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Who are we?

We can learn the answer to this question by

observing, hypothesizing, experimenting, and
analysing. We are complex living beings in a
complex, contradictory, ever-changing world. We
know that we do not understand everything about
ourselves, but by using this scientific method
we can keep learning more and more.
Without our bodies we are nothing. A person
cannot exist without a body. In this book you can
see pictures of some basic structures of the
human body. You can also begin to see the
interconnections between the different parts of
the body in order to understand how the body
We should warn you that there are two serious
misconceptions that you may get from this book.
One misconception is that any part of the human
body exists in a static state. Actually everything
in the body is in a constant state of movement
and change. It is constantly being broken down
and rebuilt. Every thing is in the process of
becoming something else. Actually, we are not
made of things, but of processes. Thus, on the
left-hand pages, we have briefly discussed some
of the processes and functions of the structures
seen on the right-hand pages.
The second misconception is that the human
body systems exist as separate entities. They
cannot function separately. They are all
interconnected and dependent on each other.
Some of the same organs even belong to more
than one system. For example, the long bones
appear in both the skeletal and the lymphatic
systems, since in addition to providing support
they also manufacture blood cells. The ovaries
appear in both the hormonal and the reproductive
systems, since they produce both hormones and
ova. These human body systems are merely
useful ways of classifying and studying the
structure and function of the body. All together
they function and interact with each other and
with the surroundings to produce a conscious,
living human being.

Skeletal system ....................................... 4
Muscular system ..................................... 6
Digestive system ..................................... 8
Respiratory system................................ 10
Circulatory system ................................. 12
Lymphatic system ................................. 14
Nervous system ..................................... 16
Endocrine system ................................. 18
Urinary system ...................................... 20
Reproductive system ............................. 22
How to use this book ............................. 24
Index ...................................................... 26

Our skeleton consists of all our bones, teeth,
cartilage, and joints. Some bones protect our
internal organs. Some bones provide a
framework for the body (just as the spokes of an
umbrella provide a framework). Some bones
contain red marrow that produces blood cells and
yellow marrow that also stores fat.

Yellow marrow Red marrow
The Skull:
Cartilage the bones that enclose the
Cartilage is softer than bones and is brain and support the
somewhat flexible, like rubber. face and teeth
Maxilla Mandible
(jaw bone)
Cartilage (shown
here in white)
connects the ribs to
the sternum, The Backbone
allowing the ribs to
(the spinal column)
move as we

The backbone is
made of vertebrae
(side view)
Cartilage supports our
nose and outer ears.


Joints contain
Spinal cord
4 years One vertebra
(top view)
13 years A rib

Much of an infant’s skeleton consists of The spinal cord Tailbone

cartillage, which is gradually replaced by bone. passes through (coccyx)
this hole


Spinal column (backbone)

Clavicle (collar bone)

Scapula (shoulder blade)

Sternum (breast bone)





Tailbone (coccyx)









Phallanges Calcaneus
There are three kinds of muscles:
How do muscles
make us move?
1 Skeletal muscle
These muscles are
attached to bones. They are
Tendons attach one end of the biceps
also called ‘voluntary
and triceps to the shoulder blade and the muscles’ because we can
other end to the radius or ulna. Each consciously contract them.
muscle can pull, but it cannot push. That (shown at right and on the
is why two muscles are needed to bend facing page)
the arm back and forth at the elbow.

The biceps contracts,

pulling the radius in, Smooth muscle
while the triceps relaxes
the stomach 2 These are found in the walls

blade muscles of the digestive tract, urinary


‘involuntary muscles’ because we

do not consciously control them.

3 Cardiac muscle
These are the muscles
of the heart.Their contraction
pivot point ulna is involuntary and continues
in a coordinated rhythm as
long as we live.
The triceps
pulling the ulna Some muscles of the back

to the extended Occipatalis Latissimus dorsi

position, while pulls the rotates and
the biceps draws shoulder
Trapezius down and back

Ligaments attaching the wrist

bones to each other.

Tendons attach muscles to bones.

