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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON

Advancement of Pile Technology and


Pile Case Histories
Bali, Indonesia 25 – 27 September 2017

Editors:
Paulus P. Rahardjo
Bigman M. Hutapea
TABLE OF CONTENT
VOLUME 1
KEYNOTE SPEAKER

SOME ASPECTS OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE FOR PILE DESIGN IN FRANCE A1-1
Roger Frank

DESIGN OF SINGLE PILES, SMALL PILE GROUPS, AND WIDE PILED FOUNDATIONS A2-1
Bengt H. Fellenius

ENERGY PILES: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES A3-1


Ng. Charles Wang Wai, Gunawan Anthony, Gouw Tjie Liong

LESSONS LEARNED FROM CAREFUL MONITORING OF PILED FOUNDATION: ITALIAN


EXPERIENCE A4-1
Alessandro Mandolini

ADVANTAGES OF PILED RAFTS OVER PILE GROUPS OBSERVED IN MODEL LOAD TESTS IN DRY
AND SATURATED SAND GROUNDS A5-1
Tatsunori Matsumoto, Yesim Sema Unsever, Anh-Tuan Vu

SKIN FRICTION OF PREBORED AND PRECAST PILES IN WEATHERED ROCKS A6-1


Sangseom Jeong, Jongjeon Park, Dohyun Kim, Gyoungja Jung

THE ANALYSIS OF FIELD TESTS OF SOILS BY JOINT PILES ON THE CONSTRUCTION SITE OF THE
CASPIAN SEA AREA IN KAZAKHSTAN A7-1
Askar Zhussupbekov, Abdulla Omarov

UNSATISFACTORY BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTUERS RESTING ON PILE FOUDATION; RECENT


EXPERIENCES A8-1
Ikuo Towhata

PILING UNDER SEISMIC CONDITIONS: SOME CASE STUDIES A9-1


Sergei Terzaghi

RECENT ADVANCES IN HELICAL PILES A10-1


M. Hesham El Naggar

THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL SEISMIC HAZARD MAPS 2017 FOR DESIGN OF BUILDINGS
AND INFRASTRUCTURES IN INDONESIA A11-1
Masyhur Irsyam, Sri Widiyantoro, Irwan Meilano, Wahyu Triyoso, M. Asrurifak,
Danny Hilman Natawijaya, Arif Sabaruddin, Ariska Rudiyanto, Sri Hidayati, Lutfi Faisal

PROBLEMS OF PILE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN INDONESIA AND LESSONS LEARNED


FROM MEASUREMENT OF PILE BEHAVIOR IN PROBLEMATIC SOILS A12-1
Paulus Pramono Rahardjo
iii
SPECIAL PAPER

AN APPLICATION OF A PILE INSTALLATION METHOD COMBINING INNER EXCAVATION WITH


VIBRATION FOR STEEL PIPE PILES (NB SYSTEM) B1-1
Taichi Terui, Yoichi Shimada, Tatsuya Komazawa

AXIAL BEARING CAPACITY OF LARGE OPEN ENDED PIPE PILES – A CASE STUDY ON PILE
FOUNDATIONS FOR WINDFARMS OFF THE GERMAN COAST B2-1
Mussie Kidane, Martin Pohl

STATIC LOAD TEST ON CONCRETE PILE-INSTRUMENTATION AND


RESULTS INTERPRETATION B3-1
Adam Krasinski, Mateusz Wiszniewski

INTEGRAL BRIDGES AND THE MODELLING OF SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION B4-1


Steve Rhodes, Philip Icke

REDUCED CAPACITY OF PILE FOUNDATION ASSOCIATED WITH GROUNDWATER REBOUND IN


AFTERMATH OF BANGKOK LAND SUBSIDENCE B5-1
Noppadol Phienwej, Kanthima Intachai, Dolrueporn Sarakshetrin

LARGE DIAMETER BORED PILES FOR AFRICA`S SUSPENSION BRIDGE No 1


IN MOZAMBIQUE B6-1
Jörn Seitz

PILE LOAD TESTS AT THE WEST COAST OF MEXICO B7-1


Shilton Rica, Stefan Van Baars, Stefan Jung

BEHAVIOR OF THE FOUNDATION OF BRIDGE REINFORCED BY RIGID AND FLEXIBLE


INCLUSIONS B8-1
Karech Toufik, Noui Abdelkader, Bouzid Tayeb

GANPILE METHOD - REASONABLE PILE DRIVING METHOD TO EMBED STEEL PILES


INTO THE BEDROCK B9-1
K.Inazumi, Y.Shimada, H.Taguchi, Y.Tatsumi, M.Nakajima

REINFORCING EFFCT OF MULTIPLE-ROW SMALL DIAMETER STEEL PIPE PILE ON SLOPE


STABILITY B10-1
Naoto Watanabe, Hemanta Hazarika, Hiroki Sugahara, Yoichi Suzuki

KINGDOM TOWER, JEDDAH, SAUDI ARABIA: WORLD’S TALLEST BUILDING AT 3307 FT, WITH
360 FT DEEP FOUNDATIONS B11-1
Karsten Beckhaus, Harald Heinzelmann

