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PRMO Solution
20.08.2017

1. How many positive integers less than 1000 have the property that the sum of the digits of each such
number is divisible by 7 and the number itself is divisible by 3?
2. Suppose a, b are positive real numbers such that a a  b b  183 . a b  b a  182 . Find
9
a  b
5
3. A contractor has two teams of workers: team A and team B. Team A can complete job in 12 days and
team B can do the same job in 36 days. Team A starts working on the job and team B joins team A after
four days. The team A withdraws after two more days. For how many more days should team B work to
complete the job?
  
4. Let a, b be integers such that all the roots of the equation x 2  ax  20 x 2  17x  b  0 are negative
integers. What is the smallest possible value of a + b?
5. Let u, v, w be real numbers in geometric progression such that u  v  w . Suppose u  v  w .
40 n 60

Find the value of n?


1
 9 p
6. Let the sum written in its lowest term be . Find the value of q – p.
n  n  1 n  2 
n 1
q
7. Find the number of positive integers n. Such that n  n  1  11 .
8. A pen costs Rs 11 and a notebook costs Rs 13. Find the number of ways in which a person can spend
exactly Rs 1000 to buy pens and notebooks.
9. There are five cities A, B, C, D and E on a certain island. Each city is connected to every other city by
road. In how many ways can a person starting form city A come back to A after visiting some cities
without visiting a city more than once and without taking the same road more than once? (The order in
which he visits the cities also matters: e.g., the routes A  B  C  A and A  C  B  A are
different)
10. There are eight rooms on the first floor of a hotel, with four rooms on each side of the corridor,
symmetrically situated (that is each room is exactly opposite to one other room). Four guests have to be
accommodated in four of the eight rooms (that is, one in each) such that no two guests are in adjacent
rooms or in opposite rooms. In how many ways can the guests be accommodated?
x 3x
11. Let f  x   sin  cos for all real x. Find the least natural number n such that f  n  x   f  x  for
3 10
all real x.
12. In a class, the total numbers of boys and girls are in the ratio 4 : 3. On one day it was found that 8 boys
and 14 girls were absent from the class, and that the number of boys was the square of the number of
girls. What is the total number of students in the class?
13. In a rectangle ABCD, E is the midpoint of AB; F is a point on AC such that BF is perpendicular to AC,
and FE perpendicular to BD. Suppose BC = 8 3 . Find AB.
14. Suppose x is a positive real number such that x ,  x  andx are in a geometric progression. Find the
least positive integer n such that x  100 . (Here [x] denotes the integer part of x and {x} = x – [x].)
n

15. Integers 1, 2, 3, …., n. Where n > 2, are written on a board. Two numbers m, k such that
1 < m < n, 1 < k < n are removed and the average of the remaining numbers is found to be 17. What is
the maximum sum of the two removed numbers?
16. Five distinct 2-digit numbers are in a geometric progression. Find the middle term.
17. Suppose the altitudes of a triangle are 10, 12 and 15. What is its semi-perimeter?
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18. If the real numbers x, y, z are such that x 2  4y 2  16z 2  48 and xy  4yz  2zx  24 . What is the
value of x 2  y 2  z 2 ?

19. Suppose 1, 2, 3 are the roots of the equation x  ax  bx  c . Find the value of c.
4 2

20. What is the number of triples (a, b, c) of positive integers such that (i) a < b < c < 10 and (ii) a, b, c, 10
form the side of a quadrilateral?
21. Find the number of ordered triples (a, b, c) of positive integers such that abc = 108.
22. Suppose in the plane 10 pair-wise nonparallel lines intersect one another. What is the maximum possible
number of polygons (with finite areas) that can be formed?
23. Suppose an integer x, a natural number n and a prime number p satisfy the equation 7x 2  44x  12  p n
. Find the largest value of p.
24. Let P be an interior point of a triangle ABC whose side lengths are 26, 65, 78. The line through P
parallel to BC meets AB in K and AC in L. The line through P parallel to CA meets BC in M and BA in
N. The line through P parallel to AB meets CA in S and CB in T. If KL, MN, ST are of equal lengths,
find this common length.
25. Let ABCD be a rectangle and let E and F be points on CD and BC respectively such that area (ADE) =
16, area (CEF) = 9 and area (ABF) = 25. What is the area of triangle AEF?
26. Let AB and CD be two parallel chords in a circle with radius 5 such that the centre O lies between these
chords. Suppose AB = 6, CD = 8. Suppose further that the area of the part of the circle lying between the
chords AB and CD is  m  n  / k , where m, n, k are positive integers with gcd  m, n, k   1 . What is
the value of m + n + k?
27. Let 1 be a circle with center O and let AB be a diameter of 1 . Let P be a point on the segment OB
different from O. Suppose another circle  2 with centre P lies in the interior of 1 . Tangents are drawn
from A and B to the to the circle  2 intersecting 1 again at A1 and B1 respectively such that A1 and
B1 are on the opposite sides of AB. Given that A1B = 5. AB1 = 15 and OP = 10, find the radius of 1 .
28. Let p,q be the prime numbers such that n3pq – n is a multiple of 3pq for all positive integers n. Find the
least possible value of p + q.
29. For each positive integer n, consider the highest common factor hn of the two numbers n! + 1 and (n +
1)!. For n < 100, find the largest value of hn…
30. Consider the areas of the four triangles obtained by drawing the diagonals AC and BD of a trapezium
ABCD. The product of these areas taken two at time are computed. If among the six products so
obtained, two products are 1296 and 576, determine the square root of the maximum possible area of the
trapezium to the nearest integer.
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Solutions
1. Considering both the conditions , the sum of digits must be divisible by 21. The below table
consists of
Sequences of digits whose sum is 21.

