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Service Bulletin

Volvo Trucks North America


Trucks

D
Greensboro, NC USA

Date Group No. Page


This Service Bulletin replaces SB 230–94, “Fuel Supply
Pressure, Fault Tracing, Checklist B, D12D” (11.2004), 5.2006 230 94 1(26)
publication no. PV776–20 019713.
Fuel Supply Pressure
Fault Tracing
Checklist B
D12D
Fuel Supply Pressure, Fault Tracing
Checklist B

W2005417

This information covers fault tracing the fuel supply pressure of the Volvo D12D engine.

Contents
• “General Guide to Fault Tracing” page 2
• “System Overview” page 3
• “Fuel Supply Pressure, Fault Tracing” page 6

Note: Information is subject to change without notice.


Illustrations are used for reference only, and may differ slightly from the actual engine
version. However, key components addressed in this information are represented as
accurately as possible.

PV776-20175552 USA20679.ihval
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 2(26)

General Guide to Fault Tracing

D
You must read and understand the precautions and guidelines in Service Information,
group 20, "General Safety Practices, Engine" before performing any procedure. If
you are not properly trained and certified in a procedure, ask your supervisor for
training before you perform it.

To use this checklist:

1 • Complete basic data gathering


• Read fault codes
• Check vehicle parameters

2 Use the recommendations in appropriate symptom information, plus the


information gathered above to provide a foundation for continued fault tracing
using this checklist.

One fault often affects other systems. Therefore, it is important to confirm or


eliminate suspected causes of faults at an early stage, using tests in VCADS
Pro.
Note: Maximum cleanliness should be observed during work with the fuel system.
Always wash the engine before starting the work.
Protective plugs should be installed where connections have been removed to prevent
the fuel system from being contaminated. Removed parts should be kept in a sealed
plastic bag until they are installed.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 3(26)

System Overview

Fuel System:
D
When fault tracing, it is important to understand the function of the
system and to follow the fault-tracing sequence in the
checklist to avoid replacing non-defective components.

• Fuel System D12D Type 1 (With Electric Fuel Priming Pump):


See “Fuel System D12D Type 1 (With Electric Fuel Priming Pump)” page 3

• Fuel System D12D Type 2 (With Manual Fuel Priming Pump):


See “Fuel System D12D Type 2 (With Manual Fuel Priming Pump, Version A and
B)” page 4

Fuel System D12D Type 1 (With Electric Fuel Priming Pump)


Note: Prior to week 6, 2005. See Fig. 1: Fuel System D12D Type 1 (With Electric Fuel
Priming Pump), page 10

W2005406

System Function A non-return valve (10) is located in the electric fuel pump
(3). This valve ensures that the fuel does not run back to
Fuel is drawn up using the supply pump (1) through the tank when the engine is not running.
the pickup tube(s) in the fuel tank (2) through the water
separator/prefilter (not shown), past the electric fuel pump
(3) into the fuel filter housing (4). Fuel then proceeds
through the EECU cooling plate (5) and up to the overflow
valve (6), where the fuel from the tank is mixed with the
return fuel from the cylinder head fuel gallery (7), and on
to the suction side of the fuel pump.

The supply pump forces the fuel to the fuel filter housing
through the main filter (8) to the cylinder head longitudinal
fuel gallery. This gallery supplies each unit injector (9)
with fuel via a circular groove in the injector body. The
overflow valve (6) regulates the pressure of the fuel
supply to the injectors.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 4(26)

D
Supply Pump Valves
Two valves are located in the supply pump (1). The non-return valve (12) opens when the electric fuel
pump (3) is used.
The safety valve (11) allows fuel to flow back to the
suction side when the pressure is too high, e.g. when the
fuel filter is blocked.

Electric Fuel Pump


The electric fuel pump (3) is used to bleed the fuel system approximately 5 minutes. Bleeding takes place when
(i.e. during fuel filter replacement). It is activated using the fuel system is filled and the pressure in the system
the dashboard switch (13). increases. During bleeding, the air is forced out through
the fuel line (14) and on through the air vent valve (15)
Bleeding the fuel system: When the switch (13) is down to the fuel tank via the return line (16).
pressed, the electric fuel pump starts and runs for

Other
A drain nipple (17) is located on the fuel filter housing. A pressure sensor (18) is also located on the fuel filter
The nipple is used for draining the fuel system when housing. This sensor measures the supply pressure after
replacing unit injectors for example. the fuel filter. The instrument panel will show a fault code
if the supply pressure is less than specifications.

