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Rule 114

BAIL
Criminal
Section Procedure Reviewer
1. Bail defined. — Bail is
the security given for the release
RULE 114
of a person in custody of the law, Section 3. No release or transfer
furnished by him or a bondsman, except on court order or bail. —
Bail
to guarantee his appearance No person under detention by
before any court as required legal process shall be released or
under the conditions hereinafter transferred except upon order of
specified. Bail may be given in
the form of corporate surety,

Section 2. Conditions of the bail;


requirements. — All kinds of bail
are subject to the following
conditions:
(a) The undertaking shall be
effective upon approval, and
unless cancelled, shall remain
Section 4. Bail, a matter of
in force at all stages of the
right; exception. — All persons in
case until promulgation of the
custody shall be admitted to bail
judgment of the Regional Trial
as a matter of right, with
Court, irrespective of whether
sufficient sureties, or released on
the case was originally filed in
recognize as prescribed by law or
or appealed to it;
this Rule (a) before or after
(b) The accused shall appear
conviction by the Metropolitan
before the proper court
Trial Court, Municipal Trial Court,
whenever required by the
Municipal Trial Court in Cities, or
court of these Rules;
Municipal Circuit Trial Court, and
(c) The failure of the accused
(b) before conviction by the
to appear at the trial without
Regional Trial Court of an offense
justification and despite due
not punishable by death,
notice shall be deemed a
reclusion perpetua, or life
waiver of his right to be
imprisonment. (4a)
present thereat. In such case,
the trial may proceed in
absentia; and
(d) The bondsman shall
surrender the accused to the
court for execution of the
final judgment.
Section 5. Bail, when
discretionary. — Upon conviction
by the Regional Trial Court of an
offense not punishable by death,
reclusion perpetua, or life
imprisonment, admission to bail
is discretionary. The application
for bail may be filed and acted
upon by the trial court despite
the filing of a notice of appeal,
Section 6. Capital offense
provided it has not transmitted
defined. — A capital offense is an
the original record to the
offense which, under the law
appellate court. However, if the
existing at the time of its
decision of the trial court
commission and of the
convicting the accused changed
the nature of the offense from
non-bailable to bailable, the
application for bail can only be
filed with and resolved by the
appellate court. Section 7. Capital offense of an
Should the court grant the offense punishable by reclusion
application, the accused may be perpetua or life imprisonment,
allowed to continue on not bailable. — No person
provisional liberty during the charged with a capital offense, or
pendency of the appeal under an offense punishable by
the same bail subject to the reclusion perpetua or life
consent of the bondsman. imprisonment, shall be admitted
If the penalty imposed by the
trial court is imprisonment
exceeding six (6) years, the
accused shall be denied bail, or
his bail shall be cancelled upon a
showing by the prosecution, with Section 8. Burden of proof in
notice to the accused, of the bail application. — At the hearing
following or other similar of an application for bail filed by
circumstances: a person who is in custody for the
(a) That he is a recidivist, commission of an offense
quasi-recidivist, or habitual punishable by death, reclusion
delinquent, or has committed perpetua, or life imprisonment,
the crime aggravated by the the prosecution has the burden of
circumstance of reiteration; showing that evidence of guilt is
(b) That he has previously strong. The evidence presented
escaped from legal during the bail hearing shall be
confinement, evaded considered automatically
sentence, or violated the reproduced at the trial, but upon
conditions of his bail without motion of either party, the court
valid justification; may recall any witness for
(c) That he committed the
offense while under
probation, parole, or
conditional pardon;
(d) That the circumstances of
his case indicate the
probability of flight if
released on bail; or
(e) That there is undue risk
Section 9. Amount of bail; Section 11. Property bond, how
guidelines. — The judge who posted. — A property bond is an
issued the warrant or granted the undertaking constituted as lien
application shall fix a reasonable on the real property given as
amount of bail considering security for the amount of the
primarily, but not limited to, the bail. Within ten (10) days after
following factors: the approval of the bond, the
(a) Financial ability of the accused shall cause the
accused to give bail; annotation of the lien on the
(b) Nature and circumstances certificate of title on file with the
of the offense; Register of Deeds if the land is
(c) Penalty for the offense registered, or if unregistered, in
charged; the Registration Book on the
(d) Character and reputation space provided therefor, in the
of the accused; Registry of Deeds for the
(e) Age and health of the province or city where the land
accused; lies, and on the corresponding
(f) Weight of the evidence tax declaration in the office of
against the accused; the provincial, city and municipal
(g) Probability of the accused
appearing at the trial;
(h) Forfeiture of other bail; Section 12. Qualifications of
(i) The fact that accused was a sureties in property bond. — The
qualification of sureties in a
property bond shall be as follows:
(a) Each must be a resident
owner of real estate within
the Philippines;
(b) Where there is only one
surety, his real estate must
Section 10. Corporate surety. — be worth at least the amount
Any domestic or foreign of the undertaking;
corporation, licensed as a surety (c) If there are two or more
in accordance with law and sureties, each may justify in
currently authorized to act as an amount less than that
such, may provide bail by a bond expressed in the undertaking
subscribed jointly by the accused but the aggregate of the
justified sums must be
equivalent to the whole
Section 13. Justification of
sureties. — Every surety shall Section 16. Bail, when not
justify by affidavit taken before required; reduced bail or
the judge that he possesses the recognizance. — No bail shall be
qualifications prescribed in the required when the law or these
preceding section. He shall Rules so provide.
describe the property given as When a person has been in
security, stating the nature of his custody for a period equal to or
title, its encumbrances, the more than the possible maximum
number and amount of other imprisonment prescribe for the
bails entered into by him and still offense charged, he shall be
undischarged, and his other released immediately, without
liabilities. The court may examine prejudice to the continuation of
the trial or the proceedings on
appeal. If the maximum penalty
to which the accused may be
sentenced is destierro, he shall
be released after thirty (30) days
of preventive imprisonment.
Section 14. Deposit of cash as A person in custody for a period
bail. — The accused or any equal to or more than the
person acting in his behalf may minimum of the principal penalty
deposit in cash with the nearest prescribed for the offense
collector or internal revenue or
provincial, city, or municipal
treasurer the amount of bail fixed Section 17. Bail, where filed. —
by the court, or recommended by (a) Bail in the amount fixed may
the prosecutor who investigated be filed with the court where the
or filed the case. Upon case is pending, or in the
submission of a proper certificate absence or unavailability of the
of deposit and a written judge thereof, with any regional
undertaking showing compliance trial judge, metropolitan trial
with the requirements of section judge, municipal trial judge, or
2 of this Rule, the accused shall municipal circuit trial judge in the
be discharged from custody. The province, city, or municipality. If
the accused is arrested in a
province, city, or municipality
other than where the case is
pending, bail may also be filed
with any regional trial court of
Section 15. Recognizance. —
said place, or if no judge thereof
Whenever allowed by law or
is available, with any
these Rules, the court may
metropolitan trial judge,
release a person in custody to his
municipal trial judge, or
own recognizance or that of a
municipal circuit trial judge
therein.
(b) Where the grant of bail is a
matter of discretion, or the
accused seeks to be released
Section 18. Notice of
application to prosecutor. — In Section 21. Forfeiture of bond.
— When the presence of the
the application for bail under
accused is required by the court
section 8 of this Rule, the court or these Rules, his bondsmen
must give reasonable notice of shall be notified to produce him
the hearing to the prosecutor or before the court on a given date
require him to submit his and time. If the accused fails to
appear in person as required, his
bail shall be declared forfeited
and the bondsmen given thirty
(30) days within which to produce
their principal and to show cause
Section 19. Release on bail. — why no judgment should be
The accused must be discharged rendered against them for the
upon approval of the bail by the amount of their bail. Within the
judge with whom it was filed in said period, the bondsmen must:
accordance with section 17 of (a) produce the body of their
this Rule. principal or give the reason for
Whenever bail is filed with a his non-production; and
court other than where the case (b) explain why the accused
is pending, the judge who did not appear before the
accepted the bail shall forward it, court when first required to do
together with the order of release so.
Failing in these two requisites, a
judgment shall be rendered

