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Assignments in Mathematics Class X (Term I)

8. INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY
ImPORTANT TERMS, DEFINITIONS AND RESULTS
l In trigonometry, we deal with relations between the sides and angles of a
triangle.
l Ratios of the sides of a right angled triangle with respect to its acute angles, are
called trigonometric ratios of the angle.
l For ∠A, AC is the base, BC the perpendicular and AB is the hypotenuse. For ∠B,
BC is the base, AC the perpendicular and AB is the hypotenuse.

l Six trigonometrical ratios

N
A
Perpendicular y
(i) Sine θ = = . Sine θ is written as sin θ.

SH
Hypotenuse r

Base x
(ii) Cosine θ = = . Cosine θ is written as cos θ.

A
Hypotenuse r

K
(iii) Tangent θ = Perpendicular = y . Tangent θ is written as tan θ.

A
Base x
Base x
PR
(iv) Cotangent θ = = . Cotangent θ is written as cot θ.
Perpendicular y

S

Hypotenuse r
ER

(v) Secant θ = = . Secant θ is written as sec θ.


Base x

TH

Hypotenuse r
(vi) Cosecant θ = = . Cosecant θ is written as cosec θ.
Perpendicular y

O

l Relations between trigonometric ratios


R

(a) Reciprocal relations


B

1 1
(i) cosec θ = or sin θ = or sin θ cosec θ = 1
sin θ cosec θ

L

1 1
YA

(ii) sec θ = or cos θ = or cos θ sec θ = 1


cos θ sec θ

O

1 1
G

(iii) cot θ = or tan θ = or tan θ cot θ = 1


tan θ cot θ

(b) Quotient relations
sin θ cos θ
(i) tan θ = (ii) cot θ =
cos θ sin θ

perpendicular
sin A is a symbol which denotes the ratio
l . It does not mean the product of sin and
hypotenuse
A,
i.e., sin A ≠ sin × A. In fact sin separated from A has no meaning. Similar interpretations follow for other
trigonometric ratios.
l Table of values of various trigonometric ratios of 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°.

1
T- θ → 0° 30° 45° 60° 90°
ratios ↓
1 1 3
sin θ 0 1
2 2 2

3 1 1
cos θ 1 0
2 2 2

1 3
tan θ 0 1 Not defined
3

3 1
cot θ Not defined 1 0
3

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A
2 2
sec θ 1 2 Not defined

SH
3

2 2

A
cosec θ Not defined 2 1
3

K
A
Students may find easier to memorize the first row (values of sine ratio) as
sin 0° 30° 45° 60° 90° PR
0 1 2 3 4
4 4 4 4 4
S

1 1 3
ER

= 0 == = =1
2 2 2
l Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles
TH

(ii) sec2 θ – tan2 θ = 1


(i) sin (90° – θ) = cos θ, or 1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ
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cos (90° – θ) = sin θ or tan2 θ = sec2 θ – 1


R

(ii) tan (90° – θ) = cot θ, (iii) cosec2 θ – cot2 θ = 1


B

cot (90° – θ) = tan θ or cosec2 θ = 1 + cot2 θ


(iii) sec (90° – θ) = cosec θ, or cot2 θ = cosec2 θ – 1
L

cosec (90° – θ) = sec θ (c) The following steps should be kept in mind while
YA

Trigonometric Identities
l proving trigonometric identities :
(i) Start with more complicated side of the identity
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(a) An equation involving trigonometric


ratios of an angle θ (say) is said to be and prove it equal to the other side.
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a trigonometric identity, if it is satisfied (ii) If the identity contains sine, cosine and other
for all values of θ for which the given trigonometric ratios, then express all the ratios
trigonometric ratios are defined. in terms of sine and cosine.
(b) S o m e i m p o r t a n t t r i g o n o m e t r i c (iii) If one side of an identity cannot be easily
identities  : reduced to the other side value, then simplify
(i) sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 both sides and prove them identically equal.
or sin2 θ = 1 – cos2 θ (iv) While proving identities, never transfer terms
from one side to another.
or cos2 θ = 1 – sin2 θ

2
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS [1 Mark]

A. Important Questions

4 4
1. If cos A = , then the value of tan A is : 9. If cot θ = , then cos2 θ – sin2 θ is equal to :
5   3
3 3 4 5 7 7 4
(a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) 1 (c) – (d)
5 4 3 3 25 25 25
a 1
2. If sin θ = then cos θ is equal to : 10. If sin A = then the value of cot A is :
b, 2,

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b 1 3
(a) (b) b (a) 3 (b) (c) (d) 1

A
b − a2
2
a
3
2

SH
a
(c) b2 − a 2 (d) 11. If a = b tan θ, then a sin θ + b cos θ is equal to :
b b2 − a 2 a sin θ − b cos θ

A
3. The value of tan A is always less than 1. a 2 + b2 a 2 - b2 a+b a −b

K
(a) (b) 2 (c) (d)
(a) false
2
a −b 2
a +b 2 a − b a +b

A
(b) true
3


(c) sometimes true, sometimes false
(d) none of the above
PR

12. If sin θ = , then the value of (tan θ + sec θ)2 is
equal to :
5

4. Maximum value of sin θ is :


S

(a) more than 1 (b) less than 1 1


(a) 1 (b) (c) 2 (d) –2
ER

(c) equal to 1 (d) none of these 2


5. Minimum value of sin θ, where θ is acute, is : 1 − sin 2 45°
13. is equal to :
TH

(a) zero (b) more than 1 1 + sin 2 45°


(c) equal to 1 (d) less than 1
(a) cos 60° (b) sin 60° (c) tan 30° (d) sin 30°
O

 4 sin θ − cos θ  14. The value of (sin 30° + cos 30°) – (sin 60°
6. If 4 tan θ = 3, then   is equal
R

to  :  4 sin θ + cos θ + cos 60°) is :


B

2 1 1 3 (a) –1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 2


(a) (b) (c) (d)
3 4 15. The value of (sin 45° + cos 45°) is :
L

3 2
1
YA

7. If θ is an acute angle such that sec2 θ = 3, then (a) (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 1
2 2
tan 2 θ − cosec2 θ
the value of is :
O

16. If x tan 45°.cos 60° = sin 60°.cot 60°, then x is


tan 2 θ − cosec2 θ
equal to :
G

4 3 2 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)   (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) (d)
7 7 7 7 2 2
4 tan 30°
8. sin θ = for some angle θ, is : 17. The value of is :
3 cos 60°
(a) true 1 1
(a) (b) (c) 3 (d) 1
(b) false 2 3
(c) it is not possible to say anything about it sin 45°
definitely 18. The value of is :
cosec 45°
(d) neither (a) nor (b) 1
(a) 1 (b)
2
(c) 2 (d) none of these

3
19. The value of (sin 45° cos 30° + cos 45° sin 30°) 3
is : (a) – 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d)
2
3 +1 3 3 +1 3 −1
(a) (b) (c) (d) 32. sin (45° + θ) – cos (45° – θ) is equal to :
2 2 2 2 2 2
(a) 2 cosec θ (b) 0
20. The value of (sin 30° cos 60° + cos 30° sin 60°) (c) sin θ (d) 1
is : 33. 9 sec2 θ – 9 tan2 θ is equal to :
(a) sin 90° (b) cos 90° (c) sin 0° (d) cos 30° (a) 1 (b) 9 (c) 8 (d) 0

