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8/31/2009

Summary

The DOE Wizard can construct designs for studying the effects of quantitative or categorical

(non-quantitative) factors. A simple yet extremely important example arises when there is a

single categorical factor. In such a case, the wizard will generate runs at each level of that factor.

In addition, one or more blocking factors may be included in the design. The wizard is capable of

generating:

2. randomized block designs

3. balanced incomplete block (BIB) designs

Example

The example described in this documentation comes from Box, Hunter and Hunter (1978). They

describe an experiment performed to compare the effect of 7 treatments (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G)

on the wearing quality of a particular material. Unfortunately, the machine used to measure wear

could only accommodate 4 samples during any one run. Expecting potential differences between

runs of the machine, they wished to treat the runs as a blocking variable in order to reduce any

possible confounding of run-to-run differences with differences between the treatments.

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Design Creation

To begin the design creation process, start with an empty StatFolio. Select DOE – Experimental

Design Wizard to load the DOE Wizard’s main window. Then push each button in sequence to

create the design.

The first step of the design creation process displays a dialog box used to specify the response

variables. For the current example, there is a single response variable:

Impact: The relative importance of each response (not relevant if only one response).

Sensitivity: The importance of being close to the best desired value (in this case, the

Minimum). Setting Sensitivity to Medium implies that the desirability attributed to the

response decreases linearly between the Minimum and Maximum values indicated.

Minimum and Maximum: Range of desirable values for the response (200 - 400).

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Step #2 – Define Experimental Factors

The second step displays a dialog box on which to specify the factors that will be varied. In the

current example, there is only one factor:

Type – Set the type of factor to Categorical, since there is a discrete set of possible values

for treatment.

Levels – identify the levels of the factor, separating each level by a comma.

The third step begins by displaying the dialog box shown below:

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Since all of the factors are controllable process factors, only one Options button is enabled.

Pressing that button displays a second dialog box:

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Design Type: The following types of designs may be available, depending upon the number

of levels of the experimental factor:

taken from each of the q levels, with no attempt to account for the effects of any other

factor.

from each treatment at two or more levels of a blocking or nuisance factor. Block effects

are included in the model to reduce the magnitude of the experimental error.

variable where the number of treatments in each block is less than q. If k treatments can

q

be run in each block, the design requires blocks, which represents the number of

k

ways of choosing k items out of q.

4. Small BIB - a Balanced Incomplete Block design in which the number of blocks is less

than that required by a full combinatoric BIB. These designs are only available for certain

combinations of the number of factor levels and the block size.

Runs at each factor level - the number of runs to be performed at each level of the factor.

Block size - for BIB designs, the number of treatments that can be tested in each block.

Based on the selected design, the dialog box calculates and displays the total number of runs

(tests) to be performed, the number of blocks, and the degrees of freedom that will be available

to estimate the experimental error. Note that the degrees of freedom are calculated assuming that

the blocking factors do not interact with the main experimental factor, which is the usual

assumption.

The dialog box above requests a small BIB design capable of testing four treatments in a single

block. As indicated, a design is available in 7 blocks (runs of the machine). A total of 28 tests

will be performed, meaning that each of the 7 materials will be included in 4 blocks.

When OK is pressed, the tentatively selected design is displayed in the Select Design dialog box:

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Note that the runs are divided into blocks of size 4, with 4 different treatments appearing in each

block. Each treatment appears a total of 4 times. Each pair of treatments appears together in the

same block twice.

If the design is acceptable, press OK to save it to the STATGRAPHICS DataBook and return to

the DOE Wizard’s main window, which should now contain a summary of the design:

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Before evaluating the properties of the design, a tentative model must be specified. Pressing the

fourth button on the DOE Wizard’s toolbar displays a dialog box to make that choice:

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For designs with a single categorical factor, the only useful model includes effects due to

differences between levels of that factor.

Since we intend to run all of the runs in the base design, this step can be omitted.