Fuel System D12D Type 2 (With Manual Fuel Priming Pump, Version A and B)
Note: After week 6, 2005
See Fig. 2: Fuel System D12D Type 2 (With Manual Fuel
Priming Pump, Version A), page 10 and Fig. 3: Fuel
System D12D Type 2 (With Manual Fuel Priming Pump,
Version B, page 11

W2005407
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 5(26)

System Function

There are two versions (A and B) of the Type 2 fuel filter


housing (see graphic on Fig. 2: Fuel System D12D Type
2 (With Manual Fuel Priming Pump, Version A), page 10
and Fig. 3: Fuel System D12D Type 2 (With Manual Fuel
Priming Pump, Version B, page 11 for actual line routing
and differences). Fuel is drawn up the fuel lines via the
supply pump (1) through the pickup tube(s) located in the
fuel tank (2), and into the fuel filter housing (3) where it
passes through the primary filter (4) and water separator
(5). The fuel then proceeds through the EECU cooling
D
plate (6), up to the overflow valve (7), where the fuel from
the tank is mixed with the return fuel from the cylinder
head fuel gallery (8), and on to the suction side of the
supply pump.

The supply pump (1) forces the fuel to the fuel filter
housing (3) through the main filter (9) to the cylinder
head’s longitudinal fuel gallery (8). This gallery supplies
each unit injector (10) with pressurized fuel via a circular
groove around the unit injector in the cylinder head. The
overflow valve (7) controls the pressure of the fuel to the
injectors.

Supply Pump Valves


There are two valves in the supply pump (1): the fuel filter becomes blocked. The non-return valve (12)
opens when the hand pump (13) is used.
The safety valve (11) allows the fuel to flow back to the
suction side when the pressure becomes too high, e.g. if

Automatic Bleeding
If air gets into the fuel system, it is purged when the return line (15). Purging the air after fuel filter replacement
engine starts. During purging, the air is forced out through is controlled by valves (19), (14) and (25).
the bleed valve (14) down to the fuel tank via the fuel

Water Drainage
Draining water from the water separator (4) requires the • The parking brake is applied.
following requirements to be fulfilled:
When the switch (17) (located in the instrument panel)
• The sensor (16) in the water separator bowl (5) is depressed, the drain valve (18) opens for about 15
indicates high water level. seconds and drains the water. If additional drainage
• The engine is stopped. is required, wait 6 minutes before repeating, since the
• Ignition key in drive position. function is on a timer.

Manual Hand Pump


The manual hand pump (13) is located on the fuel filter Note: For vehicles equipped with High and Medium
housing and is used to pump fuel (when the engine is clusters and built after Nov. 2005, the switch (17) was
not running) after the fuel system has been drained. The discontinued and the drain function was integrated into the
non-return valve (24) for the hand pump is also located in cluster function and controlled by the wiper stalk switch.
the fuel filter housing. For vehicles built with the Low (fleet) cluster, the switch
(17) remained in the instrument panel and did not change.
Note: The hand pump should not be used while the
engine is running.

Other
The type 2 fuel filter housing eliminates the need to There is also a pressure sensor (21) on the fuel filter
drain the fuel when replacing the fuel filter. The valve housing, which monitors the supply pressure after the fuel
peg (19) and (23) closes when the fuel filter is removed. filter. A fault code is shown on the instrument panel if the
It is no longer necessary to purge the air from the fuel supply pressure is less than the specified value.
system after replacing the filter, since this is performed
automatically when the engine is started and runs for A fuel heater (22) is available as an optional extra. It is
more than 2 minutes. The plugged outlet port (20) on fitted in the lower part of the water separator.
the fuel filter housing is used when measuring supply
pressure with an external sensor.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 6(26)

