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Trends in International

Mathematics and Science Study


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

TIMSS 2011 8th grade average Mathematics scores

TIMSS 2011 8th grade average Science scores

The IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a


series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of
students around the world. The participating students come from a diverse set of
educational systems (countries or regional jurisdictions of countries) in terms of
economic development, geographical location, and population size. In each of the
participating educational systems, a minimum of 4,500 to 5,000 students is evaluated.
Contextual data about the conditions in which participating students learn
mathematics and science are collected from the students and their teachers, their
principals, and their parents via questionnaires.[1]
TIMSS is one of the studies established by IEA aimed at allowing educational
systems worldwide to compare students' educational achievement and learn from the
experiences of others in designing effective education policy. This assessment was
first conducted in 1995, and has been administered every four years thereafter.
Therefore, some of the participating educational systems have trend data across
assessments from 1995 to 2015.[2] TIMSS assesses 4th and 8th grade students, while
TIMSS Advanced assesses students in the final year of secondary school in advanced
mathematics and physics.

History[edit]
A precursor to TIMSS was the First International Mathematics Study (FIMS)
performed in 1964 in 11 countries for students aged 13 and in the final year of
secondary education (FS) under the auspices of the International Association for the
Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). This was followed in 1970-71 by the
First International Science Study (FISS) for students aged 10, 14, and FS. Fourteen
countries tested 10-year olds; 16 countries tested the older two groups. These were
replicated between 1980 and 1984.[3]
These early studies were revised and combined by the IEA to create TIMSS, which
was first administered in 1995. It was the largest international student assessment
study of its time and evaluated students in five grades. In the second cycle (1999) only
eighth-grade students were tested. In the next cycles (2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015)
both 4th and 8th grade students were assessed. The 2011 cycle was performed in the
same year as the IEA's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS),
offering a comprehensive assessment of mathematics, science and reading for the
countries participating in both studies. The sixth cycle was conducted in 2015, and the
results were released in 2016;[1] the data set was published in February 2017. TIMSS
2015 included data collected from parents for the first time.[4] TIMSS Advanced,
previously conducted in 1995 and 2008, was also conducted in 2015, and assessed
final-year secondary students' achievement in advanced mathematics and physics.
Policy-relevant data about curriculum emphasis, technology use, and teacher
preparation and training accompanies the TIMSS Advanced results.

Method, data and documentation[edit]


Along with the overall students’ achievement data, TIMSS comprehensive
assessments include data on student performance in various mathematics and science
domains (algebra, geometry, biology, chemistry, etc.) and on performance in the
problem solving challenges in each of these contexts. In addition, TIMSS provides
contextual data on crucial curricular, instructional, and resource-related factors that
can impact the teaching and learning process. These data are gathered using student,
teacher, school, and curriculum (national) questionnaires filled out by students,
teachers, school principals and National Research Coordinators, respectively.
According to the TIMSS 2011 international results in mathematics, “The TIMSS
mathematics achievement scales were established in TIMSS 1995 based on the
achievement distribution across all participating countries, treating each country
equally. At each grade level, the scale center point of 500 was set to correspond to the
mean of the overall achievement distribution, and 100 points on the scale was set to
correspond to the standard deviation. Achievement data from subsequent TIMSS
assessment cycles were linked to these scales so that increases or decreases in average
achievement may be monitored across assessments. TIMSS uses the scale center point
as a point of reference that remains constant from assessment to assessment”.[5]
Because TIMSS is administered in four-year cycles, it enables participating counties
to use the results between the fourth and eighth grades to track the changes in
achievement and certain background factors from an earlier study. For example,
results of the fourth grade in TIMSS 1995 can be compared with the results of the
eighth grade in TIMSS 1999, as fourth graders had become eighth graders in the next
cycle of study.[6]
The collected information is presented in different formats. For example, for TIMSS
2015 the results are presented as TIMSS International Results in Science TIMSS
International Results in Science and TIMSS International Results in Mathematics.
The TIMSS 2015 Encyclopedia provides an overview of how mathematics and
science are taught in each participating country. Methods and Procedures in TIMSS
2015 documents the development of the TIMSS assessments and questionnaires, and
describes the methods used. The TIMSS 2015 User Guide for the International
Database describes the content and format of the data in the TIMSS 2015
International Database. The fully documented TIMSS 2015 international database can
be downloaded.
The IEA has developed an application for working with data from TIMSS and other
IEA large-scale assessments called the "IEA International Database (IDB) Analyzer"..
This application allows researchers to combine data files and facilitates some types of
statistical analysis (such as computing means, percentages, percentiles, correlations,
and estimating single level multiple linear regression). The application takes into
account the complex sample structure of the databases when calculating the statistics
and their standard errors. It also allows researchers to estimate achievement scores
and their standard errors.
For an overview of the IEA study results and interpretation of information, the
IEA's "Data Visualizer". can come in handy.