Section 22. Cancellation of bail.


— Upon application of the
Section 20. Increase or bondsmen, with due notice to the
reduction of bail. — After the prosecutor, the bail may be
accused is admitted to bail, the cancelled upon surrender of the
court may, upon good cause, accused or proof of his death.
either increase or reduce its The bail shall be deemed
amount. When increased, the automatically cancelled upon
accused may be committed to acquittal of the accused,
custody if he does not give bail in dismissal of the case, or
the increased amount within a execution of the judgment of
reasonable period. An accused conviction.
held to answer a criminal charge,
who is released without bail upon
filing of the complaint or
information, may, at any
Section 23. Arrest of accused
out on bail. — For the purpose of Section 25. Court supervision of
surrendering the accused, the detainees. — The court shall
bondsmen may arrest him or, exercise supervision over all
upon written authority endorsed persons in custody for the
on a certified copy of the purpose of eliminating
undertaking, cause him to be unnecessary detention. The
arrested by a police officer or any executive judges of the Regional
other person of suitable age and Trial Courts shall conduct monthly
discretion. personal inspections of
An accused released on bail may provincial, city, and municipal
be re-arrested without the jails and their prisoners within
necessity of a warrant if he their respective jurisdictions.
They shall ascertain the number
of detainees, inquire on their
proper accommodation and
health and examine the condition
of the jail facilities. They shall
order the segregation of sexes
and of minors from adults, ensure
the observance of the right of
detainees to confer privately with
counsel, and strive to eliminate
conditions inimical to the
Section 24. No bail after final
detainees.
judgment; exception. — No bail
In cities and municipalities to be
shall be allowed after the
specified by the Supreme Court,
judgment of conviction has
the municipal trial judges or
become final. If before such
municipal circuit trial judges shall
finality, the accused has applies
conduct monthly personal
for probation, he may be allowed
inspections of the municipal jails
temporary liberty under his bail.
in their respective
Section 26. Bail not municipalities
a bar to
When no bail was filed or the
and submit
objections on a report
illegal to lack
arrest, the
accused is incapable of filing one,
the court may allow his release of or irregular preliminary
on recognizance to the custody of investigation. — An application
for or admission to bail shall not
bar the accused from challenging
the validity of his arrest or the
legality of the warrant issued
therefor, or from assailing the
regularity or questioning the
absence of a preliminary
investigation of the charge
against him, provided that he