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2012/10/24

Second-Order Circuits

Introduction Finding Initial and Final Values The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit General Second-Order Circuits Duality Applications

Introduction

A second-order circuit is characterized by a second-order differential equation.

It consists of resistors and the equivalent of two energy storage elements.

by a second-order differential equation. • It consists of resistors and the equivalent of two energy

2012/10/24

Finding Initial and Final Values

v(0), i(0), dv(0)/dt, di(0)/dt, v(), and i() Two key points:

–v and i are defined according to the passive sign convention. i _ + v
–v and i are defined according to the passive sign
convention.
i
_
+
v
–Continuity properties:
•Capacitor voltage:
(0
)
 v
(0
)
(V S -like)
v C
C
•Inductor current:
(0
)
 i
(0
)
(I S -like)
i L
L

Q : Find

  (a) (0 i ), v (0 ),   (b) di (0 )
(a) (0
i
),
v
(0
),
(b)
di (0
)
dt dv
,
(0
)
(c)
i
(
),
v
(
).

dt ,

Example

, (0 ) (c) i (  ), v (  ). dt , Example Sol

Sol : (a) Apply dc analysis for t 0.

12

v

(0

2 A

4 2

(0

i

)

i

v

2

(0

(0

)

i

)

(0

(0

)

)

v

4 V

)

i (0

)

2 A

4 V

4  2 (0  i ) i v  2 (0 (0 )  i

Sol : (c) Apply dc analysis

for

t

0.

)



)

 

i (

(

v

0 A

12 V

Cont’d

t  0. )  )   i ( ( v 0 A 12 V
t  0. )  )   i ( ( v 0 A 12 V

Cont’d

dv 0

(

)

dt

i

C

C

Sol : (b) To find

C

dv

dt

i

C

dv

dt

:

Since the inductor current cannot

change abruptly.

The inductor can be treated as

a current source in this case.

We can easily find

i

dv 0

(

)

0

C

(

)

i

dt

(

i

0

C

(

)

0

)

C

2 A

20 V/s

find  i dv 0 (  ) 0 C (  )  i 
2 A t = 0 +
2 A
t = 0 +

2012/10/24

Cont’d

di 0

(

)

dt

v

L

L

:

Sol : (b) To find

L

di

dt

 

di

dt

12

0

L (

di 0

(

)

v

L

v

L

(

(

0

12

0

)

(

4

0

)

0

0

v

C

(

)

0 A/s

0

0 )   ( 4 0  ) 0 0  v C ( 

Since the capacitor voltage

cannot change abruptly.

The capacitor can be treated as

a voltage source in this case.

)

0

8

To obtain

)

4

i

v

Thus we have

, applying KVL gives

0

v

L

t = 0 +
t = 0 +

 

v

L

)

(

L 0 25

dt

.

2012/10/24

The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit

Assumed initial conditions :

i





0

I

0

1

C

v

C  0

0



idt

V

0

(1a)

(1b)

Applying KVL gives

di 1 t Ri  L   idt  0 (2) dt C 
di
1
t
Ri
 L
idt  0
(2)
dt
C

d
2 i
R
di
i
 0
(3)
2
dt
L
dt
LC
To
solve (3),
di
(0)
dt
is required.
(1) and (2) gives
di (0)
Ri
(0) 
L
V
 0
0
dt
di (0)
1

 RI
V
 (4)
0
0
dt
L
di (0) 1    RI  V  (4) 0 0 dt L 2
2 d i R di i    0 2 dt L dt LC
2
d
i
R
di
i
 0
2
dt
L
dt
LC
Initial conditions :

0
 I
  i
0
 di (0)
1

RI
V
0
0
  dt
L

Cont’d

d 2 i R di i   0 2  dt L dt LC
d
2 i
R
di
i
 0
2 
dt
L
dt
LC
Initial conditions :
 0
i
 I
0
di (0)
1

RI
V
0
0
 dt
L
st
Let
i  Ae
:
A
and
s
are constants.
AR
2
st
st
A st
 As e
se
e
 0
L LC
R
1 
st
2
 Ae
 
s
s 
 0
L LC
R
Characteristic
2
 s 
s
1  0
L
LC
equation
2 R  1 s    1 2 L  2 R L
2
R
1
s