iv
VOLUME 2
SOIL CONDITIONS, METHODS OF PILE INSTALLATION, AND THEIR EFFECTS ON
SURROUNDING SOILS AND STRUCTURES

THE USE OF GROUND INVESTIGATION FOR OFF SHORE PILING C1-1


Angelo Indelicato

INITIAL DRIVING PILE MECHANISM FOR PILE TIP USING BINGHAM MODEL IN CLAY SOIL C2-1
Budijanto Widjaja, Krisna Sanjaya Utomo

PRESS-IN PILING METHOD FOR URBAN CONSTRUCTION C3-1


Tsunenobu Nozaki

THE LATERAL DISPLACEMENT OF SOFT SOIL DUE TO PILE INSTALLATION AT THE OIL TANK OF
TNU PROJECT AT SURABAYA C4-1
Indarto, Arik Triarso

PILE BEARING CAPACITY

STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF SOIL PARAMETERS AND DETERMINISTIC AXIAL CAPACITY


ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE PILE IN SHALLOW GAS D1-1
Christian H. Girsang, M Razi B Mansoor

PILE BEARING CAPACITY FOLLOWING JACKING PILE METHOD COMPARISON OF MEYERHOFF &
SCHMERTMANN METHOD, STUDY CASE IN TANJUNG JABUNG TIMUR, JAMBI D2-1
Deny Wibisana

INFLUENCE OF BOREHOLE OPENING TIME TO THE REDUCTION OF BEARING CAPACITY FOR


BORED PILE IN JAKARTA CLAYEY SUBSOIL D3-1
Tofan Louw Tanicho

INFLUENCE OF SOIL SET UP ON THE BEARING CAPACITY OF PILE IN CLAYS D4-1


Marteen Yusgitra Pratama, Dian Astriani, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

BEARING CAPACITY OF BORED PILE IN CEMENTED SAND AND SILT D5-1


Felix Fernando Sukardi, Siska Rustiani

BEHAVIOUR OF BORED PILES EMBEDDED IN CLAYSHALES D6-1


Melissa Kurnia, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

PILING MATERIAL AND IMPERFECTION PROBLEMS

POURING OF POROUS CONCRETE IN SECANT PILE WALLS E1-1


Matthias A. Pulsfort, Markus Herten, Claudia Fierenkothen

v
CONCRETE BLEEDING IN BORED PILE CONSTRUCTION IN BANGKOK SOIL E2-1
Narong Thasnanipan, Zaw Zaw Aye, Thayanan Boonyarak

STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ROUGHNESS INTERFACE ON FRICTION BEHAVIOUR OF COHESIVE


SOIL AND CONCRETE E3-1
Anastasia Sri Lestari, Eric Raynaldi

STUDY OF FRICTION RESISTANCE ON SOIL INTERFACE AND PILE ON BOBONARO EXPANSIVE


CLAY E4-1
Eduardo Amaral Vong, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

NUMERICAL MODELING OF PILE-SOIL INTERACTION

EFFECTS OF PILE LATERAL MOVEMENT, PILE SPACING AND PILE NUMBERS ON LATERALLY
LOADED GROUP PILES F1-1
GOUW Tjie-Liong

THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE INTERACTION BEHAVIOURS OF


VERTICALLY-LOADED PILE GROUP AND PILED RAFT FOUNDATIONS F2-1
Anh-Tuan Vu, Tatsunori Matsumoto

BEHAVIOUR OF SOIL MODELS FOR PILED EMBANKMENT AND SURCHARGED VERTICAL DRAIN
ON KLANG CLAY F3-1
Ramli Nazir, Khairul Anuar Kassim, S. Puspanathan, Ismail Abd Rahman

CONTINUUM NUMERICAL MODELLING OF DYNAMIC LOAD TEST FOR STEEL PIPE PILES F4-1
Mehdi Aghayarzadeh, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi, Sergei Terzaghi

SIGNIFICANCE OF PRESSUREMETER TEST FOR MODELING SECANT PILE REINFORCED BY SOIL


NAILING IN EXCAVATION F5-1
Aswin Lim, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo, Adityaputera Wirawan

