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Q U I C K F I L T E R G U I D E 2 2 X

A U T O M A T I C O P T I C A L I N S P E C T I O N
S Y S T E M S

V E R S I O N V 5 1

Contents
PROGRAMMING THE AOI MACHINE 2
BASICS 2
CAPACITORS 5
INDUCTORS (2PIN) 5
DIODES(2PIN) 6
RESISTORS 7
SEMICONDUCTORS (DISCRETE 3+ PINS) 8
SOLDER 9
IC LEADS 17
SPECIAL 20
Text 21

This manual is a supplement to the standard library MainStampLib v51 as distributed by Marantz Europe.

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P R O G R A M M I N G T H E A O I M A C H I N E
To Program an AOI machine always incorporates two aspects:

1 How to find defects (Measuring)


To measure an object for deciding Good or NotGood (G/NG).

→ Use Quick Filter Guide document (this document)

2 Where to check for defects (Coordinating)


To program XY locations for all objects to test

→ Use Quick Programming Guide

B A S I C S

Often used adjustments (not valid for text)


1. Contrast (= Signal Gain): Change for best (stable) visibility of the picture (contrast setting is seldom below
middle position)
2. Brightness (= Amount of white) Change for best (stable) visibility of the picture (first adjust contrast!)
3. Decrease Saturation (= widen tolerance range) if surface gloss is causing large range of colour intensity
4. Extra Blur when standard setting is not compensating enough for surface reflection varieties
5. Grid to set the inspection resolution (accuracy)
6. Masking to hide certain parts for inspection (specially SOT and TO packages) (remark: Blur is also active
“behind” masked areas)

Guidelines (as used in MainStampLib)


 Use Zoom (high resolution mode) for items with one side smaller than 20 pixels (Not for analogue systems)
(20 pixels = 1.0mm with 25u lens, 0.8mm with 20u lens, 0.5mm with 12.5u lens)
 Make Frame slightly smaller than component to avoid edge effects
 Adjust maximum Offset based on maximum 25% off pad positioning (derived from to the standardized pad
size for that component)
 Deviation Detection is used for body positioning measurement and finding. Real find area = deviation
detection value (chase value is not incorporated)
 Search (custom find) function is used for text only. Real find area = Custom find value + Chase value
 Chase setting is 5pixels on default.
 Body and fillet pictures in MainStampLib are not activated on for fastest programming and flexibility.
 6 pre-defined text settings are programmed. Start using setting 1. If not OK then try setting 2 etc.
 Text checking frames are additional to body checking frames, because proper offset measurements cannot
be detected by text only.
 For IC’s use: LeadGap frames for detecting short circuits, Fillets for solder, Polarity and Text check’s
 SOT’s and similar packages with gull wing leads are programmed partly including leads for polarity checking.
Unwanted (PCB) portions shall be masked away before inspection
 Dark components have default setting [2,1,0,-3] for BCHS (Brightness Contrast Hue Saturation)
 Dark components on dark PCB’s have default setting [10, 14, -10, -14] for BCHS.
 Light components have default setting [2,3,0,-5] for BCHS; verify settings for all PCB’s
 All functions using Red Side Light are only applicable to 22XFV and newer models.

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Master Frame and auto solder positioning

From SW version 3.4.4 onwards (switch on in Supervisor-Other-Extra) when using Packs its
biggest frame receives “Master” status automatically. The Master is usually the body frame;
indicated by green triangle when the pack is closed.
After finding the Master frame, the solder joints are moving with the master frame and
therefore positioned automatically
Master Frame must be absolutely stable in position detection!!
Solder frames must be programmed without additional “find” functions!!
To avoid that solder frames are inspected at the wrong position:
Do not use the MasterFrame function when using LeadGap stamps
Do not use Text or Polarity frames as “Master”
If there are many false alarms in the solder inspection, verify that the master frame is found at
the right position, using the Analysis Button.

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MainStampLib V51
The Standard library for the 22X system contains the following categories:
All components have pre-programmed filters and search areas.

“ body” (body frames)


(by the space character in front of the name the body appears always in the top of the
stamplist)
ax Axial components
c Capacitors
d Diodes (2pin)
f Fillets (Solder joints)
l Inductors (2pin)
led SMD Leds
r Resistors
q Discrete Semiconductors (3 pins+)
x X-tal (Oscillators, Christals))

“fillet” (Solder Joints)


c Capacitor solder joints
d Diode solder joints
f-group Solder joint groups for chip components
q Discrete Semiconductors solder joints
qfp QFP solder joints
r Resistor solder joints

“ special” (special frames)


(by the space character in front of the name the body appears always in the top of the
stamplist)
barcode Bar Code stamps
leadgap IC Lead shorts
misc Miscellaneous special stamps
ng_mark NG Mark stamps
polarity Various polarity marks
txt Various text checking filters

“+” (component packs)


Component packs contain the body and solder joint frames together in one package.
c Capacitos packs
d Diode packs
l Inductor packs
odd Pre-programmed dummy packages for odd components
q Discrete Semiconductor packs
qfp QFP packs (also QFP’s bigger than the FoV)
r Resistor packs

IMPORTANT
For every application the settings given, require fine-tuning.
Recommendations in this Filter Guide are subject to changes, new methods and feedback. This
document is to be treated as a guideline only.

