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A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Traction Applications

of Electric Vehicles
Y.K. Chin, J. Soulard
Royal Inshtute of Technology (KTH)
Depiutment of Electrical Engineering
Permanent Magnet Drives (PMD) Research Group
Stockholm, Sweden

a) SPM b) IPM
A6shrcl- This paper presents the design of a Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motor @MSM) for traction applications dr
of electric vehicles (EVs). The design is based on the stator
geometry of an existing commercial available induction traction
motor. The rotor configurationsconsidered in this study are the
surface mounted magnet (SPM) and the inset permanent
magnet (PM) types. Both designs are investigated for the
identical specVlePtion and their overall performances are
compared with the existing asynchronous motors. A lehematic
block diagram of the design flow chart applied is illustrated. An
analytical approach for calcnlatiag stator iron loss 11) is applied Non-saIienC Ld=L, SdienL: L, >L,
in the design procedure to ensure the required performance is
reached A t h e d analysis of the prototype motor based on the Fig. 1. Rotor configuratim8tudied: a) Surface Mounted PM (SPM);
lnmped-circnit model and 5nite element analysis is also b) h e t PM (IF’M)
presented. Lastly, condndonr on the overall performance of losses, are particular indispensable for drives with a deep-
PMSMs for electric vehide applicationsare made and discussed.
field weakening range. The analytical approach applied to
I. INTRODUCTION predict iron losses in the design procedures is based on the
proposed models in [I]. Two thermal design packages,
With the worldwide trend to energy conservation, there is a Motor-CAD [4] and FE- [ 5 ] , are also Used in
need to increase the efftciency of electrical macbine drives, insight of &ere the thermal design can be compromised and
pdcularly a.c. drives. The recent advancements of foreseeing the thermal “hot-spot” within the design. The
permanent magnet (PM) materials, solid-state devices and expected performances of the PMSM prototype motor are
microelectronics have contributed to new energy eEcienf compared with the existiag induction motor drive.
high performance electric drives that use modern PM
brushless or synchronous motols. Owing to rare-earth PMs, 11. DESIGN
these motors present higher efficiency, power factor, power
density and better dynamic performance than asynchronous A. Stator Geomehy
motors without sacrificing reliability [2]. It has also been The PMSM designs in this study are based on the existing
shown that these motors can be operated over a wide constant induction motor stator geometry, the stator outside diameter
power speed range [3]. Not surprisingly, a vast amount of is 188mm and the machine active length is 165 mm. The
attention has been given to these motors in a variety of induction motor stator geometry can be refmed to Fig. AI in
automotive applications, e.g. traction applications of electric Appendix. A.
This paper deals with the design and veritication of B. Performance CharacteristicsRequired
PMSMs for the electric vehicle propulsion applications. The The performance characteristics of the induction motor
design study is based on the stator geomehy of an existing drive are shown in Fig. 2. The desired performance of the
asynchnous truck motor. Two rotor types studied in the PMSM prototype is expected to at least meet the rated
design are the slnface mounted PM (SPM) and inset PM electromagnetic torque and power specifications. Padcular
(PM)configurations. as depicted in Fig. 1. In order to attentions are focused when the motor is opting above the
achieve the required overall performance of the drive. various rated speed in constant power or field-weakening region.
operating loss estimations are embedded into the design
procedure. The predictions of these losses, especially iron

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s m ,p."., : I
.. - .
/.Jl l D 0

Fig. 2. Pezformance charsctnisticsof the induman motor drive

Fig. 4. Phasor diagram of PMSMs in d-q axis represmtation.

Conriani Power Speed Range (CPSR) with a figure of 2.51 is B. Field-weakening and Moior Model
necessary and CPSR is defined as the ratio of the d u m
operating speed over the rated speed of the motor. This Fig. 4 shows a phasor diagram of a salient PMSM in d-and
implies that a maximum operating speed of about 3900RPM q-axes representation. A '%edexcitationflu " from magnets
is required. The proposed intermittent drive cycle is descrikd is constantly present in PMSMs, flux control or field-
as illushated in Fig. 3. weakening is achieved'by introducing an imposing field
against this 6xed excitation field. The magnitude of the
m.THEORY imposing field is directly controlled by the current angle y
and d-axis current Id increases or decreases as y varies. when
A. Torque and EMF of PMM operating at rated voltage above the rated speed, the voltage
can be expressed as
The electromagnetic torque developed by a PMSM can be
expressed as a function of the angle (@+U)between the d-axis
(excitation magnetic flux @,axis) and the armature current I.,
as shown in (1). where o is the electrical speed in radians per second.
A schematic diagram of an inverter fed PMSM is depicted
Td =k,@,l,sin(B+y) (1) in Fig. 5. The basic voltage current relations can be described

I where LIis
where k, is the torque constant. For N I ~tums,
the winding factor, the rms EMF is R , O O i , L M M i ,
V, = 0 R, 0 i, +s. M L M is + e,
0 0 RIi] [M M d [ i ] []

where R, winding resistance per phase

where kE is the EMF constant. L self inductance per phase
M mutual inductance between phases

e per phase EMF
Speed Acceleration Y perphasevoltage
Gonstant smed ! Deceleration S Laplace o p t o r

In the study, a dc voltage V k source of 48 volts is assumed

and the fundamental line-to-line rms voltage Ybum, is
I1 1 *
209 r"time (5)
Fig.3. Reposed in&tial drive cycle.