Ligaments attach bones to bones.
Gluteus maximus
rotates and extends
the thigh
raises the eyebrows
Occuli Orbicularis
closes the eyelids

Orbicularis oris
closes the lips

raises, rotates, or draws back
the shoulders, and pulls the
head back or to the side
raises and rotates the arm
draw the shoulder forward
and rotates the arm inward

bends the arm at the elbow

straightens the elbow

Rectus abdominus
draws the abdomen in

Finger flexors
bend the fingers

Finger extensors (behind)

straighten the fingers

bends the hip or knee
and rotates the thigh
rotates the leg sideways
Quadriceps femoris
straightens the knee
or bends the hip joint

bends the knee and lifts the heel
extends the foot forward

extends the foot and turns it outward

Every cell in our body does work. Work requires
energy, which is supplied by the food we eat. Food
also supplies the small moNleecwulTeesxthat are the building
blocks for cell maintainance, growth, and function.
Digestion breaks down food
into materials the body can use:

1. Your sense receptors

work together with your
brain to make you Artery
hungry. Saliva increases Vein
(you produce more than
1 litre/day), and helps
digest food while it is
mechanically torn, cut,
crushed, and ground in
your mouth.
5. The small intestine is where
most of the chemical digestion
and nutrient absorption into the Folds in the
bloodstream takes place. intestinal
Muscles lining
6. The large intestine reclaims
water and releases waste.
The Intestinal Wall
SWALLOWING In order to increase its surface area, the
intestinal wall is folded, and each fold is lined
When swallowing, muscles move the epiglotis down to close the opening
with villi. This way, more cells come into contact
to the trachea, so that food and drink do not enter the lungs. The soft
palate also moves up, so that food does not go up the nasal passage. with nutrients in the digested food. Nutrients
enter the epethelial cells that line the villi, either
epiglottis up epiglottis down by diffusion or active transport. They are then
to breathe to swallow food absorbed by capillaries and lymph vessels.
Capillaries transport the nutrients to larger
blood vessels, then to the portal vein,which
Soft goes to the liver. Then the nutrients go to the
palate heart, to be pumped to the rest of the body.

Epiglottis Food Villi


The stomach does not have Artery

one fixed shape 8
Everyone’s internal organs are slightly
different. The shape and position of your
stomach also depends on how much
food it contains, and whether you are
standing or lying down.
Epithelial cells


Lymph vessel

0.5 mm
starts mechanical and chemical digestion of
food with the help of teeth, tongue, and saliva

Salivary glands
produces saliva, which helps lubricate
food for easier swallowing; contains
antibacterial agents and the enzyme
amylase, which breaks down starch
entering food triggers its swallowing reflex

a muscular tube that squeezes
food along to the stomach

stores, mixes, and digests food with the
gastric juice it produces, which consists
of mucus, enzymes, and hydrochloric
acid, producing acid chyme

blood carrying nutrients from the
small intestine passes through the
liver, which filters it and breaks down
and synthesizes proteins, breaks
down carbohydrates into glucose Waist
and glycogen, produces bile

collects bile from the liver, and
discharges it into the small
intestines, where it helps
digest fat

a gland that produces digestive
enzymes and an alkaline solution
that neutralizes the acid chyme
that comes from the stomach; it
also secretes the hormone, insulin

Small intestine
a 6 metre long tube in which most
of chemical digestion occurs;
nutrients are absorbed from here
into the bloodstream

Large intestine
absorbs water from the food wastes that have
not been digested in the small intestine; also
absorbs some important vitamins that are
produced by the large numbers of bacteria it
stores feces (which consist mainly of
indigestible plant fibres, bacteria, and water)
until they can be eliminated from the body
through the anus

Through respiration we exchange gases with our
environment. Our cells require a continuous
supply of oxygen (O2 ) in order to obtain energy Trachea
from food molecules. Cells would also die if they
were not able to get rid of the carbon dioxide
(CO2) they produce.
The 3 Processes of Gas Exchange:
1. In our lungs, O2 passes from the air into our
blood, and CO2 passes from our blood into the
air. Some water vapour is also released into the
2. Our circulatory system transports O2 and CO2
to and from all the parts of our body. Haemoglobin
molecules in our red blood cells transport O2.
3. Cells take up O2 and release CO2
Mucus membranes line air passages Bronchiole
Cilia move in waves Mucus
to clear out mucus gland Dirt
containing dirt Mucus The lungs are sacs made of pleural
particles. membranes, containing a dense lattice of

bronchioles. When we inhale air, it travels

through this network and fills the tiny air
sacs called alveoli. That is where gas Alveoli Bronchiole
exchange with the blood in capillaries
takes place.