Sequence Number of Permutations


(3, 9, 9) 2
(4, 8, 9) 6
(5, 7, 9) 6
(6, 6, 9) 2
(5, 8, 8) 2
(5, 9, 8) 3
(6, 7, 8) 3
(6, 9, 7) 3
(4, 9,7) 1
= 28

2. a a  b b  183
a b  b a  182
a u ; b v
Solving
u 3  v3  183
u 2 v  v 2 u  182
u 3  v3  183 ........  i 
3u v  3v u  3 182
2 2

3u 2 v  3v2 u  546 .........  ii 


u 3  v3  3u 2 v  3v 2 u  729
 u  v   729
3

 u  v   9
3 3

u  vR
uv9
uv (u + v) = 182
182
uv =
9
182
u 9  u  
9
9u  9  u   182
81u  9u 2  182
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9u 2  81u  182  0
196 169
Solve to get a  , b
9 9
9  a  b  9 365
    73
5 1  5 9
3. Team A complete the job in 12 days
1
1 day work of Team A =
12
Team B complete the job in 36 days
1
1 day work of Team B =
36
1 1 3 1 1
(A+ B) team 1 day work =   
12 36 36 9
4 1
A’s 4 days work = 
12 3
1 2
Work left = 1  
3 3
2
Team (A+B) 2 days work =
9
2 2 62 4
Work left =   =
3 9 9 9
1
Team B do work in 1 day
36
4 36  4
Team B do work in = = 16 days
9 9

4. (x 2a  x  20)(x 2  17x  b)  0
All roots are –ve  smallest value (a+b) =?
(x+  ) (x+  )(x+  ) (x+  )=0
Here  +  =a here  +  =17
  = 20  =b
   +  =a
Vice versa 1 20 21
as  &  2 10 12
4 5 9min
  =4 =5
Vice Versa     =b
as  &  1 16 16min
2 15 30>16
3 14 >16
4 13 >16
5 12 >16
6 11 >16
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7 10 >16
8 9 >16

For min (a+b) we need min (a) & min (b)


min (a+b) = 9+16 = 25

5. u=u
v = ur
w = ur2
 u10 = un rn = u60 r120
r120 = u-20
1

6
r= u
n

u40 = un . u 6

5n
6
=u
5n
40 =
6
40.6
n= = 48
5
9
1
6. 
n 1 n(n  1)(n  2)
1 1 1 1
= + +
n(n  1)(n  2) 2n (n  1) 2(n  2)
9
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 2n  2  4  6  8  10  12  14  16  18
n 1

9
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 (n  1) 
n 1
       
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
9
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 2(n  2)  6  8  10  12  14  16  18  20  22
n 1

9
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 n(n  1)(n  2)  16 
n 1
    
5 8 10 16 20 22
1 1 1
=  
4 20 22
1 1
= 
5 22
27
=
110
110-27
= 83
7. n  n  1  11 n  I
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both sides are +ve


 squaring both sides
n + n + 1 + 2 n(n  1) < 121

2n+ 2 n(n  1) < 120

n  n(n  1) < 60

n(n  1) is always > n but < n+1


in decimal representation
n+ n+ fraction < 60
2n + fraction < 60
 n can be from1to 29
as 58  fraction  59  60
 29 Values of X

8. 11P + 13N = 1000


1000  13N
P
11
Maximum possible value for N can be 76. Possible values for N for the above equation is in a
pattern
N = 5, 16, 27, 38, 49, 60, 71

9. When we go through 1city we need to follow


The Same path back
No of ways = 0
when through 2 cities we have 4p2 ways i.e 12
when through 3 cities 4p3 = 24 when
when through 4 cities 4p4 = 24
 Total we of ways = 0+12+24+24 = 60
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10. Case i Case ii

No of ways = 4! No of ways = 4!