PRACTICAL RAFT-PILE FOUNDATION DESIGN AND ANALYSIS F6-1


Hadi Rusjanto Tanuwidjaja, Grace Kurniawati Santoso, Euricky Eduardo Tanuwidjaja

CASE HISTORIES OF PILE FOUNDATION

A CASE STUDY ON GROUTED DRIVEN STEEL PILES USED AS TIE-BACK TENSION PILES FOR A
QUAY WALL CONSTRUCTION IN WILHELMSHAVEN, GERMANY G1-1
U. Matthiesen, M. Pohl

REDESIGN OF PILE FOUNDATION ON BRIDGE ABUTMENT CAUSE OF IN ACCURATE SOIL


INVESTIGATION AND PILE DESIGN G2-1
Fabian J Manoppo, Charity J Manoppo

vi
AXIAL LOAD VARIATIONS IN A PILE GROUP UNDER CYCLIC OVERTURNING MOMENT AND
HORIZONTAL LOAD G3-1
Shuji Tamura, Daisuke Ishikawa, Keita Shibata, Hideki Funahara

CASE STUDY: MICROPILES AS INTEGRAL PART OF AN ALTERNATIVE SLOPE STABILIZATION


SYSTEM AT SELO BOYOLALI, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA G4-1
Thomas Hangartner, Prosida Rhapsody, Christophe Balg

CHALLENGES AND RELIABILITY OF RAPID LOAD TEST - A CASE HISTORY IN SINGAPORE G5-1
P.Y. Ng, P.Y. NgC.C. Ng, K.E. Chua, Jerry Lim, C.W. Ong, S.H. Chew, Ricky Nagatie

COMPARISON BETWEEN BIDIRECTIONAL STATIC LOAD TEST RESULT AND FINITE ELEMENT
METHOD ON LARGE DIAMETER AND LONG BORED PILE - A CASE STUDY OF KUNINGAN
PROJECT, JAKARTA G6-1
Anthony, Angel Refanie, Freddy Gunawan, Budijanto Widjaja

COMBINED HELIX PILES-RAFT FOUNDATION FOR SUPPORTING ROAD CONSTRUCTION ON


PEAT SOIL G7-1
Ardy Arsyad, Indra Herdiman Yusuf Ratu

DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE OF LONG DEEP BORED PILES FOR TALL
BUILDING COMPLEX IN JAKARTA G8-1
Budihartono Wijanto, I. Wayan Sengara, Bakhtiar Cahyandi, Widjojo A. Prakoso, Winda Jusmelia

SEISMIC RESPONSE OF D-WALL FOUNDATION FOR MRT STATION G9-1


Jimmy Prasetyo, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF LANDSLIDE ON PILES FOUNDATION IN HAMBALANG VILLAGE,


BOGOR DISTRICT G10-1
Herry Purnomo, Yunara Dasa Triana, Nana Rukmana, Subandriyo, Kristianto, Anas Luthfi

THE USE OF CONCRETE MAT ON MINI PILES TO STABILIZE SLOPE AND REDUCE SETTLEMENT
IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AIRPORT RUNWAY G11-1
Andy Sugianto, Asep Gunawan, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

EMPIRICAL STUDY ON CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PILE FRICTION RESISTANCE AND


STANDARD PENETRATION G12-1
Satriyadi

PILE STATIC AND DYNAMIC TEST

DYNAMIC PILE TESTS ON PRESS-IN (JACKED) PILES H1-1


Mun Fai Chong

vii
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BATTER PILE
FOUNDATION H2-1
Koichi Tomisawa, Koichi Isobe, Tadatomo Watanabe

INSTRUMENTED PILE LOAD TESTS ON ROCK SOCKETED PILES WITH DISTRIBUTED FIBRE OPTIC
SENSOR H3-1
B. P. Tee, M. F. Chong, K. A. Ang, H. Mohamad, R. A. Abdullah, A. S. A. Rashid

EVALUATION OF OSTERBERG CELL TEST USING LINEAR AND NONLINEAR APPROACH FOR
APARTMENT PROJECT IN PONDOK INDAH H4-1
Andrew Arnaldi, Ferdinand Eka Putra, Budihartono Wijanto

PILE DRIVING TEST OF SEGMENTAL POST-TENSION PRECAST CONCRETE SPUN PILE


(PC CYLINDER PILE) H5-1
Abdi Pasya Reihan B, Dedy Kurniawan, IGB Hari Agus Aditia

OVER PREDICTIONS OF STATNAMIC LOAD TESTS IN FINE GRAINED SOILS H6-1


Noman Farooq

PILE BEHAVIOR

ESTIMATION OF INNER FRICTION DISTRIBUTION OF OPEN-ENDED PILES I1-1


Mizue Kanbe, Taichi Hyodo, Masanori Okubo, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Kensaku Onozawa

STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF COMPACTED FILL ON THE BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILES
ON SOFT SOILS I2-1
Stefanus Diaz Alvi, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

BEHAVIOUR Of BORED PILES IN EXPANSIVE SOIL UNDER AXIAL LOADING I3-1


Nunun D. Prawestie, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

PERFORMANCE OF PILE IN LINEAR AND NONLINEAR STRUCTURE (APPLICATION IN


ENGINEERING STRUCTURE) I4-1
Anwar Dolu, Amrinsyah Nasution

NUMERICAL STUDY OF PILE-SOIL INTERACTION IN GROUPS UNDER OC AND


NC CONDITION I5-1
Aflizal Arafianto, Paulus P. Rahardjo

INNOVATION IN PILE TECHNOLOGY

INNOVATION IN PILE INSTRUMENTATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DRIVEN AND


JACKED-IN PILES J1-1
S.K. Lee, Y.W. Chong, H.G. Li, A.H. Tan

viii
PILE FOUNDATIONS IN CHALLENGING SOFT SOIL CONDITIONS THE IMPORTANCE OF
GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE J2-1
Linda de Vries

APPLICATION OF FIBRE OPTIC TO ANALYSE LOAD DISTRIBUTION AND CONCRETE QUALITY OF


BORED PILE DURING AXIAL LOAD TEST J3-1
Adityaputera Wirawan, Andy Sugianto, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo, Tee Bun Pin

INNOVATIVE FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR HIGH RISE BUILDING USING COMBINATION OF


GROUND IMPROVEMENT AND JACK-IN PILES J4-1
C.K. Lee, C.W. Ong, W.K. Lai, C.C. Ng, M.H. Ang, S.H. Chew, C.S. Lee, Richard Lee, and C.S. Liau

THE USE OF DIFFERENT SHEARING RATE IN DIRECT SHEAR TEST TO DETERMINE DAMPING IN
SOILS AND SOIL-CONCRETE INTERFACE FOR INPUT IN PILE DRIVING ANALYSIS J5-1
Rudy Febrijanto, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo, Aflizal Arafianto

PILES IN MOVING GROUND

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BORE-PILED STRUCTURES FOR CUT SLOPE PROTECTION ON THE


MORPHOLOGICAL TERRAIN OVER CLAY-SHALE DEPOSITS K1-1
Eddie Sunaryo, Ahmad Numan, Dinny Kus Andiany, Maulana Iqbal

UPLIFT AND SETTLEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLLOW PILES UNDER CYCLIC LOADED


EMBEDDED IN SILTY SANDS K2-1
Manish V Shah, Ashvin Vaghani

USE OF BORED PILES AND GROUND ANCHOR TO STABILIZE HIGHWAY SLOPE FAILURES K3-1
Aris Handoko, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

PREDICTION OF PILE LATERAL DISPLACEMENT IN BANDUNG SOFT CLAY DUE TO


EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION BASED ON DILATOMETER TESTS DATA K4-1
Asriwijanti Desiani, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

ix
Proceeding of PILE 2017, ISBN 978-979-15020-4-7
Bali - Indonesia, September 26 – 27, 2017

EFFECTS OF PILE LATERAL MOVEMENT, PILE SPACING AND


PILE NUMBERS ON LATERALLY LOADED GROUP PILES

GOUW Tjie-Liong
Geotechnical Consultant
Former faculty at Civil Eng. Department,
Binus University, Jakarta
gtloffice@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Based on 3D finite element numerical analysis on 3x3 pile group Gouw and Hidayat (2015)
suggested that that when base friction of the pile cap and the passive pressure acting against the pile cap are
neglected, the effects of the pile cap thickness against group lateral efficiency is marginal and can be safely
neglected. They also briefly mentioned that the center to center pile spacing and the lateral movement of the
piles also affect the capacity of the laterally loaded group piles. To investigate the eff ect of the magnitude of
pile lateral movement and pile spacing to larger pile groups, the study was continued by carrying further analysis
on 5x5 and 9x9 pile groups, taking the same modelling assumption where base friction and passive resistance
induced by pile cap were neglected. The study revealed that pile group lateral efficiencies were found to be
larger when the center to center pile spacing were wider. It was also found the greater the number of piles in
the group the lower the pile lateral efficiency. However, pile head lateral (horizontal) movement only have
marginal effect on the lateral efficiency of group piles.