Alveoli Close-up
Hairs in our nostrils, as well as mucus and cilia Alveoli
throughout our air passages
help remove dirt that enters
When we the respiratory system in the Capillaries
inhale, air we breathe. Most of the
where does mucus and dirt is swallowed
the air go? and passes into the
oesophagus and out through
Nostrils the digestive system.
Nasal cavity
i What happens in the aveoli?
Pharynx O2 from the air diffuses through the thin layer
i of cells that forms the aveoli walls. Then it
enters the web of capillaries that surround
Larynx each aveoli. CO goes in the opposite
i 2
direction, from the capillaries to the air.
Trachia In the capillaries, O 2 diffuses into red blood
i cells. Red blood contain protein

Bronchus cells
molecules called haemoglobin, which
i contain iron atoms. Each iron atom can carry
an O molecule. When haemoglobin binds
Bronchiole O it 2turns red. Blood without oxygen looks
bluish - after passing through the lungs it
Alveolus turns red.

hollow spaces in the skull that are normally filled with air
Nasal cavities
the temperature and humidity of the air we
breathe is adjusted in these cavities
Pharynx Epiglottis
its muscles help shape the sounds of our speech
contains the vocal cords

Trachea (windpipe)


where gas exchange occurs
the muscular structure that makes
us breathe - when it contracts, it
pulls down and increases the Heart
volume of air in the lungs

5 OUR CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Capillaries of head and
arms - give out nutrients
and O2, pick up waste
products and CO2
The heart pumps by
The circulatory system transports rhythmically contract- Pulmonary artery
respiratory gases, nutrient molecules, ing and relaxing
wastes, and hormones throughout Pulmonary vein
the body. These materials are Aorta
carried by an intricate network Capillaries
of blood vessels, which follow of lungs -
give CO2,
continuous circuits from the pick up O2
heart through arteries,
capillaries, and veins back
to the heart.
The circulatory system 1 Right
semilunar valves

also regulates our body The heart pumps the

temperature. blood to keep it AR valves Left
circulating. It is ventricle
made of cardiac Right
Electrical signals ventricle
muscle, which is
make the heart relaxed when blood Capillaries of
enters the atria and
digestive track -
pick up
4 When the
heart relaxes
again, blood starts
to flow from the
Then there is a slight aorta and pulmonary

2 contraction of the muscles at valves back towards

the relaxed
the top of the heart, which forces ventricles. But it
SA node more blood into the ventricles. Capillaries of lower body pushes against the
semilunar valves,
AV node which snap shut.

An electrical signal is
3 The main heart muscles (at the
bottom of the heart) contract to
force blood out of the ventricles.
generated by the SA node, One-way valves prevent blood from
and it makes the muscles of going back into the atria. Blood flows
the atria contract. The signal
spreads, but is slightly
out of the right ventricle through the
delayed in the AV node, which pulmonary arteries into the lungs, and
allows the atria time to empty. out the left ventricle through the
Then it reaches the bottom of aorta to the rest of the body.
the heart and travels up the
sides of the ventricles, causing
them to strongly contract.

Valves allow blood to flow in only one direction

Valves automatically close when
blood pushes in the wrong direc-
Your heartbeat sounds like lub-dup,

Blood flows Blood cannot flow from right to left

from left to right
l closing) the
u AV valves to the atria. The dup
b comes from the semilunar valves
- snapping shut after blood is forced
d out of the ventricles.
u Valves similar to these are found in
p some veins, and in the lymphatic
, system, as well as in the heart.
Carotid artery
Jugular vein
Superior vena cava

Pulmonary vein
carries blood from the
lungs to the left atrium
Pulmonary artery
carries blood from the
right ventricle to the lungs

pumps blood to the body
Abdominal aorta
Inferior vena cava
Hepatic artery
carries blood to the liver
Portal vein
carries blood from the
stomach, intestines, spleen,
and pancreas to the liver
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¯Ö Æî •vein
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Iliac artery

Femoral artery

Femoral vein

carry blood from the heart to all parts
of the body; all arteries (except the
pulmonary arteries) carry oxygenated,
red blood

carry blood from all parts of the body
back to the heart; all veins (except the
pulmonary veins) carry blood that is
depleted of oxygen and therefore
bluish in colour

very narrow tubes not shown in this
diagram, they connect the ends of all
arteries to to veins; they deliver and pick up
gases, nutrients, and waste products

To remain healthy, our bodies must
be regulated in a state of internal Lymph vessels and capillaries
balance, under ever-changing
conditions. Blood capillary
containing red
All the cells in our body live in an blood cells
interstitial fluid, which supplies their Interstitial fluid
nourishment and carries away waste
products. This fluid leaks out from Tissue cells
the circulatory system. The
lymphatic system provides a way to Lymph vessel
return excess fluid to the circulatory
system, thus keeping fluids in

lymph vessels is called lymph. It is Valve

similar to interstitial fluid, but it has
less O2 and protein, and more fat.
The lymphatic system also plays a
role in defending the body from
infection. The fluid that is picked up Lymph Lymphatic
is taken through larger and larger fluid vessel
lymph vessels to lymph nodes.
Lymph nodes contain lymphocytes
and macrophages, which attack
microbes and even cancer cells that
may be in the lymph.
Finally, lymph re-enters the
circulatory system through the
thoracic duct and the right lymphatic
duct, which drain into veins in the