1
Vehicle
Fuel Supply Pressure, Fault Tracing

Chassis Number

“Fuel Supply Pressure, Checking” page 9 (using VCADS Pro)


Mileage
D
See also:


If fault code MID 128 PID 94 FMI 3 or 5 is active (electrical fault), see MID 128 fault
codes.1
If MID 128 PID 94 FMI 7 is active (mechanical fault). Continue fault tracing with
next step in the checklist.
Supply pressure:
“General Guide to Fault Tracing” page 2
“System Overview” page 3

Customer Yes No

Idle: kPa (psi)

1400 rpm/full load: kPa (psi)

Fault-tracing

Symptom Supply pressure, Supply pressure, See steps:


idle 1400 rpm/full load

Low at full load >100 kPa (14.5 psi) <300 kPa (44 psi) 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9
(OK at idle)

Low at idle (OK <100 kPa (14.5 psi) >300 kPa (44 psi) 6, 10
at full load)

Always low <100 kPa (14.5 psi) <300 kPa (44 psi) 2, 3, 10 ,11

Extremely high >600 kPa (87 psi) >600 kPa (87 psi) 2, 4, 6, 12

No fuel pressure 0 0 2, 3, 10, 11


(engine won’t run)

2 “Fuel Lines and Connections, Checking” page 9


Are the suction and pressure fuel lines and connections intact and properly tightened?

Are the fuel lines undamaged and properly clamped and routed?

Is the hollow screw in the correct location?

Is the correct hollow screw with valve in the proper location?

Action:

3 “Fuel Tank, Checking” page 12


Is there adequate fuel in the fuel tank(s)?

Is fuel tank free from contaminants and debris?

Are fuel tank air vent(s), valve(s), and hose(s) open?

Is fuel tank pick-up tube(s) undamaged and open?

Action:

4 “Fuel Supply Pressure, Checking (Filtered Side)” page 13


Supply pressure:

Idle: kPa (psi)

1400 rpm/full load: kPa (psi)

Is the supply pressure correct after the fuel filter?

Note: if supply pressure is within specification when measured with external pressure gauge, but NOT within specification
using VCADS Pro, go to step 12.

Action:

1
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type “Diagnostics,” group 2841
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 7(26)

6
Vehicle

Idle:

1400 rpm/full load:


Chassis Number

“Fuel Supply Pressure, Checking (Unfiltered Side)” page 16


Supply pressure:

D
Mileage

Is the supply pressure correct before it enters the fuel filter housing?

Action:

“Overflow Valve, Checking” page 18


Measured opening pressure:
Customer

kPa (psi)

kPa (psi)

kPa (psi)
Yes No

Is the overflow valve opening pressure within specifications?

Action:

7 “Fuel Restriction, Checking” page 20


Is fuel restriction within normal values?

Action:

8 “Air in Fuel System, Checking” page 22


Is fuel system free from air on the suction side?

Is fuel system free from air on the pressure side?

Action:

9 “Water Separator and Pre-filter, Checking” page 25


Is water separator/prefilter clean and fault free?

Action:

10 “Valves, Fuel Supply Pump, Checking” page 25


Is supply pump safety valve and spring fault free?

Is non-return valve and spring fault free?

Is air vent valve for the return line fault free?

Action:

11 “Fuel Supply Pump, Checking” page 26


Is supply pump weep hole open and unplugged?

Is supply pump weep hole free of fuel or oil?

Is supply pump valve seat free from defects?

Is supply pump drive gear/shaft and housing in good condition and free from excessive wear?

Is the supply pump drive shaft coupled correctly to the accessory drive?

Action:
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 8(26)

12

Notes:
Vehicle Chassis Number Mileage

D 2
MID 128 PID 94, Fuel Supply Pressure Sensor, Checking (refer to MID 128 fault codes) )

Are sensor power, ground, and signal wires okay?

Is sensor connector okay?

Is sensor fault free?

Action:

Completed by: Dealer:


Customer Yes

Date:
No

2
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type “Diagnostics,” group 2841
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 9(26)

D
Fuel Supply Pressure, Fault Tracing
Fuel Supply Pressure, Checking
(Using VCADS Pro)

1
Connect the PC tool to the vehicle diagnostics
connector. Perform “Fuel Supply Pressure Checks” follow
instructions in VCADS Pro.