1
2
L
2 R L   
LC
2
R
1
s

R  
2
2
L
2 L
LC
2
s 
 2 Natural
 
1
0
2
2 frequencies
s 
 
2
0
R Damping
2 L
factor
where
1 Resonant
0
 
LC
frequency
(or undamped natural
frequency)

Summary

Two solutions (if

s

1

i

1

A e

1

s t

1

,

i

2

A e

2

s

2

s t

2

A general solution :

i

t

( )

A

A e

1

where

1

and

s t

1

A

2

A e

2

s t

2

Characteristic equation : 2 s 2  2   s   0 0
Characteristic equation :
2
s
2 
2
 
s
0
0
2
2
s 
 
1
0
2
2
s 
 
2
0
R
 
2 L
where
1
0
 
LC

) :

are determined from

the initial conditions.

Three cases discussed

2012/10/24

Overdamped case (distinct real roots)

Critically damped case (repeated real root) : = 0 Underdamped case (complex-conjugate roots): < 0

: > 0

2012/10/24

Overdamped Case (> 0 )

R 1 4 L    C 2 2 L LC R Both s
R 1
4 L
 
C
2
2 L
LC
R
Both
s
and
s
are negative and real.
1
2
i(t)
s t
e
1
s t
e
2
t

Critically damped Case (= 0 )

2 di Let C  L 4 R Let f    i dt
2
di
Let
C  L
4
R
Let
f 
i
dt
  
s
s
L
2
R
1
2
df
t
t
t
i
( ) 
t
A e
A e
A e
  
f
0
f
A e
1
2
3
1
dt
Single constant can' t satisfy two initial
di
t
i
A e
conditions!
1
dt
di
t
t
e
e
i
A
1
Back to the original differential equation.
dt
2
d
d
i
di

t
2
e
i
A
2
i 
0
1
dt
2
dt
dt
t
e
i
At
A
d  di
 di
1
2
 i 
 i  0
dt
dt
dt

t

2012/10/24

Critically damped Case (Cont’d)

e    t i t ( )  At  A 1 2
e 
t
i t
( ) 
At
A
1
2
i(t)
e 
t
t
te 
1
t

Underdamped Case (< 0 )

Let

s

s

C L

2 4 R  2 2    0  2 2  
2
4
R
2
2
 
0
2
2
 
0
2
2
 
d
0

 

 

1

2

  

 

d

d

j

j

  

where

( )

i t

B e

1

t

e

 

t

e

 

t

e

(

j

 

d

)

t

B e

2

(

j

 

d

)

t

(

B e

1

j

d

t

B e

2

j

d

t

)

B

1

B

1

cos

d

t

B

2

cos

j

d

sin

t

d

t

j B

B

2

1

B

2

d sin t  d t   j B   B 2 1 

cos

d

t

sin

d

t

where

j

sin

A

A

1

2

d

t

B

j B

1

1

B

2

B

2

2012/10/24

Underdamped Case (Cont’d) R i t ( )   A cos  t 
Underdamped Case (Cont’d)
R
i t
( )
A
cos
t
A
sin
t e

t
,
α
1
d
2
d
2 L
i(t)

t
e
t
2
d

Finding The Constants A 1,2

To determine A and A , 1 2 we need i (0) and di (0)
To determine
A
and
A
,
1
2
we need
i
(0) and
di
(0)
/dt
.
1.
2.
KVL at
t 
0 gives
di (0)
L
 RI
V
 0
0
0
dt
di (0)
1
or

(
RI
V
)
0
0
dt
L
KVL at t  0 gives di (0) L  RI  V  0 0

Conclusions

The concept of damping

2012/10/24

The gradual loss of the initial stored energy Due to the resistance R

Oscillatory response is possible.

The energy is transferred between L and C. Ringing denotes the damped oscillation in the underdamped case.

With the same initial conditions, the overdamped case has the longest settling time. The underdamped case has the fastest decay. (If a constant 0 is assumed.)

Find i(t).