Masses of
lymphocytes and
macrophages Valve

White blood cells in the lymphatic system fight disease

The immune response: lymphocytes are white blood cells
that defend the body from viruses, bacteria, and even cancer
cells. These invaders are neutralised when their antigens
(proteins on their surfaces) are recognized by antibodies
made by T-cells and B-cells (types of lymphocytes) .
The inflammatory response: damaged cells release
chemicals that signal blood vessels to dilate and release
fluid and white blood cells such as macrophages, which
attack any foreign body.
Right lymphatic duct
two lymphoid tissues on each side of Thoracic duct
the throat that help fight against from these ducts,
upper respiratory tract infections the lymph empties
into the veins to
the heart
Lymph node

secretes hormones that promote
the development of T-cells

Bone marrow
the tissue that produces blood cells

filters the blood, removing old
blood cells, harmful bacteria and
abnormal cells and particles; also
plays a role in making antibodies

Lymph nodes
filter out bacteria and other
foreign particles

Lymph vessels
tubes that run alongside
arteries and veins, collecting
excess lymph and returning it
to the blood

The thymus gland is

relatively large in a
new-born baby. It is
important in producing
lymphocytes, which
are needed to protect
the baby from
infections. At puberty
the thymus begins to
shrink, becoming
Thymus superfluous in adults.

The nervous system consists of the structures and processes that
make up the brain, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nerves
distributed throughout the body. Cerebrum
The Functions of the Nervous System: Brain stem
2 1. Sensory Input
the conduction of signals from Cerebellum
1 sensory receptors
2. Integration The Brain
the interpretation of the sensory The brain is the site of

signals and the formulation of consciousness. It produces thoughts,

3 responses feelings, memory, and creativity. It
3. Motor output monitors and controls our
the conduction of signals from unconscious and well as conscious
the brain and spinal cord to actions.
effectors, such as muscle and The brain is an exceedingly complex
gland cells. organ, made up of billions of
interconnected and interacting nerve
Nerve cells cells. An intricate network of blood
The major nerves
There are
are bundles of
vessels bring a constant supply of
Neurons receive two types of oxygen and glucose, from which
and/or transmit axons.
nerve cells: these nerve cells get the energy they
electrical and One axon may be
neurons and need to function.
more than 1 metre
chemical glial cells.
White matter
Cell body consists mainly of
myelin covered axons
Corpus callosum
Axon the fibres that unite
the two halves of
the cerebrum
The axon of this cell
passes an electrical This section
Grey matter
through the
signal to the dendrites brain is (cerebral cortex)
of the cell below shown here consists mainly of
neuron cell bodies
Dendrite Cerebrum
Thalamus memory, learning,
The dentrites of controls input speech, emotions
this neuron accept and output to
the signal from the cerebrum Corpus
upper neuron. callosum

This neuron then passes

on the signal through its
axon to the muscle
cells below.
This axon is
supported by a series Hypothalamus
of myelin sheaths, directs signals to and Pineal
which are made of from spinal cord, gland
glial cells. brain stem, cerebral

cortex, and Pituitary Pons

cerebellum gland
The muscle gets the Brain stem Midbrain
signal to contract. pressure, swallowing, etc.
regulates heartbeat,
16 breathing, blood

the part of the central nervous system
that regulates and controls activities
throughout the body; the site of
consciousness and memory
a cluster of
neuron cell
Cranial nerves bodies. that
connect the brain and organs of the connects each
head, relaying sensory inputs and intercostal nerve
motor control of eyes, nose, mouth, to the spinal cord
ears, etc.

Spinal cord
the bundle of nerves extending from
the brain stem through the backbone,
conducts signals to and from the
brain; togeter with the brain, it makes
up the central nervous system (CNS)

Intercostal nerves

Peripheral nerves Ulnar nerve

the network of
nerves and
ganglia that carry
signals to and Radial nerve
from the central
nervous system;
some of the axons
are very long, Median nerve
since they must
reach from all
extremities to the