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Design Properties

Several of the selections presented when pressing button #6 are helpful in evaluating the selected

design:

Design Worksheet

The design worksheet shows the 28 runs that have been created, in the order they are to be run:

run block treatment wear

weight loss

1 1 C

2 1 D

3 1 F

4 1 G

5 2 A

6 2 B

7 2 F

8 2 G

9 3 B

10 3 D

11 3 E

12 3 G

13 4 A

14 4 C

15 4 E

16 4 G

17 5 B

18 5 C

19 5 E

20 5 F

21 6 A

22 6 D

23 6 E

24 6 F

25 7 A

26 7 B

27 7 C

28 7 D

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ANOVA Table

The ANOVA table shows the breakdown of the degrees of freedom in the design:

ANOVA Table

Source D.F.

Blocks 6

Model 6

Total Error 15

Lack-of-fit 0

Pure error 15

Total (corr.) 27

6 of the 27 total degrees of freedom are used to estimate the differences between treatments,

while another 6 are used to account for block effects. 15 degrees of freedom are left to estimate

the experimental error.

Model Coefficients

Model Coefficients

Coefficient Standard Error VIF Ri-Squared SN = 0.5 SN = 1.0 SN = 2.0

A 0.494872 1.71429 0.416667 7.61% 15.73% 47.26%

A 0.494872 1.71429 0.416667 7.61% 15.73% 47.26%

A 0.494872 1.71429 0.416667 7.61% 15.73% 47.26%

A 0.494872 1.71429 0.416667 7.61% 15.73% 47.26%

A 0.494872 1.71429 0.416667 7.61% 15.73% 47.26%

A 0.494872 1.71429 0.416667 7.61% 15.73% 47.26%

alpha = 5.0%, sigma estimated from total error with 15 d.f.

Since there are 7 levels of factor A, 6 indicator variables are used in the underlying regression

model to represent differences between treatments. Those 6 variables are defined as:

This coding is convenient since the sum of each variable across the 28 runs equals 0, which sets

the constant term in the model to the grand mean of all the treatments.

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Design Points

The graph of the design points shows that each treatment is run the same number of times

(4):

3

Number of runs

0

A B C D E F G

Once the experiment has been created and any additional runs entered, it must be saved on disk.

Press the button labeled Step 7 and select a name for the experiment file:

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Design files are extended data files and have the extension .sgx. They include the data together

with other information that was entered on the input dialog boxes.

To reopen an experiment file, select Open Data File from the File menu. The data will be loaded

into the datasheet, and the Experimental Design Wizard window will be displayed.

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After the design file has been created and saved, the experiments would be performed. At a later

date, once the results have been collected, the experimenter would return to STATGRAPHICS

and reopen the saved design file using the Open Data Source selection on the main File menu.

The results can then be typed into the response columns. The results for the example are

displayed below:

weight loss

1 1 C 627

2 1 D 248

3 1 F 563

4 1 G 252

5 2 A 344

6 2 B 233

7 2 F 442

8 2 G 226

9 3 B 251

10 3 D 211

11 3 E 160

12 3 G 297

13 4 A 337

14 4 C 537

15 4 E 195

16 4 G 300

17 5 B 278

18 5 C 520

19 5 E 199

20 5 F 595

21 6 A 369

22 6 D 196

23 6 E 185

24 6 F 606

25 7 A 396

26 7 B 240

27 7 C 602

28 7 D 273

Once the data have been entered, press the button labeled Step #8 on the Experimental Design

Wizard toolbar. This will display a dialog box listing each of the response variables:

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selected.

If more than one response has been measured, you should repeat this step once for each response.

1. The Oneway ANOVA procedure for a completely randomized design with no blocking

variables.

2. The Multifactor ANOVA procedure for the designs containing one or more blocking

variables.

Of particular interest in the current example are several tables and graphs:

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ANOVA Table

This table is used to judge whether or not there are statistically significant differences between

the levels of the experimental factor:

Source Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F-Ratio P-Value

MAIN EFFECTS

A:BLOCK 14570.1 6 2428.35 1.65 0.2015

B:treatment 506799. 6 84466.4 57.40 0.0000

RESIDUAL 22071.4 15 1471.43

TOTAL (CORRECTED) 626265. 27

All F-ratios are based on the residual mean square error.

A small P-value for factor A (less than 0.05 if operating at the 5% significance level) indicates

that there are significant differences between treatments. In the current example, the differences

are highly significant. Of secondary interest is the P-value for BLOCK. Since the P-value in the

above table is greater than 0.05, the block effects are not statistically significant, meaning that

there were not large differences between runs of the wear testing machine.