8
1 − sin 60° 34. If sin A = and A is acute, then cot A is equal
21. is equal to : to  : 17
2
15 15 8 17
(a) sin 60° (b) sin 30° (c) sin 90° (d) sin 0° (a) (b) (c) (d)
8 17 15 8
22. The value of 3sin 30° – 4sin3 30° is :
35. (cosec 72° – tan 18°) is equal to :
2 2

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(a) 0 (b) 1
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) 1

A
2 3
(c) (d) none of these

SH
2
sin18°
23. The value of is : 36. If x = sec θ + tan θ, then tan θ is equal to :
cos 72°

A
x2 + 1 x2 − 1 x 2 + 14 x2 − 1
1 (a) (b) (c) (d)

K
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) –1 (d) x x 2x 2x
2

A
37. tan2 θ sin2 θ is equal to :
24. cos 48° – sin 42° is : PR
(a) tan2 θ – sin2 θ (b) tan2 θ + sin2 θ
1
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) –1 (d) tan 2 θ
2 (c) (d) none of these
sin 2 θ
S

25. The value of tan 80° . tan 75° . tan 15°. tan 10° 38. If cos θ – sin θ = 1, then the value of cos θ +
ER

is : sin θ is equal to :
(a) –1 (b) 0 (a) ± 4 (b) ± 3 (c) ± 2 (d) ± 1
TH

(c) 1 (d) none of these


1 + tan 2 θ
tan 26° 39. is equal to :
26. The value of 1 + cot 2 θ
is :
O

cot 64°
(a) sec2 θ (b) – 1 (c) cot2 θ (d) tan2 θ
R

(a) 0 (b) –1 40. (sec2 10° – cot2 80°) is equal to :


B

(c) –1 (d) none of these 1


(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d)
27. cosec 31° – sec 59° is equal to :
L

2
1 1 + cos θ
YA

(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) –1 (d) 41. The value of is :


2 1 − cos θ
O

28. The value of (tan 2° tan 4° tan 6° ... tan 88°) is : (a) cot θ – cosec θ (b) cosec θ + cot θ
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) cosec2 θ + cot2 θ (d) cot θ + cosec2 θ
G

(c) 2 (d) not defined sin θ


42. is equal to :
29. tan (40° + θ) – cot (40° – θ) is equal to : 1+ cos θ
1 1+ cos θ 1− cot θ
   (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) (a) (b)
2 sin θ sin θ
30. The value of sin (50° + θ) – cos (40° – θ) is :
1 1− cos θ 1− sin θ
   (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) (d) 0 (c) (d)
2 sin θ cos θ
31. The value of the expression cosec (75° + θ) – sec 43. If x = a cos α and y = b sin α, then b2x2 + a2y2
(15° – θ) – tan (55° + θ) + cot (35° – θ) is : is equal to :
(a) a2b2 (b) ab (c) a4b4 (d) a2 + b2

4
44. (a) 2 (b) 1
(1 + sin θ)(1 − sin θ) is equal to :
(c) 0 (d) none of these
(a) sin θ (b) sin2 θ (c) cos2θ (d) cos θ 46. If cos 9α = sin α and 9α < 90°, then the value of
45. The value of the expression tan 5α is :
 sin 2 22° + sin 2 68°  (a) 0 (b) 1
 cos 2 22° + cos 2 68° + sin 63° + cos 63° sin 27° is :
2

  (c) 3 (d) cannot be determined

B. Questions From CBSE Examination Papers


1. In the given figure, ∠ACB = 90°, ∠BDC = 90°, 3
9. If cosec θ = , then 2 (cosec2 θ + cot2 θ) is :
CD – 4 cm, BD = 3 cm, AC – 12 cm, cos A – sin A 2
is equal to : [2010 (T-I)] [2010 (T-I)]
(a) 3 (b) 7 (c) 9 (d) 5
A C
10. In the figure, if PS = 14 cm, the value of tan a is

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D equal to : [2010 (T-I)]

A
S

SH
a
B
5 5 7 7
(a) (b) (c) (d)

A
T R
12 13 12 13
cm

K
13 5 cm
12
2. If cot A = , then the value of

A
5 P Q
(sin A + cos A) × cosec A is : [2010 (T-I)] PR (a)
4
3
(b)
14
3
(c)
5
3
(d)
13
3
13 17 14
(a) (b) (c) (d) 1
5 5 5 11. If x = 3 sec2 θ – 1, y = tan2 θ – 2, then x – 3y is
S

equal to : [2010 (T-I)]
ER

3. cos 1°, cos 2°, cos 3°, ........ cos 180° is equal
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 8 (d) 5
to  : [2010 (T-I)]
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1/2 (d) –1 12. (sec A + tan A)(1 – sin A) is equal to :
TH

4. 5 cosec2 θ - 5 cot2 θ is equal to : [2010 (T-I)] [2010 (T-I)]


(a) 5 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) –5 (a) sec A (b) tan A (c) sin A (d) cos A
O

5. If sin θ = cos θ, then value of θ is : [2010 (T-I)] 1


R

(a) 0° (b) 45° (c) 30° (d) 90° 13. If sec θ – tan θ = , the value of (sec θ + tan θ)
3
is :
B

6. 9 sec2 θ – 9 tan2 θ is equal to : [2010 (T-I)] [2010 (T-I)]


(a) 1 (b) –1 (c) 9 (d) –9 (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
L

7. If sin θ + sin2 θ = 1, the value of (cos2 θ + cos4 θ)


YA

cot 45°
is : [2010 (T-I)] 14. The value of is equal to :
sin 30° + cos 60°
(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0 [2010 (T-I)]
O

8. In the figure, if D is the mid-point of BC, the value


G

cot y° 1 2 1
of is : [2010 (T-I)] (a) 1 (b) (c) (d)
cot x° 2 3 2
A
x° 3
y° 15. If cos 3θ = ; 0 < θ < 20° , then the value of θ
is  : 2
[2010 (T-I)]

C B
(a) 15° (b) 10° (c) 0° (d) 12°
D
16. ∆ABC is a right angled at A, the value of
1 1 1 tan B × tan C is : [2010 (T-I)]
(a) 2 (b) (c) (d)
4 3 2 (a) 0 (b) 1
(c) –1 (d) none of these

5
A
1
17. If sin θ = , then the value of 2 cot2 θ + 2 is equal
3
to : [2010 (T-I)]
(a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 4 (d) 18 x° y°
C B
D
18. The value of tan 1°.tan 2°.tan 3° ........ tan 89°
is  : [2010 (T-I)] (a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 1
1 1
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 29. If cosec θ − cot θ = , the value of (cosec θ + cot θ)
2 3
is :
1 1 [2010 (T-I)]
19. If sin( A − B) = and cos( A + B) = , then the
2 2 (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
value of B is : [2010 (T-I)] 30. If sin θ = cos θ, then the value of cosec θ is :
(a) 45° (b) 60° (c) 15° (d) 0° [2010 (T-I)]
20. Value of (1 + tan θ + sec θ)(1 + cot θ - cosec θ) 2

N
is : [2010 (T-I)] (a) 2 (b) 1 (c) (d) 2
3

A
(a) 1 (b) –1 (c) 2 (d) –4
31. In sin 3θ = cos (θ – 26°), where 3θ and (θ – 26°)

SH
21. The value of [sin2 20° + sin2 70° – tan2 45°] is :
are acute angles, then value of θ is : [2010 (T-I)]
[2010 (T-I)] (a) 30° (b) 29° (c) 27° (d) 26°

A
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) –1
1
32. If sin α = and α is acute, then (3 cos α–4 cos3 α)

