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A NEW MAYA HISTORICAL NARRATIVE
BY RALPH L. ROYS

light is cast on one of the most important episodes


NEWof Maya history, namely the overthrow of Chac Xib Chac
and the conquest of Chichen Itza by Hunnac Ceel, the
ruler of Mayapan, by a passage in the Book of Chilam Balam of
Chumayel which appears to have escaped notice up to the present
time.
At this time the Itzas had been in Yucatan for several hundred
years. They had settled in Chichen Itza, had moved away to
Chakanputun and had returned to Chichen Itza and established
themselves as a great power in Yucatan. The Tutul Xius,
later arrivals, had founded Uxmal, and about the year 1000 A.D.
the cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, and Mayapan had formed a
confederacy which probably resembled the one which Cortez
found in the Valley of the City of Mexico. The entire country
prospered under the rule of this joint government until about
the year 1200 A. D. when Chac Xib Chac, the ruler of Chichen
Itza, came to some sort of an understanding with the ruler of
Izamal who was not a member of the confederacy. The city of
Mayapan seems to have resented this and its ruler, Hunnac
Ceel, with the aid of Mexican allies, defeated Chac Xib Chac and
conquered the city of Chichen Itza. The ruins of Chichen Itza
present considerable evidence of Nahua domination, so it is not
unreasonable to believe that this city was ruled by the Mexican
allies after its conquest. However, a still earlier Nahua occupation
is also indicated.
We have five main sources for this information, all of which
have been published and translated in Brinton's "Maya Chron-
icles" and which I will quote in so far as they relate to the event
under discussion. The translations are partly my own but do
not differ greatly from those of Brinton which I have followed
wherever possible.
44
ROYS] A NEW MA YA HISTORICAL NARRATIVE 45

1. "9. Then were the katuns 11 Ahau, 9 Ahau, 6 Ahau. In 8


Ahau the governor of Chichen Itza was driven out on account of the
plotting of Hunnac Ceel; and this happened to Chac Xib Chac of
Chichen Itza on account of the plotting of Hunnac Ceel, the
governor of Mayapan, the fortress. Four score years and ten
years, it was in Tun 10 of 8 Ahau. That was the year in which
it was depopulated by Ah Zinteyut Chan, with Tzuntecum,
and Taxcal, and Pantemit, Xuchueuet and Ytzcuat, and Kakalte-
cat; these were the names of the seven men of Mayapan. 90.
"10. It was Katun 8 Ahau when they went to the fortress of Ah
Ulmil the ruler on account of his banquet with Ah Itzmal Ulil,
the ruler. Thirteen folds of katuns had passed when they were
destroyed by Hunnac Ceel on account of the giving of the under-
standing."'
2. "8. Ahau was when the governor of Chichen Itza was driven
out by the conspiracy of Hunnac Ceel. Ah Zinteyut Chan,
Tzuntecum, Taxcal, Pantemit, Xuchueuet, Ytzcoat, and Kakalcat
were the names of the men. There were seven of them. It was
because of the banquet with Ytzmal Ulil the ruler. There were
thirteen folds of katuns when they were driven out by Hunnac
Ceel on account of the giving of the understanding."2
3. "8 Ahau was when the Itza men were driven out of their
homes for the second time by the conspiracy of Hunnac Ceel
because of the banquet with Ah Itzmal. Thirteen folds of katuns
had they settled there when the Itza men were driven out by
Hunnac Ceel because of the giving of the understanding of those
of Itza."3
4. "Thirteen katuns they ruled. Then the plottings were in-
troduced by Hunnac Ceel, and the territories were destroyed.
Then they went into the midst of the forests, into the midst of
Xuluc Mul, so called."4

' Brinton 1882, p. 95.


2 Codice
Tizimin, fol. 21, reverse; Brinton 1882, p. 140.
3 Gordon 1913, p. 75; Brinton 1882, p. 155.
SGordon 1913, p. 78; Brinton 1882, p. 179.
46 AMERICANANTHROPOLOGIST [N.s., 24, 1922

5. "5 Ahau was when the land of Ah Itzmal Kinich Kakmo


and Pop Hol Chan was destroyed by Hunnac Ceel."5

These are the only original sources bearing directly on these


events which have as yet been published and translated, but
Bishop Landa gives an account which explains to some extent
the Mexican names mentioned in Chronicles 1 and 2: "The
king Cocom began to covet riches and with this in view he nego-
tiated with the garrisons of troops which the Mexican kings
maintained in Tabasco and Xicalango to hand over to them the
guard of the capital. In this way he brought Mexicans to Maya-
pan. He oppressed the poor and made slaves until the princes
would have killed him but for their fear of the Mexicans."6
Examining some material less well known, we find an unpub-
lished passage in the Chilam Balam of Tizimin which also refers to
the event under discussion. It is preceded by the single sentence
published and translated by Seler: "Eight Ahau was when it
happened at Chichen as it was written down by the king of the
people of Uxmal that Chac Xib Chac was trampled upon by Ah
Nacxit Kukulcan."7 Seler goes on to show how this statement is
borne out by testimony of the natives to the Spanish conquerors
that the Maya religion was materially changed by one Kukulcan,
or Quetzalcoatl, who came from Mexico. A little farther on in the
manuscript we find the following obscure.passage which is only
of value in the light of the translation from the Chumayel:
"8 Ahau was when Ulel Ytzmal was enmeshed by deceit because
Ulil the ruler had sinned. This was the founding of the katun
in the 17th katun when came the prophecy of the rule of holy
Ytzam Caan. There came forth Ahau Caan and Hapai Caan
when Ah Ytzmal Ul, the ruler, was enmeshed by deceit, when
the tribute of the son of holy Itzmal came. And then there came
forth the lord of the katun when the rule of Itzmal occurred.
Then there came an end to Hapai Caan in the misfortune of Ah

