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Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Ver. 04-1

Welding consumables and


Standards for SMAW

KISWEL. SDN. BHD


1. Summary

SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding), also known as MMA (Manual Metal Arc) welding
or informally as stick welding, is a manual arc welding process that use a consumable
electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric current, in the form of either
alternating current or direct current from a welding power supply, is used to form an
electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined.
2. Consist of Covered Electrodes

2-1. Core wire


1) SWRY 11 / STS Type / Special steel (Ni Base, Cu Base and so on)

2) Size : Dia. (1.6~6.0mm), Length (250~700mm)

Electrode
Covering

Core wire
2-2. Electrode covering

Function of Electrode covering

1) Giving off vapors and Deoxidation

2) Shielding gas generation

3) Providing a layer of Slag

4) Stability of Arc

5) Electric insulating

6) Adding alloy element

As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off
vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of
which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination.
3. A process of manufacture

Die
Core wire :
Wire Rod Dry Drawing Cutting

Electrode
covering :
Flux Dry Mixing Wet Mixing Caking

- +
Extruding Baking / Drying Packaging Warehousing
4. Standard of Covered Electrodes
4-1. AWS Spec. (For Mild steel and 490MPa High tensile steel)
E X X X X - X HZR
Electrode
Tensile Strength (ex : 70ksi ≒ 50kg/mm2 ≒ 490MPa)
Position (1 : All, 2 : Flat or H-Fillet, 4 : All but V-Down)

Type of coating and current


M : Military requirements
Hydrogen Level (≤Z㎖/100g, Z=4, 8, 15)
Meets requirements of absorbed moisture test

Digital Type of coating Welding current


0 Cellulose sodium DCEP
1 Cellulose potassium AC or DCEP
2 Titania sodium AC or DCEN
3 Titania potassium All
4 Iron powder titania All
5 Low Hydrogen sodium DCEP
6 Low Hydrogen potassium AE or DCEP DCEP (DC+)
: Direct Current Electrode Positive
7 Iron powder iron oxide All DCEN (DC-)
8 Iron powder low hydrogen AC or DCEP : Direct Current Electrode Negative
4-2. AWS Spec. (For Low-alloy steel )
E X X X X - X HZR
Electrode
Tensile Strength (ex : 70ksi ≒ 50kg/mm2 ≒ 490MPa)
Position (1 : All, 2 : Flat or H-Fillet, 4 : All but V-Down)

Type of coating and current


Alloy in the weld metal deposit
Hydrogen Level (≤Z㎖/100g, Z=4, 8, 15)
Meets requirements of absorbed moisture test

Sign Alloy in the weld metal deposit Sign Alloy in the weld metal deposit
A1 0.5%Mo C1 2.5%Ni
B1 0.5%Cr 0.5%Mo C2 3.25%Ni
B2 1.25%Cr 0.5%Mo C3 1.0%Ni
B3 2.25%Cr 1.0%Mo W2 Weathering steel electrodes
B6 5%Cr 0.5%Mo D1,2,3 Mn-Mo steel electrodes
B8 9%Cr 1%Mo P1,2 Pipeline electrodes
B9 9%Cr 1%Mo + Nb, V, Cu G General Low-alloy steel

A, B : For Heat resisting steel C : For Low temperature service steel


4-3. AWS Spec. (For Stainless steel)

E X X X X - 1Z
Electrode

Kind of Stainless steel (ex : 308, 309, 316 )

L : Low Carbon, H : High Carbon, Mo: Molybdenum


add
Type of coating and current

Section -16 Type -17 Type -15 Type

Type of Coating Lime-Titania Lime-Titania-Silica Lime(basic)

Type of Current AC / DC+ AC / DC+ DC+

Arc action Globular Spray Globular

Bead appearance Flat Concave Convex

Position All All All

Restrikability Easy Easy Hard

Slag removal Easy Easy Hard

Penetration Moderate Shallow Deep


4-1. JIS Spec. (For Mild steel and 490MPa High tensile steel)
E X X X X – XXX X U L HX
Electrode
Tensile Strength (ex : 490MPa ≒ 50kg/mm2 ≒ 70ksi)
Position (1 : All, 2 : Flat or H-Fillet, 4 : All but V-Down)
Type of coating and current
Alloy in the weld metal deposit
Symbol of Post welding heat treatment