Example

case has the fastest decay. (If a constant  0 is assumed.) Find i ( t
(6+3) t < 0 t > 0
(6+3)
t < 0
t > 0

Example (Cont’d)

2012/10/24

t < 0 t > 0
t < 0
t > 0
10 ( a ) i (0)   1A, v (0)  6 (0) i
10
(
a )
i
(0) 
1A,
v
(0)
6 (0)
i
6 V
4
 6
R
1
1
(
b )
α 
9 ,
ω
 10
0 
2 L
LC
0 01
.
2
2
   
α
α
ω
9
81
100
s 1 2
,
0
 j
9
4.359
 9 t
 i ( t
)
e
A
cos 4.359
t
A
sin 4.359
t
1
2

Initial conditions :

i(

0

di (0)

)

1



dt



1

L

Ri

(0)

-

v

(0)

2 9(1)

6

 

6

A 1

1

A

2

0.6882

The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit

Assumed initial conditions:

i

v



0



0

I

0

V

0

1

L

0

( )

v t

dt

(1a)

(1b)

Applying KCL gives

v

1

t

vdt

C

dv

R

L



 

dt

d

2

v

1

dv

v

 

dt

2

RC dt

LC

Let

( )

v t

Ae

st

0

0

(2)

(3)

, the characteristic

equation becomes 1 1 2 s  s   0 RC LC
equation becomes
1
1
2
s 
s 
 0
RC
LC
equation becomes 1 1 2 s  s   0 RC LC 2 2 s
2 2 s      1,2 0  1   
2
2
s  
 
1,2
0
1
 
2 RC
where
1
0
 
LC

Summary

Overdamped case

v

( )

t

A e

1

s t

1

A e

2

s t

2

: > 0

Critically damped case : = 0

( )

v t

A

1

A t

2

t

e

Underdamped case

: < 0

s   j  1,2 d 2 2 where     
s

j
1,2
d
2
2
where
 
d
0
 t
v t
( )
e
A
cos
t
A
1
d

2

sin

d

t

2012/10/24

Finding The Constants A 1,2

To determine A and A , 1 2 we need v (0) and dv (0)
To determine
A
and
A
,
1
2
we need
v (0) and
dv
(0)
/dt
.
1.
2.
KCL at
t 
0 gives
dv (0)
V 0
 I
C
 0
0 
R
dt
dv (0)
(
V
RI
)
0
0
or

dt
RC
KCL at t  0 gives dv (0) V 0  I C  0 0

Comparisons

2012/10/24

Series RLC Circuit Parallel RLC Circuit

2 2   0
2
2
 
0

s  

1,2

2 2   0
2
2
 
0

s  

1,2

where


 

0

R

2 L

1 where

LC
LC


0

1

2 RC

1

LC
LC

Initial conditions :

Initial conditions :

(0)

i

(0)

di

dt

I

0



V

0

RI

0

L

(0)

v

dv

dt

(0)

V

0



V

0

RI

0

RC

Example 1

Find v(t) for t > 0. v(0) = 5 V, i(0) = 0

Consider three cases:

R

= 1.923

R

= 5

R

=6.25

R = 1.923  R = 5  R =6.25  Case1: 1 α  R

Case1:

1

α

R

1.923

26 ,

1

ω  0 LC 2 2 α ω 0
ω
0 LC
2
2
α
ω
0

2 RC

   

v

s

,

1 2

( )

t

α

2,

A e

1

2 t

A e

2

50

t

10

50

Initial conditions :

v

(0)

dv (0)

dt

5



v

(0)

Ri

(0)

RC

A  0.2083

A

1

2

5.208

 260

Example 1 (Cont’d)

2012/10/24

Case 2 :

R

5



Initial conditions :

 
 

1

1

v

(0)

5

α

2

RC

10 ,

ω  0 LC 2 2 α ω 0
ω
0
LC
2
2
α
ω
0

10

dv (0)

dt



v

(0)

Ri

RC

(0)

 100

s

1

,

2

   10

α

 
     

v

(

t

)

A

1

A t e

2

10 t

A

A

1

5

  50

2

 

Case 3 :

R

6.25

Initial conditions :

 
 

1

1

v

(0)

5

α

2

RC

8 ,

ω  0 LC 2 2 α ω 0
ω
0
LC
2
2
α
ω
0

10

 

dv (0)

v

(0)

Ri

(0)

   

dt



RC

 80

s

1

,

2

8

  

α

j

6

   

A

1

5

 
 

 

8 t

v

(

t

)

A

1

cos 6

t

A

2

sin 6

t e

 

A

2

 6.667

 

Example 1 (Cont’d)

6 t  A 2 sin 6  t e     A 2 

Example 2

Example 2 Find v ( t ). G e t x ( 0 ) . t

Find v(t).