K
1 1 2
22. Given that sin A = , and cos B = , then the

A
2 2 is equal to : [2010 (T-I)]
value of (A + B) is : [2010 (T-I)] PR 1 1
(a) 30° (b) 45° (c) 75° (d) 15° (a) 0 (b) (c) (d) –1
2 6

 cos A 
S
23. The value of  + sin A  is : [2010 (T-I)] 12
 cot A  33. If sec A = cosec B = , then (A + B) is equal
ER

7
(a) cot A (b) 2 sin A (c) 2 cos A (d) sec A to  : [2010 (T-I)]
24. If tan 2A = cot (A – 18°), then the value of A (a) 0° (b) 90° (c) <90° (d) >90°
TH

is  : [2010 (T-I)]


1 1
(a) 18° (b) 36° (c) 24° (d) 27° 34. If cot A + = 1, the value of cot 2 A +
O

cot A cot 2 A
25. Expression of sin A in terms of cot A is : is :
[2010 (T-I)]
R

[2010 (T-I)] (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) –1 (d) –2


B

1 + cot A
2 1 35. If sec θ + tan θ = x, then tan θ is : [2010 (T-I)]
(a) (b)
L

cot A 1 − cot 2 A x2 + 1 x2 − 1 x2 + 1 x2 − 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
YA

1 1 − cot 2 A x x 2x 2x
(c) (d)
1 + cot 2 A cot A
36. If 2 sin 2θ = 3 , then the value of θ is :
O

26. If A is an acute angle in a right ∆ABC, right angled [2010 (T-I)]


G

at B, then the value of sin A + cos A is : (a) 90° (b) 30° (c) 45° (d) 60°
[2010 (T-I)] 37. If x cos A = 1 and tan A = y, then x2 – y2 is equal
(a) equal to one (b) greater than one to : [2010 (T-I)]
(c) less than one (d) equal to two (a) tan A (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) –tan A
27. If cos (α + β) = 0, then sin (α – β) can be reduced 38. [cos4 A – sin4 A] is equal to : [2010 (T-I)]
to : [2010 (T-I)] (a) 2 cos2 A + 1 (b) 2 cos2 A – 1
(a) cos β (b) cos 2β (c) sin α (d) sin 2α (c) 2 sin2 A – 1 (d) 2 sin2 A + 1
28. In the figure, if D is mid point of BC, then the 39. The value of the expression [(sec 2 θ – 1)
tan x° (1 – cosec2 θ)] is : [2010 (T-I)]
value of is : [2010 (T-I)] 1
tan y° (a) –1 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d)
2
6
1 1 49. If cos A + cos2 A = 1, then sin2 A + sin4 A is :
40. If ( A − B) = and sin A = , then the value
3 2 [2010 (T-I)]
of B is :
[2010 (T-I)] (a) –1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 2
(a) 45° (b) 60° (c) 0° (d) 15° 50. From the figure, the value of cosec A + cot A
is  : [2010 (T-I)]
41. In ∆ABC right angled at B, tan A = 1, the value
C
of 2 sin A cos A is : [2010 (T-I)]
(a) –1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 1
b a
42. If 2 sin (60° − α ) = 1, then the value of α is :
[2010 (T-I)]
A c B
(a) 45° (b) 15° (c) 60° (d) 30°
b+c a+b a b
43. sin (60° + θ) – cos (30° – θ) is equal to : (a) (b) (c) (d)
b+c a+c

N
a c
[2010 (T-I)]

A
51. If a cos θ + b sin θ = 4 and a sin θ – b cos θ = 3,
(a) 2 cos θ (b) 2 sin θ (c) 0 (d) 1
then a2 + b2 is : [2010 (T-I)]

SH
1 2 sec θ
44. Given that cos θ = , the value of is : (a) 7 (b) 12 (c) 25 (d) none
2 1 + tan 2 θ

A
52. If cosec θ (1 + cos θ)(1 – cos θ) = λ, then the
2

[2010 (T-I)] value of λ is : [2010 (T-I)]

K
1 (a) 0 (b) cos2 θ (c) 1 (d) –1

A
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) (d) 0
2 53. If x = 2 sin2 θ, y = 2 cos2 θ + 1, then the value
45. In the figure, AD = 3 cm, BD = 4 cm and
PR of x + y is : [2010 (T-I)]
CB = 12 cm, then tan θ equals : [2010 (T-I)] 1
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) (d) 1
S
A 2

ER

54. In ∆ABC, if AB = 6 3 cm, AC = 12 cm and BC = 6


cm, then angle B is equal to : [2010 (T-I)]
TH

(a) 120° (b) 90° (c) 45° (d) 60°


D
1
O

C
B 55. The maximum value of is :
cosec θ
[2010 (T-I)]
R

3 5 4 12
(a) (b) (c) (d)
B

3
4 12 3 5 (a) 0 (b) –1 (c) 1 (d)
2
L

7 (1 + cos θ) (1 − cos θ)
46. If cot θ = , then the value of
YA

3
8 (1 − sin θ) (1 + sin θ) 56. If tan A = and A + B = 90°, then the value of
is : 4
[2010 (T-I)]
cot B is equal to :
O

[2010 (T-I)]
49 8 64 7
(a) (b) (c) (d)
G

4 1 3
64 7 49 8 (a) (b) (c) (d) 1
3 2 4
47. The value of sin θ cos (90° – θ) + cos θ
sin (90° – θ) is : [2010 (T-I)] 57. If ∆PQR is right angled at R, then the value of
cos (P + Q) is : [2010 (T-I)]
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) –1
1 3
48. If tan θ = cot θ, then the value of sec θ is : (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) (d)
2 2
[2010 (T-I)]
1 1
2 58. Given that sin α = and cosβ = , then the
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) (d) 2 2 2
3 value of α + β is :
[2010 (T-I)]
(a) 0° (b) 90° (c) 30° (d) 60°

7
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [2 Marks]
A. Important Questions
1. In figure, find tan P – cot R. 11. If sin 5A = cos 4A, where 5A and 4A are acute
angles, find the value of A.
12. Express sin 67° + cos 75° in terms of trigonometric
ratios of angles between 0° and 45°.
13. If tan A = cot B, prove that A + B = 90°.
Prove the following identies :
cos θ + tan 2 θ − 1
14. = tan 2 θ
sin 2
θ
1
2. If tan θ + = 2, find the value of
15.
cot θ + tan θ = cosec θ sec θ
tan θ
sin 4 A − cos 4 A
1 16. =1

N
tan 2 θ + .
sin A − cos A
2 2
tan 2 θ

A
tan 3 θ − 1
17. = sec 2 θ + tan θ

SH
3. If 3 tan θ = 1, then find the value of sin θ – 2
tan θ − 1

cos2 θ.
1
4. In a right triangle ABC, right angled at C, if 18. sec A + tan A =

A
tan θ = 1, then verify that 2 sin θ.cos θ = 1. sec A − tan A

K
5. State whether the following are true or false. 19. ∆ABC is right angled at B and ∆PQR is right angled
at Q. If cos A = cos P, show that ∠A = ∠P.