Graphical ANOVA

A new method for illustrating the differences between blocks and treatments, from Hunter

(2005), is shown below:

C

E D B G A F

treatment P = 0.0000

3 5

2 4 6 17

BLOCK P = 0.2015

Residuals

-260 -160 -60 40 140 240 340

The plot shows the scaled deviations of the block and treatment averages from the grand mean,

together with the model residuals. Scaling is such that, if a factor has no effect, the variation

observed should be comparable to that of the residuals. Note that the variation among blocks is

well within that observed for the residuals, with the possible exception of block #2. Note also

that treatment E shows the least wear, although other some other treatments are relatively close.

Means Plot

The Means Plot can be used to determine which treatments are significantly different from which

others. Because of the large number of treatments, the plot below shows the treatment means

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with Tukey HSD intervals, which allows the experimenter to compare all pairs of treatments

with an experiment-wide error rate of 5%:

800

600

wear

400

200

0

A B C D E F G

treatment

Treatment E showed the least wear on average. However, since its interval overlaps those of

treatments B, D and G, it cannot be declared to be significantly better than any of those 3 other

treatments.

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Table of Means

The Table of Means shows the least squares means for each treatment and block:

Table of Least Squares Means for wear with 95.0% Confidence Intervals

Stnd. Lower Upper

Level Count Mean Error Limit Limit

GRAND MEAN 28 345.786

BLOCK

1 4 364.714 20.32 321.403 408.025

2 4 292.286 20.32 248.975 335.597

3 4 340.929 20.32 297.618 384.24

4 4 340.786 20.32 297.475 384.097

5 4 355.429 20.32 312.118 398.74

6 4 353.286 20.32 309.975 396.597

7 4 373.071 20.32 329.76 416.382

treatment

A 4 367.429 20.32 324.118 410.74

B 4 255.857 20.32 212.546 299.168

C 4 558.786 20.32 515.475 602.097

D 4 219.786 20.32 176.475 263.097

E 4 182.929 20.32 139.618 226.24

F 4 555.857 20.32 512.546 599.168

G 4 279.857 20.32 236.546 323.168

The least squares treatment means equal the estimated mean response for each treatment,

evaluated for an average block. Since each treatment was not run in each block, the least squares

means are NOT the same as the observed means of the 4 runs for each treatment. Instead, the

means have been adjusted to compensate for the blocks in which they did not appear.

Each mean is shown together with its standard error and 95% confidence limits.

Optimization

Once a statistical model has been developed for each response, the analyst may now determine

what combination of factors will yield the best results. Pressing the button labeled Step #9 on the

Experimental Design Wizard toolbar instructs the program to examine each treatment and find

the treatment that maximizes the joint desirability of the estimated responses. When the

optimization is complete, a message similar to that shown below will be displayed:

The dialog box indicates the “Desirability” of the final result, based on a metric designed to

balance competing requirements of multiple responses (see the document titled DOE Wizard for

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full details). The value displayed in this case indicates that the predicted wear for the best

treatment is below 200, which was the desired minimum specified when the design was created.

If you press OK, additional information will be added to the main DOE Wizard window:

Response Values at Optimum

Response Prediction Lower 95.0% Limit Upper 95.0% Limit Desirability

wear 182.929 139.618 226.24 1.0

Factor Setting

treatment E

The table shows that the estimated wear for the best treatment (treatment E) equals 182.9, with a

95% confidence interval for the mean that ranges between 139.6 and 226.2.

If you push the Tables and Graphs button on the analysis toolbar, you can display the estimated

desirability for each treatment by selecting the Desirability Plot:

Desirability Plot

0.8

Desirability

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

A B C D E F G

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Step 10: Save results

The button labeled Step 10 allows you to save the results in a StatFolio:

Actually, the StatFolio can be saved at any point and reloaded at a later date.

IMPORTANT: When using the Experimental Design Wizard, two files are created:

1. An experiment file with the extension .sgd which stores information about the

experimental data.

2. A StatFolio with the extension .sgp that stores the results of the analysis.

If you move the experiment to another computer, be sure to transfer both files.

2009 by StatPoint Technologies, Inc. DOE Wizard – Single Factor Categorical Designs - 19

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