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11 vizualizări27 paginiExplanation

Jan 17, 2018

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Explanation

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Explanation

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Compiled By

Devang Patel

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

of compressive stresses to concrete members. Those

zones of the member ultimately required to carry

tensile stresses under working load conditions are

given an initial compressive stress before the

application of working loads so that the tensile

stresses developed by these working loads are

balanced by induced compressive strength. Prestress

can be applied in two ways - Pre-tensioning or Post-

tensioning.

The prestressing and precasting of concrete are

inter-related features of the modern building

industry. Through the application of imaginative

design and quality control, they have, since the

1930’s, had an increasing impact on architectural

and construction procedures. Prestressing of

concrete is the application of a compressive force to

concrete members and may be achieved by either

pretensioning high tensile steel strands before the

concrete has set, or by post-tensioning the strands

after the concrete has set. Although these

techniques are commonplace, misunderstanding of

the principles, and the way they are applied, still

exists. This paper is aimed at providing a clear

outline of the basic factors differentiating each

technique and has been prepared to encourage

understanding amongst those seeking to broaden

their knowledge of structural systems.

Pre-tensioning

Pre-tensioning is the application, before casting, of a

tensile force to high tensile steel tendons around

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

which the concrete is to be cast. When the placed concrete has developed sufficient

compressive strength a compressive force is imparted to it by releasing the tendons,

so that the concrete member is in a permanent state of prestress.

Post-tensioning

Post-tensioning is the application of a compressive force to the concrete at some

point in time after casting. When the concrete has gained strength a state of prestress

is induced by tensioning steel tendons passed through ducts cast into the concrete,

and locking the stressed tendons with mechanical anchors. The tendons are then

normally grouted in place.

A prestressed concrete structure is different from a conventional reinforced concrete

structure due to the application of an initial load on the structure prior to its use.

The initial load or ‘prestress’ is applied to enable the structure to counteract the

stresses arising during its service period.

The concept of prestressing existed before the applications in concrete. Two examples of

prestressing before the development of prestressed concrete are provided.

The metal bands induce a state of initial hoop compression, to counteract the hoop

tension caused by filling of liquid in the barrels.

Metal bands

The pre-tension of a spoke in a bicycle wheel is applied to such an extent that there will

always be a residual tension in the spoke.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Spokes

Prestressing of structures was introduced in late nineteenth century. The following

sketch explains the application of prestress.

Mild steel rods are stretched and concrete is poured around them. After hardening of

concrete, the tension in the rods is released. The rods will try to regain their original

length, but this is prevented by the surrounding concrete to which the steel is bonded.

Thus, the concrete is now effectively in a state of pre-compression. It is capable

of counteracting tensile stress, such as arising from the load shown in the following

sketch.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

But, the early attempts of prestressing were not completely successful. It was observed

that the effect of prestress reduced with time. The load resisting capacities of the

members were limited. Under sustained loads, the members were found to fail. This was

due to the following reason.

Concrete shrinks with time. Moreover under sustained load, the strain in concrete

increases with increase in time. This is known as creep strain. The reduction in length

due to creep and shrinkage is also applicable to the embedded steel, resulting in

significant loss in the tensile strain.

In the early applications, the strength of the mild steel and the strain during prestressing

were less. The residual strain and hence, the residual prestress was only about 10% of

the initial value. The following sketches explain the phenomena.

a) Beam before applying prestress

Figure 1.5 Variation of length in a prestressed beam

The residual strain in steel = original tensile strain in steel – compressive strains

corresponding to short-term and long-term losses.

compiled by : Devang Patel 5

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Compressive strain due to elastic shortening of beam = (L2 – L3)/L1

(short-term loss in prestress)

Compressive strain due to creep and shrinkage = (L3 – L4)/L1

(long-term losses in prestress)

Therefore, residual strain in steel = (L4 – L1)/L1

The maximum original tensile strain in mild steel = Allowable stress / elastic modulus

5

= 140 MPa / 2×10 MPa

= 0.0007

The total loss in strain due to elastic shortening, creep and shrinkage was also close to

0.0007. Thus, the residual strain was negligible.

The solution to increase the residual strain and the effective prestress are as follows.

• Adopt high strength steel with much higher original strain. This leads to the

scope of high prestressing force.

