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Luo 2014

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Luo 2014

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Three-Phase Permanent Magnet Brushless

Machine for electromechanical servoactuation

Zhanqiang Luo1,2, Deliang Liang1, Xing Liu1 and Xintuan Yang2

1

School of Electrical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China;

2

Aviation Industry Corporation Of China Qing’an Group Co. , Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710077, China)

Email: zhanqiangluo@163.com

Abstract —This paper looks at the requirements and adequately scheduled maintenance, sensor reduction, fault

challenges of designing the Dual Three-Phase Permanent Magnet reconfiguration, and improved reliability [1], [2], [3], [4].

Brushless Machine (DTPPMBLM) for the driven The increasing interest has been a consequence of the

electromechanical servoactuator (EMA) for aerospace

advantages of permanent magnet brushless machine compared

applications. The main goals of the design are a high level of

actuator integration in order to minimize weight and volume, with the conventional dc motors. These advantages are mainly

fault tolerance, and high reliability. This paper addresses the the result of the elimination of the physical contact between

modeling problem associated with DTPPMBLM with uniform air the mechanical brushes and commutators. Among the

gaps that operate in a range where magnetic saturation may exist. numerous types of brushless machine, the permanent magnet

The mathematical model includes the effects of reluctance brushless machine (PMBLM) has emerged as the one with the

variations as well as magnetic saturation to guarantee proper

highest potential in high-performance applications [5], [6], [7],

modeling of the system. An experimental procedure is developed

and implemented in a laboratory environment to identify the [8]. For such high-performance applications, the mathematical

electromagnetic characteristics of the DTPPMBLM in the model of PMBLM must include the effects of reluctance

presence of magnetic saturation. It is demonstrated that the variations and, most importantly, the magnetic saturation

modeling problem associated with this class of the DTPPMBLM whose existence is inevitable when large torques are generated.

can be formulated in terms of mathematically modeling a set of This paper presents a method of constructing accurate

multidimensional surfaces corresponding to the electromagnetic DTPPMBLM models where both magnetic saturation and

torque function and the flux linkages associated with the machine

reluctance variation effects have been accounted for. It is

phase windings. The accuracy of the mathematical model

constructed by the developed method is checked against

demonstrated that an accurate description of the characteristics

experimental measurements. of DTPPMBLM may be obtained by modeling the torque

Index Terms—electromechanical servoactuator, Dual Three- function and the flux linkages associated with the stator phase

Phase Permanent Magnet Brushless Machine, mathematical windings. However, for the mathematical model to be

model computationally feasible in real-time motion control

applications, a method that is used to reduce the complexity of

I. INTRODUCTION the model without sacrificing its accuracy is presented. If the

mathematical model is excessively complex, one will have to

The advent of electromechanical actuation promises

resort to incorporating look-up tables in real-time motion

improved reliability, performance, controllability, and

control applications [9], [10]. To keep the complexity of the

efficiency as well as reduced maintenance in high-power mathematical model within feasible limits, through physical

applications that have historically been serviced by hydraulic reasoning, it is demonstrated that the modeling problem may

systems. Potential applications for electromechanical actuators be reduced to that of identifying a set of 2-D surfaces. Based

are control surface positioning in aircraft and sea vehicles, on this, a practical method for constructing accurate models of

thrust vector control in spacecraft, and a host of others. a DTPPMBLM is outlined and shown to be effectively

Electric machines have played a crucial role in the evolution implementable in a typical laboratory environment.

of the automotive industry. The EMA configuration in this The paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the

work consists of a permanent magnet brushless machine, fundamental electromechanical characteristics of the

reduction gear, and ballscrew. Often, multiple machine are DTPPMBLM are formulated in terms of a set of mathematical

employed for redundancy and a net reduction in the inertia to relationships. Section III sets forth some analytical results that

torque ratio. Such a reduction minimizes actuator impedance are used to demonstrate the importance of including the effect

and hence improves system efficiency. However, the use of of reluctance variations in the DTPPMBLM model. Section IV

multiple machine requires control to appropriately balance deals with the problems associated with the modeling of the

load across the machines. The appropriate load distribution can saturation nonlinearity for DTPPMBLM. Section V presents

be based upon machine health such that machine showing an experimental procedure used in identifying the

signs of impending failure may be operated at reduced power mathematical model of DTPPMBLM. The results

levels to improve their life expectancy. Other benefits may be corresponding to the set of experiments that have verified the

gained from a health monitoring system as well: more validity of the methods described in the earlier sections are