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Marantz accepts no responsibility for inspection results as this is purely a programmer’s
responsibility and not a consequence of using this document one to one.
Library settings are newer than its picture examples in this document. Use the library settings
as the main guide to work with the newest settings.

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C A P A C I T O R S

Basics
Use 3 frames per component:
1. Body presence & rotation check (filter out text influence if text is present)
2. Solder Fillet
3. Solder Fillet
Note: The capacitor packs in the library include these 3 frames.

Body Frames
- Use quite some global blur to compensate
for surface differences
- Grid Preference (& minimum): 10 grid cells
(2x5) per frame
- Grid Maximum: 18 grid cells (3x6) per
frame

For solder checking see Solder chapter


For polarity checking see Polarity chapter
For text checking see Text chapter

I N D U C T O R S ( 2 P I N )
See Capacitors chapter

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D I O D E S ( 2 P I N )

Basics
Use 4 frames per component:
1. Body presence & rotation check (hide text influence by filtering)
2. Polarity check
3. Solder Fillet
4. Solder Fillet
Depending on component 1 and 2 can be combined.

Note: The diode packs in the library do not contain the polarity check frame but contain the
other 3 frames.

Body Frames
- Use vertical blur to eliminate gloss while keeping polarity stripes or rings.
- Grid Preference (& minimum): 10 grid cells (2x5) per frame with polarity rings in the size
of the grid
- For Melf (Glass) diodes, for inspection of the polarity, do not put the polarity frame on the
polarity stripe itself but put it on the other side of the melf diode where there is no
stripe, so the system rejects the diode in case of wrong polarity.

For solder checking see Solder chapter


For polarity checking see Polarity chapter
For text checking see Text chapter

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R E S I S T O R S

Basics
Use 4 frames per component:
1. Body presence & rotation check
(filter out text influence)
2. Text Identifier
3. Solder Fillet
4. Solder Fillet
For less stringent requirements 1 or 2 can be
omitted.

Note: The resistor packs in the library do not


contain the text identifier frame but contain the other 3 frames.

Body Frames
- Components 0603 and smaller, use Zoom (high resolution)
- Use blur or masking to eliminate text
checking by the body frame.
- Grid Preference (& minimum): 10 grid cells
(2x5) per frame
- Grid Maximum: 18 grid cells (3x6) per
frame

For text checking see Text chapter


For solder checking see Solder chapter

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S E M I C O N D U C T O R S
( D I S C R E T E 3 + P I N S )

Basics
Use following frames per component:
 Body presence & polarity check (hide text influence by filtering)
 Solder Fillets (according to the number of legs)

Note: Due to the text instability on many SOT’s, it is recommended NOT to check text to avoid
too many false alarms.

Body Frames
- Body Frame includes body and a part of all legs
- Visibility of the legs is used for polarity verification
- Alternative frame: small frame between legs, covering part of body and part of PCB to
check presence and polarity
- Mask unnecessary parts of the frame, for example between the legs.
- Use global blur to eliminate gloss while keeping polarity stripes or rings
- Grid Preference (& minimum): 28 grid cells (7x4) per frame to detect polarity and upside
down
- If component body varies from Black to Grey, reduce contrast to reduce false alarms, but
verify absence detection on a non pick&placed PCB.
- On a dark PCB, use Special Camera setting to improve lighting conditions and increase
saturation setting if there is still some detectable colour information in the PCB

For solder checking see Solder chapter


For polarity checking see Polarity chapter
For text checking see Text chapter

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S O L D E R

Strategies

There are several factors that determine the inspection strategy. These factors are:
1. Quality of the solder (production process stability)
2. Inspection depth target (Low/high meniscus measuring accuracy)
3. False/real detection ratio target
4. Machine model
5. PCB Finishing

In the following graph you can determine which strategy can be used.

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Important notes:
- Wave or selective soldered PCB’s are also considered as “not stable” production
processes. Choose your strategy accordingly.
- The solder joint frames in the library are pre-programmed according to strategy “6” for
DL systems and strategy “4” for CL and lower systems.
- After choosing your strategy, check whether it is safe to use that strategy with the PCB
finishing used! Use the Quick Solder Guide for this purpose.

