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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing

Chapter 1: Situation

Operator X wanted to deploy 3G (UMTS2100) on their existing 2G (DCS1800) IBS. Since this is

customer HQ solution was already designed to support 3G 2 years ago. As per our plan we only

had to combine the 2G/3G RRU to DAS with minimal modifications.


Solution was designed in 6 sectors each sector with average of 45 to 55 antennas each. To start off

we selected the VIP sector serving CEO/CTO/CFO floors in the customer building. Since this was

the first 3G site in the city no outdoor interference was expected other then CDMA/Evo 1900

commercial network owned by operator Y.

Chapter 2: Description of Problems

After sharing 1 Sector DAS for 2G/3G Services we received very high RTWP values and throughput

was very low. There was only 1 active user on the network which ruled out network congestion.

DL Through put average 1.2Mbps


UL Through put average 244Kbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -75
RSCP -50 to -60

As a first step site configurations were checked at the OMCR end. Then External interference was

checked by the conducting FFT Frequency Spectrum Scanning option of NodeB and the results

were satisfactory. Highlighted band was the trail band for 3G.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Since Configurations and Interference were ruled out as the causes for RTWP next possible reason

left was DAS. Since this was a Passive DAS solution we had to manually conduct the Point to Point

verification. As this was an operational building we couldn’t troubleshoot each antenna path

manually.

Chapter 3: Solutions and Results

DAS Troubleshooting Plan

Current connectivity diagram was analyzed to identify most effective points for troubleshooting.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Plan was to manually go from point to point disconnect a specific area and check the impact on

RTWP to locate the actual fault area.

DAS Troubleshooting Activity

Since 3G Signal was divided into 2 parts for combination with 2 existing DCS DAS ports.
As the first step we disconnected combiner serving C/D/E floors and checked the RTWP for only

A/B floors.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Stats were observed after this activity and results were as follows

DL Through put average 1.1Mbps


UL Through put average 142Kbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -75
RSCP -50 to -60

Which meant that A/B floors are problematic and need to be analyzed further.
Now to verify the DAS for C/D/E floors we reconnected the combiner to DAS port and disconnected

the already tested A/B floors

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Stats were observed after this activity and results were as follows

DL Through put average 16.1Mbps


UL Through put average 2.4Mbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -105
RSCP -50 to -60

These results indicated that DAS for C/D/E floors is ok. Hence C/D/E Floors were cleared
Now we moved further into troubleshooting for A/B floors. Floor A was disconnected and stats were

recorded for Floor B only

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Stats were observed after this activity and results were as follows

DL Through put average 17Mbps


UL Through put average 3.2Mbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -107
RSCP -50 to -55

This way we cleared 4 out of the 5 Floors and 40 out of 50 antennas were cleared.
Floor A was connected and Floor B was disconnected to observe results.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Stats were observed after this activity and results were as follows

DL Through put average 1.3Mbps


UL Through put average 342Kbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -75
RSCP -50 to -60

Since each floor was further divided into 2 sections in terms of Antenna distribution connectivity so

we moved further into Floor A for identifying the RTWP causing equipment.
DAS for Section 2 on Floor A was disconnected which was serving 7 antennas and Section 1 was

observed for impact on RTWP.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Stats were observed after this activity and results were as follows

DL Through put average 1.05Mbps


UL Through put average 210Kbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -75
RSCP -45 to -50

Section A was clearly causing the RTWP rise.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Now to rule out Section 2 Section 1 was disconnected and Section 2 was reconnected.