610

978-1-4799-5162-8/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE

presented in Section VI. Finally, some concluding remarks are

)3 Gsy 3

made in Section VII. )2 Gsy 2

Gsy1

II. MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THE DTPPMBLM

)1 Gsp1 Gsp 2

Gsp 2 Gsp1

A. Model of Magnetic equivalent circuit Gsp 3

Gsp 3

Fr; rare earth permanent magnet inner permeance Gr; rare earth Gr

Gr )0

permanent magnet leakage permeance Gm; air-gap permeance Fr Fr

Gu; rotor yoke permeance Gry; stator yoke permeance Gsy1ૠ

Gry

Gsy2 and Gsy3; stator teeth permeance Gsp1 ૠ Gsp2 and Gsp3;

Fig. 1. No-load Magnetic equivalent circuit of DRPMBLM

closed loop ĭ0ૠĭ1ૠĭ2 and ĭ3; the armature reaction MMF

of winding NI. )3 Gsy 3

The no load magnetic equivalent circuit of DRPMBLM is )2 Gsy 2

given in Fig. 1. The rating load magnetic equivalent circuit of Gsy1

DRPMBLM is given in Fig. 2. )1 Gsp1

Gsp1 Gsp 2

Gsp 2 Gsp 3

Gsp 3

NI

Gu Gm Gu

NI

Gr

Gr )0

Fr

Fr

Gry

Fig. 2. Rating load Magnetic equivalent circuit of DRPMBLM

ª 1 2 1 1 º

«G G G

G

0 0 » ª ) 0 º ª Fr º

« m r ry m

»« » « »

« 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 »« » « » (1)

« ( ) 0 » « )1 » « 0 »

« Gm Gm Gu Gsp1 Gsy1 Gsp1 Gsy1 »« » « »

« 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 »« » « »

« 0 ( ) ( ) » «) 2 » «0 »

« G sp1 G sy1 G sp1 G sp 2 G sy1 Gsy 2 G sp 2 G sy 2 »« » « »

« « » « »

« 2 1 2 2 1 1 »» « » « »

0 0 ( ) ) 0

«¬ Gsp 2 Gsy 2 Gsp 3 Gsp 2 Gsy 2 Gsy 3 »¼ 3 ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬

ª 1 2 1 1 º

«G G G

G

0 0 » ª ) 0 º ª Fr NI º

« m r ry m

»« » « »

« 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 »« » « » (2)

« ( ) 0 » « )1 » « 0 »

« G m G m Gu G sp1 G sy1 G sp1 G sy1 »« » « »

« 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 »« » « »

« 0 ( ) ( ) » «) 2 » « 0 »

« Gsp1 Gsy1 Gsp1 Gsp 2 Gsy1 Gsy 2 Gsp 2 Gsy 2 »« » « »

« 2 1 2 2 1 1 »« » « »

« 0 0 ( ) » « ) 3 » «¬ 0 »¼

¬ ¼

¬« Gsp 2 Gsy 2 Gsp 3 Gsp 2 Gsy 2 Gsy 3 ¼»

Newton's method requires Jacobian matrix calculation in which

B. Nonlinear solution

its elements are partial differential of G with respect to flux. In

Incorporating the permeances into the magnetic equivalent this case, since permeances are not explicit function of flux,

circuit model of DRPMBLM from Fig.1 and Fig.2, we can get obtaining analytical expressions for Jacobian matrix elements is

the magnetic circuit equation for the closed loops 0, 1, 2 and 3 not possible. Therefore, a Gauss-Siedel method with an

as follows (1) and (2): accelerating factor for faster convergence has been used to solve

The complete set of closed loop equations is a system which the problem.

can be represented as the matrix form below: The solution process has four steps: at the first step of the

[R][ĭ]=[F] (3) proposed analysis, assuming that the permeability of the core

where R is the matrix of magnetic resistance, ĭ is the vector is 1000 as an initial value. Inputting the MMF of winding (NI),

of branch fluxes, and F is the vector of magneto motive forces. the initial flux values ĭ0, ĭ1, ĭ2 and ĭ3 flowing in each closed