• Adopt high strength concrete to withstand the high prestressing force.

reinforced concrete (RC) without prestressing.

Large Deflection

Inevitable Cracks

Reduced Stiffness

Unsuitable for large spans as DL becomes very high

service life. This rectifies several deficiencies of concrete.

member with an equivalent RC member. For each effect, the benefits are listed.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

General Advantages

The use of prestressed concrete offers distinct advantages over ordinary reinforced

concrete. These advantages can be briefly listed as follows:

Prestressing minimises the effect of cracks in concrete elements by holding the

concrete in compression.

Prestressing allows reduced beam depths to be achieved for equivalent design

strengths.

Prestressed concrete is resilient and will recover from the effects of a greater degree

of overload than any other structural material.

If the member is subject to overload, cracks, which may develop, will close up on

removal of the overload.

Prestressing enables both entire structural elements and structures to be formed from

a number of precast units, e.g. Segmented and Modular Construction.

Lighter elements permit the use of longer spanning members with a high strength to

weight characteristic.

The ability to control deflections in prestressed beams and slabs permits longer spans

to be achieved.

Prestressing permits a more efficient usage of steel and enables the economic use of

high tensile steels and high strength concrete.

Better utilization of section hence effective saving in material

Lighter &slender member due to high strength of concrete and steel

Crack free structure

Economic for long spans

Very suitable for precast construction hence reduces construction time

Reduction of steel corrosion

o Increase in durability.

Full section is utilized

o Higher moment of inertia (higher stiffness)

o Less deformations (improved serviceability).

Suitable for use in pressure vessels, liquid retaining structures.

Improved performance (resilience) under dynamic and fatigue loading.

2) High span-to-depth ratios

Larger spans possible with prestressing (bridges, buildings with large column-free

compiled by : Devang Patel 7

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

spaces)

Typical values of span-to-depth ratios in slabs are given below.

Non-prestressed slab 28:1

Prestressed slab 45:1

• Reduction in self weight

• More aesthetic appeal due to slender sections

• More economical sections.

The advantages of precast construction are as follows.

• Rapid construction

• Better quality control

• Reduced maintenance

• Suitable for repetitive construction

• Multiple use of formwork

⇒ Reduction of formwork cost

• Availability of standard shapes.

• Prestressing needs skilled technology. Hence, it is not as

common as reinforced concrete.

• The use of high strength materials is costly.

• There is additional cost in auxiliary equipments.

• There is need for quality control and inspection.

6.1 The Tensile Strength of Concrete

The tensile strength of unreinforced concrete is equal to about 10% of its compressive

strength. Reinforced concrete design has in the past neglected the tensile strength of

unreinforced concrete as being too unreliable. Cracks in the unreinforced concrete occur

for many reasons and destroy the tensile capability. See Fig.1.With prestressed concrete

design however, the tensile strength of concrete is not neglected. In certain applications

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

it is used as part of the design for service loadings. In ordinary reinforced concrete, steel

bars are introduced to overcome this low tensile strength. They resist tensile forces and

limit the width of cracks that will develop under design loadings. Reinforced concrete is

thus designed assuming the concrete to be cracked and unable to carry any tensile force.

Prestressing gives crack-free construction by placing the concrete in compression before

the application of service loads.

A simple analogy to prestressing will best explain the

basic idea. Consider a row of books or blocks set up as

a beam. See Fig.2(a). This "beam" is able to resist

compression at the top but is unable to resist any

tension forces at the bottom as the "beam" is now like a

badly cracked concrete member, i.e. the discontinuity

between the books ensures that the "beam" has no

inherent tension resisting properties. If it is temporarily

supported and a tensile force is applied, the "beam’’

will fail by the books dropping out along the

discontinuities. See Fig.2(b). For the beam then to

function properly a compression force must be applied

as in Fig.2(c). The beam is then "prestressed" with

forces acting in an opposite direction to those induced

by loading. The effect of the longitudinal prestressing

force is thus to produce pre-compression in the beam

before external downward loads are applied. The

application of the external downward load merely

reduces the proportion of precompression acting in the

tensile zone of the beam.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Prestressing can be used to best advantage by varying