Femoral nerve

Sciatic nerve

Peroneal nerve

Many of our body’s functions are controlled by the
endocrine system, which consists of glands that make There are two main kinds of
and secrete regulatory chemicals called hormones. hormones:
Molecular messengers: Hormones are molecules that
are secreted in one part of the body and travel through (1) Hormones made from amino acids
the bloodstream to control what happens in another part. These hormones may be modified amino
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the acids, peptides, or proteins. They work by
bloodstream. binding to and activating specific receptors
on cell membranes. This causes a series
How do hormones help us respond to stress? of events inside the cell.
Examples: epinephrine, norepinephrine,
Upon sensing stress, the brain STRESS insulin, melatonin, LH, FSH
responds, sending signals to
the adrenal glands
Stress activates (2) Steroid Hormones
Nerve cells send signals nerve cells Steroids are lipids made from chloresterol.
Releasing Steroid hormones enter target cells and
Hormone (RH)
BRAIN attach to the cell’s DNA to either start or
stop production of a protein (the gene
Pituitary gland
RH stimulates product).
pituitary to
secrete ACTH Examples: corticosteroids, oestrogen,
Nerve testosterone, androgen
Blood vessel

ACTH Each adrenal gland is

The Pituitary
Nerve signal
actually composed of Gland
two glands that produce
stimulates different hormones. The pituitary gland,

adrenal medulla located in the brain,

to secrete Adrenal medulla produces hormones
epinephrine and Adrenal cortex that regulate
hormones produced
ACTH stimulates hypothalamus
adrenal cortex to by other glands. It also
gland produces several different
secrete corticosteroids
Epinephrine hormones that regulate
Corticosteroids bone and muscle growth, body
KIDNEY changes at puberty, the
menstrual cycle, child
birth, lactation, water
Epinephrine LIVER CELL TARGET Corticosteroid retention in the kidneys, and
CELL pituitary gland the male sexual response.
Cell membrane

Males have testes instead of ovaries
Cell membrane Receptor
other protein A testis gland hangs inside each scrotum.
Cell nucleus After puberty, in addition to producing
proteins Gene activation
sperm, the testes produce testosterone, the
A series of events DNA hormone that stimulates growth of facial
results in release
of glucose Transcription and genital hair, a deeper voice, and muscle
mRNA and bone growth.
Glycogen Glucose

p ro t e in

Glucose is used for energy

Immediate response: Long-term response: Testis
Increased blood glucose, blood Kidneys retain sodium and water, Scrotum
pressure, breathing rate, and increased glucose, increased blood
metabolic rate volume and blood pressure, immune
system may be suppressed
releases hormones that
regulate the pituitary gland
Pineal gland
produces melatonin,
Pituitary gland which is involved in
a ‘master’ gland, that regulates other glands; establishing daily and
produces the hormones LH, FSH, ACTH, TSH, seasonal cycles
ADH, prolactin, growth hormone, and oxytocin

Thyroid gland
produces thyroxine and calcitonin (which lowers calcium levels)
Parathyroid glands
produce parathyroid hormone,
which raises blood calcium levels

Thymus gland
produces the hormone thymosin,
which stimulates T-cell development
in the immune system

Adrenal gland
produces hormones that increase blood
glucose and that make the kidneys
retain sodium and excrete calcium

produces insulin, which raises
blood glucose, and glucagon,
which lowers it

produce progesterone and
oestrogens, which make the
uterine lining grow and maintain
female sex characteristics
(menstruation, pregnancy, etc)

Why do we drink water?
9 OUR URIN ARY Our body is about 70% water. Some parts are more or
less watery: the grey matter of the brain is about
85% water; fat cells contain only about 15% water.

The urinary system
regulates fluids in the body.
The kidneys help maintain
A person normally takes in between 1.5 and 3.5 litres
how each day (in
hot and dryboth
the food and drink),
weather depending
is. Obviously we
OUT cannot keep accumulating all that water - our body
the amount, chemical gets rid of the same amount of water as it ingests.
composition, and acidity of So why do we need to keep taking in water each day?
fluids. They do this by (1) To sweat. When we sweat, water evaporates from
collecting water and our skin, which removes excess heat from our body.
wasteproducts from the So the hotter we get, the more water we need to
drink. About 40% of the water we take in leaves as
blood and excreting them in sweat.
the form of urine. Urine is (2) To wash the insides of our bodies - to remove
stored in the urinary bladder URINE waste products. This is what the urinary system does.
before it is excreted through OUT About 60% of the water we take in leaves as urine.
the urethra.