2
Verify that the supply pressure is at least:

• 100 kPa (14.5 psi) at idle


• 300 kPa (44 psi) at 1400 rpm/full load

Note: If fault code MID 128 PID 94 FMI 3 or 5 is active,


fuel pressure will not be read in VCADS Pro. Refer to MID
128 fault codes3. If fault code MID 128 PID 94 FMI 7 is
active, continue fault tracing with next step in the checklist.

3
Check that the fuel pressure reading in VCADS Pro is
approximately the same as readings on pressure gauge
( “Fuel Supply Pressure, Checking (Filtered Side)” page
13). If values do not agree, check sensor and wiring.
Possible fault code: MID 128 PID 944.

Fuel Lines and Connections, Checking


1
Check whether there is any leakage in the fuel lines
or at the fittings.

2
Check that no lines are kinked or show visible damage.

3
Check that the fuel line fittings on the suction side are
tight, and that no seals are damaged.

Note: If the fuel line fittings on the suction side are


leaking, this is not usually seen as external leakage.
However, air can enter the fuel system and cause
operational malfunctions. See “Air in Fuel System,
Checking” page 22.

3
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type “Diagnostics,” group 2841
4
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type “Diagnostics,” group 2841
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 10(26)

D
4

W2005409

Fig. 1: Fuel System D12D Type 1 (With Electric Fuel


Priming Pump)
1 Hollow screw only
PN: 48634
2 Air bleed pipe with valve
PN: 20487131
Check that the hollow screw is installed in the correct
location for the type and version fuel system you are
working with.

W2005408

Fig. 2: Fuel System D12D Type 2 (With Manual Fuel


Priming Pump, Version A)
1 Hollow screw with Valve assembly PN: 20741620
(Hollow screw only in this location will result in
low fuel pressure).
2 Hollow screw only P/N 48634 (Hollow screw with
valve assembly in this location will result in
high fuel pressure).
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 11(26)

D
5
Check that each hollow screw with valve are correct and
installed in the proper location for the type and version
fuel system you are working with.

Note: Both the 20741620 and 20745644 are equipped


with a valve, however, they are different. For identification
purposes, 20741620 has a 8 mm tall hex head. 20745644
has a 5 mm tall hex head.

W2005410

Fig. 3: Fuel System D12D Type 2 (With Manual Fuel


Priming Pump, Version B
1 Hollow screw with valve assembly
PN: 20741620
2 Hollow screw (only)
3 Hollow screw with valve assembly PN:
20745644 (Low fuel pressure if hollow screw is
in this location).

6
If any corrective action was taken, recheck for any
change in supply pressure.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 12(26)

D
Fuel Tank, Checking
1
Open the fuel tank filler cap and check for a partial
vacuum in the tank.

DANGER
Remove the fuel tank cap before blowing air into the
vent line to prevent air pressure from building up in the
fuel tank. Failure to do so may result in the fuel tank
rupturing or exploding, which may result in serious
personal injury or death.

With the fuel tank cap removed, use an air nozzle to


blow air into the fuel tank vent hose. Listen to hear
whether air enters the tank.

Note: If the hose is plugged or the valve is not working


properly, you will not hear air entering the tank. If this is
the case, replace the hose and/or vent valve.

3
Check for water or contaminants in the fuel tank. Drain
or clean as necessary.

4
If any corrective action was taken, recheck for any
change in supply pressure.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 13(26)

D
Fuel Supply Pressure, Checking (Filtered Side)
A fault indication (fault code) for low supply pressure
must be followed up by checking the supply pressure
using an external pressure sensor to rule out any
defects in the pressure sensor.
Note: When using pressure gauge 9998496, the
pressure sensor must be calibrated and the pressure
gauge battery must be checked.
The calibration and battery test can be carried out using
the oscilloscope on the PC according to the instructions
in the PC or by using a multimeter, see the instructions
supplied with the pressure gauge.
Special tools: 9998339, 9998494, 9998496
Other special equipment: J39200
Install test equipment on the engine
1
Type 1 Fuel Filter Housing (electric priming pump):

• Clean area around the drain nipple on the fuel filter


housing and remove the nipple.
• Connect nipple and fuel hose 9998494 to the housing.