A
Justify your answer.
(i) sin (A + B) = sin A + sin B. 20. ∆ABC is right angled at B and ∆DEF is right angled
PR
(ii) The value of sin θ increases as θ increases. at E. If cos C = cot F, show that ∠C = ∠F.
(iii) The value of cos θ increases as θ increases. 21. If 60 sec A = 61, find sin A and tan A.
(iv) sin θ = cos θ for all values of θ. 13 sin A − 1
S
22. If cos A = 12/13, find .
(v) cot A is not defined for A = 0º. 12 tan A + 1
ER


6. Find the value of θ in the following : 16 cos A + 2 sin A
cos 2θ = cos 60° cos 30° + sin 60° sin 30° 23. If 8 cot A = 15, find
24 cos A + 2 sin A
TH

7. If A = 30° and B = 60°, verify that :


(i) sin (A + B) = sin A.cos B + cos A.sin B sin 30° + cot 45° − cosec 60°
24. Evaluate : .
(ii) cos (A + B) = cos A.cos B – sin A.sin B.
O

sec 30 + cos 60 + tan 45


2 tan A sin 45°
R

8. Using the formula, tan 2A = , find the 25. Evaluate :


value of tan 60°. 1 − tan 2 A cosec 30 + sec 60
B


4 cos 2 60° + 3 sec 2 30° − cot 2 45°
26. Evaluate :
L

1 + cos 2 A cos 2 60 + sin 2 60


9. Using the formula, cos A = , find the
YA

value of cos 30°. 2 sin 2 53° + sin 2 37°


27. Evaluate :
cos 2 27 + cos 2 63
O

10. If tan 2A = cot(A – 18°), where 2A is an acute


28. Evaluate : sin 15° cos 75° + cos 15° sin 75°
angle, find the value of A.
G

29. Evaluate : tan 38° tan 33° tan 52° tan 57°.

B. Questions From CBSE Examination Papers

cot 2 θ 1 4. If A, B and C are interior angles of ∆ABC, then


1. Prove that 1 + = .
1 + cosec θ sin θ
[2010 (T-I)]  ∠A + ∠B  ∠C
show that : tan   = cot [2010 (T-I)]
2. If sec 4A = cosec (A – 20°), where 4A is an acute  2  2
angle, find the value of A. [2010 (T-I)] 5. In ABC, ABC = 90°, AB = 5 cm and ACB = 30°,
5 sin θ − 3 cos θ find BC and AC. [2010 (T-I)]
3. If 5 tan θ = 4, find the value of .
5 sin θ + 2 cos θ
8
1 1 18. If sin θ + cos θ = m and sec θ + cosec θ = n, then
6. If sin ( A − B) =
, cos ( A + B) = and 0 < A+B < 90° prove that n(m2 – 1) = 2m. [2010 (T-I)]
2 2
and A > B, then find the values of A and B. 7
19. I f cot θ = , find the value of
8
[2010 (T-I)]
(1 + sin θ)(1 − sin θ)
cosec 2 A + 1 . [2010 (T-I)]
7. If 3 cot A = 4, find the value of (1 + cos θ)(1 − cos θ)
cosec 2 A − 1
[2010 (T-I)] 20. Simplify : (sec θ + tan θ)(1 – sin θ). [2010 (T-I)]
8. Evaluate : [2010 (T-I)]  1 sin θ   1 − sin θ 
21. Simplify :  +  
cosec (90° − θ) − tan θ 2 tan 30° sec 52° sin 38°
2 2 2 2 2
 cos θ cos θ   cos θ  [2010 (T-I)]

4(cos 2 48 + cos 2 42°) cosec 2 70° − tan 2 20° 22. Given that sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B,
9. Prove that [2010 (T-I)] find the value of sin 75°. [2010 (T-I)]
sin θ cos θ 13

N
+ = sec θ.cosec θ 23. It cosec θ = , find the value of cot θ + tan θ.
sin (90° − θ) cos (90° − θ) 12

A

10. Evaluate : [2010 (T-I)] [2010 (T-I)]

SH
5
tan 60° + 4 sin 45° + 3 sec 30° + 5 cos 2 90°
2 2 2
24. If tan A = , find the value of (sin A + cos A).
12
cosec 30° + sec 60° − cot 2 30° sec A.

A
[2008]

K
11. If tan (A + B) = 3 , tan (A – B) = 1, where A > B 7
25. If cos A = , find the value of tan A + cot A.

A
and A, B are acute angles, find the values of A and 25

B. [2010 (T-I)] PR [2008]
12. I f 3 tan θ = 3 sin θ , t h e n p r o v e t h a t 1  cosec 2 θ − sec 2 θ 
26. If tan θ = , then evaluate  
1  cosec θ + sec θ 
2 2
S
sin θ − cos 2 θ = .
2
3
3
[2008 C]
ER


13. If 7 sin2 θ + 3 cos2 θ = 4, then prove that sec θ
2 27. If sec2 θ (1 + sin θ)(1 – sin θ) = k, then find the
+ cosec θ = 2 + . value of k. [2009]
TH

3
28. Without using the trigonometric tables, evaluate :
 1 1  [2008]
O

14. Simplify : sin θ  −  . [2010 (T-I)]


 sin θ cosec θ 11sin 70° 4 cos 53°cosec 37°
R

1 (i) −
15. I f tan θ = , find the value of 7 cos 20° 7 tan15 tan35 tan55 . tan 75

B

7
cosec 2 θ + sec 2 θ (ii) (sin2 25° + sin2 65°) + 3 (tan 5° tan 15°
L

. [2010 (T-I)] tan 30° tan 75° tan 85°)


cosec 2 θ − sec 2 θ
YA

(iii) (cos2 25° + cos2 65°) + cosec θ.sec (90 – θ)


4 4 sin θ + 3 cos θ – cot θ.tan (90° – θ)
16. If cot θ = , evaluate .
O

3 4 sin θ − 3 cos θ
29. In a ∆ABC, right angled at A, if tan C = 3 , find
G

[2010 (T-I)] the value of sin B cos C + cos B sin C. [2008]


cos 20° 2 cos θ k 30. If 7 sin 2 θ + 3 cos 2 θ = 4, then show that
17. Find the value of k, if + = .
sin 70° sin(90° − θ) 2 1
tan θ = . [2008]
[2010 (T-I)] 3
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 Marks]
A. Important Questions
1 15
1. In triangle ABC, right-angled at B, if tan A = , 2. If cot θ = , then evaluate
3 8
find the value of : (2 + 2 sin 9)(1 − sin θ)
cos A cos C – sin A sin C (1 + cos θ)(2 − 2 cos θ)

9
1 12. If x cos θ – y sin θ = a and x sin θ + y cos θ = b,
3. In a ∆ABC, right-angled at C, if tan A =  , and prove that x2 + y2 = a2 + b2.
3
tan B = 3 , show that Prove the following identities :
sin A.cos B + cos  A.sin B = 1. [HOTS] 13. cosec A(1 – cos A)(cosec A + cot A) = 1.
4. Given that 16 cot A = 12, find the value of tan A − sin A sec A − 1
sin A + cos A 14. =
. tan A + sin A sec A + 1
sin A − cos A 1 − sin A
15. (sec A − tan A) 2 =
3 sec θ − cosec θ 1 1 + sin A
5. If cot θ = , prove that = .
4 sec θ + cosec θ 7 1 + cosec A cos 2 A
16. =
cosec A 1 − sin A
a
6. If tan θ = , prove that
b 1 − sin A
a sin θ − b cos θ a 2 − b 2 17. = sec A − tan A
1 + sin A

N
= .
a sin θ + b cos θ a 2 + b 2 [HOTS]

A
tan A tan A
18. − = 2 cosec A
1 + sec A 1 − sec A

SH
3
7. Find acute angles A and B, if sin (A + 2B) =
2 cot 2 A
and cos (A + 4B) = 0°. A > B. 19. + 1 = cosec A
1 + cosec A

A
8. Prove : tan2 θ + cot2 θ = sec2 θ cosec2 θ – 2.

K
9. Prove : 20. sin6 A + cos6 A + 3 sin2 A cos2 A = 1.