5 Gordon 1913, p. 79; Brinton 1882, p. 166.


6 Landa 1900, p. 288.
iL"uaxac ahau uchci tu chichen, ca tz'ibtabi u yahau ah uxmal ca tali u chekeb
u pach chac xib chac, tumenel ah nacxit kukulcan." Seler 1902-1908, vol. 1, p. 676.
RoYS] A NEW MAYA HISTORICAL NARRATIVE 47

Itzmal Thul . . . and Chac Bolai and Chac Xib Chac to their
great misfortune which was brought by Itzmal enmeshed by de-
ceit by the sin of the ruler Canul. . . . Then it was learned
about by Kukulcan. Then they cut the throats . . . of all the
nobles who joined in the departure of Hapai Can. These were
the subjects who bore the guilt of their ruler. Then began the
attempt of Itzom Caan and then came the introduction of the
sin of the ruler Canul. Then Ahau Caan came forth from the
wells here of wicked Canul."s
I have used the foregoing material only as an introduction
to what I consider an interesting addition to Maya history and,
in fact, the first new material published in many years which
bears on the subject in question.
I might mention in passing that, as a sacrifice to the gods and
in order to obtain prophecies for the coming year, it was custom-
ary to throw a number of victims at sunrise into the great cenote
at Chichen Itza. At noon, if the gods were propitious, one of
these would still remain alive. A rope was let down and the
surviving victim was drawn up. The survivor delivered the
message of the gods to the priests and rulers and received high
honors from everyone. This striking custom is already well
known, but that Hunnac Ceel, the mighty governor of Mayapan,
began his career as such a victim is the startling fact which
appears in the translation which follows:'

8 "lai u hetz' katun uchi ichil


uuclahunpis katun, u than u tepal kul ytzam
caan hoki ahau caanil, y hapai caan ti tabtabi ah ytzmal ul ahau, ti uchi patan
u mehen kul itzmal ca hoki u tah katun ti uchi tepal itzmal ca tz'oci hapai
caan tan u numya ah itzmal thul ca uli kuch tan yol caan y chac bolai y chac xib chac
ox numya u pixan tan u mansic u numyail uai itzmal tabtabi tumen u keban yahau
canule, lei tah mehen hapai can lae, ca natabi tumen kukulcane ca xoti u cal u yiob u
yubob tulacal yal u mehen cu pactic u luk hapai caan, lei ah cuchteob u cuchah u keban
yahau catun hoppi u tumtic itzom caan ca tal yocol u keban yahau canul ca hoki
ahau caan tu chichenob uai max canul ti hoki ahaui oxlahunte u cuch."-Codice
Tizimin, fol. 13 reverse and 14.

9 Gordon 1913, p. 3.
48 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 24, 1922

(p.3)
"Ah Itzim Thul Chac was their commander at Ichcanzihoo.
Uayom Chich'o was their priest at Ichcanzihoo, Canul, Yx Pop
ti Balam.1" Ucatul, Ah Kin Chable was their ruler at Cabal Xiu,
their priest at Uxmal. The Chac was their commander. This
was the priest."2 Then Hapai Can was brought to Chem Chan.
Here he arrived. Then he arrived at Kikil and at Uxmal. Chac
Xib Chac was despoiled of his dragon,"3 also Sac Xib Chac;
and Ek Yuan Chac was also robbed of his dragon. Also they
robbed Ix Sacbelis, so called, the grandmother of the Chacs.
Ek Yuan Chac was their father. Hun Yuan Chac was their
younger brother. Uooh Puc was his name. There was written
a character on the palm of his hand; a character was written
below his neck. One was written on the sole of his foot and one
in the fist of the hand of Ah Uooh Puc.14 These Chacs were not
gods. The only true God is our Lord Dios but they worshipped
them at the command of the wise man of Mayapan, Ah Kin Coba,
the priest in the fortress.
10 The
meaning of Uayom Chich is uncertain. It seems to be a title, for on
page 19 of the Chumayel I find the following sentence: "Ma yoltahob u bot patan Ah
Uayom Chich: Ah Uayom Tunob Ah Uayom Siniltunob: Ah Uayom Balamob" which
may be translated: "Those entitled Ah Uayom Chich, Ah Uayom Tun, Ah Uayom
Siniltun, and Ah Uayom Balam did not wish to pay the tribute." Uay may mean
room, bed, or couch; chich means bird; siniltun means level dressed stone; and balam
means tiger, suggesting the tiger seats of Uxmal and Palenque. I suggest that these
titles mean, "he who sits on the bird," "he who sits on the level dressed stone," and "he
who sits on the tiger." This is confirmed by another phrase on p. 19 of the Chumayel
for here we find: "tu uayob, tu poopob, tu tz'amob." Poop means mat and tz'am
means throne, so uay must mean something very similar.
" The mat on the tiger.
12It is interesting to note that the office of Chac, apparently so important at this
period, was filled at the time of the Spanish conquest by four old men who were merely
laymen and assistants of the priest (Landa 1900).
'3
The word "can hel" is translated in Beltran 1859, p. 228, as meaning dragon.
The fact that can means serpent and hel is the root of the verb meaning to change
suggests strongly that this was a serpent headdress similar to those on the bas-reliefs
of the east chamber of the Temple of the Tigers at Chichen Itza.
14 "Among the twelve priests of Mayapan, one who was very wise married his
only daughter to a young noble named Achchel. . . . The son-in-law who was well
instructed in the science of his father-in-law wrote on the fleshy part of his arm certain
letters of great importance in order to be esteemed and with this distinction settled on
the coast and established himself at Ticoch where many followed him."--Landa 1900,
p. 290.
ROYS] A NEW MAYA HISTORICAL NARRATIVE 49