Get x(0).

Example 2 Find v ( t ). G e t x ( 0 ) . t

t < 0

Get x(), dx(0)/dt, s 1,2 , A 1,2 .

x (  ), dx (0)/ d t, s 1 , 2 , A 1 ,

t > 0

Example 2 (Cont’d)

t > 0
t > 0
t < 0
t < 0
 1 α   500   2 RC  1   ω
1
α 
 500
 
2 RC
1
ω 
 354
0
LC
2
2
  
s
α
α
ω
1 , 2
0

854,
146
 854 t
 146
t
v
( ) 
t
A e
A e
1
2

From the initial conditions :


50

v

(0)

 

(40) 25

V

 

40

 0 5

.

A

30 50

 
 

v

(0)

Ri

(0)

25

50

.

0 5

 

RC

50

20

10

6

30 50

i (0) 



dt

dv (0)



A  5.156

A

1

2

30.16

0

2012/10/24

2012/10/24

Step Response of A Series RLC Circuit

Applying KVL for t  0, di Ri   L v V (1) S
Applying KVL for
t 
0,
di
Ri
 
L
v
V
(1)
S
dt
dv
But
i
 C
dt
2
d
v
R dv
v
V
S
2
dt
L dt
LC
LC

(2)

(2) has the same form as

in the source - free case.

LC (2) (2) has the same form as in the source - free case. v t
v t ( )  v ( ) t  v ( ) t t
v t
( )
v
( )
t
v
( )
t
t
ss
where
 v
: the transient response
t
: the steady - state response
v ss

Characteristic Equation

2 d v R dv v  V S    0 2 dt
2
d
v
R dv
v  V
S
 0
2
dt
L dt
LC
'
Let
v

v
V
,
S
2
'
'
'
d
v
R dv
v
 0
2
dt
L
dt
LC

The characteristic equation becomes

2

s

R

L

s

1

LC

0

Same as in the source - free case.

Summary

( )

v t

v

where

t

v

ss

v (

v

t

ss



(

)

)

( )

t

( )

0

t



v

(

)

V

S

v

t

( )

t

where

Ae

1

A

A

A

1,2

1

1

s t

1

A e

2

s t

2

A t e

t

2

d

cos

t

A

2

sin

d

are obtained from

t e

t

(Overdamped)

(Critically damped)

(Underdamped)

v

(0) and

dv

(0)

/dt

.

Example

damped) (Underdamped) v (0) and dv (0) /dt . Example Find v ( t ), i

Find v(t), i(t) for t > 0. Consider three cases:

R

R

R

= 5 = 4 =1

2012/10/24

Get x(0).

 = 4  =1  2012/10/24 G e t x ( 0 ) . t

t < 0

Get x(), dx(0)/dt, s 1,2 , A 1,2 .

G e t x ( 0 ) . t < 0 Get x (  ),

t > 0

Case 1: R = 5

t < 0
t < 0
t > 0
t > 0
 R 5 α    2.5    2 L 2(1) 1
R 5
α 
 2.5
2 L
2(1)
1
ω 
 2
0
LC
2
2
  
s
α
α
ω
1 , 2
0

1,
4
 t
 4
t
v
( t
) 
v
A e
A e
ss
1
2
dv
i
( t
) 
C
dt

v

ss



v (

)

24 V

Initial conditions:

i

(0)

i

(0)

24

1

dv

5

C

4 A ,

(0)

v

(0)

dv

(0)

1 (0)

i

4

16

dt

dt

C

 A  64 3 1   A  4 3  2
 A
 64 3
1
 
A
 4
3
2

4 V

Case 2: R = 4

α

R

4

2 L

2(1)

2

ω

0

1

    α  R 4  2 L 2(1)  2 ω 

2

v t

s

( )

1 2

,

( )

i t

 2

α

v

ss

C

dv

dt

A

1

A t e

2

2 t

v 

v

Initial conditions :

(

)

24 V

ss



i

i

24

(0)

(0)

