes

Your Workgroup's Consider these tactics:

Preference Preference
• Practice presenting information in a step-by-step
• Providing specific examples of vital information
• Honouring organisational values surrounding
experience and tradition
• Reading the fine print and getting the facts straight
Intuition Sensing
Typical Work Stressors for each of the Preferences

Stressors for Thinking Types

• Using personal experience to assess situations
• Adjusting to individual differences and needs
• Noticing and appreciating what is positive
• Focussing on processes and people
• Using empathy and personal values to make
• Having others react to questioning as divisive

Stressors for Feeling Types

• Analysing situations objectively
• Setting criteria and standards
• Critiquing and focussing on flaws
• Focusing on tasks only
• Being expected to use logic alone to make
• Asking questions that feel divisive
Coping with Being Different

Your Workgroup's Consider these tactics:

Preference Preference • Working on projects in which alternative causes and
solutions are evaluated in personal terms
• Reminding yourself that factoring in the impact on
people is logical even if people aren't
• Softening critical remarks – finding the positive, too
• Asking for others' opinions and concerns, looking for
Thinking Feeling points of agreement before discussing issues

Your Workgroup's Consider these tactics:

Preference Preference • Practice laying out an argument logically by saying
if…then, or by considering the causes and effects
• Understanding that critical feedback is often given in
the spirit of improving your professionalism
• Bringing attention to stakeholders' concern regarding
• Using brief and concise language to express your
Feeling Thinking
wants and needs
Typical Work Stressors for each of the Preferences

Stressors for Judging Types

• Waiting for structure to emerge from process
• Too much flexibility around time frames and
• Having to marshal energy at the last minute
• Staying open to reevaluation of tasks
• Dealing with surprises

Stressors for Perceiving Types

• Having to organise themselves and others
• Working within timeframes and deadlines
• Others' distrust of last minute energy
• Having to finish and move on
• Developing contingency plans
• Being required to plan ahead
Coping with Being Different

Consider these tactics:

Your Workgroup's
Preference Preference
• Seeking out projects that have definite milestones
and a final deadline
• Trying to wait on a decision for a few days, continuing
to gather more information and paying attention to
ideas that may come up
• Understanding that work is progressing despite
differences in work styles
Judging Perceiving • Making your own milestones and deadlines
Consider these tactics:
Your Workgroup's
• Recognising that deadlines set by the organisation
Preference Preference
may not be negotiable
• Using a past decision you believe others rushed to
demonstrate the advantages of slowing down to
gather more information
• Becoming active in projects where the process is just
as important as the outcome
Perceiving Judging • Keeping "surprises" to a minimum and reducing your
Delivering Feedback that caters to Type

Discuss with a peer if necessary. Reflect on need for corrective feedback

Describe the actual and specific unwanted Relate the actual behaviour to the big picture
behaviour or unfulfilled responsibilities you have
Give your impressions about how this behaviour or
unfulfilled expectation has affected outcomes.
Be concrete, factual, and verifiable.
Present your interpretation of the facts.

Determine and express the logical outcomes of Disclose your values and feelings.
this behaviour on you and others.
Explain why this correction is important to you and
Consider the pros and cons of your planned why it matters.

Determine any present or future action plans and Allow for input from the other person and flexibility
secure the other person's commitment to change. in determining any steps.
SNTF Problem Solving

iNtuition Thinking
• Intuit probable causes • Weigh practicality of
• Generate alternatives, alternatives
interpretations of the • Examine consequences
factual data
• Seek patterns relating iNtuition Thinking • Weigh gains/losses

this problem to others

2 3
1 4 Feeling
Sensing • Determine “fit” with
• Identify and clarify personal and
problem (who, what, • organisational values
when, where) Sensing Feeling` • Assess effects on
• Gather relevant, relationships/
specific data organisation
• Use facts verifiable by a • Determine how to win
reliable source others to solution
Further Application of SNTF Problem Solving

Abstract Logical
What else could this mean?
N T What are the pros and cons?
What else can we come up with? What are the logical consequences?
Conceptual Questioning
What other ideas are there? But what about…?
Theoretical Critical
How is it all connected?
iNtuiting Thinking What is wrong with this?
Original: Questions Questions Tough
Is there a new way to do this? Why aren't we following through now?
2 3
1 4
Concrete Empathetic
What do we know? What do we like and dislike?
Realistic Sensing Feeling Compassionate
What are the real costs? Questions Questions What impact will this have on people?
Practical Accommodating
Will it work? How can we make everyone happy?
Experiential Accepting
Can you show me how it works? What is beneficial in this?
Does anything really need changing? S F Tender
What about the people who will be hurt
What Now?

• How does your type contribute to the team?

• What are the pitfalls for your type?
• What are your next steps?