Symbol of Charpy absorbed energy

Symbol of impact test temperature

Hydrogen Level (≤Z㎖/100g, Z=4, 8, 15)

Digital Type of coating Welding current


0 Cellulose sodium DCEP
1 Cellulose potassium AC or DCEP
2 Titania sodium AC or DCEN
3 Titania potassium All
4 Iron powder titania All
5 Low Hydrogen sodium DCEP
6 Low Hydrogen potassium AE or DCEP DCEP (DC+)
: Direct Current Electrode Positive
7 Iron powder iron oxide All DCEN (DC-)
8 Iron powder low hydrogen AC or DCEP : Direct Current Electrode Negative
5. KISWEL Brand Name (According to coating type)

For Mild steel and 490MPa High tensile steel

Type of coating AWS Spec. JIS Spec. KISWEL Brand name

Iron oxide titania


E6019 E4319 KI-101LF
(Illmenite)

Lime titania - E4303 KT-303

High cellulose E6010, E6011 E4310, E4311 KCL-10, KCL-11

High titania E6012, E6013 E4312, E4313 K-6012, KR-3000

High iron oxide E6022 - K-6022

Iron powder titania E7014, 7024 E4914, E4924 K-7014, K-7024

Iron oxide
E6027 E4327 KF-300LF
iron power
Low hydrogen
E7016 E5016, E4916 KH-500LF, KK-50LF
(Basic)
Iron powder
E7018, E7028 E4918, E4928 K-7018, K-7028LF
low hydrogen
6. Products Characteristic (According to coating type)

Division Contents

◆ Main composition : Illmenite (TiO2 · FeO) over 30%


Iron oxide ◆ Electrodes, with a rather fluid slag system, provide deeper
titania arc penetration
(Illmenite) ◆ Free from pit and good radiographic soundness
AWS E6019 ◆ Welding of high pressure boilers, buildings, bridges and other
structural fabrications

Division Contents

◆ Main composition : TiO2 over 30% and basic


Lime titania ◆ Excellent slag removal
JIS E4313 ◆ Suitable for tack welding and intermittent welding
◆ High welding efficiency and restriking property
◆ Welding of cars, other vehicles, light structural steel and so on
Division Contents

◆ Main composition : Cellulose over 30%


◆ Good penetration combined with freedom from lack of fusion
makes this electrode an excellent choice for pipeline welding
High cellulose
◆ Gives high ductility root weld
AWS E6010(1) ◆ Because of their high moisture content, special procedures
must be used to prevent excessive risk of cracking
◆ Ship buildings, pressure pipe and so on

Division Contents

◆ Main composition : TiO2 (Rutile) over 30%


◆ Excellent striking and restriking properties
High titania
◆ Excellent slag removal and arc transter
AWS E6013(2)
◆ Excellent bead appearance without undercut
◆ Welding of all kinds of light constructional work in all positions
Division Contents

◆ Electrodes are made with inorganic coverings that contain


minimal moisture
◆ Electrodes containing calcium fluoride (CaF2) are hygroscopic
Low hydrogen and must be stored in dry conditions.
(Basic) ◆ They produce strong welds, but a coarse and convex shaped
AWS E7016 joint surface.
◆ Excellent mechanical properties and radiographic soundness
◆ Welding of strength members of ship hulls and general heavy
structural steels, free cutting steels, medium carbon steel
Division Contents

Iron powder
◆ Iron power + titania
titania
◆ High efficiency in single pass / Quiet and stable arc
AWS E701(2)4

Division Contents

Iron powder ◆ Low hydrogen (Basic) + Iron powder


Low hydrogen ◆ Iron powder → Improving the productivity of the electrode
AWS E701(2)8 (High deposition rate)

Division Contents

◆ Beautiful bead appearance without undercut and easy


iron oxide
slag removal
iron power
◆ Flat and horizontal fillet welding of ship hull constructions,
AWS E6027
bridge and general structures
7. Covered Electrodes Control Instruction

1. Storage of Stick Electrodes

1) On principle coated stick electrodes should be in their original packaging until


used. If possible the packs of electrodes should be taken out of storage in the
sequence in which they were received in warehouse.