A
21. (sin4 A – cos4 A + 1) cosec2 A = 2.
 1  1
(1 + tan 2 θ) + 1 + = PR
 tan 2 θ  (sin 2 θ − sin 4 θ) 22. If A + B = 90°, show that

1 + sec θ − tan θ 1 − sin θ cos A cosec B − cos A sin B = sin A
10. Prove that =
S
1 + sec θ + tan θ cos θ 23. If x = γ cos α sin β; y = γ cos α cos β and
11. If x sin3 θ + y cos3 θ = sin θ cos θ and x sin θ =
ER

z = γ sin α, show that x2 + y2 + z2 = γ2


y cos θ, prove that x2 + y2 = 1.
TH

B. Questions From CBSE Examination Papers


O
R

Q
cos α cos α D C
1. = m and = n , then show that 30°
B

cos β sin β
[2010 (T-I)] P
(m 2 + n 2 ) cos 2 β = n 2 .
30 cm
L

30°
2. If x = a sec θ + b tan θ , y = a tan θ + b sec θ
YA

prove that x 2 − y 2 = a 2 − b 2 [2010 (T-I)] A B


60 cm
O

3. In the figure, ∆ABC is right angled at B, BC = 5. Evaluate : sin (50° + θ) – cos (40° – θ) + tan 1°
G

7 cm and AC – AB = 1 cm. Find the value of tan 10° tan 20° tan 70­° tan 80°
cos A − sin A. [2010 (T-I)] tan 89° + sec (90° – θ).cosec θ – tan (90° – θ).cot θ.
A
cos A 1 + sin A
+
6. Prove that = 2 sec A
1 + sin A cos A
[2010 (T-I)]
7. Prove that (cosec A – sin A)(sec A – cos A)
1
B C
= tan A + cot A [2010 (T-I)]
4. In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle in which
segments AP and AQ are drawn. Find the length 8. Prove that (sin θ + cosec θ)2 + (cos θ + sec θ)2
(AP  +  AQ). [2010 (T-I)] = 7 + tan2 θ + cot2 θ. [2010 (T-I)]

10
9. If A, B, C are interior angles of ∆ABC, show that:
24. If tan A = n tan B and sin A = m sin B, prove that
 B +C A
co sec 2  − tan 2 = 1
 2  2 [2010 (T-I)] m2 − 1
cos2 A = 2 . [2010 (T-I)]
10. Prove sec θ + cot (90° – θ) = 2 cosec2 (90° – θ)
2 2
n − 1
– 1. [2010 (T-I)] 1 + sec A sin 2 A
11. If A, B, C are interior angles of ∆ABC, show that : 25. Prove that : − . [2010 (T-I)]
sec A 1 − cos A
 B +C A
sec 2  − 1 = cot 2
 2  2 26. If sin θ + cos θ = 2 sin (90 − θ), then find the
[2010 (T-I)]
value of tan θ.
12. Prove that : 27. Evaluate : [2010 (T-I)]
cos (90 − θ) 1 + sin (90° − θ) sin 39°
+ = 2 cosec θ + 2 tan 11° tan 31° tan 45° tan

1 + sin (90° − θ) cos (90° − θ) cos 51°
59° tan 79° – 3(sin2 21° + sin2 69°).
sec θ − 1 sec θ + 1

N
13. Prove that : + = 2 cosec θ cos θ cos θ
sec θ + 1 sec θ − 1 28. Prove that + = 2 sec θ.

A
[2010 (T-I)] 1 − sin θ 1 + sin θ
[2010 (T-I)]

SH
3
14. If sin( A + B) = and cos( A − B) 29. If m sin θ + n cos θ = p and m cos θ – n sin θ =
2 q, then prove that m2 + n2 = p2 + q2 [2010 (T-I)]

A
= 1, 0° < ( A + B) < 90°, A ≥ B, 30. In ∆PQR, right angled at Q, if PR + QR = 25 cm

K
find A and B. [2010 (T-I)] and PQ = 5 cm, determine the value of sin P and

A
tan p.
15. Evaluate :
31. Evaluate :
PR [2010 (T-I)]
− tan θ.cot (90 − θ) + sec θ.cosec (90 − θ) + sin 2 35° + sin 2 55° 2 sin 68° 2 tan(90° − 15°)
tan 10 .tann 20 .tan 30 .tan 70 .tan 80 −
cos 22° 5 cot 15°
[2010 (T-I)]
S
3 tan 45° tan 20° tan 40° tan 50° tan 70°
− .
5(sin 2 70° + sin 2 20°)
ER

tan θ cot θ
16. Prove that + = 1 + sec θ, cosec θ
1 − cot θ 1 − tan θ sec θ + tan θ  1 + sin θ 
2

[2010 (T-I)] 32. Prove that =  [2010 (T-I)]


TH

sec θ − tan θ  cos θ 


17. Evaluate : [2010 (T-I)]
33. Prove that [2010 (T-I)]
cosec 2 (90 − θ) − tan 2 θ 2 1
O

+ sin 48 ° sec 42 ° − tan 2


6 0°. 1
5(cos 2 48° + cos 2 42°) 5 5 (cosec A − sin A)(sec A − cos A) =
R

tan A + cot A
18. Prove that (1 + cot θ – cosec θ)(1 + tan θ 34. If A + B = 90°, then prove that
B

[2010 (T-I)]
+ sec θ) = 2. [2010 (T-I)]
L

19. Prove that : [2010 (T-I)] tan A tan B + tan A cot B sin 2 B
− = tan A
YA

sin A sec B cos 2 A


cot (90° − θ) cosec (90° − θ)
+ .sin θ = sec 2 θ. 35. Prove that 2 sec 2 θ – sec 4 θ – 2 cosec 2 θ
tan θ tan (90° − θ)
O

+ cosec4 θ = cot4 θ – tan4 θ. [2010 (T-I)]


1 − cos θ
G

20. Prove that (cosec θ – cot θ)2 = 5


36. If 5x = sec θ and = tan θ, find the value of
1 + cos θ x
[2010 (T-I)]  2 1 
5 x − 2 .
x y x y  x  [2010]
21. If cos θ + sin θ = 1 and sin θ + cos θ = 1,
a b2 a b 37. If sin θ + cos θ = 2 sin (90° − θ), show that
x y2
prove that 2 + 2 = 2. [2010 (T-I)] cot θ = 2 + 1. [2001 C]
a b
22. If sin (2A + 45°) = cos (30° – A), find A. cos A sin 2 A
[2010 (T-I)] 38. Prove : − = sin A + cos A
1 − tan A cos A − sin A [2003, 2007]
tan θ − cot θ
23. Prove that = tan 2 θ − cot 2 θ.
sin θ cos θ 39. Without using trigonometric tables evaluate :
[2010 (T-I)]
[2007, 2008]
11
tan 7° tan 23° tan 60° tan 67° tan 83° 44. Evaluate :
cot 54° 2 2 5
+ + sin 20°.sec 70° − 2. c osec 2 58° − cot 58°.tan 32° − tan 13°
tan 36° 3 3 3 [2009]

.tan 37°.tan 45°.tan 53°. tan 77°
cot A − cos A cosec A − 1
40. Prove that : = [2008] 2 φ
cot A + cos A cosec A + 1 45. If cos θ – sin θ = tan
2 2
, prove that
41. Prove that : (1 + cot A – cosec A)(1 + tan A + sec 1
cos φ = . [2002]
A) = 2 [2008] 2 cos θ
42. Prove that : (1 + cot A + tan A)(sin A – cos A) = 46. If cosec θ – sin θ = l and sec θ – cos θ = m, show
sin A tan A – cot A.cos A. [2008] that l2m2 (l2 + m2 + 3) = 1. [2003]
2
1 + tan 2 A  1 − tan A  47. Evaluate :
43. Prove that : =  = tan A
2