4.8 A ,

dv

v

(0)

(0)

1 (0)

4.8

i

4.8 V

4 1 dv (0)

C

dt

dt

C

19.2

A  19.2

1

A  19.2

2

2012/10/24

Case 3: R = 1

 R 1 α    0.5   2 L 2(1)  1
R
1
α 
 0.5
 
2 L
2(1)
1
ω 
 2
0
LC
 s
 
0.5
j
1.936
1 2
,
1 cos1.936
t
v t
( ) 
v
   A
ss
 A
2 sin1.936
t
 
dv
i
( t
) 
C
dt

e

0.5 t

v 

v

Initial conditions :

(

)

24

ss

i

i

24

(0)

(0)

12 A ,

dv

(0) i

v

(0)

12

1 (0)

48

1 1 dv (0)

C

dt

dt

C

A  12

A

1

2

21.694

Example (Cont’d)

12 V

2012/10/24

1  1 dv (0)  C dt dt C   A  12 

2012/10/24

Step Response of A Parallel RLC Circuit

Applying KCL for t  0, v dv  i C  I S (1)
Applying KCL for
t 
0,
v
dv

i
C
 I
S (1)
R dt
di
But
v
 L
dt
2
d
i
1
di
i
I
S
2
dt
RC dt
LC
LC

(2) has the same form as

in the source - free case.

LC LC (2) has the same form as in the source - free case. (2) i

(2)

i t ( )  i ( ) t  i ( ) t t
i t
( )
i
( )
t
i
( )
t
t
ss
where
 i
t : the transient response
i
ss : the steady - state response

Characteristic Equation

d

2

i

1

di

i

I

S

dt

2

RC dt

LC

0

'

Let ,

i



i

I

S

d

2

i

'

1

di

'

i

'

dt

2

RC

dt

LC

0

The characteristic equation becomes

2

s

1

s

RC

1

LC

0

Same as in the source - free case.

( )

i t

where

Summary

i

t

( )

t

i (

t

i

ss

i

ss

( )

t

0



)

( )

t



i

(

)

I

S

i

t

( )

t

where

A e

1

A

1

A

1

A

1,2

s t

1

s

A e

A t e

2

2

2

t

t

cos

d

t

A

2

sin

d

t e

t

(Overdamped)

(Critically damped)

(Underdamped)

are obtained from

i

(0) and

di

(0)

/dt

.

2012/10/24

General Second-Order Circuits

Steps required to determine the step response.

Determine x(0), dx(0)/dt, and x().

Find the transient response x t (t).

Apply KCL and KVL to obtain the differential equation. Determine the characteristic roots (s 1,2 ). Obtain x t (t) with two unknown constants (A 1,2 ).

Obtain the steady-state response x ss (t) = x().

Use x(t) = x t (t) + x ss (t) to determine A 1,2 from the two initial conditions x(0) and dx(0)/dt.

Find v, i for t > 0.

Example

Find v , i for t > 0. Example G e t x ( 0 )

Get x(0).

Find v , i for t > 0. Example G e t x ( 0 )

t < 0

Get x(), dx(0)/dt, s 1,2 , A 1,2 .

Get x(  ), dx (0)/ d t, s 1 , 2 , A 1 ,

t > 0

Example (Cont’d)

t < 0
t < 0
t > 0
t > 0

Initial conditions :

(0

v

i

)

(0

)

v

(0

i

(0

)

)

12 V

0

Applying KCL at node

i

(0

)

i

C

i

(0

C

)

(0

)

v (0

)

2



6 A

(1a)

(1b)

a

(

t

0),

(0

C

Final values for

dv (0 ) dt

i

C

)

 12 V/s

t 

:

i 

(

)

12

4 2

2 A

v

(

 

)

i

2 (

)

4 V

(1c)

2012/10/24

Example (Cont’d)

Applying KCL at node

i

v

1

dv

2

2

dt

a gives

(2)

Applying KVL to the left mesh gives

4

1

di

i  

v

dt

12

(3)

Substituting (2) into (3) gives

dv

5

1

dv

1

d

v

6

v

2

2

v

d

2

2

dt

dt

v

2 dt

2

2

dt

24

dv

dt

Characteristic equation :

2

s

2

s 

5

6

0

 12