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Mechanics Of Machine (Hoisting)

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CHAPTER 1

HOISTING

OBJECTIVES

General Objective

Specific Objectives

: To understand the concept of dynamics of rotation.

: At the end of this unit you should be able to:

 Apply basic principle on which all these machines are based. Recognize the effect of combining a hoist drum of moment inertia I with a hanging load of mass M and weight W = mg. Sketch and recognize all force and torque that involve on these machines. Use suitable concepts to solve related problem. Calculate all these topic questions correctly.

Mechanics Of Machine (Hoisting)

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

We study the effect of combining a hoist drum of moment of inertia with a hanging load of mass M and Weight W = Mg.

In this topic we are
concerned in dynamics of
rotation.

1.1 INERTIA COUPLE

Comparing the formulae P = Ma and T = Iα , it is seen that moment of inertia I plays the same part in a change of angular motion as mass M does in change of linear motion. By analogy with the idea of inertia force we may regard the torque T as being balanced by inertia couple, Iα , which sense is opposite to that of the angular acceleration α, (Fig. 3.1). The problem is then in effect reduced to a static one.

The reality of the effect of an inertia couple will be appreciated by anyone who has tried to accelerate a bicycle wheel rapidly by hand. Although the weight may carried wholly by the bearings an effort is required to set the wheel spinning. An inertia couple is, of course, reactive.

Mechanics Of Machine (Hoisting)

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Example 1.1

Fig. 3.1

A 30 kg flywheel, revolving at 5.24 rad/s has a radius of gyration of one meter. Calculate the torque which must be applied to bring the flywheel to rest in 10 seconds.

Solution 1.1:

Mechanics Of Machine (Hoisting)

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1.2 ACCELERATED SHAFT Consider a shaft (Fig. 3.2) carrying a rotor having a moment of inertia about the shaft axis.

Fig. 3.2

If the bearing friction is equivalent to a couple T f .

Then, in order to accelerate the shaft and rotor the driving torque T must

balance both the inertia couple I

and the friction couple T f .

 Thus, T = I +T f Example 1.2

A flywheel has a moment of inertia of 10 kg.m 2 . Calculate the angular

acceleration of the wheel due to a torque of 8 Nm if the bearing friction is equivalent to a couple of 3 Nm.

Solution 1.2:

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1.3 SHAFT BEING BROUGHT TO REST

If the shaft is being brought to rest by a braking torque T the friction couple T f assist the braking action so that T and T f together must balance the inertia

couple I

motion (Fig.3.3).

;

is now a retardation its sense being opposite to that of the

Fig. 3.3

Thus,

T

+T f

= I

If there is no braking torque, the friction couple alone brings the shaft to rest. Then,

T f

= I

Note, in both cases, that

 (a) the friction couple T f opposes the motion. (b) the inertia couple I opposes the change of motion.

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Example 1.3

A flywheel together with its shaft has a total mass of 300 kg and its radius of gyration is 900 mm. If the effect of bearing friction is equivalent to a couple of 70 Nm, calculate the braking torque required to bring the flywheel to rest from a speed of12 rev/s in 8 s.

Solution 1.3

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THE HOIST

Four cases will be considered: the load is rising or falling, being accelerated or brought to rest. In every case two equations can be written down:

 (a) the equation for the balance of couples at the hoist drum (b) the equation for the balance of forces at the load.

In every case we recall that the friction couple at the bearing or rope will oppose the rotation and the inertia couple will oppose the change of rotation. For acceleration, a is upwards, hence the inertia force is downwards. If angular acceleration, is anticlockwise, the inertia couple is clockwise. If rotation of the drum is anticlockwise the friction couple acts clockwise.

1.4 LOAD RAISED AND WITH ACCELERATING UPWARD

For rotation of the hoist drum the driving torque T must balance the friction

couple T f, , the inertia couple I rope at the drum.

and the torque Pr due to the tension P in the

Fig. 3.4

Mechanics Of Machine (Hoisting)

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Thus,

Angular Motion:

T =

I

+

Pr

+

T f

For Linear motion of the load, the tension P in the rope at the load must balance both the dead weight and the inertia force Ma.