There are 8 different strategies that can be chosen depending on your criteria.

Side light + Pattern matching (+Greyscale)

Side light + Histogram; Frame meniscus&pad

Main; 6-box-grid; 60%; Frame meniscus&pad

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Main; 3-box-grid; 70%; Frame meniscus&pad

Main+DOAL; 5-box-grid; 60%; Frame meniscus&pad

Main+DOAL; 3-box-grid; 70%; Frame meniscus&pad

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MAIN+DOAL; 3-box-grid; 70%; Small frame only on meniscus

DOAL; 1-box-grid; 80%; Small frame only on meniscus

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Quick Solder Guide


How to use the Quick Solder Guide:

Using the QSG is very simple.


1. Choose the strategy number which best matches with the quality of the solder on
the PCB and the measuring accuracy. Note that more accurate means more false
errors and vice versa.

2. Locate your PCB finishing column.

3. Search for your strategy number in that column. The row where you find the
number is representing the lighting that should be selected.
Note:
- In the places where you see your strategy number or where N/A is written, this
means that it is not safe to use that strategy with its lighting with that finishing.
- If you do not see your strategy number at all, this means that your strategy is not
suitable with your criteria. Try to use a different strategy.

4. After selecting the lighting, use the filter settings as displayed. Leave all other not
displayed settings in their default values.

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2 New Strategy: Extra Setting possibility for DL series

From Software version 3.4.8 onwards there is a new lighting combination available:
Main+Side+DOAL. This is only available for the DL series. This new light combination gives
more flexibility in solder inspection than all other lighting combinations. Main advantage is that
the finishing of PCB is not an issue anymore which means that you can use this light on any
solder joint (leaded or lead-free) and on any finishing (Gold, Silver, Tin, OSP or HASL).

The MainStampLibrary v50 onwards is specially made with this new light with resized fillet
frames to achieve best balance between real- and false errors.

How to use the Main+Side+DOAL

The main difference when using this light are the filter settings and the frame sizes. The
general filter setting is:

The only setting that is subject to change for different situations is the frame resolution (Nr of
grids).

For the frame sizes we can define 4 main categories:


1. Chip Components
2. SOT’s
3. SO’s and QFP’s
4. Others

Chip Components
Under chip components we understand chip resistors, capacitors and inductors.

Choose you frame size as follows (in the MainStampLibrary v51 they are already resized like
this):

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The guideline is to have the width of the fillet frame about 80% of the width of the body frame
and the length about 1/3 of this 80%.
The resolution (Nr of grids) should me minimal 2 grids.
NO search area!

SOT’s
This includes all different SOT sizes like SOT23, SOT362 and SOT26A etc.

Choose your frame size as follows; try always to resize the default MainStampLibrary pin frame
size to match something like:

The guideline is to have the width of the pin frame same width as the width of the pad and a
length of until the end of the “knee” of the pin, starting from the body of the SOT.
The resolution (Nr of grids) should be minimal 2 grids (3 is recommended).
NO search area!

SO’s and QFP’s

This includes all different SO and QFP sizes no matter the pitch size.

Choose your frame size as follows; try always to resize the default MainStampLibrary pin frame
size to match something like:

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The guideline is to have the width of the pin frame same width as the width of the pad and a
length of until the “end of solder” on the pad, starting from the “knee” of the pin.
The resolution (Nr of grids) should be minimal 3 grids (more is strongly recommended)
Search area as you can see in the picture.

Others

For any other components, it is always different but always stick to these rules (these rules
apply to every component):
- The fillet frame should only contain solder (red reflection) and not parts of the
component like body or pins.
- Never use less than 2 grids
- Never blur more than 1
- Never use search antenna’s (except of SO and QFP pins)
- Do not make your frames too big
- Add only red, dark red or black reference pictures to the library. NO light red or white
pictures!

Some examples:

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I C L E A D S

Basics
The following special filters are available for checking solder bridges between IC Leads
 LeadGap Stamp 10x
 LeadGap Stamp 20x (Zoom)
The LeadGap stamp is an algorithmic filter. It does not use images or compare images. The
detection of solder bridges is based on local calculation. It finds the position of leads, solder
and PCB automatically. It is designed to check multiple leads at once.
 GapOfLead & Short05PitchStamp
To be put between 2 legs. In principle this is a 1-pixel wide Image, with colour detection
switched off. It can also be used for checking individual solder bridge sensitive areas. Gap of
Lead is less sensitive to false alarms.