How do the kidneys remove Glomerulus

wastes from the blood? Blood filters the blood:
water and solutes
from renal
Each kidney contains millions of nephrons, artery from blood enter
which filter the blood that passes through the nephron
them. In the nephron, capillaries pass through
the glomerulus. Slits in the glomerulus prevent Nephron tubule
blood cells and larger molecules from passing
The acidity and concentrations of various
substances in the blood are maintained by Arteriol
diffusion and active transport of excess
amounts into urine collecting tubules.
The urine is composed of water (about 95%),
potassium, bicarbonate, sodium, glucose,
amino acids, and the waste products urea and
uric acid.
To renal

Each renal medula

contains about a
million nephrons.
Renal Loop of
artery Henle

Renal Collecting
vein duct

Ureter Renal
cortex A NEPHRON

(just inside the back ribs)
regulate the chemical
composition of fluids in
the body

Renal artery
brings blood containing
oxygen and urea from the
aorta to the kidneys

Renal vein
brings filtered blood
from the kidneys to
the inferior vena cava

carries urine from
the kidneys to the
urinary bladder

Urinary bladder an
muscular sac that
retains urine until it
is discharged from
the body

the tube through which urine is
discharged from the body;
it is surrounded by muscles that
allow us to control urination

The survival of the human population is
maintained by reproduction. In order for Female Reproductive Organs
sexual reproduction to occur, a (side view)
woman’s ovaries
produce ova
(eggs) and a
man’s testes
sperm. Fallopian
After an Ovary
egg has
been fertilised Uterus
by a sperm, it
grows inside the
Urinary bladder
woman’s uterus to
In this drawing, the uterus produce a new Vagina
has been cut open to show human being.
the developing fetus it Clitoris
protects and nourishes the sensitive organ of
excitement - anus
The Menstrual Cycle stimulation
Between the ages makes it Hymen

of about 12 and 50, erect, and a thin fold of membrane which

leads to may partially cover the vagina;
a woman produces orgasm its appearance is not a reliable
one ripe ovum proof of virginity
about every 24-30
days. The ova are
all present in the
Thin lining
Ovum Sperm At conception, a
female egg, or
ovaries at birth, but inside the ovum, is fertilized
they are not ready uterus after
menstruation by a male sperm.
to be released. The DNA in the

2 Now one ova is almost

ready. The lining of nucleus
head of the sperm
enters the ovum,
the uterus has also to be combined
thickened in order to Each consists of a single cell, with the DNA in
get ready to nourish a although the egg is much the nucleus of the
The cervix produces larger than the sperm. ovum.
mucus to assist ovum in fertilized ovum.
delivery of sperm growing

Men produce sperm in
Male Reproductive
3 Ovulation: the ova is
released, to go into the
their testes. During
sexual stimulation,
Prostate gland

Seminal vesicles produces a

fallopian tube, where it may sperm travel through produce a seminal fluid
be fertilized by a sperm. the vas deferens and seminal fluid
are added to the fluids
Lining ready for Vas deferens
a fertilized egg produced by the
prostate gland and Penis Testis
In case seminal vesicles, to the male organ produces
does not
(menstrual bleeding). 4 ...then a
make semen.
Semen is
Blood and ejaculated
occur, the new through the
lining is shed 22 old tissues
are released cycle
erect penis for urination and copulation; sperm
its spongy tissue fills with blood to
into make it erect so that it can be Scrotum
the woman’s inserted into the vagina to deposit the sac that
vagina in order semen holds the testes
outside of the
to fertilise an abdomen, to keep
ovum. them cool, as required
for sperm production
an expandable, muscular sac
that protects and nourishes
developing offspring
Fallopian tubes
bring the ovum to the uterus and
sperm to the ovum; this is where
fertilisation usually occurs

contain the ova, one of which
is released during each
menstrual cycle; they also
produce hormones

the mouth of the
uterus; also produces
mucus to assist in

the passage from the uterus through
which childbirth occurs; menstrual
blood is discharged through the
vagina; copulation occurs when the
penis enters the vagina

This is a reference book. Use it to help find answers to your questions about
the human body.
For example, here are some questions. Use the Table of Contents and the
Index to look for information and pictures in the book that will help you to
think of the answers.

(1) How many vertebrae do you have? (14) Name some components of the peripheral
nervous system.
(2) Name a few different ways your body can
get dehydrated. (15) What is oestrogen and what is its
(3) Which muscles lie outside the rib cage?
(16) How does the muscular system change
(4) Which muscles lie inside the rib cage?
over a period of: (a) seconds? (b) hours?
(5) Is the urinary bladder in front of or behind (c) weeks? (d) years?
the uterus? (17) How does the endocrine system change
(6) When a mosquito bites you, why do you over a period of: (a) seconds? (b) hours?
get a red swelling? (c) weeks? (d) years?
(7) Which organs come in pairs? (18) Which parts of your body send electrical
(8) Which muscles do not come in pairs?
(19) How can it be that a very tired, worn out
(9) What are glial cells? old woman can suddenly get enough
(10) Inhaling smoke has an immediate effect on energy to get up and run to shelter when
the brain. Trace the path of cigarette she sees an airplane coming to drop
smoke in the body, and explain how it can bombs on her village?
affect the brain. (20) What makes the AR valves open?
(11) Why does sitting under a fan make you (21) What problems might you have if there is
feel cooler? If you place a plastic chair something wrong with the functioning of
under a fan, will the chair also get cooler? your cerebellum?
If you place a running computer under a
fan, will the computer get cooler? (22) List the different kinds of fluids in the
Compare and explain what happens in human body. What are the similarities and
each case. differences between them?