(p.4)
Tzulim Chan15 was at the west. Nauat was the guardian16 at
the south gate. Couoh was the guardian at the east gate. Ah
Ek was his companion. Ah Tapai Nok'7 Cauich was the name
of their governor, Hunnac Ceel, he who was cast [into the well]
for Ah Mex Cuc.18
"Then they sought one flower. Then they sought the white
mat. Then they sought two shreds of cloth. Then they sought
the first fowl. Then they sought the mottled snail. Then
they sought the white gourds called homa.
"Then they departed and arrived at Ppool where the remainder
of the Itzas were swollen. Then they took for their mothers the
women of Pool. Then they arrived at Ake where those of Ake
were born. Ake was its name here according to their words.
Then they arrived at Alaa. Alaa was its name here as they said.
Then they came to Kanholaa. Then they came to Tixchel where
their words and teachings were interpreted. Then they arrived
at Ninum where the words and teachings of the Itzas were
many. Then they arrived at Chikin Tz'onot. Their faces were
to the west. Chikin Tz'onot was its name here as they said.
Then they arrived at Tzucopp where they remained apart under
the anona tree. Tzucopp was its name here as they said. They
arrived at Cahcab where the Itzas stirred the honey. Then it

15 Tzulim Chan is mentioned in various prophecies as symbolizing some misfortune.


Chakanputun, where the Itzas once lost their homes, is similarly mentioned (Gordon
1913, p. 73).
16The word ah canul which I have translated as guardian is not in any of the
dictionaries or vocabularies at my disposal. However its use in the phrase on page 67
of the Chumayel: "cah lohil ti jesu-christo yah canul ca pixan," "our redeemer Jesus
Christ, the guardian of our souls," strongly indicates the meaning which I have given
to it. Canul is the name of a province and a proper name as well. It is noteworthy
that the Nahua guards of Mayapan retired to the province of Canul after the destruc-
tion of the city.
17 Ah
Tapai Nok means "he with the ornamented mantle."
18sThis name would appear to be that of a deified clan ancestor from the following
passage on p. 86 of the Chumayel: "It was by them, the four lineages, who came from
heaven, the sap of heaven, the juice of heaven, the governors, the rulers of the world,
Cacaal Puc, Hooltun Balam, Hochtun Poot, Ah Mex Cuc Chan." "Heklay tumenelob
-cantul chibalob-talob ti caan-ah kab caan: ytz caanob. u halach uinicob-yahaulil
cab-cacaal puc-hooltun balam-hochtun poot ah mex cuc chan."
50 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 24, 1922

was drunk by Xkoh Takin (Gold Mask). And the honey was
stirred and Cabilneba by name drank it.
(p.5)
Then they arrived at Kikil where they took dysentery. Kikil
was its name here as they said. Then they arrived at Panabhaa
where they dug for water. Then they came to Cucuchilhaa
where they stopped at the deep water. Then they arrived at
Yalsihon. Yalsihon was the name of the settlement here. Then
they arrived at Xppitah, also a town. Then they arrived at
Kancabtz'onot. They departed and then they arrived at
Tz'ula. Then they came to Pibhaltz'onot. Then they came to
Tahaac. That was its name. Then they came to Ticooh. Those
of Cooh insulted them. Ticooh was its name here. Then
they arrived at Tikal, where they shut themselves in. Tikal
was its name here. Then they arrived at Timaax where they
made knaves of themselves. Then they arrived at Buctzotz
where they covered the hair of their heads. Buctzotz was its
name here as they said. Then they arrived at Tz'itz'ontun
where began the seizing of the land by a strong man.19 Tz'iholtun
was its name here. Then they arrived at Yobain where the
alligator bewitched them through their maternal ancestor, Ah
Yamasi, who ruled at the shore of the sea. Then they arrived at
Sinanche where the devil bewitched them. Sinanche was its
name here. Then they arrived at Cahchac. Then they arrived
at Tz'euc. Their companions contended with one another.
Then arrived the maternal ancestor of their companion and they
all appeased their wrath together. Tz'emul was its name here.
Then they arrived at Kini with Xkil Ytzam Pech, Xtz'euc, their
companion,
(p. 6)
and they arrived with Xkil Ytzam Pech,20 their chief priest. Then
they arrived at Baca where the water was poured out by them.
It was Baca here as they said. Then they arrived at Sabacnail