the position of the prestress force. When the prestress

is applied on the centroid of the cross-section a

uniform compression is obtained. Consider the stress

state of the beam in Fig.3(b). We can see that by

applying a prestress of the right magnitude we can

produce pre-compression equal and opposite to the

tensile force in Fig.3(b).Then by adding the stress

blocks we get: i.e. zero stress towards the bottom

fibres and twice the compressive stress towards the top

fibres. Now apply the pre-compression force at 1/3 the

beam depth above the bottom face. As well as the

overall compression we now have a further compressive

stress acting on the bottom fibre due to the moment of

the eccentric prestress force about the neutral axis of

the section. We then find it is possible to achieve the

same compression at the bottom fibre with only half

the prestressing force. See Fig.3(d). Adding now the

stress blocks of Fig.3(b) and 3(d) we find that the

tensile stress in the bottom fibre is again negated

whilst the final compressive stress in the top fibre is

only half that of Fig.3(c). See Fig.3(e). Thus by varying

the position of the compressive force we can reduce

the prestress force required, reduce the concrete

strength required and sometimes reduce the cross

sectional area. Changes in cross sections such as using T or I or channel sections rather

than rectangular sections can lead to further economies.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

From 7.3 it is obvious that the designer should,

unless there are special circumstances, choose the

eccentrically applied prestress. Consider again the

non-prestressed beam of Fig.1(a). Under external

loads the beam deflects to a profile similar to that

exaggerated in Fig.4(a). By applying prestress

eccentrically a deflection is induced. When the

prestress is applied in the lower portion of the

beam, the deflection is upwards producing a hogging

profile. See Fig.4(b). By applying the loads of

Fig.4(a) to our prestressed beam, the final

deflection shape produced is a sum of Figs.4(a) and

4(b) as shown in Fig.4(c). Residual hogging, though

shown exaggerated in the Fig.4(c), is controlled

within limits by design code and bylaw

requirements. Such control of deflection is not

possible with simple reinforced concrete.

Reductions in deflections under working loads can then be achieved by suitable eccentric

prestressing. In long span members this is the controlling factor in the choice of the

construction concept and technique employed.

7.0 Materials

Steel

Early in the development of prestressing it was found that because of its low limit of

elasticity ordinary reinforcing steel could not provide sufficient elongation to counter

concrete shortening due to creep and shrinkage. It is necessary to use the high tensile

steels which were developed to produce a large elongation when tensioned. This

ensures that there is sufficient elongation reserve to maintain the desired pre-

compression. The relationship between the amount of load, or stress, in a material

and the stretch, or strain, which the material undergoes while it is being loaded is

depicted by a stress-strain curve. At any given stress there is a corresponding strain.

Strain is defined as the elongation of a member divided by the length of the member.

The stress-strain properties of some grades of steel commonly encountered in

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

considerable variation exists between the properties of these steels. All grades of

steel have one feature in common: the relationship between stress and strain is a

straight line below a certain stress. The stress at which this relationship departs from

the straight line is called the yield stress.

A conversion factor may be used to convert either stress to strain or strain to stress.

This conversion factor is called the “Modulus of Elasticity E”.

Structural grade steels which are commonly used for rolled structural sections and

reinforcing bars, show a deviation from this linear relationship at a much lower stress

than high strength prestressing steel. High strength steels cannot be used for

reinforced concrete as the width of cracks under loading would be unacceptably

large. These high strength steels achieve their strength largely through the use of

special compositions in conjunction with cold working. Smaller diameter wires gain

strength by being cold drawn through a number of dies. The high strength of alloy

bars is derived by the use of special alloys and some working.

Wires Prestressing wire is a single unit made of steel.

Strands Two, three or seven wires are wound to form a prestressing strand.

Bars A tendon can be made up of a single steel bar. The diameter of a bar

is much larger than that of a wire.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

IS : 6006

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

UTS

IS : 6006

Concrete

To accommodate the degree of compression imposed by the tensioning tendons and to

minimize prestress losses, a high strength concrete with low shrinkage properties is

required. Units employing high strength concrete are most successfully cast under

controlled factory conditions.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

The construction possibilities of prestressed concrete are as vast as those of ordinary

reinforced concrete. Typical applications of prestressing in building and construction

are:

1. Structural components for integration with

ordinary reinforced concrete construction, e.g.

floor slabs, columns, beams.