 Total = 2x4!

= 48ways

x 3x
11. f(x)= sin + cos
3 10

x
Period of sin = 6
3

3x 20 
Period of cos =
10 3

x 3x 20 
Period of sin + cos = LCM of 6  ,
3 10 3

LCM of 6 & 20


=
HCFof 1& 3

60 
=
1

= 60

 f ( 60  + x) = f(x)

 n= 60

12. Number of boys = 4x


Number of girls = 3x
According to question

 4x  8   3x  14
2

 4x – 8 = 9x2 + 196 – 84x


 0  9x 2  196  84x  4x  8
 0  9x 2  88x  204
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88  7744  7344
x
18
88  400
x
18
88  20
x
18

108 68
x  16 or (neglect)
10 18
x=6
boys = 4x = 24
girls = 3x = 18
total = 42
13.

in rt  d AFB
AF = 2y coa  ;
BF = 2y sin  ;
In rt  d BGE
BG2 + GE2= BE2
(ysin  )2 + (2y sin  )2 = (sin2  )2 = y2
Sin2  +4sin2  sin22  =  y  0
Cos2  = 4sin2  sin22  [ sin2 a = 2 sin a cos a ]
16 sin  =1
4

4
1
(sin  )4 =  
2
1
sin  =   = 300
2
BC 8 3 4 3 1
tan  =    4 x 3 = y
AB 2y y 3
y = 12
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AB = 2Y = 2  12= 24 cm

14. given { x } [ x ] x are in GP x  R+


 least +ve integer S.T xn > 100
x = { x } r2
[x]={x}r
 r2 = r+1
1 5
r= (but it can’t be (-ve) as x is + ve always [ x ] can’t be (-ve) )
2
1 5
 r= 1.61
2
As 0 < { x } < 1 if { x } = 0  [ x ] = 0
0<[x] <r then x =0
1 5
0<[x]<  x  0 as 0n > 100 for n  
2
[x]=1
1 2
{ x } = =
r 1 5
1 2 1 5
x= r = r
r 2

n
 1 5 
   > 100
 2 
1 5
n log >2
2
2 2 2
n>  <
log1.61 log1.61 log1.6
2 200
<
log1.61 0.20
2
< 10
log1.61
2
nearest + ve integer > is n = 10
log1.61
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n(n  1) n(n  1)
 (2n  1) 3
15. 2  17  2
n2 n2
n 2  n  4n  2 n2  n  6
17 
2(n  2) 2(n  2)
n 2  3n  2 (n  3)(n  2)
17 
2(n  2) 2(n  2)
n 1 n 3
 17 
2 2
n < 35 and n > 31
n = 32, 33, 34
case-1, n =32
n(n  1)
p n(n  1)
2  17   17 (n  2)  p
(n  2) 2
P =18
Case-2, n =33  P= 34
Case-3, n= 34  p = 51
Maximum sum = 51
16. Let the terms be a, ar, ar2, ar3, ar4
Each of the terms is a 2-digit no.
2 3
Possible values for ‘r’ are or
3 2
3
Case 1 a= 16, r =
2
a = 16
3
ar = 16  = 24
2
ar2 = 36
2
Case 2 a = 81, r =
3
a = 81
4
ar2 = 81 = 36
9
3
Case 3 a = 81, r
2
Values are not 2 digit no. similarly
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2
Case 4 a = 16 r=
3
Discard

17.

1 1 1
 10  a   12  b   15  c
2 2 2
 10a  12b  15c
 L.C.M of 10,12,15  60
Dividing by 60
a b c
 
6 5 4
a b c
Let   k
6 5 4
 a  6k, b  5k, c  4k
 s(s  a)(s  b)(s  c)

15k  15k  15k  15k 


   6k   5k   4k 
2  2  2  2 
15k  3k  5k  7k 
    
2  2  2  2 

15 7k 2

4
1 15k 2 7
 6k 10 
2 4
8
k
7
48 40 32
a , b c
7 7 7
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120
abc 
7
a  b  c 60

2 7

18. x2 + 4y2 + 16z2 = 48


By priniciple of home geneity let all 3 terms be equal
x2 = 4y2 = 16z2 = 16
x= 4 y = 2 Z= 1
xy + 4yz + 2zx = 24
Put x =4 y= 2 z = 1 here
xy = 4yz = 2zx =8
It also follows principle of homogeneity
x2+y2+z2 = 42+22+12 = 21