The resistance matrix is obtained by the same method as loop are obtained by solving Eq.(1) and (2). Then, the flux

permeance matrix for electric circuit which is mentioned above. density in each saturable stator and rotor yoke will be

Since the iron permeability is a function of flux density, calculated. By reference to B-u data of the core for the

elements of R are functions of flux; hence, the set of equations permeability of all saturable permeances are redefined and the

is non-linear. There are several methods for solving a set of non- permeance values of all saturable permeances are recalculated.

linear equations e.g. Newton's and Gauss-Siedel methods. In the third step, (1) and (2) is solved to yield a new flux

611

values ĭ0, ĭ1, ĭ2 and ĭ3. The new value will be compared to La § 8S · (10)

L15 L51 Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸

the old value in an infinite norm. If convergence is reached the 2 © 3 ¹

iterative process will be stopped and post processing L § 10S ·

L16 L61 a Lg cos ¨ 2 pT (11)

calculations for flux linkage will be performed, otherwise steps ¸

2 © 3 ¹

two and three will be repeated.

L

L23 L32 a Lg cos 2 pT 2S (12)

2

L § 8S · (13)

L24 L42 a Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸

2 © 3 ¹

L § 10S · (14)

L25 L52 a Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸

2 © 3 ¹

L

L26 L62 a Lg cos 2 pT (15)

2

Pr L § 10S · (16)

L34 L43 a Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸

2 © 3 ¹

L

L35 L53 a Lg cos 2 pT (17)

2

L § 2S · (18)

L36 L63 a Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸

Fig.3 Block diagram of the nonlinear solution procedure 2 © 3 ¹

L § 2S · (19)

C. The balance equations of the DTPPMBLM L45 L54 a Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸

2 © 3 ¹

The DTPPMBLM consists of a permanent magnet rotor, a

position sensor mounted on the rotor, and a means to provide L § 4S · (20)

L46 L64 a Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸

signals to the stator winding. In the absence of magnetic 2 © 3 ¹

saturation, the governing differential equations describing the L

L56 L65 a Lg cos 2 pT 2S (21)

dynamic behavior of DTPPMBLM may be written as: 2

d (4) La is the nominal (average) value of the winding inductance,

> U @ =R > I @ + ª < I , T º

dt ¬ ¼ Lg represents the amplitude of variation in the inductance due

Where T is the position variable. U and I are the phase to the nonuniformity of the air gap, and p is the number of

voltage input and current vectors, respectively. R is the permanent magnet pole pairs. The elements of the permanent

resistance matrix, and the flux linkage vector is defined by magnet flux linkage vector, Ȍm(ș), i.e., Ȝmk, k = 1,2,3,4,5,6

ª < I , T º ª L T º I ª < m T º (5) represent the flux linkages associated with the permanent

¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼

magnet and phase k. For sinusoidally distributed stator

Where the inductance matrix L(ș) is a 6-by-6 symmetric windings, Ȝmk(ș) may be written as

matrix whose diagonal elements are the self inductances, and

§ 2 k 1 S · (22)

its off-diagonal elements are the mutual inductances of the Omk K e sin ¨ pT ¸ , k 1, 2,3, 4,5, 6

windings and are defined by © 3 ¹

§ 2 k 1 S · (6)

where Ke is the electromotive force, i.e the back EMF constant.

Lkk La Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸ , for k 1, 2,3, 4,5, 6 Equation (1) represents a system of differential equations

© 3 ¹ with time varying (periodic) coefficients. It is known [11], [12],

La § 2S · (7) [13] that for sinusoidally distributed windings, Floquet

L12 L21 Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸

2 © 3 ¹ transformation, which is frequently referred to as the Park's

L § 4S · (8) transformation, may be used to transform the above equations

L13 L31 a Lg cos ¨ 2 pT ¸ to system of differential equations with constant coefficients,

2 © 3 ¹

L represented in coordinate frame attached to the rotor. This

L14 L41 a Lg cos 2 pT 2S (9) orthogonal transformation can be expressed in matrix form as:

2

«

ªcos pT cos pT 2S

3

cos pT 4S

3

0 0 0 º

»

ªV q1 º

« »

«

2S

«sin pT sin pT 3 sin pT 3

4S 0 0 0

» ªV 1 º

»« » (23)