Leadgap Frames
 To avoid parallax errors, only use screen centre for positioning IC LeadGap frames. (When
using TeleCentric Lens (CL and DL), whole screen can be used (no Parallax))
 Maximum size of LeadGap frame: <50% of Height of screen (= <100% in Zoom view).
 (For 0.6mm pitch and smaller, frame size of <25% is recommended
 Include a narrow LeadGap frame around the complete Solder Pad and Complete lead
 Position the LeadGap frame with high precision, using the solder pad as reference (not the
IC lead, because position varies)
 When (silk) screen printing is inside the LeadGap Frame, bring it out by resizing the
LeadGap frame. If not, screen printing will be detected as a short circuit.

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3 Filters
 ”Continuous testing” Switch on to see result of filtering permanently by the
green Pass Lines in between the leads.
 Adjust PCB detection level by “Short detection” (set lever as high as
possible for best detection), with small amounts of White colour appearing between the
leads
 Adjust Lead detection level by “Lead detection” so that Lead/Pad width
corresponds with detection level
 ”Auto brightness” Switch on to compensate automatically for brightness
variations between boards
 “Glue leads” Switch on to avoid split leads due to large light/dark variations
over the complete lead. Reduces sensitivity for shorts at the edge, Avoid using this. Use
“Integrate leads” if possible in stead.
 “Blur leads” Switch on, to compensate for strong lead surface reflections
(similar as blur)
 ”Integrate leads” If solid Leads appear splitted, increase to remove the
splits
 ”Reduce flux” Use if PCB surface between leads is very glossy because of
flux (reduces the sensitivity)
 ”Reduce pattern” Use to compensate for tracks between leads (reduces the
sensitivity)
 “Detour limit” Reduce for small leads to block the Pass Lines if deviating
too much from the straight way-out line (Default = max. 5 pixels deviation) (increases
sensitivity)
 “Max pitch diff.” Increase to set the maximum lead pitch-tolerance from the
average value (default 50% width tolerance allowed) (increases sensitivity).
 “Test corner shorts” Use to avoid that shorts on the side of IC’s are being
detected as 1 wide lead.
 “Include fillet check” Use to automatically duplicate the pin frame to the
number of the pins.

When PCB colour is very light, detection becomes difficult. Use Special Camera Setting and/or
Red Side light to improve detection possibilities:

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Polarity

Basics
Using the filter, emphasize the visibility of the polarity mark as much as possible.
Often the text filter is very suitable for this purpose

Body Frames
Frame based on 50% polarity mark, 50% body (into the frame), to maximize the difference.
Grid cells as big as possible, but cells contain Polarity Mark OR Body, preferably not a
combination of both into one grid cell.
For rectangular polarity marks, use directional blur (type 2 or 3) to emphasize the difference
between mark and body
Start using Filter alternative 1 then 2 etc.

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S P E C I A L

CellAidStamp
This stamp works like a local fiducial mark. It starts to inspect items within the same cell
(camera position) after it has calibrated position with the CellAidStamp. In short, this stamp
eliminates mechanical positioning errors of the camera and PCB transport system.

NG Marker Stamps
For use in combination with NG Marking unit

Bar Code
Allows bar Code Reading by the camera machine.

Supported codes:

(decoding of the Bar Code is only done when RC22X is connected via LAN!)

1-Dimensional:
 Code 128
 Code 39 (decoding done by machine without RC22X)

2-dimensional (Matrix)
 QR Code
 Data Matrix

The Bar Code must fit in the Field Of View to be able to read the Bar Code!

EP Stamp (Extra Parts Checking


Function top find defects outside the programmed frames like lost components. See user
manual.

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T E X T

Basics
Frame As close as possible surrounding text
No more than 4 characters per frame
(make multiple short frames if longer text must be checked)

Grid Adjust grid to 3 grid cells per character


(minimum 2, maximum 6 grid cells per character, depending
on accuracy)

Blur Type1, level 1 (higher in case of large characters)

Normal text (white text on dark background)


6 possibilities: start with WhiteText1, When too many false alarms, test WhiteText2 etc.

WhiteText1 WhiteText2

WhiteText3 (extremely fast! (because no “letter”)) WhiteText4


Sensitive and careful adjustments needed (to avoid to slip and false alarms), but very powerful
detection.
Remark:
For WhiteText3 and higher, please verify correct detection by testing different characters (or 90
degrees turned frame (R) also is useful indication)

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WhiteText5 WhiteText6 (Sensitive to slip)

Laser imprinted text


2 possibilities:

LaserText1
Using Fillets processing
(very fast because of flashing side light)

LaserText 2
Using Special Camera Setting and side light
(Remark: Inspection time increases a lot, because the camera will make a new tour over the
PCB after normal inspection to inspect all frames with special camera settings)

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Text on light (metal) background


2 possibilities

MetalText1
Put contrast to B/W.
Starting with 0, adjust brightness till picture is optimally clear.
Increase Autoadjust and hold down to check adjustment range is proper (good visibility of
character over the whole autoadjust range)

MetalText2 TantalumText

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