1 + cot 2 A  1 − cot A 
sin 70° cosec 36° 2 cos 43°cosec 47°
+ −
[2008 C] cos 20° sec 54 tan 10 tan 40 tan 50 tan 80

N
[2004 C]

A
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [4 Marks]

SH
A. Important Questions

A
cos α 5. If sin θ + sin2 θ + sin3 θ = 1, then prove that cos6
sin α

K
1. If = m and = n, prove that θ – 4 cos4 θ + 8 cos2 θ = 4.
cos β sin β

A
6. In an acute angled triangle ABC, if sin 2(A + B – C)
(n − m ) sin β = 1 − m .
2 2 2 2
[HOTS] PR = 1 and tan (B + C – A) = 3 , find the values
of A, B and C. [HOTS]
2. If sin θ + cos θ = 1, prove that (cos θ – sin θ)
= ± 1 7. I f tan 2 θ = 1 + 2 tan 2 φ, prove that
S

3. If cosec θ + cot θ = p, show that cos θ 2 sin θ = 1 + sin 2 φ.


2
ER

p2 −1 [HOTS]
= 2 cot θ cosec θ + 1
p +1 8. Prove : + = 2 sec θ
cosec θ + 1 cot θ
TH

4. If 1 + sin2 θ = 3 sin θ cos θ, then, prove that


9. If sin α = a sin β and tan α = b tan β, then prove
1
tan θ = 1 or a2 −1
O

that cos α = 2 .
2
2
b −1
R
B

B. Questions From CBSE Examination Papers


L

1. If sin θ + cos θ = p and sec θ + cosec θ = q 6. Prove that : [2010 (T-I)]


YA

then prove that q(p2 – 1) = 2p. [2010 (T-I)]


sin A cos A
2. Prove that : cos4 θ – cos2 θ = sin4 – sin2 θ. + =1
sec A + tan A − 1 cosec A + cot A − 1
O


[2010 (T-I)]
G

7. Prove that : [2010 (T-I)]


3. Prove that : cosec2 (90° – θ) – tan2 θ = cos2 (90° – θ)
+ cos2 θ. [2010 (T-I)] sin θ − cos θ sin θ + cos θ 2
+ =
sin θ + cos θ sin θ − cos θ 2 sin θ − 1
2
4. If 2 cos θ – sin θ = x and cos θ – 3 sin θ = y,
prove that 2x2 + y2 – 2xy = 5. [2010 (T-I)] 8. Prove that : [2010 (T-I)]
5. Without using trigonometric tables, evaluate the 2 1 2 1
following : − − 2 + 4 = cot 4 θ − tan 4 θ
cos 2
θ cos 4
θ sin θ sin θ
cos 2 20° + cos 2 70°
+ 2 c osec 2 58° − 2 cot 58° tan 32° 9. Prove that : (1 + tan A tan B)2 + (tan A – tan B)2
cos 2 50° + cos 2 40° = sec2 A.sec2 B. [2010 (T-I)]
− 4 taan 13° tan 37° tan 45° tan 53° tan 77°
10. If tan θ + sin θ = m and tan θ – sin θ = n, prove
that m2 – n2 = 4 mn. [2010 (T-I)]
12
11. Prove that : 24. If x = r sin A cos C, y = r sin A sin C, z = r cos
1 1 1 1 A, prove that r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 . [2010 (T-I)]
− = −
cosec A − cot A sin A sin A cosec A + cot A 2
25. If tan A = 2 − 1, show that sin A cos A = .
sin θ − 2 sin θ
2 4 4
12. Prove that : sec θ −
2
= 1. [2010 (T-I)]
2 cos 4 θ − cos θ2
[2010 (T-I)] cot A + cosec A − 1 1 + cos A
26. Prove that = .
13. If sec θ – tan θ = 4, then prove that cos θ cot A − cosec A + 1 sin A

8 [2010 (T-I)]
= .
17 [2010 (T-I)] 27. Prove that sin6 θ + cos6 θ = 3 sin2 θ cos2 θ.
14. Find the value of sin 5° + sin 10° + sin 80° +
2 2 2

sin2 85°. [2010 (T-I)] 28. Evaluate : [2010 (T-I)]

1 + sec A sin 2 A 1
15. Prove that = = . sin(50° + θ) − cos(40° − θ) + cot 2 30°
4

N
sec A 1 − cos A [2010 (T-I)]
3 tan 45° tan 20° tan 40° tan 50° tan 70°

A
tan θ + 1 + sec θ 1 +
16. Prove that : = . 5

SH
tan θ + 1 − sec θ sec θ − tan θ sin 63° + sin 27°
2 2

+
[2010 (T-I)] cos 2 17° + cos 2 73°

A
1
17. If sec θ = x + , then prove that 29. Prove that : (cosec A – sin A)(sec A – cos A)

K
4x
(tan A + cot A) = 1. [2010 (T-I)]

A
1
sec θ + tan θ = 2 x or . [2010 (T-I)] 30. Prove that : [2010 (T-I)]
2 x PR 1 1 1 1
tan θ cot θ − = − .
18. Prove that + = 1 + tan θ + cot θ. sec θ − tan θ cos θ cos θ sec θ + tan θ
1 − cot θ 1 − tan θ
S

[2010 (T-I)] tan θ + sec θ − 1 1 + sin θ


ER

31. Prove that = [2007]


cot A(sec A − 1)
2
 1 − sin A  tan θ − sec θ + 1 cos θ
19. Prove that : = sec 2 A  
1 + sin A  1 + sec A 
TH

cos A sin A
[2010 (T-I)] 32. Prove that + = sin A + cos A
1 − tan A 1 − cot A
O

p2 − 1 [2002]
20. If sec θ + tan θ = p, show that = sin θ.
R

p2 + 1 33. Prove that 2(sin θ + cos θ) – 3(sin θ + cos4 θ)


6 6 4
B

[2010 (T-I)] + 1 = 0 [2008]


L

21. If a sin θ + b cos θ = c, then prove that a cos sin θ sin θ


34. Prove : = 2+
YA

[2010 (T-I)]
θ – b sin θ = a + b − c . (cot θ + cosec θ) (cot θ − cosec θ)
2 2 2


22. Prove that [2010 (T-I)] [2000]
O

sin A + cos A sin A − cos A 2 cosec θ + cot θ


G

+ = . 35. Prove : = (cosec θ + cot θ) 2


sin A − cos A sin A + cos A sin 2
A − cos 2 A cosec θ + cot θ

cos A 1 − sin A = 1 + 2 cot 2 θ + 2 cosec θ cot θ


23. Prove that + = 2 sec A. [2003]
1 − sin A cos A
[2010 (T-I)]

Formative Assessment

Objective : To solve a crossword puzzle with Clues down :


mathematical terms. 1. Collection of one or some outcomes of an
experiment.

13
2. A group of 144 things. Clues Across :
3. A cumulative frequency curve. 9. A series of well defined steps which gives a
4. The term which is used for the expression procedure for solving a type of problem.
which is not defined. 10. Solutions of equations.
5. A number which cannot be expressed in the 11. Plural of radius.
form p/q, where p and q are integers and q
12. An algebraic expression in which the
≠ 0.
variables involves have only non-negative
6. The value of the observation having maximum integral powers.
frequency.
13. A solid obtained by rolling a rectangular
7. Unit of length.
paper along its length or breadth.
8. Figures having the same shape.
14. Unit of area.
15. A solid having one vertex and two faces, one

N
curved and one flat.