Keywords : Group piles, finite element, pile group lateral efficiency, pile lateral movement

INTRODUCTION

Many methods have been developed in estimating single pile lateral capacity, starting from
Broms method (Broms, 1964a, 1964b), Reese and Matlock method (Reese and Matlock, 1956),
Poulos and Davis method (Poulos and Davis, 1980), to many other researches, e.g. Kim and Kim,
1999; Kumar et al, 2000. For pile group lateral capacity, it is generally calculated by reducing the
modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction of the soil, k h (Prakash, 1962). Prakash method does not
consider the effect of the thickness of the group pile cap, the number of piles in the group and the
lateral movement of the piles. By employing 3D geotechnical finite element computer software, e.g.
PLAXIS 3D, Gouw and Hidayat (2015) concluded that that when base friction of the pile cap and the
passive pressure acting against the pile cap are neglected, the effects of the pile cap thickness
against group lateral efficiency is marginal and can be neglected. They also briefly mentioned that
the center to center pile spacing and the lateral movement of the piles also have effects on the
capacity of laterally loaded single pile and group piles. Taking the same modelling assumption
where base friction and passive resistance induced by pile cap are neglected, Gouw carried out
further research by analyzing larger pile groups of 5x5 and 9x9 to investigate the effect of
magnitude of pile head lateral movement, pile spacing and number of piles in the group on the
pile group lateral efficiency in resisting lateral load. Effect of the moment induced by pile lateral
load is not considered. This paper presented the results of the study.

F1-1
F1-2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

As presented in previous paper (Gouw and Hidayat, 2015), the research is carried out by
employing PLAXIS 3D geotechnical finite element software (Brinkgreeve et al, 2015) with the
following methodology:
(1) The piles are circular bored piles with 1m or 1000mm diameter.
(2) The subsoil is clay with an undrained shear strength, Su, of 50 kPa and soil stiffness, E, of 500
times undrained shear strength, E = 25.000 kPa. The soil is assumed to be in undrained
condition under the basis that the lateral load on building piles are normally induced by wind
or earthquake loads which generally take place for a short duration.
(3) Mohr Coulomb soil model is used.
(4) Model and carry out single pile analysis subjected to lateral load. The lateral load carrying
capacity of the single pile is determined at 6mm, 9mm, 12mm, 25mm, 40mm and 100mm
lateral movement of the pile head. Named the single pile capacity at certain lateral movement
as Q1h = x mm. Note that the chosen magnitudes of lateral movements are based on the
following criteria:
 6 mm is normally adopted as allowable lateral movement under static condition.
 9 mm is allowable lateral movement under small earthquake shaking.
 12 mm is allowable lateral movement under medium earthquake shaking.
 25 mm is allowable lateral movement under strong earthquake shaking.
 40 mm is based on the local practice (Jakarta, Indonesia) that the pile ultimate load is
determined at pile head movement of 4% pile diameter, i.e. 4% x 1000mm = 40mm.
 100mm is the original Terzaghi's 10% pile diameter failure criteria for lateral
movement, i.e. 10% x 1000mm = 100mm.
(5) The piles are modelled as embedded beam with unit weight of 24 kN/m3 and structural
stiffness of 3x107 kN/m2.
(6) Model 3x3, 5x5 and 9x9 piles group subjected to lateral load.
(7) Lateral load is applied at the side the of the pile cap. Magnitude of the load is adjusted until
all piles in the group move laterally by 100mm or more.
(8) The center to center pile spacing is varied from 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D, 8D to 10D (D=pile diameter).
(9) Since it has been found that the effect of pile cap thickness is marginal, on this further study
the pile cap thickness for all pile groups are taken as 2D. The pile caps are modelled as soil
cluster with non-porous, linear elastic material model, with the unit weight of 24 kN/m3,
stiffness of 3x107 kN/m2, and Poisson’s ratio of 0.15.
(10) To eliminate the effect of soil friction between the base of the piles cap and the underlying
soil, a 10-cm thin layer of dummy soil with nearly zero strength and zero stiffness is placed
under the pile cap.
(11) To eliminate the effect of soil passive resistance acting on the pile cap, the pile cap is placed
on the ground surface.
(12) The lateral movement of each pile in the group is then generated by Plaxis 3D. Then, load
carrying capacity of each pile is derived at the corresponding pile head lateral movement of
6mm, 9mm, 12mm, 25mm, 40mm and 100mm.
F1-3

(13) The group total lateral capacity at a certain magnitude of lateral movement, Qgh= x mm, is
determined by summing up the load acting in each individual pile at the corresponding
magnitude of the lateral movement.
The lateral pile group efficiency,  then computed as,

 = Qg h = x mm / (n x Q1h = x mm) ≤ 1 (1)


where:
Qg h = x mm = group lateral capacity obtained by summing up each pile load carrying
capacity at certain lateral movement of x, say at 6mm. It is derived from
group pile finite element analysis.
n= number of piles in the group, i.e. 3x3 group  n = 9,
5x5 group  n = 25, 9x9 group  n = 81
Q1h= x mm = single pile lateral capacity at certain lateral movement of x, say at 6mm.
It is obtained from single pile finite element analysis.