Note: Nipple 9808029 is supplied with hose assembly


9998494.

9998494

T2019291

2
Type 2 Fuel Filter Housing (manual priming pump):

• Clean area around the plug on the fuel filter housing


(below fuel pressure sensor) and remove the plug.
• Connect nipple and fuel hose 9998494 to the housing.
Note: Nipple 9808029 is supplied with hose assembly
9998494.

9998494

T2021366
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 14(26)

D
3

W2005415

Alternative 1, pressure gauge 9998339


Connect measuring equipment using either alternative as
illustrated.

W2005416

Alternative 2, pressure sensor 9998496 and


multimeter J39200

4
Start the engine.

5
Check that the supply pressure is at least:

• 100 kPa (14.5 psi) at idle


• 300 kPa (44 psi) at 1400 rpm
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 15(26)

D
6

DANGER
When operating the vehicle on streets and highways
while a test is being performed, it is mandatory to
have one person drive while another performs the
test. Failure to do so may cause a collision, which can
result in serious injury or death.

DANGER
If a vehicle is driven while test equipment is connected,
secure all equipment to prevent it from interfering with
any functions of the vehicle or the driver. Failure to
do so may cause a collision, which can result in
serious injury or death.

Test drive or dyno test and check fuel pressure at full


engine load. Minimum pressure at full load should be:

• 300 kPa (44 psi)

7
If fuel pressure is below minimum value, proceed to “Fuel
Supply Pressure, Checking (Unfiltered Side)” page 16
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 16(26)

D
Fuel Supply Pressure, Checking (Unfiltered Side)
Checks are carried out to ensure that the fuel filter
is not blocked.
Special tools: 9990124, 9998494
1
Remove the screw from the filter inlet line on the fuel filter
housing. Connect hose nipple and fuel hose 9998494 to
test fitting 9990124. Install to filter housing. Connect
gauge 9998339 or transducer 9998496 and multimeter
J39200 to hose.

9990124, 9998494, 9998496, J39200

T2019406

Type 1 Fuel Filter Housing (electric priming


pump)

DANGER
Do not work close to the fan when the engine is
running. The engine cooling fan can start at any time
without warning. Anything or anybody in the vicinity of
the fan when it starts may be seriously damaged or
injured. Always ensure that the area around the fan is
clear before starting the engine.

Start the engine and check the supply pressure at idle and
again at full load. Minimum supply pressure should be:

• 100 kPa (14.5 psi) at idle


• 300 kPa (44 psi) at 1400 rpm

T2021365

Type 2 Fuel Filter Housing (manual priming


pump)
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 17(26)

D
3
If fuel pressure is above minimum value before the filter
but lower than minimum value after the filter, the filter is
blocked and should be replaced. If fuel pressure is below
minimum value, continue fault tracing.

Note: If the vehicle is equipped with a water


separator/prefilter, this check will be influenced by the
condition of the prefilter. If the condition of the prefilter
is unknown, it must be replaced/serviced prior to this
check in order to eliminate it as a possible cause of
low fuel pressure.

4
If the fuel filter is blocked, check:

• Fuel quality (water, contaminants, etc.). Clean the


fuel tank if necessary.
• Valve body in the supply pump, see “Valves, Fuel
Supply Pump, Checking” page 25.

5
If any corrective action was taken, perform a test drive.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 18(26)

D
Overflow Valve, Checking
Special tools: 949513, 976282, 9808029,
9990123, 9998494
1
Remove the overflow valve.

2
Check that the overflow valve ball is in contact with the
ball seat. This can be checked by pressing a blunt tool on
the ball to check the spring tension.

W2004415

3
Press the ball inward and release. The spring tension
should push the ball back securely on the ball seat. If
the ball does not return to the seat, or does not make a
good seal with the seat, replace the valve. If no fault
is found, proceed to the next step.

Note: If the overflow valve ball is not held fully against


the seat by the spring, the pressure in the fuel system
will be below specifications. Also, when the engine is
shut down, the pressure in the fuel system will bleed off
and engine start may be delayed.