A
16. Part of a circle.

SH
A
K
A
PR
S
ER
TH
O
R
B
L
YA
O
G

14
Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Exercise 8.1
Question 1:
In ∆ABC right angled at B, AB = 24 cm, BC = 7 m. Determine
(i) sin A, cos A
(ii) sin C, cos C
Answer:
Applying Pythagoras theorem for ∆ABC, we obtain
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
= (24 cm)2 + (7 cm)2
= (576 + 49) cm2
= 625 cm2

∴ AC = cm = 25 cm

(i) sin A =

cos A =
(ii)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

sin C =

cos C =

Question 2:
In the given figure find tan P − cot R

Answer:
Applying Pythagoras theorem for ∆PQR, we obtain
PR2 = PQ2 + QR2
(13 cm)2 = (12 cm)2 + QR2

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(One Km from ‘Welcome Metro Station)
Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

169 cm2 = 144 cm2 + QR2


25 cm2 = QR2
QR = 5 cm

tan P − cot R =

Question 3:

If sin A = , calculate cos A and tan A.


Answer:
Let ∆ABC be a right-angled triangle, right-angled at point B.

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(One Km from ‘Welcome Metro Station)
Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Given that,

Let BC be 3k. Therefore, AC will be 4k, where k is a positive integer.


Applying Pythagoras theorem in ∆ABC, we obtain
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
(4k)2 = AB2 + (3k)2
2 2
16k − 9k = AB2
2
7k = AB2

AB =

Question 4:

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(One Km from ‘Welcome Metro Station)
Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Given 15 cot A = 8. Find sin A and sec A


Answer:
Consider a right-angled triangle, right-angled at B.

It is given that,

cot A =

Let AB be 8k.Therefore, BC will be 15k, where k is a positive integer.


Applying Pythagoras theorem in ∆ABC, we obtain
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
= (8k)2 + (15k)2
= 64k2 + 225k2
= 289k2
AC = 17k

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Question 5:

Given sec θ = , calculate all other trigonometric ratios.


Answer:
Consider a right-angle triangle ∆ABC, right-angled at point B.

If AC is 13k, AB will be 12k, where k is a positive integer.


Applying Pythagoras theorem in ∆ABC, we obtain
(AC)2 = (AB)2 + (BC)2
(13k)2 = (12k)2 + (BC)2
169k2 = 144k2 + BC2
25k2 = BC2

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

BC = 5k

Question 6:
If ∠A and ∠B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B, then show that
∠A = ∠B.
Answer:
Let us consider a triangle ABC in which CD ⊥ AB.

It is given that
cos A = cos B

… (1)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

We have to prove ∠A = ∠B. To prove this, let us extend AC to P such that BC = CP.

From equation (1), we obtain

By using the converse of B.P.T,


CD||BP
⇒∠ACD = ∠CPB (Corresponding angles) … (3)
And, ∠BCD = ∠CBP (Alternate interior angles) … (4)
By construction, we have BC = CP.
∴ ∠CBP = ∠CPB (Angle opposite to equal sides of a triangle) … (5)
From equations (3), (4), and (5), we obtain
∠ACD = ∠BCD … (6)
In ∆CAD and ∆CBD,
∠ACD = ∠BCD [Using equation (6)]
∠CDA = ∠CDB [Both 90°]
Therefore, the remaining angles should be equal.
∴∠CAD = ∠CBD
⇒ ∠A = ∠B
Alternatively,

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Let us consider a triangle ABC in which CD ⊥ AB.

It is given that,
cos A = cos B

Let
⇒ AD = k BD … (1)
And, AC = k BC … (2)
Using Pythagoras theorem for triangles CAD and CBD, we obtain
CD2 = AC2 − AD2 … (3)
And, CD2 = BC2 − BD2 … (4)
From equations (3) and (4), we obtain
AC2 − AD2 = BC2 − BD2
⇒ (k BC)2 − (k BD)2 = BC2 − BD2
⇒ k2 (BC2 − BD2) = BC2 − BD2
⇒ k2 = 1
⇒k=1
Putting this value in equation (2), we obtain
AC = BC
⇒ ∠A = ∠B(Angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Question 7:

If cot θ = , evaluate

(i) (ii) cot2 θ


Answer:
Let us consider a right triangle ABC, right-angled at point B.

If BC is 7k, then AB will be 8k, where k is a positive integer.


Applying Pythagoras theorem in ∆ABC, we obtain
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
= (8k)2 + (7k)2
= 64k2 + 49k2
= 113k2

AC =

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(i)

(ii) cot2 θ = (cot θ)2 = =

Question 8:

If 3 cot A = 4, Check whether


Answer:
It is given that 3cot A = 4

Or, cot A =

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Consider a right triangle ABC, right-angled at point B.

If AB is 4k, then BC will be 3k, where k is a positive integer.


In ∆ABC,
(AC)2 = (AB)2 + (BC)2
= (4k)2 + (3k)2
= 16k2 + 9k2
= 25k2
AC = 5k

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

cos2 A − sin2 A =

Question 9:

In ∆ABC, right angled at B. If , find the value of


(i) sin A cos C + cos A sin C
(ii) cos A cos C − sin A sin C
Answer:

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

If BC is k, then AB will be , where k is a positive integer.


In ∆ABC,
AC2 = AB2 + BC2

=
= 3k2 + k2 = 4k2
∴ AC = 2k

(i) sin A cos C + cos A sin C

(ii) cos A cos C − sin A sin C

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Question 10:
In ∆PQR, right angled at Q, PR + QR = 25 cm and PQ = 5 cm. Determine the values
of sin P, cos P and tan P.
Answer:
Given that, PR + QR = 25
PQ = 5
Let PR be x.
Therefore, QR = 25 − x

Applying Pythagoras theorem in ∆PQR, we obtain


PR2 = PQ2 + QR2
x2 = (5)2 + (25 − x)2
x2 = 25 + 625 + x2 − 50x
50x = 650
x = 13
Therefore, PR = 13 cm
QR = (25 − 13) cm = 12 cm

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Question 11:
State whether the following are true or false. Justify your answer.
(i) The value of tan A is always less than 1.

(ii) sec A = for some value of angle A.


(iii) cos A is the abbreviation used for the cosecant of angle A.
(iv) cot A is the product of cot and A

(v) sin θ = , for some angle θ


Answer:
(i) Consider a ∆ABC, right-angled at B.

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

But >1
∴tan A > 1
So, tan A < 1 is not always true.
Hence, the given statement is false.

(ii)

Let AC be 12k, AB will be 5k, where k is a positive integer.


Applying Pythagoras theorem in ∆ABC, we obtain
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
(12k)2 = (5k)2 + BC2
144k2 = 25k2 + BC2
BC2 = 119k2
BC = 10.9k
It can be observed that for given two sides AC = 12k and AB = 5k,
BC should be such that,
AC − AB < BC < AC + AB
12k − 5k < BC < 12k + 5k
7k < BC < 17 k

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

However, BC = 10.9k. Clearly, such a triangle is possible and hence, such value of
sec A is possible.
Hence, the given statement is true.
(iii) Abbreviation used for cosecant of angle A is cosec A. And cos A is the
abbreviation used for cosine of angle A.
Hence, the given statement is false.
(iv) cot A is not the product of cot and A. It is the cotangent of ∠A.
Hence, the given statement is false.