2. Structural components for bridges.

3. Water tanks and reservoirs where water tightness

(i.e. the absence of cracks) is of paramount

importance.

4. Construction components e.g. piles, wall panels,

frames, window mullions, power poles, fence

posts, etc.

5. The construction of relatively slender structural frames.

6. Railway slippers, Electric Poles,

7. Thin Shell Structres

8. Nuclear Power Plants

9. Repair & Rehabilitations

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

– Tensile Strength

• PSC: Permanent stresses are created prior to full DL and LL application to reduce net

tensile stresses.

• RCC:

– Cracking and deflection are typically irrecoverable after reaching these limit states.

• PSC:

– Service deflections are small (camber reduces δ and full section is stiffer).

– Stiffness

• PSC: Stiffness can be flexible or rigid by controlling amount of prestress for a given

strength.

• ** PSC acts like RCC when applied moment exceeds flexural tensile strength.

– Shear

– Serviceability

• RCC: Heavy

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

• PSC:

– Lighter weight

– Economy

• PSC: Less material, but higher cost materials used. Tend to save on other parts of

structure because PSC is lighter.

Large Deflection

Inevitable Cracks

Reduced Stiffness

Unsuitable for large spans as DL becomes very high

Advantages of PSC

Better utilization of section hence effective saving in material

Lighter &slender member due to high strength of concrete and steel

Crack free structure

Economic for long spans

Very suitable for precast construction hence reduces construction time

Pre-Tensioning – Post Tensioning

External – Internal

Linear – Circular

End-Anchored – Non End-Anchored

Bonded / Unbonded

Precast / Cast in Situ

Partial / Full Prestressing

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

11.0 Conclusions

Prestressed concrete design and construction is precise. The high stresses imposed

by prestressing really do occur. The following points should be carefully considered:

1. To adequately protect against losses of prestress and to use the materials

economically requires that the initial stresses at prestressing be at the

allowable upper limits of the material. This imposes high stresses, which the

member is unlikely to experience again during its working life.

2. Because the construction system is designed to utilise the optimum stress

capability of both the concrete and steel, it is necessary to ensure that these

materials meet the design requirements. This requires control and

responsibility from everyone involved in prestressed concrete work - from the

designer right through to the workmen on the site.

We have seen that considerable design and strength economies are achieved by the

eccentric application of the prestressing force. However, if the design eccentricities are

varied only slightly, variation from design stresses could be such as to affect the

performance of a shallow unit under full working load. The responsibility associated with

prestressing work then is that the design and construction should only be undertaken by

engineers or manufacturers who are experienced in this field.

SUMMARY

Prestressing involves inducing compressive stresses in the zone which will tend

to become tensile under external loads.

This compressive stress neutralizes the tensile stress so that no resultant tension

exists, (or only very small values, within the tensile strength of the concrete).

Cracking is therefore eliminated under working load and all of the concrete may

be assumed effective in carrying load.

Therefore lighter sections may be used to carry a given bending moment, and

prestressed concrete may be used over much longer spans than reinforced

concrete.

The prestressing force has to be produced by high tensile steel, and it is

necessary to use high quality concrete to resist the higher compressive stresses

that are developed.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

8. Steel yields.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

External Loading

Force = F

F/A + My/I

+ =

Moment M

Stress in concrete section when the prestressing force is applied eccentrically with respect to c.g. of

the section

External Loading

N A

Force = F

N A + + =

e

F/A

Fey/I My/I F/A +Fey/I - My/I

Cross Section Due to Prestress F Due to Prestress F & Due to External Resultant Stress

(Axial Effect) Eccentricity e Moment M

(Moment Effect)

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Unlike RCC, where we preliminary consider

the capacity of the structure at one stage (

during service), we must consider multiple

stages of construction in Prestressed

Concrete

The Stresses in concrete section must

remain below the maximum limit at all the

stages !!!!

Transfer) Initial Loss of Prestress

Full Prestress Self Weight

May or may not include DL of Different Support Condition

Prestressed member only (depending on

Construction Type)

Super Imposed Dead Load DL due to Casting of

Part Loss of Prestress due to Floor

Time Dependent Losses Composite effect

Service Stage

Full Prestress Loss has Occurred

DL + SIDL + LL + Secondary Effects

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

The prestress force applied through jack in not transferred to the element

completely. The applied force reduces at every section and at every time.