Stats were observed after this activity and results were as follows

DL Through put average 16.5Mbps


UL Through put average 3.5Mbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -107
RSCP -45 to -50

Step by Step 45 out of the total 50 antennas were cleared. Now the issue was pin pointed on

Section 1 on Floor A. But before moving ahead we verified by connecting total DAS to the system

and only Disconnecting Section 1 of Floor A

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

Stats were observed after this activity and results were as follows

DL Through put average 17Mbps


UL Through put average 4.2Mbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -107
RSCP -45 to -55

The results confirmed our initial finding. Within section 1 Antennas are divided in to 2 groups via

coupler so we tried isolating the problematic part.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

2-way splitter was disconnected and impact of 3 antennas on RTWP was observed

Stats were observed after this activity and results were as follows

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

DL Through put average 16.8Mbps


UL Through put average 4.1Mbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -106
RSCP -45 to -55

Now the exact location was pinpointed and it was observed that the moment we connected any of

the remaining 2 Antenna to DAS, RTWP value increased to -75. All the Components were replaced

along with antenna in that area but we kept on receiving sharp rise in RTWP the moment antenna

was connected.
We came to the conclusion that the reason behind this is uplink interference which was ruled out

initially by conducting FFT spectrum scanning through NodeB.

Interference Source Identification

Since the only existing technology in Pakistan that could have caused any interference for UMTS

was CDMA/Evo1900 teams tried locating any signal sources for dedicated coverage enhancement

of EVo for the customer management. But there was no device of those sorts.
After researching for all the unlicensed wireless bands operational Globally on the internet it was

found that DECT6.0 technology (1920 – 1930MHz) which is American band for cordless telephones

is the only band which can cause direct interference in UMTS2100 Uplink trail band that we were

using for customer (1925 – 1930MHZ).

Based on this finding teams were asked to physically visit the problem area and conduct spectrum

scanning for Uplink band interference and results were positive there was severe interference in

customer CEO office and its adjacent reception.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

These findings further ensured that the interference is caused due to DECT6.0 technology because

DECT6.0 Broadcast band directly falls in the UMTS UL Trail band.

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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

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Once results confirmed the cause of interference device was located and verified to be operating on

DECT6.0.

Chapter 4: Result

Once the root cause was identified we requested the customer to discard the cordless

exchange operating on DECT6.0 technology. After that entire sector service was optimum on

DAS. Stats observed after identification and removal of interference causing source were as

follows

DL Through put average 17Mbps


UL Through put average 4.1Mbps
CS calls Successful
RTWP -107
RSCP -45 to -55

After that Spectrum scanning was conducted on the entire building and once 3G services were

operational on all 6 sectors. Following results were achieved

Test Item Status Remarks


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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

CS Voice Call OK Tested on all Floor including Basements


CS Video Call OK Tested on all Floor
FTP Downloading OK Average 17.5 Mbps
FTP Uploading OK Average 4.3 Mbps
News Channel Sites Including Dawn, Geo, Aaj, etc tested
Video Streaming OK
Successful
Website Web-surfing from Google / Facebook / Emails Tested
OK
Browsing successful
Handover (3G to
OK Tested on Capsule Lift and Stairs
3G)
Handover (3G to Tested Successfully on Elevators, Ground Floor and
OK
2G) Basement Exits
Reselection (3G Tested Successfully on Elevators, Ground Floor and
OK
to 2G) Basement Exits
Reselection (2G Tested Successfully on Ground Floor and Basement
OK
to 3G) Entrance

This whole process helped customer in their strategy for avoiding these bands in license auction. As

especially for Indoor cells these unlicensed band devices would cause problems in future.

Chapter 5: Suggestion

 It is better to conduct on site tests specially for VIP accounts. 3 Days were wasted in

physical troubleshooting of DAS just because we received false results from NodeB FFT spectrum

Scanning.
 3G Spectrum scanning for indoor cell during planning is as important as it is for outdoor

cell planning. This 1 activity can save a lot of optimization time whether it is RF optimization or DAS

optimization.
 For solutions deployed prior to 3G upgrade proper design documentation should be

maintained specially by modifying the report with respect to changes made during DAS

optimization.
 Just because all optimization changes made 2 years ago were documented properly we

managed to smoothly troubleshoot deployed DAS on strategic locations and save time.
 Engineers should not forget the importance of research. With an open mind and efficient
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IBS Modernization – RTWP Cause Tracing Security Level: High

use of information sources around us we get to learn new things with each problem we encounter.

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