~9The expression used here, "chuc luum tz'itz'," is a stock phrase of the prophe-
cies. See Brinton 1882, p. 127.
A later Jxkil Ytzam Pech is mentioned as the chief of Conkal at the time of the
20

Spanish conquest in the Chronicle of Nakuk Pech. Brinton 1882, p. 219.


ROYS] A NEW MAYA HISTORICAL NARRATIVE 51

with their maternal ancestor, the first man, Ah Na. This was
Chel Na, their maternal ancestor. Then they arrived at Benaa
where they remembered their mother. Then they came to
Yxil. Then they went to Chulul. Then they arrived at Chichi-
caan. Then they went to Holtun Chable. Then they came to
Ytzamna. Then they came to Chubulna. Then they arrived at
Caucel where they were all cold. It was Caucel here as they said.
Then they arrived at Ucu where they said "Ya u cu." Then they
went to Hunucma. Then they arrived at Kinchil. Then they
went to Kana. Then they arrived at Tixpetoncah. Then they
arrived at Sahab Balam. Then they arrived at Taccumchakan.
Then they arrived at Tixbalche. Then they arrived at Uxmal,
and they departed. Then they arrived at Tixyubak. Then
they arrived at Munaa where their words were soft. Then they
went to Oxlochhok. Then they went to Chacacal. Then they
went to Xocneceh. There were deer there. Then they went to
Ppustunich. Then they went to Pucnalchac. Then they went to
Ppencuyut. Then they went to Ppaxueuet. Then they arrived
at Tixaya. Then they arrived at Tistis by name. Then they
arrived at Tuchican. Then they arrived at Tixmeuac.
(p. 7)
Then they arrived at Hunacthi. Then they arrived at .
. .
zel. Then they arrived at Tamusbulna. Then they arrived at Tix-
can. Then they arrived at Lop. Then they arrived at Cheemiuan.
Then they arrived at Oxcahuanka. Then they went to Sabacel-
caan. Then they arrived at Cetelac.21 [These are] the names of
whatever towns there were and the names of the wells, that
it might be learned, where they passed in their march, to see
whether this district was good; whether the dwelling places
were suitable here. They set in order the name of the district
according to the words of our Lord Dios. He it was who created

21
Note the numerous word plays in the preceding on the Maya place names
of which the following are a few examples:
"Ca talob Tixchel ti chelhi u thanob ti chelhi u canobi"
"Catun kuchob Ninum ti numhi u thanob ti numhi u canobi"
"Ca kuchob Tikal ti u kalah ubaobi"
"Ca kuchob Buctzotz ti u bucinahob u tzotzel u pollobi"
52 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. S., 24, 1922

the whole world and then also set it in order. They named the
district, they named the wells, they named the region, they
named the land, because no one had arrived here, here in Ucalpe-
ten, when we arrived here.
"Subinche, Kaua, Cumcanul, Tiemtun where the stones
descended, Sigal, Sacii, Titz'ooc where the prophecy of the katun
was fulfilled, Timocon, Popola where the mat of the katun was
spread out. Tipixoy, Uayumhaa, Sabacan, Tinum where they
said little, Timacal, Popola where they set in order the mat of the
katun.22
There was Tixmacculum where they interrupted with words,
Tz'ithaasbon, Kauil, Tixmex, Kochilla, Tixxocen, Chunpak, Piba-
hul, Tunkas, Haaltunhaa, Kuxbila, Tz'itz'ilche, Ticool, Sitil
Pech, Chalante, where they appeased their anger, Ytzamthulil,23
Tipikab where they were united in misery.
(p.s)
. ansahcab, Tz'itz'omtun together with their maternal an-
cestor, Tichechoctz'-iitz', Tz'itz'holtun, Popola, to the south to
Sinanche. Then they came to Muci, Sacnictecheen, Sotz'il, here
where they determined the katun together, Multumut was its
name here, Mutul, Muxuppipp, Ake, Hoctun where they set up the
first stone, Xocchelbohe, Sahcabhaa, Tzanlahcat, Human where
there was noisy talk and noisy rumors about them, Chalamte, Pa-
caxua by name, here, as they said, Tekit where the remainder of
the Itzas were scattered. Beside the well the iguana was swollen,
Huh was placed here. Then they departed to Tz'otz'ile, Tiab,
Bituncheen. Then came their entrance into Tipikal, that was the
name of the well. Then they came out. Then they went to Pochuh,
that was the name of the well where they roasted the iguana.
Then they went to Mani where the prophecy was remembered