«V d 1 » « » «V 2 »

«V 01 » « 2 2 2 0 0 0 » «V »

2« 2 2 2 »« 3»

« »

«V q 2 »

« »

3« 0

«

0 0

cos pT cos pT 2S

3

cos pT 4S

3 » «V 4 »

»« »

«V d 2 » » «V 5 »

¬«V 02 ¼»

«

« 0 0 0

sin pT sin pT 2 S

3

sin pT 4S

3 » ¬«V 6 ¼»

« »

« 0 0 0 2 2 2 »

¬ 2 2 2 ¼

The subscripts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 correspond to the stator fictitious windings attached to the rotor. The variables ı1, ı2,

windings, whereas the subscripts q, d, and 0 represent some ı3, ı4, ı5, ı6, ıq1, ıd1, ı01, ıq2, ıq2, and ı02, may represent

612

voltages, currents, or flux linkages. As a result, the v ª¬ v d 1 v q1 vd 2 v q 2 º¼

T

(35)

transformed set of equations describing the behavior of

T

DTPPMBLM in the rotating frame become i ª¬ i d 1 i q 1 i d 2 i q 2 º¼ (36)

dT d Oq1 (24)

vq1 Riq1 pOd 1 With current, the rotor position and mechanical rotor speed

dt dt

dO dT or the state variables, the state vector is

vd 1 Rid 1 d 1 pOq1 (25) T

(37)

dt dt x ª¬ i T : T º¼

dT d Oq 2 (26) With the voltage and load torque for the controlled variable,

vq 2 Riq 2 pOd 2 control of vectors is

dt dt

T

dO dT (27) v ª¬ v T T L º¼ (38)

vd 2 Rid 2 d 2 pOq 2

dt dt The state of the equation for the drive system can be expressed

Where Oq1 Lq1iq1 (28) as:

Od 1 Ld 1id 1 K e (29) di ½

L 1 ( R G T ) i L 1U

°

Oq 2 Lq 2iq 2 (30) dt

° (39)

d: 3 p T R T °

Od 2 Ld 2id 2 K e (31) i Gi : : L ¾

dt 2 J J J °

§3· dT

¨ ¸ La Lg Lq 2

And (32) °

Lq1 p: °

©2¹ dt ¿

§3· That is

Ld 1 ¨ ¸ La Lg Ld 2 (33)

©2¹ x Ax Bv (40)

The torque expression after the application of the Where

transformation becomes ª L 1 ( R G T ) O O º ª L 1 O º

« » ୈ « »

§ 3p ·

T iq1 , id 1 , iq 2 , id 2 ¨ ¸ Od 1iq1 Oq1id 1 Od 2iq 2 Oq 2id 2

(34) « 3 p iT G R: 1

A 0» B «O T »

© 2 ¹ « 2 J J » « J »

« » « T »

¬ OT p 0¼ ¬O 0 ¼

III. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Where L-1 is inductance inverse matrix, O is zero matrix, R

A. DRPMBLM geometrical model is resistance matrix, G is movement inductance matrix, p is the

number of pole pairs, Rȍ is rotation friction coefficient. From

The stator structure of DRPMBLM is distributed winding

the above state equation, for a given state variables u and TL,

structure and the back-EMF waveform is similar to sine wave,

and the initial value of state variables. In every discrete, the

it can get better low-speed torque characteristics and

interval by step in the same numerical solution, the dynamic

performance by using SVPWM drive. The specifications of

performances of the machine can be abtained.

DRPMBLM are listed in Tab. 2.

C. Verification by the results of the finite element analysis

Tab. 2 Major parameters of DRPMBLM 0.62

Outside diameter

phase self-inductance/ mH

of stator core

Pairs of magnetic

Rated speed 9400rpm 2

pole 0.58

One redundancy Inside diameter of

1.8kW 52 mm

rated stator core 0.56

One redundancy Width of stator

4kW 8.6 mm

peak yoke 0.54

Power

Dual redundancy Width of rotor

3.6kW 9.8 mm

rated yoke

0.52

Dual redundancy 0 100 200 300

8kW Diameter of shaft 20 mm electric degree/ °

peak

Fig.4a Phase self-inductance result from analysis

Stack length of 0.66

Winding type Dual Y 82 mm

stator core

phase self-inductance/ mH

22 24

slot slot

Skew width 0.6

1 Wire diameter 0.4mm

(number of slots)

