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context-free complement is always recursive (actually even context-sensitive).

NOTE :​ We may also use ​​ website coz, a broadcast lasts for 1 hour only on Mixlr.

About today discussion​:

today we are going to do​ voice + doc ​discussion the voice will be one way only . so u have to
just listen . and type your problems on the doc.

Open the broadcast link.

The audio broadcast will be available when the discussion starts.
the link to join the broadcast will be provided.
and plz join at ​8:00 pm on 28-December-2015​, i.e. ​today ​so that we can ​test​. and discuss

for ​low bandwidth users​, add your name below:

(optional features may be available​)
Every possible way to include these peoples will be made including phone conferencing . Don’t
add your name until you really need this help. only limited slots on conference will be available.

And the conference will me made from my side so no cost will be applicable from your side. If
possible this will be implemented.

Lets start i think .

join plz and then shall we start . and then cover.

join on this link

Log in and join at mixlr.
ok lets start,

so first of all what is a computer network??

the communication between two processes on two different pc can be said to be a computer
what is the work of computer network. ??
we need hardware and software for computer networks .
the steps to communicate need the following steps.

1- The network in which the destination computer is.

2- The destination computer
3- The destination process.
so for identifying purpose we implemented ip addressing so that every computer in this world
can be identified uniquely. Its like our home address . we can send a specific message only
when we have a specific address.

so there was a need to assign an address to every computer so we implemented the concept of
giving a unique number to every computer which is known as ip address of the computer .

so let's talk about ip addresses first.

mac address does not form symmetry so we don’t use mac. we use ip instead.

i have not read it yet

what topic u have confusion in
let's discuss only them ?

yes, one doubt in number of subnets and hosts and that-2 we do,where to subtract 2 addresses,
hope uMAC addresses are local to a manufacturer, two manufacturers may have same mac
addresses, there is a need to uniquely identify

@amar mac also contain date and time of the manufacturer of the ip. so even though the the id
can be same the time and date different .

so let’s start with ip address.

wo there was need of ip addressing

should i just jump to tcp ?? no, IPV6 needed

ipv6 will be in the next session
get what i'm asking

total number of subnets should not be ( total subnet -2) . plz don’t do this until specified .
now the number of address in the subnet will be the size of subnet . like if the size of subnet is
64. then number of address 4k

Concept of Limited directed broadcast address?theory i noe means which one will iP limited is

Q. How message is forwarded on a particular link by router using subnet mask??

Routing table looks like this

network id subnet mask interface , a b
0.0.0. e - default entery
a new packet arrived with a ip like this

Q. sir like my n/w is

and it has 2 subnets125.6.7.0 and

now if broadcast request comes like at, so broadcasting is done in entire n/w
or only in subnet 2 ???
Ans- I think it’s subnet 2 because .255 here is broadcast of 2nd subnet, but the
broadcast is not like.. “do it at X.X.X.255”

cannot do . as the outside router does not know that u have done subnetting in your
network. only the internal router knows about it . so if a computer from the subnet want to direct broadcast to another network then it can send. or directly
broadcast as it is in network and the internal router knows about the subnetting . but the

outside router does not know about the subnetting. if u do it intentionally then i think it
should be done.
depends on the router too, many organization have a firewall which does not allow
subnet access from outside. ok
Q. Does this mean that all the host inside that network receive the broadcast, irrespective
of subnetting? -message ip

if it match with 2 entries, we should check after matching with fst or not? choose subnet with
more number of ones and its interface. @Ravi 0s or 1s?
more number of 1’s in subnet mask

pls someone look into this...i tried to solve it,but options are not matching..
@arjun sir..

Q. If in Class A, they ask how many networks are possible, should I count 127.0… or it
should not be included?
no. its loopback address
and 0.0.0 is also not used. so 126 class A addresses.
1-126 ranges of ip address… and so total 126 class A n/w’s possible.