 Thus, Linear Motion: P = Mg + Ma Example 1.4

A hoist drum has a moment of inertia of 85 kgm 2 and is used to raised a lift of mass 1 tonne with an upward acceleration of 1.5 m/s 2 . The drum diameter is 1 m. Determine:

 (a) the torque required at the drum (b) the power required after accelerating for 3 seconds from rest.

Solution 1.4

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1.5 LOAD FALLING AND ACCELERATING DOWNWARDS (NO DRIVING TORQUE ACTING)

The load is allowed to fall freely, resisted only by friction and inertia force and couples. The rotation of the hoist drum, the accelerating torque Pr due to rope tension must balance both the friction couple T f and the inertia couple .

I

Thus,

Angular Motion:

Fig. 3.5

Pr = T f +

I

For linear motion of the load the accelerating force due to the weight must balance the upward tension P in the rope and the inertia force Ma.

Thus,

Linear Motion:

P = Mg

- Ma

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Example 1.5

A hoist drum has a mass of 360 kg and a radius of gyration of 600 mm. The drum diameter is 750 mm. A mass of 1 tonne hangs from a light cable wrapped round the drum and is allowed to fall freely. If friction couple at the bearings is 2.7 k Nm. Calculate the runaway speed of the load after falling for 2 seconds from rest.

Solution 1.5

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1.6 LOAD FALLING AND BEING BROUGHT TO REST

We now consider the braking of the hoist drum as the load falls. The accelerations are therefore reversed as compared with the previous case. For rotation of the drum the braking torque T is assisted by the friction couple to balance the accelerating torque Pr due to the rope tension and the inertia couple I .

Fig. 3.6

 Thus, Angular Motion: T + T f = Pr + I Linear Motion: P = Mg + Ma

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Example 1.6

The maximum allowable pull in a hoist cable is 200 kN. Calculate maximum load in tones which can be brought to rest with a retardation of 5 m/s 2 . The hoist drum has a moment of inertia of 840 kgm 2 and a diameter of 2.4 m. What is the corresponding braking torque on the drum?

Solution 1.6

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1.7 LOAD RISING: COMING TO REST UNDER FRICTION ONLY

Since there is no braking torque applied, the drum is retarded by the torque Pr due to the rope tension and the friction couple T f . These two couples must balance the inertia couple of the drum.

Fig. 3.7

 Thus, Angular Motion: I = T f + Pr Linear Motion:

P +

Ma =

Mg

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Example 1.7

In an experiment, a hoist drum has a diameter is 500 mm. It is used to raised load 50 kg and coming to rest under friction. The upward acceleration is 3.0 m/s 2 . The friction couple is 0.35 Nm. Find the moment of inertia of the drum.

Solution 1.7

NOTE:

Students are required to grasp firmly the following rules:

1. the friction couple opposes the rotation

2. the inertia couple opposes the change of rotation

3. the inertia force opposes the change of linear motion.

It may remarked also that in every case the direction of the rope tension P and the load weight W is unaltered, although their effect may be to accelerate or to retard the load.

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We shall now consider some simple cases of the motion of two masses connected by a light inextensible string. We note that a string connecting two masses in motion is in a state of tension and that the string exerts forces on the masses equal to the tensions at its ends.

If the string is light (that is, if its weight is neglected) the tension is the same

throughout its length. On the other hand, if the string is heavy the tension will

in general vary from point to point, depending upon the weight per unit

length. If the string is extensible the tension will vary with the extension.

Also, if the string passes round a pulley the tension is only the same on the two sides if the pulley is smooth and the string is light. Otherwise the tension

in the string where it leaves the pulley depends upon the coefficient of

friction and the length of string in contact. In such an ideal case the tension throughout the string will be constant.

Example 1.8

A load of mass 230kg is lifted by means of a rope which is wound several

times round a drum and which then supports a balance mass of 140 kg. As the load rises the balance mass falls. The drum has a diameter of 1.2 m and a

radius of gyration of 530 mm and its mass is 70 kg. The frictional resistance

to the movement of the load is 110 N, and that to the movement of the

balance mass 90 N. The frictional torque on the drum shaft is 80 Nm.

Find the torque required on the drum, and also the power required at an instant when the load has an upward velocity of 2.5 m/s and an upward acceleration of 1.2 m/s

Mechanics Of Machine (Hoisting)

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