THE FEM MODELLING

As mentioned in the research methodology, the analysis was first carried out to derive single
pile movement, followed by carrying out analysis for 3x3 piles, 5x5 piles and 9x9 piles. Figure 1
shows the typical finite element modelling of 3x3 piles group. Figure 2 shows the pile head lateral
(horizontal) movements of a single pile, 3x3 piles, 5x5 piles and 9x9 piles with pile spacing of 3D (3
times pile diameter) and pile cap thickness of 2D. Horizontal movements of the same pile group
arrangement with pile spacings of 4D, 5D, 6D, 8D to 10D were analyzed and the results are
presented in Figures 3 to 7. The graphs show that for the same spacing of piles, the larger the pile
group, i.e. bigger number of piles, the lower the carrying capacity of each pile in the group. The
load carried by each pile in the group was determined at the lateral movement of 6, 9, 12, 25, 40,
and 100mm. It was then compared with the single pile capacity to derive the group efficiency as
per equation (1).

Figure 1. Typical Finite Element Model of the Pile Group (Gouw and Hidayat, 2015)
F1-4

4000

Single y = -0.1242x2 + 48.838x


3500 Pile

3000
Lateral Load, Hx (kN)

2500

2000
3 x 3 y = -0.0751x2 + 26.031x
Group
1500
5x5 y = -0.053x2 + 18.977x

1000 9 x 9 y = -0.0386x2 + 13.704x

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Pile Spacing:
Pile Head Lateral Movement, ux (mm) 3 Pile Diameter
Single Pile Capacity One Pile Capacity in 3x3 group S = 3D
One Pile Capacity in 5x5 group One Pile Capacity in 9x9 group

Figure 2. Pile Head Lateral Movement for Pile Spacing of 3 Pile Diameter

4000

Single y = -0.1242x2 + 48.838x


3500 Pile

3000
Lateral Load, Hx (kN)

2500
3x3
y = -0.084x2 + 30.973x
Group
2000

5x5 y = -0.0685x2 + 24.208x


1500
9x9 y = -0.0472x2 + 18.268x

1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Pile Spacing:
Pile Head Lateral Movement, ux (mm) 4 Pile Diameter
Single Pile Capacity One Pile Capacity in 3x3 group S = 4D
One Pile Capacity in 5x5 group One Pile Capacity in 9x9 group

Figure 3. Pile Head Lateral Movement for Pile Spacing of 4 Pile Diameter
F1-5

4000

Single y = -0.1242x2 + 48.838x


3500 Pile

3000

3x3 y = -0.0879x2 + 34.37x


Lateral Load, Hx (kN)

2500
Group

5x5 y = -0.0769x2 + 28.368x


2000

9x9 y = -0.056x2 + 22.997x


1500

1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Pile Spacing:
Pile Head Lateral Movement, u x (mm) 5 Pile Diameter
Single Pile Capacity One Pile Capacity in 3x3 group S = 5D
One Pile Capacity in 5x5 group One Pile Capacity in 9x9 group

Figure 4. Pile Head Lateral Movement for Pile Spacing of 5 Pile Diameter

4000

Single y = -0.1242x2 + 48.838x


3500 Pile

3000 3x3
y = -0.0937x2 + 37.338x
Group
Lateral Load, Hx (kN)

2500
5x5 y = -0.0809x2 + 31.92x

9x9 y = -0.0726x2 + 29.103x


2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Pile Spacing:
Pile Head Lateral Movement, u x (mm) 6 Pile Diameter
Single Pile Capacity One Pile Capacity in 3x3 group S = 6D
One Pile Capacity in 5x5 group One Pile Capacity in 9x9 group

Figure 5. Pile Head Lateral Movement for Pile Spacing of 6 Pile Diameter
F1-6

4000
Single
Pile y = -0.1242x2 + 48.838x
3500
Group
y = -0.1048x2 + 42.32x
3x3
3000 5x5 y = -0.1037x2 + 41.378x

9x9 y = -0.0819x2 + 37.439x


Lateral Load, Hx (kN)

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Pile Spacing:
Pile Head Lateral Movement, u x (mm) 8 Pile Diameter
Single Pile Capacity One Pile Capacity in 3x3 group S = 8D
One Pile Capacity in 5x5 group One Pile Capacity in 9x9 group