2) The stick electrodes must be stored in dry rooms to protect them against
damage caused by moisture. The room must be fitted out with pallets or shelves
since storage directly on the floor or against the walls is not recommended.

3) Opened packs of electrodes should also be stored in dry and, if necessary,


heated rooms so that there is no likelihood of the temperature dropping below
the dew point.

Store Condition (Opened packs of electrode)


AWS Classification
Ambient Air Holding Oven

E6010, E6011, E6013, E6019 30±10℃ High 12~24℃ than


E6022, E6027, E7014, E7024 Humidity max. 60% room temperature

30±10℃ High 30~140℃ than


E7016, E7018, E7028
Humidity max. 50% room temperature
2. Re-drying of Stick electrodes

1) Where electrodes have become damp it is recommended that re-drying is


carried out immediately prior to welding in accordance with the temperature
details specified in the following table.

2) Electrodes that have been in direct contact with water, grease or oil should
not be used for welding fabrication.

Re-drying Re-drying
Type of coating Base materials
Temp. (℃) time (Min.)
High cellulose Mild, Low-alloy steels 70~80 30~60
Iron oxide titania Mild, High tensile steels 70~100 30~60
High titania Mild steels, Hard facing 70~100 30~60
High iron oxide Mild steels 70~100 30~60
Iron powder, titania Mild, High tensile steels 70~100 30~60
Mild steels 70~100 30~60
Lime titania
STS, Ni-alloy 250~300 50~70
Mild, High tensile, Low-alloy
Low-hydrogen 300~350 50~70
steels, STS, Hard facing
Mild, High tensile, Low-alloy
Low-hydrogen iron powder 300~350 50~70
steels
8. Welding consumables guidance (SMAW)

KI-101LF, KT-303, KCL-10, KCL-11, K-6012, KR-3000,


40kgf/mm2
KR-3000V, K-6022, KF-300LF, KH-500LF, KH-500VLF,
(400N/mm2)
KH-500W, KH-500T

50kgf/mm2
Mild steel, Requirements (490N/mm2)
K-7014, K-7024, K-7010G, KK-50LF, K-7018, K-7028LF

High tensile Min tensile


steel strength 60kgf/mm2
K-8010G, KK-55, KK-60, K-8018, K-9018M
(590N/mm2)

70kgf/mm2 KK-70, K-10018M


(690N/mm2) [KK-80(80kgf), K-11018M(80kgf), K-12018M(90kgf)]

-45℃
KK-50N, K-7018N, K-8018C3
(Charpy-V)

-51℃
K-8016B2, K-8018B2
(Charpy-V)
Low Requirements
Temp(℃)
Temperature -60℃
KK-50NN, K-8016C1, K-8018C1(PWHT), K-9018B3
(Charpy-V)

-73℃
K-8016C2(PWHT), K-8018C2(PWHT)
(Charpy-V)
0.5% Mo K-7010A1, K-7016A1, K-7018A1

0.5% Cr-
K-8016B1
0.5% Mo

1.25% Cr-
Low-alloyed K-8016B2, K-8018B2
Requirements 0.5% Mo
High Base metal
Composition 2.25% Cr-
temperature K-9016B3, K-9018B3
1.0% Mo

5.0% Cr-
K-502, K-502-15
0.5% Mo

9.0% Cr-
K-505, K-505-15
1.0% Mo

50kgf/mm2
Low-alloyed KW-50G, KW-50V, KW-50WH
Requirements (490N/mm2)
Weather Min tensile
proof strength 60kgf/mm2
KW-60G
(590N/mm2)
250 (Hv) KM-100, KM-900, KBH-2, KM-250

300 (Hv) KM-300, KM-300R, KM-13CrM

350 (Hv) KM-100C, KM-350,

450 (Hv) KM-500


Requirements
Hardfacing
Min hardness
500(Hv) KM-11Cr, KOSPEL-600H

600 (Hv) KQD-600

650 (Hv) KM-700, KSB-2

800 (Hv) KOSPEL-800R, KM-800, KM-1000


Fe Type KL-100, KCF-50

Cast Iron
Ni Type KFN-50, KSN-100

Ni Base Inconel KNCF-3, KW-A690