Cycles[edit]
In TIMSS 1995[7], there were 41 educational systems in five grades (third, fourth,
seventh, eighth, and the final year of secondary school).[4] In 1999[8], TIMSS only
focused on the eighth grade in 38 educational systems; there was no study done for
the fourth grade in that year.[9] In TIMSS 2003[10], there were 26 educational
systems for the fourth grade and 48 for the eighth grade.[11] In TIMSS 2007[12], 44
educational systems participated in the fourth grade and 57 educational systems in the
eighth grade. TIMSS 2011[13] had 52 participating educational systems for the fourth
grade and 45 for the eighth grade.[4]
In TIMSS 2015[14], nationally representative samples of students in 57 countries and
7 benchmarking entities participated in the fourth grade assessment, the eighth grade
assessment, or both.[15]
TIMSS 2019 will be the seventh cycle of TIMSS, reporting overall achievement as
well as results according to international benchmarks, by major content domains
(number, algebra, and geometry in mathematics, and earth science, biology, and
chemistry in science), and by cognitive domains (knowing, applying, and reasoning).
Like the previous TIMSS assessments (conducted in 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011,
and 2015), the study will collect detailed information about curriculum and
curriculum implementation, instructional practices, and school resources. TIMSS
2019 is focusing on converting to a digital format (eTIMSS 2019). Fourth-grade
students can interact with geometric shapes and patterns to demonstrate their mastery
of fractions and symmetry, or arrange square flower boxes to explore the relationship
between perimeter and area. Eighth-grade students can help to design a storage
building by calculating its dimensions, or plan a plant growth experiment and see the
results. Other tasks will assess students’ knowledge in areas covered by the TIMSS
frameworks, including algebra, data and chance, physics, and chemistry[16].
eTIMSS will continue all the benefits of TIMSS, enabling countries to measure how
effective they are in teaching mathematics and science.

Additional initiatives[edit]
The TIMSS 1999 Video Study[17] was a study of eighth-grade mathematics and
science teaching in seven countries. The study involved videotaping and analyzing
teaching practices in more than one thousand classrooms. In conjunction with the
IEA, the study was conducted by the US National Center for Education Statistics, and
the US Department of Education under a contract with LessonLab, Inc. of Los
Angeles, California.

Cooperative partners[edit]
TIMSS depends on the collaboration of a large number of individuals and
organizations around the world including the TIMSS & PIRLS International Study
Center at Boston College, IEA's offices in Amsterdam and Hamburg, Statistics
Canada, and Educational Testing Service (ETS). In the United States, TIMSS is
conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of
Education. Data for US students is further tracked for ethnic and racial groups.
TIMSS is mainly funded by the participating countries. Also, the US National Center
for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education and the World Bank
provide major support funding for the assessments.[4]

Top 10 countries by subject and year[edit]


Mathematics[edit]
Fourth grade[edit]
TIMSS(1995) TIMSS(2003) TIMSS(2007) TIMSS(2011) TIMSS(2015)