Short Term Losses : Elastic deformation of Concrete

Friction between Tendon & Duct

Slip during Anchorage

Long Term Losses : Relaxation of Steel

Shrinkage of Concrete

Friction between tendon and surrounding material ; sheathing or concrete

Loss in two Part : a) Length effect & b) Curvature effect

LENGTH EFFECT :

Friction even though the cable is straight

In practice, the sheathing can not be perfectly

straight, this un intentional deviation is called “

WOBBLE EFFECT” of duct

It depends upon the length and stress of the cable.

CURVATURE EFFECTS :

Friction between cable and surrounding material

due to curved profile of the cable

It depends upon the co-eff. of friction between

materials and cable.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Px = P0 e − ( µα + Kx )

P = prestressing force at the jacking end

0

α = the cumulative angle in radians

K = friction coefficient for wobble effect

x (L − x )

4 ym

y=

L2

ym = displacement of the CGS at the centre of the beam from the ends

x = distance from the stretching end

y = displacement of the CGS at distance x from the ends.

dy 4 y m

= (L − 2 x )

dx L2

An expression of α(x) can be derived from the change in slope of the profile. The slope of the

profile is given as follows.

L

At x = 0, the slope dy/dx = 4ym/L

x

α(L) = 8ym/L ym

α(L)

y

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

After tensioning of the cable, jack is released to transfer the prestress to concrete.

The wedges, employed to grip the strands, slip over a small distance before the strands

are firmly housed between the wedges.

The amount of slippage depends on the type wedge and stress in the strands.

-(µθ + kx )

(s - s )dx Shaded Area

x1 x2

P =P e

2 1 1 Total slip = ------------ = -------------

-(µθ + kx) E E

P =P e s s

x 1

4

or shaded area = A x Es = 6 x 1.95 x 10 = 117000 kg.mm

The stress drop after slip is obtained such that

Shaded area = 117000 Kg.mm = 117 kg.mm per m length

P1

σPO(x)

P3

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

The Prestress is transferred to the concrete, the members shortens and prestressed

steel shortens with it ; hence there is loss of prestress in steel.

force in cable is measured after concrete is shortened, no loss of prestress.

If more than one tendon, and tendons are stressed in succession, the prestress is

applied to concrete gradually. The shortening of concrete increases as each tendon is

tightened against it. The loss in tendon occurs.

The tendon that is first tensioned would suffer the max. amount of loss due to elastic

shortening.

The tendon that is last tensioned will not suffer any loss due to elastic shortening.

fc

Unit shortening δ = where, fc = Stress in concrete

Ec

Ec = Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Es F0 F

Loss of prestress in steel = ∆ f c = Es δ = =m 0 Ac = C/s area of member

Ac Ec Ac

When bending of member due to own weight and due to eccentricity of prestress force:

P P.eC . y M girder . y

fc =

+ −

A I I

P = Prestress Force e = eccentricity of prestress w.r.t. NA of member

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

fc = + −

A I I

Creep : Progressive increase in the inelastic deformation of concrete under

sustained stress component.

The stress in concrete due to prestress and external loading is computed. ( F1)

IRC:18 gives the value of the Creep Strain per 10 MPa as per the maturity of concrete

at the time of stressing ( C )

IS:1343 gives the value of the Creep Coefficient ( ultimate creep strain/elastic strain

at the age of loading). The loss is obtained as follows:

Shrinkage : Contraction of concrete on drying.

The loss of prestress due to shrinkage is the product of the effective shrinkage,

and the modulus of elasticity of the prestressing steel.

IRC:18 gives the value of the strain due to residual Shrinkage as per the age concrete

at the time of stressing

IS:1343 gives the value of the Shrinkage strain for pre-tensioning and post-tensioning

For pre-tension :

ε sh = 0.0003

0.0002

ε sh =

log10 (t + 2 )

For post-tension:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

With constant elongation/stress maintained over a period of time, the prestress

reduces gradually, called “Relaxation of Steel”

IRC:18 recommends the relaxation loss on the basis of 1000 hour value.

The long term loss at @ 0.5 x 106 hours shall be taken as the 3 times the 1000 hours

values of relaxation loss. These values are given in IRC for various initial stresses.

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