4
Valve Opening Pressure Check

WARNING
Always wear appropriate eye protection to prevent the
risk of eye injury due to contact with debris or fluids.

Install bushing 949513 with copper washer to fitting


976282. Install nipple 9808029 to bushing. Install
overflow valve in opposite side of fitting.

W2004424

A. 976282
B. 949513
C. 9990123
D. 9808029
E. 9998494

5
Check that the reduction valve is unscrewed on the
regulator/gauge 9990123 and that the shut-off valve is
open.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 19(26)

D
6
Connect shop air and test hose 9998494 to
regulator/gauge (with gauge set to 0). Connect test hose
to nipple, as shown in illustration, page 18.

7
Increase air pressure with the reduction valve. Note the
pressure reading on the gauge when the overflow valve
opens. Opening pressure should be:

• 3.6 – 4.2 bar (52 – 61 psi)


Note: The ball and seat in the overflow valve does not
form a complete seal, therefore a small amount of
leakage is acceptable. The purpose of this test is to
W2004413
check overflow valve opening pressure. The valve must
remain closed under the specified pressure.

8
If the overflow valve is opened at a pressure below
3.6 bar (52 psi), the supply pressure will be too low.
Replace the overflow valve.

9
If the overflow valve is opened at pressure above 6 bar
(87 psi), the supply pressure may be too high. Replace
the overflow valve.

Note: If the opening pressure of the overflow valve is


higher than specification, it is unlikely that the overflow
valve is the cause of the low supply pressure. Continue
troubleshooting the other components in the fuel system.

10
If any corrective action was taken, recheck for any
change in supply pressure.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 20(26)

D
Fuel Restriction, Checking
Special tools: 9990124, 9990150, 9998494
1
Remove lower banjo bolt on EECU fuel cooling plate.

W2004304

2
Install hose nipple and fuel hose 9998494 to tool
9990124. Attach tool 9990124 to fuel hose and fuel
cooling plate.

9998494, 9990124

W2004302

3
Attach vacuum gauge 9990150 to hose 9998494.

9990150
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 21(26)

D
4

DANGER
Do not work close to the fan when the engine is
running. The engine cooling fan can start at any time
without warning. Anything or anybody in the vicinity of
the fan when it starts may be seriously damaged or
injured. Always ensure that the area around the fan is
clear before starting the engine.

Run engine at rated engine speed. Vacuum pressure


should not exceed –35 kPa (–10 in. Hg). For best results,
check should be made with engine under full load
(test drive or dyno test).

Note: Disconnect gauge 9990150 from hose 9998494


before engine is shut down to avoid possible damage to
gauge. Once engine is shut down, residual fuel pressure
is forced back towards the supply side. The positive
pressure may force the gauge out of its normal range
which could result in gauge damage.

5
If vacuum pressure is greater than –35 kPa (–10 in. Hg),
there is too much fuel restriction which will result in
low fuel pressure.
Check:

• Secondary fuel filter

• Water separator/prefilter

• Fuel suction lines

• Splitter valve

• Fuel filter housing (remove fuel bowl and inspect)

• Fuel tank pick up tube(s)


Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 22(26)

D
Air in Fuel System, Checking
Note: For a more detailed mechanical check for
locating air entry into the fuel system, refer to Service
Information, group 23.

DANGER
Cooling fan may engage without warning. Hands
and/or fingers in the path of the fan blades can be
injured or severed. To avoid injury, keep hands and
fingers away from the fan while the engine is running.

Special tools: 9990056, 9990149


1
Air in fuel check (return connection)
Remove the return hose at the front of the cylinder head.
Connect transparent hose 9990056 and insert the other
end of the hose into a suitable container.

Note: To get a accurate indication of the amount of


air exiting the test hose, with the engine running, the
technician should watch for air bubbles in the area where
the test hose enters the fuel level in the container. Very
small bubbles in this area are normal and are hard to
judge as seen through the clear hose.

T2019057

2
Air in fuel check (supply connection)
Remove the fuel supply line between fuel filter housing
and EECU fuel cooling plate.

W2004303
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 23(26)

D
3
Install test hose 9990149 to check for air on the supply
(suction) side of the fuel system.