22The pop or mat of the katun could mean either the coefficient of the day Ahau
for which it was named or the unhappy events prophecied for that katun. In the same
way the expressions u cuch haab and u cuch katun mean either the year and katun
bearers or the miseries and toil of human existence. This text is worded much the
same as the entry in the chronicle on p. 74 of the Chumayel which is also printed in
Brinton 1882, p. 153, "Oxlahun Ahau tzolci pop" which means that the day 13 Ahau
ending that katun was recorded in due order.
23 Note the name of this town in connection with the Ah Ttzim Thul Chac who was
mentioned at the beginning of our text.
ROYS] A NEW MAYA HISTORICAL NARRATIVE 53

somewhat by them. Then they arrived at Titz'aan. Three days


they were submerged.24 Then they went to Ticul, Sacluumcheen,
Tixtohilcheen where their minds were tranquilized. Then they
went to Balamkin, the region of the priests, Cheenchomac, Sacnic-
teeltz'onot, Tiyaxcab, Uman, Oxcum, Sanhil, Ichcansihoo, Ti-noh-
naa-noh-pat, Poychena, Chulul. Then they arrived at Titzluum
Cumkal25 where the highest point of the region was situated,
Siepach, Yaxkukul,
(p.9)
Tixkokob, Tixueue, Tixueue was the name of the well here,
Uhumtal where one part came out, Tixcanimacal, Tixaan,
Yumxul where they respected their father-in-law, Holtun Ake,
Acanqueh, Tichahil, great Mayapan, the fortress, Yokolhaa.
Then they went to Nabula, Tixmucuy, Tixkanhub, Tz'oyila.
Then they arrived at Tisip. Tisip they said, Tisip they taught.26
Then began the establishment of the country and of the rulers.
There was the priest at Paloncab. There was the priest at Mutu-
pul, as it was named. The priest at Paloncab was Ah May.
The priest at Mutupul was Ah Canul, Uayom Chich, a stammerer
as well, Yucatun Ah Chable, Ah Ichcansihoo, Holtun Balam, his
son. He it was who took the plain of Yaxum. Then arrived
the companions of the ruler. These were the friends of the ruler
in the reign of Tun 11 Ahau as it was called. Then they founded
the district and established the country. Then they settled
Ichcansihoo. Then came those of Holtun Ake; and then came
those of Sabacna. Then arrived the rulers together. These
were of Sabacna, the head men, the leaders. Then they assembled
at Ichcanziho. Here was the ix pop ti balam during the reign of
Holtun Balam,
(p. 10)
during the reign of. . . . This was the head man . . . Xiu,

24This phrase, "ox kin tz'amanobi," recalls the


expression "ca kin tz'am, ox kin
tz'am" on p. 44 of the Chumayel, immediately following the creation story translated
in Martinez 1912, pp. 14-15.
25Cumkal is called the head of the district and Mani the heart of the land on
p. 25 of the Chtumayel.
26 "Sip u than, sip u can" is a
stereotyped phrase of the prophecies and means
literally "error was their talk, error was their teaching."
54 AMERICANANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 24, 1922

Tloual also. Chacte was the ruler. Chacte was the land where
Teppanquis, their priest, seized the government. This was in
Tabi. There was Ah Ppiste. He measured their land but Lubte
was the land where they stopped, Uuclubcab. There was Ah
May; but Ah Accunte established the corners of their land.
There was Miscit Ahau who cleaned up the land; but the land was
established by them. There was Hoyahelcab. It was here that
they came to the use of their reason. They considered the ruler;
they considered the use of their judgment.27
"Then began the introduction of tribute. Tikuch was where
the arrival of the tribute of the four men occurred. 11 Ahau was
the name of the katun when the tribute was handled. At Cetelac
it was given over. And then the tribute of Holtun Zuiva28 came.
It was at Cetelac where they agreed in their opinions. 13 Ahau
was the katun when the governors received the tribute. Then
began their reign. Then they began to be served. Then began
the arrival of those who were thrown [into the well]. Then they
began to cast them into the well in order that their prophecy
might be heard by the ruler. Their prophecy did not come.
There was Cauich Hunac Ceel. Cauich was the name of the man
who raised his head at the mouth of the well
(p. 11)
at the south.29 Then he was taken up and then came forth the
declaration of the prophecy. Then began the prophecy. Then
began the declaring of the ruler. Then he was set in the place
of the rulers by them. Then began the declaring of the governor.