1. 625 1. 594 1. 607


Singapore Singapore Hong Kong 1. Singapor 606 1. Singapor 618
e e
2. 575 2. 599
2. South 611 Hong Kong Singapore 2.
Korea 565 3. 576 South 605 2. Hong 615
3.
597 Japan Korea Kong
3.
Japan 4. 564 3.
587 Hong 602 3. South 608
4.
Hong Kong Kong Korea
577 4. 591 4. 597
5. Netherlan
ds
567
6. Czech Taiwan
Republic 4. 568
7. 559 Taiwan Japan
Austria 551 Taiwan Taiwan
5. Flanders(B Kazakhsta 549 5.
5.
8. Slovenia 552 n 585 5. 593
elgium) Japan Japan
9. 550 6. 540 6. 544 6.
Ireland Netherlan Northern 562 6. Norther 570
10. 548 ds Ireland n Ireland
7. 536 7. 549 7. 564
Latvia Flanders(
8. 534 Belgium)
Lithuania 8. 545
9. 532

Russia
7. 541
Hungary England(a
nd Wales) Russia
8. 537 8. 549
Latvia
9. 535 Finland
Russia Netherlan 9. 542
531 ds England(
10. England(a 10. 530 and Wale
nd Wales) Lithuania s)
10. 542

Norway
9. 547
Ireland
10. 546
England

Russia

Eighth grade[edit]
TIMSS ( 1995 TIMSS- TIMSS(2003) TIMSS(2007) TIMSS(2011) TIMSS(2015)
) R(1999)
1. 60 1. 60 1. 59 1. 61 1. 62
64
1. Singapor Singapor 4 Singapor 5 8 South 3 Singapo 1
3
e e e Korea re
2. 58 2. 58 2. 61 2. 60
60
2. South South 7 South 9 Singap 1 South 6
7
Korea Korea Korea ore Korea
60 3. 58 3. 58 3. 60 3. 59
3.
Japan 5 5 Hong 6 9 9
58 Kong
4. Hong 8 4. 58 Taiwan
Kong 5 2. 59
56 South 7
Flanders 5 Korea
5.
(Belgium 3. 59
) Singap 3
6. 56 Taiwan ore Taiwan Taiwan
Czech 4
4. 58 4. 57 4. 58 4. 59
Republic Hong Taiwan Hong Hong Hong
2 2 6 4
54 Kong 57 Kong Kong Kong
7. 5.
Slovakia 7 57 Japan 0 57 57 58
5. 5. 5. 5.
Japan 9 53 Japan 0 Japan 0 Japan 6
54 Flanders 7 6.
8. Switzerl 51 6. 53 6. 53
5 6.
and Flanders 55 (Belgium 7 9 8
6.
(Belgium 8 )
54 ) 53
9. Netherl
1 54 7. Netherl 6
ands
10 54 7. Netherl 0 ands
. Slovenia 1 ands 8. 53
53 1
8.
Slovakia 4
9. 53 Hunga Russia Russia
2 ry 51 7.
7. 51
7.
Israel 6 Kazakhs 52
tan 8
Englan 3 8. 51
d(and 4 8. 52
Wales) Canada 7
Estonia 8. 51 9. 52
9. 52 2 Ireland 3
9 10
51
Hungary . United
10 53 States 8
. Canada 1 10 51
. England 8
Finlan
d
9.
Russia United 50
Hungary States 9
50
9. United
10 Malaysi 50 States 8 10 Englan 50
. a 8
. d(and 7
10 Lithua 50
Wales)
. 6
nia

Science[edit]
Fourth grade[edit]
TIMSS(1995) TIMSS(2003) TIMSS(2007) TIMSS(2011) TIMSS(2015)

So uth Sin gap 1.


