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Short Answer Questions

1. What is basic the principle of operation of an alternator.

Ans: Basic principle of operation of an alternator is the principle of
electromagnetic induction, whenever the flux linking with a conductor changes an
emf is always induced in the conductor.
2. Why an alternator is called synchronous generator?
Ans: An alternator always runs at synchronous speed and hence called
synchronous generator.
3. List the different types of alternators
Ans: Based on number of phases (i) single phase and three phase. Based on rotor
construction (i) salient pole and (ii) non salient pole, and stationary and rotating
field system.
4. List the advantages of rotating field system in alternators
Ans: (i) Easy to insulate the stationary armature for high voltages
(ii) Easy to tap the power from stationary terminals
(iii) Easy to supply low power, low voltage to rotating field system
(iv) Easy construction of rotor for higher speeds
(v) Better cooling can be provided
5. Why turbo alternators are run at very high speeds?
Ans: Turbo alternators are run at very high speed as they are run by steam
turbines. The steam turbines are to be run at very high speed only for getting
higher efficiency.
6. Why the pole shoes of salient pole machines are chamfered?
Ans: The pole shoes are chamfered in order to provide almost uniform flux
distribution in the air gap in the polar and inter polar region.
7. Which type of alternators are employed in thermal and nuclear power plants?
Ans: Turbo alternators or cylindrical rotor alternators are employed in thermal and
nuclear power plants as these run by steam turbines.
8. Which type of alternators are used in hydro electric power plants?
Ans: Salient pole alternators are employed in hydro electric power plants as these
are driven by water turbines and are run at low speeds.
9. What is meant by distribution of the windings?
Ans: Placing of the armature or stator windings in slots throughout the periphery
of the armature or stator by placing the coil sides in different slots is called
distribution of windings.
10. Differentiate between full pitched and short pitched winding.
Ans: Full pitched windings are those which have the coil span equal to pole pitch,
where as the short pitched windings have the coil span always less than the pole
11. List the advantages of short pitched winding.
Ans: (i) Distorting harmonics can be reduced or totally eliminated and hence the
induced emf /current can be made nearly or fully sinusoidal. (ii) Saving in copper
as the length of the oher hang reduces in short pitched windings (iii) fractional
slot winding can be employed to reduce tooth ripples.

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12. What is meant by armature reaction?
Ans: The effect of armature flux on the main pole flux when the armature
conductors carry the current is known as armature reaction.
13. List the causes by which the terminal voltage of an alternator reduces when
Ans: (i) Armature resistance drop (ii) Armature leakage reactance drop (iii)
Armature reaction reactance drop.
14. What is the load angle in alternator?
Ans: In the phasor diagram of an alternator the phase angle between the induced
emf and the terminal voltage is known as the load angle.
15. Define voltage regulation of an alternator.
Ans: The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the change in voltage
from no load to full load expressed as a percentage of rated voltage when the load
at given power factor is removed with speed and excitation remaining unchanged.
16. What is meant by predetermination of regulation?
Ans: Calculation or estimation of regulation of the machine without actually
loading the machine, by using indirect methods is known as predetermination of
17. Why predetermination of regulation is advantageous?
Ans: Indirect methods are employed in predetermination of regulation. In direct
determination of regulation the machines are directly loaded and the power is
wasted during direct loading. Also providing the required load with proper
voltage and current rating for loading of the machine is also difficult.
18. List the different methods of predetermination of regulation of alternators.
Ans: (i) Synchronous impedance method/EMF Method (ii) Ampere turn method /
MMF method (iii) ASA Method (iv) ZPF/ Potier triangle Method
19. Why the EMF method of estimating voltage regulation is also called pessimistic
Ans: The value of voltage regulation estimated by EMF method is always higher
or poor than the actual value and hence this method is called pessimistic method.
20. Why the MMF method of estimating voltage regulation is also called optimistic
Ans: The value of voltage regulation estimated by MMF method is always lower
than the actual value and hence this method is called optimistic method.
21. What is the difference between EMF method and MMF method of voltage
Ans: In EMF method all the MMFs are replaced by emf for voltage regulation
where as in MMF method all the emfs are replaced by mmfs for voltage
22. List the conditions to be satisfied for synchronizing two alternators.
Ans: (i) The voltage magnitude of both the machines must be same.
(ii) The phase sequence of both the machines must be same
(iii) The frequency of the voltage of both machines must be same.

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23. What are the factors that affect the load sharing during parallel operation of
Ans: (i) Excitation level of the alternators
(ii) Characteristics of prime movers
(iii) Percentage synchronous impedance
24. How does the change in excitation affect the load sharing when two alternators
are running in parallel?
Ans: Decrease in excitation of one alternator decreases the reactive power shared
by that machine and correspondingly the reactive power shared by the other
machine increases. The active power supplied by both the machines remains the
25. List the disadvantages of concentrated winding?
Ans: (i) Entire periphery of the stator iron is not used efficiently (ii) Deeper slots
are required which demands higher flux density. (iii) increased armature leakage
flux and armature reaction (iv) fail to reduce harmonics.

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