Figure 6. Pile Head Lateral Movement for Pile Spacing of 8 Pile Diameter

4000
Single
y = -0.1242x2 + 48.838x
Pile
3500
Group
y = -0.1142x2 + 47.496x
3x3
3000
5x5 y = -0.1145x2 + 46.584x
Lateral Load, Hx (kN)

2500 9x9 y = -0.0807x2 + 43.122x

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Pile Spacing:
Pile Head Lateral Movement, ux (mm) 10 Pile Diameter
Single Pile Capacity One Pile Capacity in 3x3 group S = 10D
One Pile Capacity in 5x5 group One Pile Capacity in 9x9 group

Figure 7. Pile Head Lateral Movement for Pile Spacing of 10 Pile Diameter

EFFECT OF PILE LATERAL MOVEMENT

The pile group lateral efficiencies are then plotted against lateral movement of pile head as
presented in Figures 8 to 10, for 3x3, 5x5 and 9x9 piles, respectively. The results show that in term
of pile center to center spacing, S, for all group piles the larger the pile spacing the higher the pile
lateral efficiency, .
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In term of pile head lateral movement, for 3x3 and 5x5 group piles: up to pile center to center
spacing of 5 pile diameters (S=5D), the larger the pile movement the lower the lateral efficiency.
For spacing larger than 5 pile diameters (S>5D), the pile lateral efficiencies remain almost constant
regardless of pile head movement. For 9x9 group piles: the lateral efficiencies reduce with pile
movement for pile spacing up to 4D, remain almost constant for pile spacing of 5 to 6D, and then
start to increase for pile spacing greater than 6D.
Closer examination on the magnitude of lateral efficiencies against pile movements show that
the changes is marginal. For example: the group of 3x3 piles at pile spacing of 3D, for pile
movement of 6mm to 100mm, the lateral efficiency only reduces by 0.023. For 9x9 piles at pile
spacing of 10D, for pile movement of 6mm to 100mm, the lateral efficiency only increases by 0.076.

1.0 S = 10D y = 0.0002x + 0.9719


R² = 0.9957
0.9 S = 8D y = 8E-05x + 0.8663
R² = 0.9957
Pile Group Lateral Efficiency, h

0.8 y = 4E-05x + 0.7644


S = 6D R² = 0.9957
0.7 y = -2E-05x + 0.7038
S = 5D
R² = 0.9957
0.6 S = 4D y = -0.0001x + 0.6347
R² = 0.9957
0.5 S = 3D y = -0.0003x + 0.5339
R² = 0.9957
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 X 3 Piles
Pile Cap Thickness 2D
Pile Head Lateral Movement (mm)

Figure 8. Pile Head Lateral Movement vs Group Efficiency for 3x3 Group Piles

1.0 y = 0.0001x + 0.9535


S = 10D
R² = 0.9957
0.9
S = 8D y = 4E-05x + 0.8471
Pile Group Lateral Efficiency, h

0.8 R² = 0.9957

0.7 y = 7E-06x + 0.6536


S = 6D R² = 0.9957
0.6
S = 5D y = -0.0001x + 0.5813
R² = 0.9957
0.5
S = 4D y = -0.0002x + 0.4964
R² = 0.9957
0.4 S = 3D
y = -0.0001x + 0.3891
R² = 0.9957
0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 5 X 5 Piles
Pile Cap Thickness 2D
Pile Head Lateral Movement (mm)

Figure 9. Pile Head Lateral Movement vs Group Efficiency for 5x5 Group Piles
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1.0
S = 10D y = 0.0008x + 0.88
R² = 0.9957
0.9

S = 8D y = 0.0004x + 0.7653
Pile Group Lateral Efficiency, h

0.8
R² = 0.9957

0.7
y = 4E-05x + 0.5958
S = 6D
0.6 R² = 0.9957

0.5 S = 5D y = 7E-05x + 0.4706


R² = 0.9957

0.4 y = -2E-05x + 0.3741


S = 4D R² = 0.9957
0.3
S = 3D y = -0.0001x + 0.281
R² = 0.9957
0.2

0.1

0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 9 X 9 Piles
Pile Cap Thickness 2D
Pile Head Lateral Movement (mm)

Figure 10. Pile Head Lateral Movement vs Group Efficiency for 9x9 Group Piles

EFFECT OF PILE SPACING

Figures 11, 12 and 13 show the results of analysis in term of pile spacing vs pile group lateral
efficiencies for 3x3, 5x5 and 9x9 group piles, respectively. The graphs show that for each group
piles, the wider the pile spacing the larger the pile group lateral efficiencies. However, for each pile
spacing, the magnitude of pile movement only have marginal effect on pile lateral efficiency.