1. 597 1. 565 1. 590
Korea ore Singapor 587 1. South 587 Singapore
Ja pa 574 2. 551 e Korea
2. 2. 557 2. 2. South 589
n
Un ite 565 Singapor 583 Korea
3. e 3.
d States 569
Au stri 565 3. 570 Japan
4. 4. 567
a
Au str 562
5.
alia
Ne the 557
6. Taiwan
rlands
Cz ech 557 3. Ja pa 543 Taiwan
7. n 3. 554
Republic
En gla Ho ng Hong Finland Russia
8. 551 4. 542
nd Kong Kong 5.
4. 559
Ca na En gla 540 548 Japan Hong 557
9. 549 4.
da 5. nd(and Wal Japan 5. 552 Kong
Sin gap es) 5. 546 6. 555
10. 547
ore Un ite 536
6.
d States
7. Lat via 532
8. 530

Russia
Russia 6. 552 Taiwan
6. 542 7. 554
Latvia
7. 542
England(
Hungary
and Wale
9. 526
s)
8. 539
United
States
9. 536 Taiwan
7. Finland
United 544
States 8. Kazakhsta 550
8. n
Czech 536
Russia 9. 547
Republic Poland
Ne the 525
10. 9.
rlands
Hong 535 10. United 546
Kong States
Hungary 10. 534
535
10.
Italy

Hungary

Eighth grade[edit]
TIMSS ( 1995 TIMSS-
TIMSS(2003) TIMSS(2007) TIMSS(2011) TIMSS(2015)
) R(1999)
60 1. 56 1.
57 56 59 59
1. Singapor 7 9 Singapor 1. Singap 1. Singap 1. Singapo
8 7 0 7
e e ore ore re
2. 57 2. 57 2. 56 2. 56 2. 57
Czech 4 1 1 4 Japan 1
Republic 3. 56
3. 57 9
Japan 1
Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan
56
4. South 55
5 56 55 3. 56 55
Korea 2. Singapor 3. South Japan 4 3. South 4. South
8 8 0 6
56 e Korea Korea Korea
5. 55
Bulgaria 5 3. 55 4. 4. South 55 55
55 3 4. 5. Slovenia
56 2 Hong Korea Japan 8 1
Netherl 0 6
6. Kong 5. 54 5. 55 6.
ands Englan 2 54
5. 55 2 Hong
6
56 2 d(and Kong
7. Slovenia 0 Wales) 7. 54
55 6. 53 4
8. Australi 8 9
a
9. 55
Hungary
4
4. 55
Japan 0 Finlan
5. Estonia d
54
South 55 6. 54
9 6. Sloveni 3
Korea Japan 2 Russia
6. 54 7. 54 Hunga a 8. 53
Netherl 5 3 ry 7. 54 England 7
ands 7. 53 2 9.
Hungary Kazakhs 53
54 Czech 9
tan 3
7. Australi 0 Republi
10 England 55 a c 10 53
. (and Wal 2 53 8. 53 . Ireland 0
es) 8. Czech 9 Sloveni 8 10
53
Republic a . United
States 0
53 9. 53
Hungary
England 8 Hong 0 Russia
9. 8. 53 Kong
(and Wal 8.
Netherl 6 53
es) 10 53 Hong
ands 5
10 53 . 0 Kong
9. 52
. 5 United 7 9.
States Englan 53
10 52 d(and 3
. Australi 7 Wales)
a 10
52
. United
States 5
Russia
Finland

All average country scores[edit]


 TIMSS 1995: 4th grade [1]; 8th grade [2]
 TIMSS 1999: 8th grade [3]
 TIMSS 2003: 4th grade [4][5]; 8th grade [6][7]
 TIMSS 2007: 4th and 8th grades [8][9]
 TIMSS 2011: 4th grade [10][11]; 8th grade [12][13]
 TIMSS 2015: 4th and 8th grades [14][15]
TIMSS and other international math and science
studies[edit]
Hanushek and Woessman[18] developed a methodology to rescale 14 different
international comparisons of math and / or science achievement to make them
comparable. This includes the FIMS, FISS, and PISA, mentioned above, with TIMSS.