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A MINOR PROJECT

ON

“MAKING FLY ASH BRICK USING SUGARCANE HUSK”


SUBMITTED TO

VISHWAVIDYALYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE LAKHANPUR SURGUJA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS

FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED
BY
NITESH KUMAR PATEL
UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF
DR. N.P. DEWANGAN
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR (CIVIL ENGINEERING)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


VISHWAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE LAKHANPUR
SARGUJA UNIVERSITY AMBIKAPUR – 497001, CHHATTISGARH
2017-2018
A MINOR PROJECT
ON
“MAKING FLY ASH BRICK USING SUGARCANE HUSK”
SUBMITTED TO
VISHWAVIDYALYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE LAKHANPUR
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED
BY
NITESH KUMAR PATEL
UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF
DR. N.P. DEWANGAN
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR (CIVIL ENGINEERING)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


VISHWAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE LAKHANPUR
SARGUJA UNIVERSITY AMBIKAPUR – 497001,
CHHATTISGARH
2017-2018

,
SURGUJA UNIVERSITY, AMBIKAPUR (C.G.)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify the project entitled “MAKING FLY ASH BRICK
USING SUGARCANE HUSK” submitted by and Nitesh Kumar Patel
(59600) for award of bachelor of engineering in civil engineering at
vishwavidyalya engineering college lakhanpur is prepared by him under
my supervision and guidance.

Signature of the guide


Dr. N.P. Dewangan
ASST. PROFESSOR. (CIVIL ENGINEERING)

(Signature of the H.O.D. with seal) (Signature with seal)


Mr. Dinesh Sen Dr. R.N. Khare
H. O. D. (CIVIL ENGINEERING) PRINCIPAL
SURGUJA UNIVERSITY, AMBIKAPUR (C.G.)

EXAMINER’S BY THE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify the project Dissertation work by Nitesh Kumar Patel


(59600) entitled “MAKING FLY ASH BRICK USING SUGARCANE
HUSK” is accepted in partial fulfillment of the degree of bachelor of
engineering in civil engineering at vishwavidyalya engineering college
lakhanpur

Internal examiner External examiner

Date: Date:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, we would like to express our deepest gratitude to our supervisor
Dr. N. P. Dewangan, Assistant Professor (civil engineering), VEC
Lakhanpur, for their invaluable technical guidance and moral support
throughout our research. We found our research and work place so enjoyable
because of their invaluable supervision and constant encouragement. Both has
been and will be always a source of inspiration for us. Their contributions in
our professional life are beyond any measure and description.

We wish to convey sincere appreciation to all committee members. We are


very thankful Mr. Dinesh Sen, H.O.D, and Assistant Professor (Civil
engineering) VEC Lakhanpur for helping us in understanding the membrane
shell theory. Whenever I felt a dead-end in the structural analysis part of our
research, he was there to show us a new path.

In addition, we would like to thank to all faculty members of dept. Of civil


engineering, vishvidyalaya engineering college lakhanpur

SUBMITTED BY

Nitesh Kumar Patel

BE Project Scholars

Department of civil Engineering

Vishwavidyalaya Engineering College lakhanpur,

Sarguja University, Ambikapur (CG)


ABSTRACT

As we all know that the waste from the industries is very harmful
for the environment as well as to our health, if not disposed in
proper manner. The fibrous residue of sugarcane after crushing and
extraction of its juice, known as “bagasse” is one of the largest
agriculture residues in the world. The bagasse is however used as a
biomass fuel for boilers, but after burning the by-product left is of
no use and generally disposed into the rivers which affects the
health of human being, environment, fertile land, sources of water
bodies etc. Depending on the incinerating conditions, the resulting
sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) may contain high levels of SiO2 and
Al2O3.Uses of Sugarcane bagasse ash waste in brick can save the
sugarcane industry disposal costs and produce a ‘greener’ bricks for
construction. In this research the bagasse ash, lime, quarry dust and
scrap can be used as the replacement of clay and sand in the burnt
clay bricks. The different proportions of the bagasse ash, lime,
quarry dust and scrap are taken and bricks can be manufactured.
After the full manufacturing process the bricks are to be tested in the
laboratory and results are analyzed regarding the water absorption
and compressive strength. The aim of this research was to make
economical and green bricks to maintain environmental balance and
avoid problem of ash disposal.
CONTENTS

~RECOMMENDATION
~CERTIFICATE
~AKNOWLEDGEMENT
~ABSTRACT
~CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 OBJECT
2. PROCEDURE MAKING OF BRICK
3. TEST OF BRICK
3.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BRICK

3.2. WATER ABSORPTION TEST OF BRICK

3.3 EFFLORESCENCE

3.4. DIMENTIONAL TEST

4. CONCLUSION
5. REFERENCES
CHAPTER NO. -01

INTRODUCTION

Fly ash brick using sugarcane husk are manufactured using major
percentage of fly ash generated from thermal power station. Sugarcane
husk generated from sugar factory. Other raw materials used along
with fly ash lime and calcined gypsum.