27The obscure passage consisting of the last few lines is composed largely of
plays upon words. The story is told in such phraseology that the names of person-
ages and places on one hand and of the events themselves on the other will be homo-
nyms. The use of hieroglyphic writing would naturally create such a literary style and
it is interesting to note the extent to which it is preserved in certain parts of the
present text.
28Zuiva is mentioned in the Chronicle of the Book of Chilam Balam of Mani as
the country to the west from which the Tutu] Xius came to Yucatan (Brinton 1882,
p. 95). Seler locates itin Tabasco, Xicalanco, or Coatzacualco (Seler 1902-1908, vol.
III, p. 575). Holtun Zuiva means the Cave Zuiva. In this text it appears to sym-
bolize the Nahua origin of the ruling powers at the time.
29 The stone platform beside the Sacrificial Cenote at Chichen Itza, from which
the victims were cast into the well, is on the south side.
ROYS] A NEW MAYA HISTORICALNARRATIVE 55

He was not ruler. His title was only Ah Mex Cuc. Then the
man who was cast [into the well] for Ah Mex Cuc was declared
ruler. The eagle was his throne. Then he was sought on the
hill. Then began the taking of the prophecy (or command) of
this ruler. After that it was declared. Then began the setting.
up of the house on high for the ruler. Then began the con-
struction of the stairway. Then he was set in the house on high
in 13 Ahau, the sixth reign. Then began the fulfillment of the
reign, of the setting up of Ah Mex Cuc near Baca. Then he
was established. Then began his being respected as a lord.30
Then they began to obey him. Then he was served there at
Chichen. Chichen Ytzam was its name because the Itzas were
there. Then he took away the stones of the district, the stones
of the planted fields, the landmarks of the Itzas. They were
taken away [and thrown] into the water. Then began the
introduction of misery into Chichen Itza. Then our god departed
toward the east with Ah Kin Coba. Katun 8 Ahau came.
8 Ahau was the name of the katun when the reign came to pass.
Then the change of the katun was declared and the change of the
ruler was declared."
TEXT
(Chumayelp. 3.)
"Ah Itz: tzim thul chac: u mektanob; ychcansihoo: uayom
chich: chich yah kinob: ychcansihoo; canul: yx pop ti balam: u
catulah kin chable: u yahauob; cabal xiu: yah kinob: uxmal
chac u mektanob: lay yah kin cuchi: ca ulsabi: hapai can= tu
chem chan: lay huli: ca uchi kikil pak: te uxmale; tii, ca colabi.
u cangel. chac xib*chace: sac xib chac: colabi u cangel: u cangel
ix. ek yuan chac: colabi.xan: yx sacbelix: u kaba u chichob:
chac ek yuuan chac: u yumob: hun yuuan chac:u thupilob:
uooh: puc u kaba = lay tz'ibtabi: uooh tu tan u kab: ca tz'ibtabi
uooh. yalan u cal: ca tz'ibtabi: tu tan yoc: ca tz'ibtabi: ychil u
ppuc u kab ti ah uooh pucil: ma kui: chaccob: = g:halili hahal ku
ca yumil ti Diose: u kulob tu yitz'atil: mayapan: ah kin coba:

30
I have translated yum as lord, halach uinic as governor, and ahau as ruler,
although the nature of the authority exercised by each is most uncertain.
56 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 24, 1922

(p. 4)
ah kinte ych: paa:e. tzulim chan:ti chikin: Nauat. yah c[anu]l:
u uol pa ti nohole: Couoh: yah canul: u uol pa til lakin: ah ek:
u lak: he yahauobe. ah tapai nok cauich: u kaba u halach
uinicob: hunnac ceel: u pulbeen: ah mex cuci: ca u katah huntulis
Nicte: ca u katah: sac pop: ca u katah: cappel u tan, nok: ca u
katah: yax ulum: ca u katah: ule: ca u katah: sac homaob: ti
likulob ca kuchob: ppoole: ti ppolhob: yala ah ytzai: ti tun u naa-
intahob yx ppoli: ca kuchob Ake: ti sihob: tix Akei: Ake u kaba
uaye: cu thanob: catun kuchob Alaa: alaa: u kaba uaye: cu
thanob ca talob: kanholaa. ca talob: tixchel: ti chelhi: u thanobi:
ti chelhi: u canobi: catun kuchob: Ninum: ti Numhi: u thano-
bi: ti numhi:u canobi: ah ytzaobi = catun kuchob: chikin tz'onot:
ti chikintanhi u uichob: chikin tz'onot u kaba uaye:cu thanob:
catun kuchob: tzuc:oopp: ti u tzucah ubaobi: yalan: opi: tzucop:
u kaba uaye: cu thanob: catun kuchob cahcab: ti u huytah cab.
ytzai: ca uki tumenel xkoh takin: ca huytabi:ti cab: ca yukah:
cabilneba: u kaba: ca kuchob
(p.5)
kikil: ti u canahob: kiknaki: kikil u kaba uaye: cu thanob: ca
kuchob: panabhaa: ti u panahob hai: ca talob: cucuchil: haa:
u cuchob tu tamil haai: ca kuchob: yalsihon: yalsihon u kaba
uaye: cahlic cah = ca kuchob: xppitah: cah xan: catun kuchob:
kancab: tz'onot: ti likulob: ca kuchob: tz'ula caix tal ob: pibhaltz'-
onot; catun kuchob: tah: aac:: u kaba: ca tal ob: t Cooh: u kaba:
ti u manahob: than coohi: ti u manahob: cani: ticoh u kaba
uaye: ca kuchob: tikal: ti u kalah: ubaobi: tikal u kaba uaye: ca
talob: timax: ti u maaxtah uba katunobi: ca kuchob buctzotz:
ti u bucinahob u tzotzel u pollobi: buctzotz u kaba uaye cu
thanob = ca kuchob :tz'itz'ontun: ti hoppob: chuc lum tz'itz'i:
tz'iholtun u kaba uaye: ca kuchob: yobain: ti u uayintahob ayini:
tumen u mamobi: ah yamasi: g: yahaulil tu chi kaknab: ca
kuchob: sinanche: ti u uayintahob cicin sinanche u kaba uaye:
ca kuchob ti cahchac: ca cuchob: tz'euc: pisilba: u cahob u lakob
ca kuchob: u mamob: u lak: ti multzemlah yolobi tz'emul u kaba
uaye: ca kuchob: kini: yicnal xkil ytzam pech: xtz'euc: u lakob ca
ROYS] A NEW MA YA HISTORICAL NARRATIVE 57