As i think its dec end so all who are preparing for gate knows all about CN just start by

clarification and problem solving

@ name - Can you explain what happened here? - I mean how this text message I typed
reached you via Internet :) (Need to discuss only the portions in GATE syllabus)\

for example.
chrome will forward the packet to transport layer
suppose i wrote ravi .
so the transport layer will make a packet like
ravi : 8080 : 65 . 65 is the destination port .

while . 8080 is the source port.
then it will be forwarded to network layer .
which will add the ip address.
now he msg will be
ravi : 8080 : 65 : :
the 112 source address and 123 …. is the google server
now the packet will be given to data link layer
which will add its mac address and the next hop mac address.

so packet will become .

ravi : 8080 : 65 : 112….. : 123 …. : mac address of you : mac address of the next router

sir if i type just “a”, a single character of 1 byte, then isn’t there is a lot of BYTES of
header overhead for a single byte data?????? but here, like you explained above, you
typed ravi. and packet is sent to server..
currently we are using tcp or udp??

i think udp.
ex:hd streaming:tcp (frames not lost)
messenger,low quality streaming(udp)

but if our chat messages are lost then?

its actually best effort delivery. After the best effort, if they are lost?
messeges r lost many times fb messenger i have to resend.
ok.its not so much urgent data as compared to for ex email.ok

There is one field in ipv4, types of services, what it’s used for????

router cannot check whether the data is urgent or not .

as the urg flag in transport layer and the router is able to see only network layer only .
so to make router able to understand whether the packet it has received should be
forwarded first or should be buffered . along with data . we made a field in the ip header
so that router can see and take decision .
Also there are flags like delay , cost , reliability, throughout, if they are set then path will
be chosen with minimum delay, min cost, max reliability and max throughput.

Q. Please explain TCP congestion control, in detail.

Hey what i think is . we should end this here only . i will take again from here on. there is no
point of wasting time if u don’t understand . let me again prepare and this time i will take the
whole syllabus . u just collect your doubts. it’s not like i ' m feeling embarrassed .
i ' m not satisfied by me performance. and i do thing till i am not satisfied. i can guarantee u next
revision will be much better than this . and it was first experiance for me,
i will reschedule it soon. when u want it .?

i need some time so that i can explain u in much better way . so plz cooperate.

give your email id sir,, we will forward you our doubts in between, and so all could be discussed
next time.
No problem sir :) It was ur first tym you must have learned something btw it was gud :)

plz give me a date and then we can again start . . yes . is 2 jan gud for all ??

no we have schedule till 7th, like 2nd is day for COA.

ok so 8th . till then u can personally send me your doubts okk :)

ok. no problem… is everyone okay with this new scheme???

ok so actually i ruined the first ever voice lecture,. i am sorry for that

no sorry, you wanna help us that intention is great, very rarely found in people.. hats off
and one more thing i was als not able to revise . that why i can’t explain well this was all
last year. i was out for an urgent work . and there was no time. and i thought i will over it

you not giving gate this year??

i am giving again. i just left network to study. as it was my expertise . thinking i can cover
in 2 days. no i am just a shopkeeper. so due to more traffic on shop i can’t get time. but
next time i will surely do gud.
ALL THE BEST,, see you on 8th ..good night

@Ravi ​my suggestion is we have to more concentrate on new topic like wifi, IPV6

ok the next time we will start with ipv6 and wifi then we will come to ipv4.

and another request to give detail on socket (tcp,udp(accept, listen, bind etc)), tcp
congestion control ​. ok
after giving detail on these topics , u could solve individual problem, that will be better:)
ok i will keep the requested topic in details and upload my notes too,

ok see you on 8 jan .

My request is to please follow first asked first answer approach :(

solly i will fig out something this time.

(It was good, but I couldn't hear being in office)

Upload your notes and explain it to us, in this way you will revise and so do others too. No
rigorous typing.

brief about arp and rarp in this process

ARP maps IP address/Logical address to Mac/Physical address and vice versa for RARP.

and also one more thing, ARP works locally. like you can get mac address of a m/c which is in
your n/w only.

into subnets with a 6-bit subnet number. What is the maximum number of subnets and the maximum
number of hosts in each subnet?

As they have already answered and explained we do not subtract 2 from subnet so nid 16 bit and hid is
16bit in class b, 2^6 = 64 subnets and 2^10 -2 hosts are possible = 1022

but in iit’s answer sheet they have given answer as 62 subnets

See page number 3, same question is there.

Common Data Question

You are hired to design a reliable byte stream protocol that uses a sliding window protocol like TCP .The
protocol will run over 1Gbps n/w. the RTT is 140 ns and maximum segment lifetime (MSL)is 60sec.(What
does this msl means in terms of sliding window)

q1) How many bits would you require in the Advertise window field of TCP header to keep pipe full??

q2) How many bits would you require in the Sequence no. field of TCP header to avoid wrap around
within MSL of segment??