0.58

B. System state equation

The choice of coordinate system to the solution to the

coordinate system, the model of the voltage and current 0 100 200 300

electric degree/ °

column matrices matrix can be represented as: Fig.4b Phase self-inductance result from FEA

613

150 20

100 15

Phase EMF B1 Phase Current ib

5

Volts

Amperes

0 Phase EMF C1 Phase Current ic

0

-50

-5

-100

-10

-150

0 100 200 300 -15

electric degree

-20

Fig.5a Phase back electromotive force result from analysis 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

150 Electric Degree

Fig.7b Steady state winding current result from FEA

100 The model of the analysis and 2D-FEA simulation is shown

50

in Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.

Phase EMF A1

Phase EMF C1 Fig.4 show the waveforms of phase self-inductance from the

Volts

0 Phase EMF B1 analysis and FEA. It can be seen that the waveforms match

-50 each other closely, which validates the simulation.

Fig.5 and Fig.6 show the waveforms of back electromotive

-100 force from the analysis and FEA. It can be seen that the

-150 waveforms match each other closely, which validates the

0 100 200 300

electric degree simulation.

Fig.5b Phase back electromotive force result from FEA Fig.7 presents the waveforms of phase current at steady state

300 from the two simulations. The waveforms match closely too,

200 but the curves are not smooth when the load torque is 3.8N•m,

100 which may be due to the influence of the PWM control.

Volts

Phase EMF A1

0

Line EMF A1B1 IV. CONTROLLER REALISATION

-100 Line EMF A1C1

-200

A. Control strategy

-300 To achieve excellent performance for the DTPPMBLM in

0 100 200 300

electric degree dynamic operation, various kinds of control strategies such as

Fig. 6a Line back electromotive force result from analysis speed computation, execution of speed and current controller,

300 final switching logic generation and so on, needed to be

200

adopted. Therefore an outer-loop speed controller and an

inner-loop current controller are used when the DTPPMBLM

100

Phase EMF A1 operates in the motoring state.

Volts

Line EMF A1C1

Zref Speed iref Current Gate Power

-100 Vdc1

+ - Controller Controller Driver Converter

-200

control channel 1 T i

-300

0 100 200

electric degree

300 Z Speed T Position resolver1 Tm

Detector Detector A1

N

A2

Fig.6b Line back electromotive force result from FEA B1 B2 DTPPMBLM

25 Speed Position resolver2 C1 S

C2

Detector Detector

T

m

20

i

15 control channel 2 T

Phase Current ia1 + -Z Speed iref Current Gate Power

10 Vdc2

Phase Current ib1 Zref Controller Controller Driver Converter

Amperes

0 Fig. 8a Controller structure of dual channel servo system

-5 The controller schematic program for a DTPPMBLM is

-10 shown in Fig.8a. The speed control algorithm uses the

-15 commanded and sensed speed to produce the current. The

-20 current control algorithm uses the current command and

-25

sensed current to produce the switch commands. Speed is

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Electric Degree

regulated in a closed-loop manner by comparing the command

Fig.7a Steady state winding Current result from analysis speed Ȧref to the estimated speed Ȧ and then compensating the

speed error e. After the control of the outer loop, the reference

current Iref is generated to satisfy the load condition and

compare with the real currents.

614

B. Experimental hardware configuration up under rating and double load. Form the speed response

The block diagram and the hardware arrangement of an shown in Fig.9a and Fig. 10a, the machine reaches the steady

experimental DTPPMBLM drive system set-up are shown in state rapidly, the controller can track the speed command

Fig.8b, Fig.8c and Fig.8d, which consists of the following without presenting large overshoot and oscillation and with

units. very small steady-state error. The results show good speed

1) A desktop personal computer that runs Windows XP, which regulation and robustness against load variations for speed

is used to download the DSP and FPGA software and controller.

receive, transmit signal. Fig.11 shows the dual channel measured experimental

2) A 2×1.8 kW DTPPMBLM along with a dynamometer results of the rotor speed in the laboratory under different

machine is coupled with a transducer. operating conditions: start-up, steady state and sudden change

3) A fixed point DSP TMS320LF2812 that is used for of load. The experimental consists of the machine starting up

executing the control algorithm. from 0 to 0.15s with rating load TL=3.66N.m, and then an

