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2 Petroleum Waste Treatment and Pollution Control ‘Table 2.1 Air Emissions From Exploration, Development, and Production of Petroleum (E&P Forum, 1993; Bashat, 2003) Type of Main Sources | Environmentally Significant Components | Oper ‘Vent gases NO,, SO,, HS, CO,, VOC, hydrocarbons such | Drilling, as CH,, carbon, particulates, PAHs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-, meta-, and Blowdown from para-xylene (BTEX) bulk chemicals Engine exhausts | NO,, SO,, CO,, VOC, PAHS, formaldehyde, | Seismic carbon particulates Flare gases Production Construction and commissioning Drilling Production Maintenance Abandonment Fugitive gases Voc, BTEX Construction and commissioning Drilling Production Maintenance Abandonment Fire-protection Halons, CFCs, HCFCs, firefighting foams Construction and equipment commissioning facilities Drilling Production Maintenance Abandonment Air conditioning’ | CFC, HCFC Construction and refrigerant commissioning systems Production Maintenance Abandonment Pollutions and Wastes From the Petroleum Industry 2 exploratory drilling, construction, development, production, maintenance, decommis sioning, and reclamation (plugging and abandoning all wells, removal of building and equipment, etc.) (E&P Forum, 1993; Cholakov, 2009). Air emissions, wastewater, and solid wastes can be generated in this sector. 2.2.1 Air Emissions and Estimation During the processes of exploration, development, and production of petroleum, a wide variety of air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCS), nitrogen oxides (NO), sulfur oxides (SO,), hydrogen sulfide (HS), hydrocarbons (such as CHy), carbon dioxide (CO>), partially burned hydrocarbons (such as carbon monoxide and particulates), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), etc., are generated and emitted. At most drilling and production sites, halon gases [determined as an ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)] are also used for fire suppression that use of them releases these gases to the atmosphere (Reis, 1996; E&P Forum, 1993), Air pollutants can be generated from combustion, operations, fugitive emissions, and site remediation in the exploration, development, and production of petroleum ac~ tivities (Reis, 1996). The air emissions from the E&P of petroleum, environmentally significant components, main sources, and the type of operations that generate these pollutants are given in Table 2.1. Generally, in the petroleum industry, as in other industries, air emissions can be divided into point and nonpoint sources. Point sources refer to emissions that exit stacks and flares and thus can be monitored and treated. Nonpoint sources refer to fugi- tive emissions that are difficult to locate and capture (Speight, 2005). Fugitive emi: sions occur throughout a production system, e.g., through leaking components such ittings, hatches, dump level as valves, pumps, tanks, compressors, connections, arms, packing seals, flanges, etc. Although individual leaks are typically small, the sum of all fugitive leaks at a produ sources (Reis, 1996). The average EF approach, screening ranges approach, EPA correlation approach, and unit-specific correlation approach are four methods for estimating mass emissions from equipment leaks in chemical processing units such as synthetic organic chemical ‘manufacturing industry (SOCMD, refineries, marketing terminals and oils, and gas production operations. Except for the average EF approach, all of the approaches need screening data. Screening data are obtained by using a portable monitoring device to sample air from potential leak interfaces on individual pieces of equipment. A sereening value is a measure of the concentration of leaking compounds to the atmo- sphere that provides an indication of the leak rate from an equipment piece, and is measured in units of parts per million by volume (ppmy) (US EPA, 1995b). The average EP, screening ranges approach, and EPA-correlation approaches for esti- ‘mating mass emissions from equipment leaks are explained in this section. For further information about the unit-specific correlation approach refer to the US EPA (1995b) and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Intemational (2015). The average EF approach refers to the use of average emission factors developed by the EPA in combination with unit-specific data that are relatively simple to obtain. ion system can be one of its largest emission xiv Preface petroleum industry. This chapter explains solid-waste management practices; selection of treatment and disposal methods; oil recovery and/or removal methods; water- removal methods or dewatering; disposal methods; concerns over spent catalysts in the petroleum industry and their management; and handling of heavy metals, Although this book is scientifically and technically accurate, some errors may be present; thus constructive suggestions and comments from readers (instructors, students, etc.) using this book are appreciated. They will be incorporated into future reprints or editions of this book. Shahryar Jafarinejad August 2016