Fig. 5. Lnvater fed PMSMs

when the inverter is operating in a square-wave mode. The

peak phase voltage Vpbe available is then

9.e (D.".)
Fig. 7. Torque-speed characteristics in the field-weakeningregion
(+3mm, 2~1ZO'elec.aod Im is Mlyi.p).

A. Parmeter Study
As aforementioned, the possibility of using an existing
induction motor stator geometry is explored in this study.
Subsequently, the winding confignration of the PMSM
prototype is identical to the one used in induction motor (M).
With this respect of the study, focus has been only placed on
the three geometric parametem:
- S i of the air gap. 6.
- Thickness of the mapet, Im.
- Magnet span / coverage, 2a.
The influences of these parametem on the torque-speed
performance characteristic are illustrated in Fig. 6 Fig. 8.-
The comparison in performance between SPM and IPM is
presented in Fig. 9. It can be noted that IPM design has a
higher rated torque. This is due to the additional reluctance
torque generated from the rotor saliency.

....... ~.


Fig. 6. Torquespeed characteristics in the field-weakening region

(Iwz".2~120'elec.and 6 is varying).

B. Magnet Protection investigation. The thermal model of Motor-CAD is based on
When the motor is operated at maximum load condition, the lumped-circuit analysis, and FEMLAB is based on the
the linear current density in the stator must be constrained so f d t e element analysis (FEA). The motor is natural cooled as
that no demagnetization of the magnet occurs. According to in the case of the existing induction motor drive. Fig. 10
Slemon [6], the criterion for magnet protection fiom the shows the duty cycle used in Motor-CAD for the analysis.
demagnetisation by the armature reaction can be derived fiom The temperatwe rise in various parts of the motor after 10
the flux density waveform in the air gap as minutes operation is presented in Fig. 11 .


as the maxi“ value of the sinusoidally distributed air gap

flux density &om the stator current. Hence, the linear current
density (in RMS value) constraint is given by

Fig. 10. Motor-CAD duly cycle editor.

where h i s introduced as safety margin.

C. Number of Turnsper slot
As mentioned previously in section III, and shown in
Fig.4, the magnitude of the voltage phasor above the rated
speed can be expressed as (3). Hence, the number of turns per
slot ns can be calculated as

n*Z = V‘ (10)
I(~,q~,~,~w-=,n,~.siny,)’+ ( c , n , ~ . c o s y , ) ’


Fig. 11. Temperame rise after 10 minutes.

In this section, the thermal analysis used in the design
. -..
.D . .
process is described Two commercially available thermal
design packages, Motor-CAD and FEMLAB, are used in om

Fig. 11 illustrates the end-winding temperature distribution
from a 3D FEMLAB simulation. Strengths and weaknesses
of the two approaches can be found in [7].

A schematic of the design flow chart applied in this study
is depicted in Fig. 12. With the given drive specifications and
the stator geometry, paramenic studies on motor
performances are canied out for both SPM and IPM designs,
as described in section W . Demagnetization check with a
certain safety margin is used to ensure the absolute magnet

In this section, the details of an IPM prototype motor built Fig. 13. Testing t a c h .
are presented. Fig. 13 shows the various parts of the motor.
The back EMF at no load condition at rated speed of 1500 Muck W W m p . t o m
rpm is depicted in Fig. 14.
A. Meamremenis
Cogging torque is measured and compared with the results
firm the FEM simulations, as shown in Fig. 15. The
measured no load iron loss is compared with the FEM results
and analytical predictions. As shown in Fig. 16, analytical
predictions represent a good trend or best-fit curve of the
measurement values. However, larger discrepancies up to
20% are noted. This is expected due to the errors in the
measurement setup and assumptions made in calculating the
windage and friction losses.

Configurations Specificatiow


Pole numbas, Air gap size

Magnet thiches I

Prototype evaluation:
designs Losses measurements

Fig. 12. ‘Ibe schematic of the design flow chart.

stator fill factor
fundamentalback EMF
magnet flux
fundamental flux per pole
d-axis inductance
Lq q-axis inductance
id d-axis current
q-axis c u m n t
rated voltage
w angular frequency in radians p a second
B. remanent flux density
demagnetizationflux density
number of stator slots
pole numbers
air permeability
relative permeability
stator bore diameter




Bp.d IDUI 9.d I P I

Fig. 17. Expeaed pcrfonnance afthe promlyp motor.

This study addressed the design of PMSMs for the tmction
of electric vehicles. The designs are based on an existing
induction motor stator geometry. Performances of the
prototype are expected to be superior over the induction
motor. An IPM prototype motor has been built and more
thoroughly measurements are still undertaking. These results

will be further reported in a future study.


t fundmental stator winding factor -5, &: ,? 1
g. equivalentairgap
4 number of slots per pole per phase Fig. Al. Staforgmmetry.
Dh stator inner diameter / bore diameter
L active length ACKNOWLEDGMEXT
B6 peak air gap flux density
S linear cumnt loading Authors would l i e to thank Dr. D.A.Staton and Mr. E.
1. magnet tbichess Nordlund for their technical support in using Motor-CAD and
NI number of turns per phase FEMLAB.


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surface mounted permaneot magnet synchronousmoton, Proe. of
IEEE IAS 36” annual meeting 2001, ~01.4,pp 2585-2591.
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1SBN.0-8247-9794-9,Marcel De&=, New Yak, 1997.
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Magwi~e, Penton Mdeia, Cleveland,ZOO0
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