4) A variable DC power (0~270Vdc) supply and dual Y three- additional double torque load TL=7.32N.m from 0.15 to 0.25s.

phase IGBT power converter, a drive circuit board used to In this operation process, the machine speed is accelerated

switch the IGBT on and off, and the voltage and current from 0 to 9400r/min at 0.045s, and then decreased to

sensors used to sense the voltage and phase current. 8100r/min at 0.165s. Finally, at 0.21s, the DTPPMBLM is

5) An interface circuit board that provides the interface returned to a steady state again and the rotor speed reaches

between the DSP and the measurement sensors. 8750 r/min.

10000

6) The phase commutation logic is implemented on a FPGA to

achieve near real-time performance. The commutation logic 9000

is transferred from the DSP to the FPGA using the digital 8000

I/O of the DSP. Hysteretic current control was implemented

7000

using analogue comparator circuits. Speed/(r/min)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time/(ms)

Fig.9a speed waveforms at starting-up and TL=1.83N•m

Fig. 8b Structure of dual channel servo system

Fig.9b current waveforms at steady-state, 9400rpm and TL=1.83N•m

V. AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 10000

8000

Fig. 9a and Fig. 9b shows the measured speed and current

waveforms against time curve during the DTPPMBLM single 7000

Speed/(r/min)

accelerates from 0 to 9400r/min in 45ms. 5000

Fig. 10a and Fig. 10b shows the measured speed and current

4000

waveforms against time curve during the DTPPMBLM single

3000

channel starting mode. At this test, the machine speed

accelerates from 0 to 8750r/min in 60ms. 2000

Fig.9a and Fig. 10a show the measured transient response 1000

for instant loading of the DTPPMBLM under single channel 0

operation, with Fig.9a, Fig.9b and Fig. 10a, Fig. 10b 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time/(ms)

corresponding to the response of speed and current at starting-

Fig.10a speed waveforms at starting-up and TL=3.66N•m

615

4000

3000

2000

Speed/(r/min)

reference speed

1000 simulation speed

0

-1000

-2000

-3000

Fig.10b current waveforms at steady-state, 8750rpm and TL=3.66N•m -4000

10000 0 2 4 6 8

Time/(s)

9000 Fig. 12a Simulation DTPPMBLM step response

4000

8000

7000 3000

Speed/(r/min)

Speed/(r/min)

6000

reference speed

5000 1000

4000 0

3000 -1000

2000 -2000

1000 -3000

0 -4000

0 50 100 150 200 250 0 2 4 6 8

Time/(ms) Time/(s)

Fig.11 speed waveforms at steady-state, and sudden double load Fig. 12b Measured DTPPMBLM step response

Fig. 12 examines the dynamic response of the machine The system working in dynamic operation state under the

system features. The step command of Fig. 12a and 12b rated dc-bus voltage of 270V, and a 300r/min and 20Hz

inspects machine ability of following signal in time domain. sinusoidal signal is applied by the controller. The simulated

The Fig. 12c and 12d is tracking signal ability of the machine and measured sinusoidal response of speed for the dual

in the frequency domain. The comparative results is shown in channel machine is shown in Fig. 12c and 12d. From these

increasing simulation model constructed in matlab figures, we can see that the sinusoidal response of speed

environment, and the simulation results is given. performance of the servo system can rapidly meet the demand.

In the Fig. 12a and 12b machine tracking signal mainly Experimental results show that the phase lag of output and the

investigates the acceleration of the machine. Acceleration input for the machine under the 20Hz operating frequency

depends on the transient torque of the machine. The size of the does not exceed 75 degree. Fig.12c and fig.12d red signal is

acceleration torque depends on current, and transient current reference speed. the green signal is following speed of

can cause a big impact on the power switch. On the one hand, simulation and measured. In the fig.12c reference and

assessing the selected power switch and absorbing circuit is simulation speed signals are given at the beginning of the

appropriate, on the other hand assessing control strategy and simulation. In the fig.12d command signal of machine

algorithm is appropriate. operation is at 0.04s.