I’ll try to explain MSL using an ex . let's say client want to sort some no then it establish conn. with server
and send all these no to server.Now since client has no further data to send it can close its connection rt?
therefore it send fin segment and received ACK for same .At this time client has closed its connection but
server can still send data(which is sorted data) when it has finished sending data closes this connection
by sending FIN segment .Now suppose client send ACK but ACK got lost,server cannot close conn.client
is waiting for ack that is why we need an Time wait state in which ,if any data left in the transmission
whose ack is not received till this time then these segment will be discarded because we are using IP
datagram which as its TTL.coming to r ques what is MSL .well Timewait =2*MSL.(MSL is wrap aroun
time) not exactly it has different significance,though it can be interpreted as Wrap around for this ques
.okk :)

1)solving this ques RTT is 140 ns therefore total data send in RTT is 140b so only 8 bit needed for
advertsed window to keep pipe full(140b by 1Gbps*140 ns na?)yes ok :) bro/sir meet me in chat for this..
:)this ans is though not correct

I got q2 ans:) but q1) is still unresolved :(

Answer to the above questions:

q1) Max. amount of data that can be send by the sender = 140 ns * 1 Gbps = 140 b = 140/8 B
No. of bits needed to represent 140/8 B of data < = No. of bits needed to represent 2^8/2^3 B of data
No. of bits needed to represent 140/8 B of data is at most 5 bits.
Advertised window field needs 5 bit so that it can send 140/8 B of data to keep the pipe full.

q2) Data send in MSL = 1Gbps * 60 sec = 60 Gb = 60/8 GB

Max. no. of bits in sequence no. field of TCP header to prevent wrap around of data = log(base 2) (60 *
= 33 bits

How the distance is 102 ?

@riya , here when A is not down then at F , dvr is for A = 3 (via D), now at the time when A is down then
instantly B,C goes to infinity as they are neighbour … so at t1 C will change his dvr from D and E , and
distance will be at C ,TO A is 2 via D , now at t2 D and F will change dvr then it will be At F to A = 4 (D
TO F =1 AND PREVIOUSLY when A was not down it was 3 SO 3+1 =4 )

what is the meaning of C will change his table from D and E ? when D gets an updated table from C it
sees that something is going wrong becoz only possibility it can reach A is via B .

Now since updation takes place synchronously to every node is updated periodically not only when there
is topological change !! Its mentioned in question that table changes synchronously . (It is like the
algorithm runs parallely on all nodes, so update from one node won’t be visible in current iteration but only
in next) ok. Assuming this fact if D gets the table from C before C sends it to B than it can happen . D will
notice there is some change and it will update its distance to 3 . So D can reach A at dist 3 . After that at
t+2 the table is forwarded to F from D. This will make F update its distance to 4. ​So basically it's
updated once every 2 timestamp (why 2?) -- ​All nodes run the algorithm at each time step-- so at 100 it
should get 50 updations . so it should be 4+50 = 54 na ? @Where am i going wrong? becoz t+2
when the algo is running on a node what is happening ? F will send its table to all its neighbour ? yes, and
same for all nodes - all get tables from their neighbours and all run the algorithm simultaneously.
ohhh ok then after t+2 there is constant interaction between D and F right and they keep modifying their
distances . yes.. now u r getting 102? yep

Ok )

(Q.) Can anyone list all topics from which numericals are asked ?
routing protocols
sliding window(min no of bits required to represent sequence no)
rsa algorithm
diffie hellman algorithm
congestion control

What is RTT? Round Trip Time - It is the time from which a packet is sent and an ACK is received back.

So, while using this is problem, we have to know the exact meaning. Many places RTT is used to denote
the network efficiency by considering a small packet (for which transmission time close to 0). But when
we send a large packet, we have to include transmission time- why? See below


So, RTT when frame size is not negligible = TT + 2PD.

In case when ACK is piggybacked (it is send back along with data) we also have to add the TT of the
packet which carries the ACK. Or when ACK (usually very small) size is not negligible we have to add its
TT also.

This definition is not important but needed only if you use RTT in formulae. Most good sources I have
seen avoids this usage and just put PD and TT directly in formulae.