(12) Through which organs, body systems, and (23) What are some reasons why a woman
parts of body systems does a nutrient may not get pregnant even though semen
pass from the time it enters your mouth has been deposited in her vagina?
until it reaches your big toe? (24) Which parts of your body contain the
(13) Name some components of the central most lymph nodes?
nervous system (CNS).

24 24
(25) When the bottom of your heart contracts, (39) What is the connection between the
does this push blood into the top of your lymphatic system and the circulatory
heart? Explain why or why not. system?
(26) List 20-30 ways in which your body is (40) List 6 to 10 factors that influence the
bilaterally symmetric. Speculate on possible shape and size of a person’s stomach.
reasons why it has this symmetry.
(41) What might happen if the semilunal valves
(27) List 20-30 ways in which your body is not leak?
bilaterally symmetric.
(42) Why do lymph glands get swollen when
(28) List similarities and difference between the you catch a cold?
ovaries and the testes.
(43) Why do you get a sour taste in your
(29) Which abdominal organs lie above the mouth after vomiting
waist, which lie below the waist, and which
(44) Meghna and Farhaz both weigh 65 kg,
cross the waist?
but Farhaz is 75% water and Meghna is
(30) What would happen if the bronchioles were 65% water. What could be some reasons
not lined with mucus membranes? for this difference?
(31) Why do people say you should not eat too (45) Name some nerves that are named for the
quickly? What happens if you do not bones they pass by.
thoroughly chew your food?
(46) If your liver is not functioning properly,
(32) How do the reproductive and endocrine what kinds of foods should you eat less
systems interact? of?
(33) How do the respiratory and circulatory (47) Trace the journey of a carbon dioxide
systems interact? molecule from a cell in your little finger out
your body through your nose.
(34) What would happen if the length of the
small intestine was decreased? (48) What are the differences between the
female and male human body?
(35) A brain transplant has never been done.
What would happen if it was done? (49) In what ways could the human body be
improved (if it was actually possible to
(36) Why might a woman stop menstruating? ‘redesign’ the human body)?
(37) Why are your faeces more solid when you (50) Write some more questions like these that
are constipated? can be answered by referring to this
(38) What are the sensory signals that the person book.
is getting in the top left-hand picture on (51) Write some important questions about the
page 16? human body that are not answered in this

25 25
A Cilia 10 Glucagon 19
Circulatory system 12, 14 Glucose 9, 16, 18, 19
Acid 8 Clavicle 5 Gluteus maximus 6
ACTH 18 Clitoris 22 Glycogen 9, 18
Adductor 7 CNS 17 Grey matter 16
Adrenal cortex 18 Collar bone 5
Adrenal gland 19 Collecting duct 20
Adrenal medulla 18 Consciousness 16 Haemoglobin 10
Air 10 Corpus callosum 16 Heart 12, 13, 15
Alveoli 10 Corticosteroids 18 Hepatic artery 13
Alveolus 10 Cranial nerves 17 Hormones 12, 18
Androgen 18 Humerus 5
Antibodies 14 D Hydrochloric acid 9
Antigens 14 Deltoid 7 Hymen 22
Anus 9 Dendrite 16 Hypothalamus 16, 18, 19
Aorta 12, 13 Diaphragm 11
Arteries 8, 12, 13 Digestion 8
Atrium 12 Digestive juices 8 Iliac artery 13
AV node 12 Digestive system 8 Iliac vein 13
Axon 16 DNA 18 Immune response 14
B Immune system 19
Infection 14
B-cells 14 Electrical signals 12, 16 Inferior vena cava 13
Back 6 Endocrine system 18 Inflammatory response 14
Backbone 4 Enzymes 8, 9 Insulin 18
Bacteria 9, 14 Epethelial cells 8 Intercostal nerves 17
Biceps 7 Epiglottis 8, 11 Interstitial fluid 14
Bile 9 Epinephrine 18 Intestinal lining 8
Blood 13, 20 Involuntary muscles 6, 8