(p. 6)
kuchob icnal.xkil. ytzam pech: yah [a]ukiniob: catun kuchob:
Baca: ti bacchahi: haa tiobi:Baca: uaye: cu thanob: catunkuchob:
Sabacnail: yicnal u mamob: u chun uinicil ah Nae: lay chelnae:
u mamob: catun kuchob: te Benaae: tikahi: u naa tiobi: ca talob:
yxil: catun binob: chulul: ca kuchob chichicaan: catun binob
holtun chable: ca talob. ytzamna: ca talob. chubulna: ca kuchob:
caucel: ti ceelchahobi caucel: uaye cuthanob: catunkuchob: ucu:
ti yalahob: ya u cu: ca binob: hunuc ma: ca kuchobkinchil:
cabinob: kana: ca kuchob: tixpetoncah: ca kuchob sahab balam:
ca kuchob tahcumchakan: ca kuchob: tixbalche: ca kuchob:
uxmal: ti tun likulob ca kuchob: tixyubak: ca kuchob Munaa:
ti munhi: u thanob: ti munhi u canobi: ca binob oxlochhok: ca
binob chacakal. ca binob. xocneceh: ceh u uayob ca kuchobi:
ca binob ppustunich. ca binob pucnalchac: ca binob ppencuyut:
ca binob: ppaxueuet: ca kuchob tixaya: ca kuchob: tistis: u
kaba: ca kuchob tu chican:ca kuchob tixmeuac
(p. 7)
ca kuchob hunacthi: cakuch . . . azal: ca kuchob: tamusbulna:
ca kuchob: tixcan: ca kuchob: lop: ca kuchob: cheemiuan: ca
kuchob: oxcahuanka: ca binob: sabacelcaan: ca kuchob: cetelac:
u kaba cah: macalob: y u kaba cheenob: ca utzac yoheltaual tux
manob: tan u ximbal ticob: yilaob: ua utz: lay peten: ua u nahma
cahtalob: uay lae: tzol peten u kaba tu thanob: ca yumil ti
Ds lay tzol peten. lay sihes yokolcab tulacal: layx tzol xan: heob
lae kabansah peten. u cahob: kabansah cheen u cahob: kabansah
cacab. u cahob kabansah luum-u cahob; tumen mamac kuchuc.
uaye: uayi ucalpeten ca kuchon uay lae:
"Subinche: kaua: cumcanul: tiemtun ti: emob ti tuni: sigal:
sacii: ti tz'ooc: ti tz'ooc u than katuni: ti mocon: popola: ti hay
u pop katuni:-tipixoy: uayumhaa: sabacan: ti num: ti numchi
thantabobi: ti macal: popola: ti u tzolahob u pop katuni: tix-
macculum: ti u macahob thani: tz'ithaasbonkauil: tixmex: ko-
chilla: tix xocen: chunpak: pibahul: tun kaas: haaltunhaa: kuxbila:
tz'itz'ilche: ticool: sitilpech: chalamte: ti halhi yolobi: ytzamthulil:
ti pakab ti paktehobi:
58 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 24, 1922