Fly ash is s fine, glass-like powder recovered from coal-fired electric


power generation. They consist mostly of silicon dioxide (SiO2),
aluminum oxide (Al2O3 ) and iron oxide (Fe2O3).

Bagasse is the fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane or sorghum


stalks are crushed to extract their juice. It is dry pulpy residue left after
the extraction of juice from sugar cane. Bagasse is used as a bio-fuel
and in the manufacture of pulp and building material.

1.1 OBJECT OF THE PROJECT


To manufacture of fly ash brick using sugarcane husk.
CHAPTER NO. -02
PROCEDURE OF BRICK MAKING

CEMENT + SAND + FLY ASH

ADDING SUGARCANE HUSK ASH


MIXING SUGARCANE HUSK

ADDING WATER
FILLING IN MOULD

BRICK IS READY
CHAPTER NO -03

TEST OF BRICK

1. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BRICK

Objective

For determination of compressive strength of bricks

Equipment & Apparatus

 Compression Testing Machine


 Scale for measuring dimension of brick

Procedure

1. Unevenness observed in the bed faces of bricks is removed to


provide two smooth and parallel faces by grinding. It is immersed in
water at room temperature for 24 h.

2. The specimen is then removed and any surplus moisture is


drained out at room temperature. The frog and all voids in the bed face
is filled with cement mortar (1 cement, clean coarse sand of grade 3
mm and down). It is stored under the damp jute bags for 24 h followed
by immersion in clean water for 3 days

3. The specimen is placed with flat faces horizontal, and mortar


filled face facing upwards between two 3 ply plywood sheets each of 3
mm thickness and carefully centered between plates of testing
machine.

4. Load is applied axially at a uniform rate of 4.38 N/mm2 per


minute till failure occurs. The maximum load at failure is noted down.
The load at failure is considered the maximum load at which the
specimen fails to

Calculation
=75000/17100

=4.38 N/mm2

Reports

Two numbers of bricks should be tested and the average value is


reported.

Safety & Precautions

 Safety shoes should be used at the time of testing.


 Before testing, CTM machine should be properly checked.
2. WATER ABSORPTION TEST OF BRICK

Objective

For determination of water absorption of bricks

Equipment & Apparatus

 Balance (0-10 kg)

Procedure

1. The specimen is dried in a ventilated oven at a temperature of 105


to 1150C; till it attains substantially constant mass. The specimen is
cooled to room temperature and its weight is recorded (M1)

2. The dried specimen is immersed completely in clean water at a


room temperature of 27±20C for 24 hours.

3. The specimen is then removed and any traces of water are wiped
out with a damp cloth and the specimen is weighed. The weighing is
completed 3min after the specimen has removed from water(M2)

Calculation

Water absorption, percent by mass after 24 hours immersion in cold


water is given by the following formula

Water absorption = (2898-2650) X 100)/2650

=9.35%

Reports

The water absorption of brick shall be reported to the nearest one


percent.

Safety & Precautions


 Use hand gloves while removing containers from oven after
switching off the oven.

Thoroughly clean & dry the container before

=9.35%

 testing.
 Special care should be taken that no outer air enters when using
the balance.
 To wear safety shoes & apron at the time of test.
3. EFFLORESCENCE

This test should be conducted in a well ventilated room. The brick is


placed vertically in a dish 30 cm x 20 cm approximately in size with
2.5 cm immersed in distilled water. The whole water is allowed to be
absorbed by the brick and evaporated through it. After the bricks
appear dry, a similar quantity of water is placed in the dish, and the
water is allowed to evaporate as before. The brick is to be examined
after the second evaporation and reported as follows:

 Nil: When there is no perceptible deposit of salt


 Slight: When not more than 10% of the area of brick is covered
with salt
 Moderate: When there is heavy deposit covering 50% of the area
of the brick but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface.
 Heavy: When there is heavy deposit covering more than 50% of
the area of the brick accompanied by powdering or flaking of the
surface.
 Serious: When there is heavy deposit of salts accompanied by
powdering and/or flaking of the surface and this deposition tends to
increase in the repeated wetting of the specimen.

Bricks for general construction should not have more than slight to
moderate efflorescence.
4. DIMENTIONAL TEST

Twenty bricks are selected at random to check measurement of length,


width and height. These dimensions are to be measured in one or two
lots of ten each as shown in figure. Variation in dimensions are allowed
only within narrow limits, ±3% for class one and ±8% for other
classes.

Dimension Test on Brick


CHAPTER NO -04
CONCLUSION

Finnaly I got the fly ash brick using sugarcane husk.


CHAPTER NO -05
REFRENCE
1. Building material by S.K. DUGGAL “NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL
PUBLISHERS”

2. Internet resource- Wikipedia