Bone marrow 15 J
Bones 4 Fallopian tubes 22, 23
Brain 16, 17, 18 Fat 9 Jaw bone 4
Brain stem 16 Femoral artery 13 Joints 4
Bronchiole 10, 11 Femoral nerve 17 Jugular vein 13
Femoral vein 13
Bronchus 10, 11 K
Femur 5
C Fertilisation
Fibula 5 22 Kidneys 18, 20, 21
Calcaneus 5 L
Finger extensors 7
Calcitonin 19
Finger flexors 7 Large intestine 9
Cancer cell 14
Food 8, 9 Larynx 10, 11
Capillaries 8, 12, 14
Frontalis 7 Latissimus dorsi 6
Capilliaries 13
FSH 18 Left ventricle 12
Carbohydrates 9
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 10 G LH 18
Cardiac muscle 6 Ligaments 6
Gallbladder 8, 9 Liver 8, 9, 18
Carotid artery 13
Ganglion 17 Loop of Henle 20
Carpals 5
Gas Exchange 10 Lungs 10, 11
Cartilage 4
Gases 10 Lymph fluid 14
Cerebellum 16
Gastric juice 9 Lymph nodes 15
Cerebral cortex 16
Gastrocnemius 7 Lymph vessels 8, 14, 15
Cerebrum 16
Glands 18 Lymphatic system 14
Cervix 22, 23
Glomerulus 20 Lymphocytes 14, 15
Chyme 9

26 26
M Peroneal nerve 17 Spinal cord 4, 16, 17
Peroneus 7 Spleen 15
Macrophages 14 Peyer’s patches 14 Sternum 4, 5
Male Reproductive System 22 Phallanges 5 Steroid Hormones 18
Mandible 4 Pharynx 9, 10, 11 Stomach 6, 8, 9
Marrow 4 Pineal gland 16, 19 Stress 18
Maxilla 4 Pituitary gland 16, 18, 19 Superior vena cava 13
Median nerve 17 Pleural membranes, 10 Swallowing 8, 9
Medulla 16 Pons 16 Sweat 20
Melatonin 18, 19 Portal vein 13
Memory 16 Prostate gland 22
Menstrual Cycle 22 Protein 18 T-cells 14, 19
Menstruation 19 Puberty 18 Tarsals 5
Metacarpals 5 Pulmonary artery 12, 13 Teeth 4, 9
Metatarsals 5 Pulmonary vein 12, 13 Temperature 12
Midbrain 16 Tendons 6
Motor output 16 Q Testes 18
Mouth 9 Quadriceps femoris 7 Testis 22
Mucus 9, 10 Testosterone 18
Mucus membranes 10 R Thalamus 16
Muscle 16 Radial nerve 17 Thoracic duct 14, 15
Muscles 6, 8 Radius 5 Thymus gland 15, 19
Muscular system 6 Rectum 9 Thyroid gland 19
N Rectus abdominus 7 Thyroxine 19
Red blood cells 10 Tibia 5
Nasal cavities 10, 11 Renal artery 20, 21 Tonsils 15
Nasal passage 8 Renal cortex 20 Trachea 8, 11
Nephron 20 Renal medula 20 Trachia 10
Nephron tubule 20 Renal vein 20, 21 Trapezius 6, 7
Nerve cells 16, 18 Reproduction 22 Triceps 6, 7
Nervous system 16 Reproductive system 22
Neuron 16 U
Respiration 10
Norepinephrine 18 Respiratory system 10 Ulna 5
Nose 4 Ribs 5 Ulnar nerve 17
Nostrils 10 Right lymphatic duct 14, 15 Ureters 21
Nucleus 16 Urethra 21
Nutrients 8 S Urinary bladder 20, 21, 22
O SA node 12 Urinary system 20
Saliva 8 Urine 20
Occipatalis 6 Salivary glands 8, 9 Uterus 22, 23
Occuli Orbicularis 7 Sartorius 7
Oesophagus 9, 11 V
Scapula 5
Oestrogen 18, 19 Sciatic nerve 17 Vagina 22, 23
Orbicularis oris 7 Scrotum 18, 22 Valves 12, 14
Ova 22 Seminal vesicles 22 Vas deferens 22
Ovaries 18, 19, 22 Sense receptors 8 Veins 8, 12, 13
Ovulation 22 Sensory Input 16 Ventricle 12
Ovum 22 Shoulder blade 5 Vertebrae 4
Oxygen (O2) 10 Sinuses 11 Villi 8
Skeletal muscle 6 Voluntary muscles 6
Skeletal system 4
Pancreas 8, 9, 19 Skull 4, 5
Parathyroid glands 19 Small intestine 8, 9, 14 Wastes 20
Patella 5 Smooth muscle 6 Water 9, 20
Pectorals 7 Soft palate 8 White blood cells 14
Pelvis 5 Soleus 7 White matter 16
Penis 22 Sperm 22 Windpipe 11
Peripheral nerves 16, 17 Spinal column 4, 5

27 27