(v) sin θ =
We know that in a right-angled triangle,

In a right-angled triangle, hypotenuse is always greater than the remaining two


sides. Therefore, such value of sin θ is not possible.
Hence, the given statement is false

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Exercise 8.2
Question 1:
Evaluate the following
(i) sin60° cos30° + sin30° cos 60°
(ii) 2tan245° + cos230° − sin260°

(iii)

(iv)

(v)
Answer:
(i) sin60° cos30° + sin30° cos 60°

(ii) 2tan245° + cos230° − sin260°

(iii)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(iv)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(v)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Question 2:
Choose the correct option and justify your choice.

(i)
(A). sin60°
(B). cos60°
(C). tan60°
(D). sin30°

(ii)
(A). tan90°
(B). 1
(C). sin45°
(D). 0
(iii) sin2A = 2sinA is true when A =
(A). 0°
(B). 30°
(C). 45°
(D). 60°

(iv)
(A). cos60°
(B). sin60°
(C). tan60°
(D). sin30°
Answer:

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(i)

Out of the given alternatives, only


Hence, (A) is correct.

(ii)

Hence, (D) is correct.


(iii)Out of the given alternatives, only A = 0° is correct.
As sin 2A = sin 0° = 0
2 sinA = 2sin 0° = 2(0) = 0
Hence, (A) is correct.

(iv)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Out of the given alternatives, only tan 60°


Hence, (C) is correct.

Question 3:

If and ;
0° < A + B ≤ 90°, A > B find A and B.
Answer:


⇒ A + B = 60 … (1)

⇒ tan (A − B) = tan30
⇒ A − B = 30 … (2)
On adding both equations, we obtain
2A = 90
⇒ A = 45
From equation (1), we obtain
45 + B = 60
B = 15
Therefore, ∠A = 45° and ∠B = 15°

Question 4:
State whether the following are true or false. Justify your answer.
(i) sin (A + B) = sin A + sin B

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(ii) The value of sinθ increases as θ increases


(iii) The value of cos θ increases as θ increases
(iv) sinθ = cos θ for all values of θ
(v) cot A is not defined for A = 0°
Answer:
(i) sin (A + B) = sin A + sin B
Let A = 30° and B = 60°
sin (A + B) = sin (30° + 60°)
= sin 90°
=1
sin A + sin B = sin 30° + sin 60°

Clearly, sin (A + B) ≠ sin A + sin B


Hence, the given statement is false.
(ii) The value of sin θ increases as θ increases in the interval of 0° < θ < 90° as
sin 0° = 0

sin 90° = 1
Hence, the given statement is true.
(iii) cos 0° = 1

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

cos90° = 0
It can be observed that the value of cos θ does not increase in the interval of 0° < θ
< 90°.
Hence, the given statement is false.
(iv) sin θ = cos θ for all values of θ.
This is true when θ = 45°

As

It is not true for all other values of θ.

As and ,
Hence, the given statement is false.
(v) cot A is not defined for A = 0°

As ,

= undefined
Hence, the given statement is true.

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Exercise 8.3
Question 1:
Evaluate

(I)

(II)
(III) cos 48° − sin 42°
(IV)cosec 31° − sec 59°
Answer:

(I)

(II)

(III)cos 48° − sin 42° = cos (90°− 42°) − sin 42°


= sin 42° − sin 42°
=0
(IV) cosec 31° − sec 59° = cosec (90° − 59°) − sec 59°
= sec 59° − sec 59°
=0

Question 2:
Show that
(I) tan 48° tan 23° tan 42° tan 67° = 1
(II)cos 38° cos 52° − sin 38° sin 52° = 0

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Answer:
(I) tan 48° tan 23° tan 42° tan 67°
= tan (90° − 42°) tan (90° − 67°) tan 42° tan 67°
= cot 42° cot 67° tan 42° tan 67°
= (cot 42° tan 42°) (cot 67° tan 67°)
= (1) (1)
=1
(II) cos 38° cos 52° − sin 38° sin 52°
= cos (90° − 52°) cos (90°−38°) − sin 38° sin 52°
= sin 52° sin 38° − sin 38° sin 52°
=0

Question 3:
If tan 2A = cot (A− 18°), where 2A is an acute angle, find the value of A.
Answer:
Given that,
tan 2A = cot (A− 18°)
cot (90° − 2A) = cot (A −18°)
90° − 2A = A− 18°
108° = 3A
A = 36°
Question 4:
If tan A = cot B, prove that A + B = 90°

Answer:
Given that,
tan A = cot B
tan A = tan (90° − B)
A = 90° − B

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

A + B = 90°
Question 5:
If sec 4A = cosec (A− 20°), where 4A is an acute angle, find the value of A.
Answer:
Given that,
sec 4A = cosec (A − 20°)
cosec (90° − 4A) = cosec (A − 20°)
90° − 4A= A− 20°
110° = 5A
A = 22°
Question 6:
If A, Band C are interior angles of a triangle ABC then show that

Answer:
We know that for a triangle ABC,
∠ A + ∠B + ∠C = 180°
∠B + ∠C= 180° − ∠A

Question 7:
Express sin 67° + cos 75° in terms of trigonometric ratios of angles between 0° and
45°.
Answer:
sin 67° + cos 75°

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

= sin (90° − 23°) + cos (90° − 15°)


= cos 23° + sin 15°

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Exercise 8.4
Question 1:
Express the trigonometric ratios sin A, sec A and tan A in terms of cot A.
Answer:
We know that,

will always be positive as we are adding two positive quantities.

Therefore,

We know that,

However,

Therefore,

Also,

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Question 2:
Write all the other trigonometric ratios of ∠A in terms of sec A.
Answer:
We know that,

Also, sin2 A + cos2 A = 1


sin2 A = 1 − cos2 A

tan2A + 1 = sec2A
tan2A = sec2A − 1

Question 3:
Evaluate

(i)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(ii) sin25° cos65° + cos25° sin65°


Answer:

(i)

(As sin2A + cos2A = 1)


=1
(ii) sin25° cos65° + cos25° sin65°

= sin225° + cos225°
= 1 (As sin2A + cos2A = 1)

Question 4:
Choose the correct option. Justify your choice.
(i) 9 sec2 A − 9 tan2 A =
(A) 1
(B) 9
(C) 8
(D) 0
(ii) (1 + tan θ + sec θ) (1 + cot θ − cosec θ)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(A) 0
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) −1
(iii) (secA + tanA) (1 − sinA) =
(A) secA
(B) sinA
(C) cosecA
(D) cosA

(iv)
(A) sec2 A
(B) −1
(C) cot2 A
(D) tan2 A
Answer:
(i) 9 sec2A − 9 tan2A
= 9 (sec2A − tan2A)
= 9 (1) [As sec2 A − tan2 A = 1]
=9
Hence, alternative (B) is correct.
(ii)
(1 + tan θ + sec θ) (1 + cot θ − cosec θ)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Hence, alternative (C) is correct.


(iii) (secA + tanA) (1 − sinA)

= cosA
Hence, alternative (D) is correct.

(iv)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

Hence, alternative (D) is correct.

Question 5:
Prove the following identities, where the angles involved are acute angles for which
the expressions are defined.
Answer:

(i)

(ii)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(iii)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

= secθ cosec θ +
= R.H.S.

(iv)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

= R.H.S

(v)

Using the identity cosec2 = 1 + cot2 ,

L.H.S =

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= cosec A + cot A
= R.H.S

(vi)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(vii)

(viii)

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Class X Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry Maths

(ix)

Hence, L.H.S = R.H.S

(x)

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