1.0 Hx =100mm y = 0.289x0.5388


R² = 0.9937
0.9
Pile Group Lateral Efficiency, h

Hx = 40mm
0.8 y = 0.3081x0.5039
R² = 0.9957
0.7 Hx = 25mm
y = 0.3121x0.4971
0.6 R² = 0.996
Hx = 12mm

0.5 y = 0.3152x0.4916
R² = 0.9963
Hx = 9 mm
0.4
y = 0.3159x0.4904
0.3 Hx = 6 mm R² = 0.9963

y = 0.3166x0.4892
0.2
R² = 0.9964
0.1

0.0
2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D 9D 10 D 3 x 3 Piles
Pile Cap Thickness 2D
Pile Spacing (in term of Pile Diameter)

Figure 11. Pile Spacing vs Group Efficiency for 3x3 Group Piles
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1.0 Hx =100mm y = 0.1572x 0.7978


R² = 0.9976
0.9
Hx = 40mm
y = 0.1671x 0.7673
Pile Group Lateral Efficiency, h 0.8 R² = 0.9971
Hx = 25mm
0.7 y = 0.1692x 0.7613
R² = 0.997
0.6 Hx = 12mm
y = 0.1708x 0.7565
0.5 R² = 0.9968
Hx = 9 mm

0.4 y = 0.1712x 0.7554


Hx = 6 mm R² = 0.9968
0.3
y = 0.1715x 0.7544
0.2 R² = 0.9968

0.1

0.0
2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D 9D 10 D 5 x 5 Piles
Pile Cap Thickness 2D
Pile Spacing (in term of Pile Diameter)

Figure 12. Pile Spacing vs Group Efficiency for 5x5 Group Piles

1.0 Hx =100mm
y = 0.0847x1.0717
R² = 0.9969
0.9
Hx = 40mm
Pile Group Lateral Efficiency, h

0.8 y = 0.093x1.01
R² = 0.9945
Hx = 25mm
0.7 y = 0.0948x0.9975
R² = 0.9938
0.6 Hx = 12mm
y = 0.0963x0.9874
0.5
Hx = 9 mm
R² = 0.9932
0.4
y = 0.0966x0.9852
Hx = 6 mm R² = 0.9931
0.3

0.2 y = 0.0969x0.983
R² = 0.993
0.1

0.0
2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D 9D 10 D 9 x 9 Piles
Pile Cap Thickness
Pile Spacing (in term of Pile Diameter)
Figure 13. Pile Spacing vs Group Efficiency for 9x9 Group Piles

EFFECT OF PILE NUMBERS

Figure 14 shows the plot of group lateral efficiencies for all group piles. It shows that number
of piles in a group also influenced the group pile lateral efficiency. The greater the number of piles
in a group the smaller the lateral group efficiency.
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1.0
Pile Group Lateral Efficeincy, h

0.9

0.8

0.7
3x3 Group
0.6 y = 0.3093x0.5018
R² = 0.9944
0.5
5x5 Group
0.4 y = 0.1678x0.7655
R² = 0.9964
0.3
9x9 Group
0.2 y = 0.0936x1.0058
R² = 0.993
0.1

0.0
1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D 9D 10 D
Pile Spacing (in term of Pile Diameter D)

3x3 5x5 9x9 Power (3x3) Power (5x5) Power (9x9)

Figure 14. Effect of Number of Piles on Group Efficiency

CONCLUSIONS

The 3D numerical finite element studies reveal that when base friction of the pile cap and the
passive pressure acting against the pile cap is neglected:
 The effect of the pile cap thickness against group lateral efficiency is marginal and can be
safely neglected (Gouw and Hidayat, 2015).
 For pile spacing less than 5 pile diameters, the larger the lateral movement of the pile, the
lower the pile lateral efficiency. For pile spacing of 5 to 6 pile diameters the lateral efficiency
does not change with pile movement. For pile spacing larger than 6 pile diameters, the lateral
efficiency increases with pile movement. However, the changes of the lateral efficiency is
marginal and can simply be neglected.
 The center to center spacing of piles have significant effect on the group pile lateral efficiency.
The lateral group efficiency increases with the pile spacing up to a maximum group efficiency
value of one at pile spacing of around 10 pile diameters.
 The number of piles in a group also influenced the group pile lateral efficiency. The greater
the number of piles in a group the smaller the lateral group efficiency.
Finally, it is to be noted that other than the lateral group efficiency, the moment induces due to
lateral load also must be checked so as not to exceed the allowable moment capacity of the piles.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author greatly deeply indebted to the Directorate General of Higher Education of
Indonesian Ministry of Education for funding the research. The help and support of Binus University
in obtaining the funding is greatly acknowledged. Great gratitude is directed to Mr. Irpan Hidayat
for his great help in arranging all the research administrative procedure.
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