(p.8)
ti ya . . . ansahcab: tz'itz'omtun: yetun u mamob: tichechoctz'-
iitz': tz'itz'holtun: popola: tu nohol sinanche: ca tal muci: sac
nicte cheen: sotz'il: uay tumultumtahob katune. multumut u
kaba: uay mutupule: muxipip: ake: hoctun: ti cumlahob tu chun
tuni: xocchelbohe: sahcabhaa: tzanlahcat: human: ti humni than
yokolobi: ti humni u pectzilobi: chalamte: pacaxua: u kaba uaye:
cu thanob: tekit ti kit yala ytzaobi: yokolcheen ppuppulni huh:
huh u uayob cahokobi: tz'otz'ile: tiab: bituncheen: uchci yocolob
tipikal: ukaba cheen: uchci u tippilob: ca binob poc huh: ukaba-
cheen:uchci u pocicob huh:ca binob: Manii: ti mankahi thantiobi:
ca kuchob titz'aan ox kin tz'amannobi: ca bin ticul: sacluumcheen:
tixtohilcheen: ti tohni:yolobi: cabinob Balam kin: u petennil ah
kinob: cheenchomac: sac nicteel tz'onot: tiyaxcab: uman: oxcum:
sanhil: ychcansihoo: ti-noh-naa-noh-pat: poychena: chulul: ca
kuchob tu titzluum cumkal: ti cumlah u titz peteni: siepach:
yaxkukul:
(p.9)
tixkokob: cuca: . .:xan: ekolekol: u kaba ch . . .:tixueue:
tix ueue u kaba cheen uaye: u humtal tal hun hatzi: tix kanimacal:
ti xaan: yumxul: uchci u yumtic u haan: holtun ake: acanqueh:
ticooh: ti chahil. ti chac mayapan: ych paa: yokol haa: ca binob:
Nabula: tixmucuy:tixkanhube: tz'oyila: ca kuchob tisip: ti sip u
thanobi: ti sip u canobi: ca hopi : u hetz' luumob. yahauobi: ti
yanah yah kin paloncabi: heklay yah kinobe mutupul u kaba:
he ah kin paloncabe: ah may: he ah kin mutupule: ah canul:
uayom chich ix xan nunili xan: yucatun ah chable: ah ychcansihoo:
holtun Balam: u mehen: lay u chaah yx yaxum chakane: ti tun
kuchi: u lak ahauobi: laobi ahau u nup u thanobe: ti yahaulilob
ti buluc ahau tun: u kaba cuchi: ca u hetz'ah cabobi: caix ti hetz'-
luumnahobi: caix cahlahobi: ychcaansihoo: ca emob ah holtun
Ake: ca emob ah sabacnailob: catun kuchob yetun Ahaulilob:
he ah sabacnaile: u chun uinicil: ah na: catun u molah ubaob te
ychcansihoo: ti yan yx pop ti balam. tilic yahaulili: holtun balam:
(p. 10)
tili yahaulil . . . tz'oy lay u chun uuinicil. copoe . . . xiu
ix tloual xan: chacte ahau chacte u lumil u chuc yahaulilob:
ROYS] A NEW MAYA HISTORICALNARRATIVE 59

teppanquis: yah kinob: lay ych tabi lae: lay ah ppiste: ppis u
lumilobe: hetun: lubte u lumil u luubobe: uuc lub cab: ah may
hetun: accunte: u xukil: u luumob: ah accunte: u xukil ah mis
Miste u luumob lay miscit ahaue: hetun hetz'ci cab tiobe: lay
hoyahel cabe: hetunte yahal cab tiobe: tumte ahau: tumte yahal-
cab: tiobe: ca hoppi yocol patan tiobe: tu chichen: ti kuch uchci.
u kuchul u patan: cantul uinicobe: buluc ahau. u kaba u katunil:
cuchi: ti baaxlahi patante. cetelace: u pakte: uchi yanile: catun
emi u patan holtun suhuyva te: cetel ace: ti cethi u thanobi
oxlahun ahau u katunil cuchi: ti u kamahob patan halach uinicobi:
cahopi u tepallobi: ca hoppi ti yahaulilobi: ca hoppi u tanlabalob:
ca hoppi u kuchul u pululteob: ca hoppi u pulicob ych cheen:
ca uyabac u thanob tumenel yahaulili: ma hul u thanob lay
cauich hun hunah ceele: lay cauich u kaba uinicile: ti cuthi cal tu
hol cheen
(p. 11)
cheen: ti nohol catun bini chabil catun hoki yalab u than: ca hopp
u chabal u than: ca tz'uni u than: ca hoppi yalabal: ahauil: ca
culhij: ta cuchil ahauuob: tumenob. ca hoppi yalabal halach uini-
cil: ma ahau cuchij = chen u bel ah mex cuc: ca ix alabi ahau u
pulben: ah mex cuc = coot bin u Nac cabin caxtaui tu uitzil: ca bin:
tz'uni: u chabal u than lay ahau: la: citun yalabal: catun hoppi:
u nacsabal: canalnaa: ti ti ahaulil: ca hoppi: u pakal: yebal:
catun culhi ti canalna: ychil oxlahun: Ahau uactepal. ca tz'uni:
u kuchul u yabil u than u kin: u. ua ah mex cuc: u kaba ca u pulal
Natz'an baca u kin ah mex cuuc ci: ca yetz'cuntabi: ca hoppi u
yumintauali: ca hoppi u tzicile: tu kaba ah mex cuuc: catun tzici
catun tanlabi. te tu chicheene: chicheen vtzam. u kaba = tumen
ti bin ytza ca u lukah u tunil cabi: u tunil uiil cuch ytzamrn:luk
cabin ychil haa: catun hoppi yocol numya. te chichen ytzae:
catun bini te likine: ca ku yicnal ah kin cob[a] talel u cah uaxac
Ahau katun cuchi uaxac ahau u kaba katun: uchci u tepal catun
hoki u hel katun catun hoki u hel yahauob: .
. .
VANCOUVER,B. C.
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