W2004301

4
Using the priming pump, purge all air from the fuel system.

DANGER
Cooling fan may engage without warning. Hands
and/or fingers in the path of the fan blades can be
injured or severed. To avoid injury, keep hands and
fingers away from the fan while the engine is running.

WARNING
Safety glasses should be worn when working around a
turning fan blade. Flying objects could cause eye injury.

Start the engine and check whether the hoses contain air
when the engine is running.

Note: Run engine long enough to purge any remaining


air that may have entered the fuel system when the test
hose was being installed.

6
If the fuel system contains air or exhaust gases on the
pressure (return) side, test to determine whether the fuel
contains carbon monoxide; refer to Service Information,
“Fault Tracing, Checklist G, Low Compression5 ” Also
refer to Service Information, “Locating Air Entry into
the Fuel System6”

Note: It is normal to see a small amount of air in the


return line.

5
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type “Diagnostics,” group 2103
6
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type “Repair,” group 2309
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 24(26)

D
7
If the fuel system contains air on the supply (suction) side,
Check:

• Fuel lines

• Fuel line fittings (thread connections)

• Fuel line fittings (seals)

• Rubber seals on fuel priming pump (are they


damaged?)

• O-ring seal on fuel bowl (on fuel filter housing)

• High restriction on the supply (suction) side

Note: With the Type 1 (With Electric Fuel Priming Pump),


in some cases it may be necessary to inspect the seals
on the fuel priming pump, even if no air is seen in the test
hose (if engine cannot run under full load).
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 25(26)

D
Water Separator and Pre-filter, Checking
Special tools: J29925
1
Check the water separator/pre-filter for any contaminants
that may have plugged the filter(s).

2
If the water separator/pre-filter was prematurely plugged,
further inspection is required. Cut open the filter(s) using
tool J29925 and determine the type of contamination.
Perform appropriate measures to eliminate further
possible contamination.

J29925

3
If excessive contamination was found, or if the filter was
plugged, drain excess water and/or contaminants from
the fuel tank and clean tanks if necessary.

Valves, Fuel Supply Pump, Checking


Note: Before removing the supply pump, it must
be inspected and cleaned thoroughly to prevent
contamination from undetected dirt or debris.
Note: Before cleaning the valve seats in the supply pump
with compressed air: All fuel lines must be removed
from the supply pump to avoid air being forced into
the fuel system.
1
Remove the safety valve plug (A) on the fuel pump and
remove the valve body and spring. Check the sealing
surface of the valve body for damage and debris.

T2019292

A Safety valve
B Non-return valve for bleeding the fuel system

2
Replace the valve body, if necessary.

3
Remove and check the non-return valve (B) in the same
way as the safety valve.
Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 5.2006 230 94 26(26)

D
4
Replace the valve body and spring, if necessary.

5
If any corrective action was taken, recheck for any
change in supply pressure.

Fuel Supply Pump, Checking


Note: If any previous corrective action was taken,
recheck for any change in supply pressure before
removing the supply pump.

CAUTION
If a new fuel pump is installed and used with a
worn accessory drive, fuel pump may be damaged
prematurely.

Inspect the accessory drive for wear, excessive end-play,


or damage which could cause the fuel pump drive shaft
to be incorrectly driven by the accessory drive. If the
accessory drive is excessively worn, it is possible that the
fuel pump drive shaft could separate from the drive slot.
This would result in no fuel pressure.

2
Remove the fuel pump. Check the supply pump
shaft/gears for evidence of wear or damage (including
excessive end play). Replace the supply pump if
damaged.

3
Check the valve seats in the supply pump. Check for
damage to the valve body contact surfaces. Replace the
supply pump if damaged.

4
Check to see whether the overflow hole (A) between the
seals in the supply pump housing is leaking engine oil
or fuel. Leaks from the overflow hole indicate that the
seals in the supply pump drive device are worn. Replace
the fuel pump if leaks are evident.

Note: Traces of oil underneath the pump may come from


the M8 bolt (B) in the timing gear plate. Replace the
bolt or seal the thread using sealant.

W2005418

A Location of the overflow hole


B Bolt (M8)