600

C. Step response of DTPPMBLM reference speed

simulation speed

The system working in dynamic operation state under the 400

rated dc-bus voltage of 270V, and a ±3000r/min step signal is

Speed/(r/min)

response of speed for the dual channel machine is shown in

0

Fig. 12a and 12b. Simulation and experiment results show that

the response time from +3000 to -3000 for the machine does -200

not exceed 50ms.

-400

-600

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

Time/(ms)

Fig. 12c Simulated DTPPMBLM frequency response

616

600 Critical Aerospace Application,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no.

reference speed

9, pp. 3532-3541, Sep 2012.

measured speed

400 [5] H. Asada and K. Youcef-Toumi, Direct Drive Robots: Theory and

Practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987.

200 [6] N. A. Demerdash, T. W. Nehl, and E. Maslowski, “Dynamic modeling of

Speed/(r/min)

actuation by digital techniques,” in IEEEIIAS Conf. Rec. (Cincinnati),

0

1980, pp. 570-579.

[7] P. Muir and C. Neuman, “Pulsewidth modulation control of brushless dc

-200 motors for robotic applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. IE-32,

no. 3, pp. 222-229, Aug. 1985.

-400 [8] S. Murugesan, “An overview of electric motors for space applications,”

IEEE Trans. Ind. Elect. Contr. Instrum., vol. IECI-28, no. 4, Nov. 1981.

-600 [9] M. Ilic-Spong, R. Marino, S. M. Peresada, and D. G. Taylor, “Feedback

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

Time/s linearizing control of switched reluctance motors,’’ IEEE Trans.

Automat. Contr., vol. AC-32, no. 5, pp. 371-379, May 1987.

Fig. 12d Measured DTPPMBLM frequency response [10] M. Ilic-Spong, T. J . E. Miller, S. R. MacMinn, and 1. S. Thorp,

“Instantaneous torque control of electric motor devices,” IEEE Trans.

VI. CONCLUSIONS Power Electron., vol. PE-2, no. I , pp. 55-61, Jan. 1987.

[11] A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, and S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery.

The design challenges for having an EMA by an electrical New York: McGraw-Hill. 1983, 4th ed.

machine. It is shown that the EMA improves reliability, [12] P. C. Krause, Analysis of Electric Machinery. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill,

1986.

reduces weight, and provides a more compact system. A high [13] D. C. Youla and J. J. Bongiorno, Jr., “A floquet theory of the general

degree of fault tolerance can be achieved through proper rotating machine,” IEEE Trans. Circuih Syst., vol. CAS-27, no. 1, pp.

machine design and by adopting a suitable postfault control 15-19, Jan. 1980.

strategy. Concentrated wound machines offer numerous

advantages in terms of torque density and fault tolerant

capabilities and are shown to be a suitable choice for EMA.

Alternate teeth windings offer physical separation between

phases, which is indispensable for a fault tolerant machine.

These types of machine, however, suffer from increased losses

due to higher stator winding harmonics and perform worse

than the machines with all teeth wound when the machines are

heavily loaded or when operating with phase faults.

An analytical and experimental study of DTPPMBLM has

been presented. A method for constructing the DTPPMBLM

model, which accounts for magnetic saturation and reluctance

variation effects, has been presented. Based on a piecewise

linear magnetic structure, an experimental procedure has been

outlined and implemented to identify the parameters

describing the characteristics of the DTPPMBLM. Using the

experimental data obtained from torque and phase current

measurements, a mathematical model of the torque was

obtained by solving the corresponding least squares problem.

The accuracy of the resulting mathematical model was

successfully checked against independent experimental

measurements.

VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported by the Key Project of National

Natural Science Foundation of China (51177125).

VIII. REFERENCES

[1] Wenping. Cao, B. C. Mecrow, G. J. Atkinson, J. W. Bennett, D. J.

Atkinson, “Overview of Electric Machine Technologies Used for More

Electric Aircraft (MEA),” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 9, pp.

3523 – 3531, Sept. 2012.

[2] S. De, M. Rajne, S. Poosapati, C. Patel, K. Gopakumar, “Low-

inductance axial flux BLDC machine drive for more electric aircraft,”

IET Power Electron., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 124 – 133, January 2012.

[3] J. A. Rosero, J. A. Ortega, E. Aldabas, L. Romeral, “Moving towards a

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[4] Xiaoyan Huang, Andrew Goodman, Chris Gerada, Youtong Fang, and

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