19. x4 + 0.x3 + ax2 + bx = c


0
1+2+3+8= =0
1
 = -6
1.2.3.  = -36 = -c
 = 36

20. a, b, c,   
Where
a+b+c>10 a < b< c < 10
We start with assuming a =1, b = 2, then using a +b +c > 10
c >7
i.e
c = 8, 9
no of cases = 2
i.e
(1, 2, 8) or (1, 2, 9)
Now keep a = 1, increase ‘b’ by 1 ‘b’ become = 3
C>6
No. of cases = 3
i.e (1, 3, 7) ; ( 1, 3, 8); (1, 3, 9)
when we continue in the same fashion we get the following we get the following table
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a b c No of
cases
1 2 8,9 2
1 3 7,8,9 3
1 4 6,7,8,9 4
1 5 6,7,8,9 4
1 6 7,8,9 3
1 7 8,9 2
1 8 9 1
2 3 6,7,8,9 4
2 4 5,6,7,8,9 5
2 5 6,7,8,9 4
2 6 7,8,9 3
2 7 8,9 2
2 8 9 1
3 4 5,6,7,8,9 5
3 5 6,7,8,9 4
3 6 7,8,9 3
3 7 8,9 2
3 8 9 1
4 5 6,7,8,9 4
4 6 7,8,9 3
4 7 8,9 2
4 8 9 1
5 6 7,8,9 3
5 7 8,9 2
5 8 9 1
6 7 8,9 2
6 8 9 1
7 8 9 1

21. 108 = a  b  c
108 = 22  33
If N= xa  yb
Total solution = C2  b+2C2
a+2

total solution
4
C2  5C2
= 6x10 = 60
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22. No of nm- overlapping polygons


n 2  3n  2
=
2
(10) 2  3  10  2
=
2
100  30  2
= = 36
2
23. (7x-2) (x-6)=pn
7x-2= p  and x -6 = p 

40 = p  - 7 p 
If  ,   N, p is a divisor of 40  p = 2 or 5

If p =2 , 40 = 2 - 7.2  23.5 = 2 - 7.2
  = 3 and 2 = 40+56   Z hence not possible
 
If p =5 then 40 = 5 - 7.5  23.5  5  7.5
  = 1 and 5  = 40 +35   z hence not possible
So  = 0  p  = 47  p =47 and =  1

24.

k a + l a + ma = a
Common length = a ( k +m ) =b ( k + l ) = c ( l + m )
a( 1-l ) = b (1-m) = c ( l +m )
65 (1 – l) = 78 (l – m ) = 26 ( l + m)
 5 (1 –l) = 6( l-m ) = 2 (l+m)
5-5l = 2l+2m 5-5l = 6- 6m
7l + 2m = 5 6m-5l -1
6-6m = 2l +2m
2l+8m = 6
(i)  26l = 14
7 5  7l 8
l m= 
13 2 19
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 15 
 common length = 26    30
 13 
25.

ab = 32 cd = 18 ef = 50
F = b+c a = e+d
Possible values
a = 1, 32, 4, 8 = b
c = 1, 2, 9, 3, 6, 18 =d
e = 1, 50, 2, 25, 5, 10 =f
only
a = 8 and f = 10 are satisfying the condition
area of rectangle = 8  10 = 80
 ar (AFE) = 80- 50 = 30 units

26.

here clearly
 AOB = 740
 COD = 1060
  AOC +  BOD = 1800
Area b chord AB & CD
w
= Ar (  AOB) + Ar (  COD) + Ar (AOCA)+Ar(BODB)
1 1 52
= .4.6  .3.8 
2 2 2
25
= 24 +
2
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48  25 m  n
= =
2 k
m=48 n = 25 k=2
m+k+n=75

27.

Here  AA’B = 900  AB’B = 900


In AB’B in AA’B
AB’B ~ PXB AA’B~ AYP
AB ' AB A ' B AB
   
PX PB YP AP
15 2R 5 2R
 
r R  10 r R  10
15(R  10) 5(R  10)
=   2r
R R
3(R-10) = R+10
2R = 40
R = 20 unit
28. 28

29. n! + 1is not divisible by 1,2 ………,n


(n+1) ! is divisible by 1, 2,………,n
So HCF  n+1
Also (n+1)! Is not divisible by n +2, n+3….
Let n =99
 99! 1 and 100!
HCF = 100 is not possible as 100 divides 99!
Not possible with composites
consider prime i.e. n= 97
Now 96! +1 and 97! Are both divisible by 97
So HCF = 97
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30.

Case 1 a2 k = 576 -1
2 3
a k = 1296 -2
a 2 k 3 1296

a 2k 576
9
k2 
4
3
k ( neglect –ve)
2
2
a2 = 576 
3
a2 = 192 x 2
a2 = 384
a 2 k 2 1296
Case 2 =
ak 2 576
9
K=
4
A = 16

Case3 a2k3 = 1296 a2k2= 576


1296
k2 =
576
9
k=
4
32
a=
3
area = a (k+1)2
area1  169  13
2
 3
area 2  1    122.5
 2
2
32  9 
area 3  1  
3  4