sensor data
flow rate function Q(ρ)
0
0 density ρ ρmax
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 2 / 69
References for Further Reading
Overview
6 Traffic Networks
Overview
6 Traffic Networks
- - - - -
Microscopic description
individual vehicle
trajectories
vehicle position: xj (t)
vehicle velocity:
dx
ẋj (t) = dtj (t)
acceleration: ẍj (t)
Macroscopic description
field quantities, Micro view distinguishes vehicles;
defined everywhere macro view does not.
vehicle density: ρ(x, t) Traffic flow has intrinsic irreproducibility.
velocity field: u(x, t) No hope to describe/predict precise vehicle
trajectories via models [also, privacy
flow-rate field:
issues]. But, prediction of large-scale field
f (x, t) = ρ(x, t)u(x, t)
quantities may be possible.
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 9 / 69
Fundamentals of Traffic Flow Theory Micro vs. Macro
sensor data
flow rate function Q(ρ)
3
[This was only 25 years after the first Ford Model T (1908)]
0
0 density ρ ρmax
[Fundamental Diagram of Traffic Flow]
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 14 / 69
Fundamentals of Traffic Flow Theory Fundamental Diagram
sensor data
everywhere in the world:
flow rate function Q(ρ)
3
• f = Q(ρ) for ρ small (free-flow)
• for ρ sufficiently large (congestion),
Flow rate Q (veh/sec)
2 FD becomes set-valued
• set-valued part: f decreases with ρ
1
sensor data
f = Q(ρ), e.g.: Greenshields (quadratic),
flow rate function Q(ρ)
Daganzo-Newell (piecewise linear) flux
3
2
−→ traffic phase theory [Kerner 1996–2002]
• explanation of spread via “imperfections”:
1 sensor noise, driver inhomogeneities, etc.
[(smoothed) Daganzo-Newell Flux]
• study of models that reproduce spread
0
0 density ρ ρmax (esp. second-order models)
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 15 / 69
Fundamentals of Traffic Flow Theory Fundamental Diagram
d
cu
0.5 flo
w
low
0.4 0.4
ef
Fre
0.3
0.2 0.2
0.1
0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
density ρ / ρmax density ρ / ρmax
Overview
6 Traffic Networks
One can study traffic flow empirically, i.e., observe and classify what one
sees and measures.
So why study traffic models?
Can remove/add specific effects (lane switching, driver/vehicle
inhomogeneities, road conditions, etc.) −→ understand which effects
play which role.
Can study effect of model parameters (driver aggressiveness, etc.).
Can be analyzed theoretically (to a certain extent).
Can use computational resources to simulate.
Yield quantitative predictions (−→ traffic forecasting).
We actually do not really know (exactly) how we drive. Models that
produce correct emergent phenomena help us understand our driving
behavior.
Traffic models can be studied purely theoretically (mathematical
properties). That is fun; but ultimately models must be validated
with real data to investigate how well they reproduce real traffic flow.
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 18 / 69
Traffic Models — An Overview Types of Traffic Models
800
700
positions of vehicles x(t)
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
time t
Combined Model
use computers vj+1 − vj
to solve −→ aj = α + β (V (xj+1 − xj ) − vj )
xj+1 − xj
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 20 / 69
Traffic Models — An Overview Microscopic Traffic Models
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 23 / 69
Traffic Models — An Overview Cellular Traffic Models
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 24 / 69
Traffic Models — An Overview Cellular Traffic Models
Messages
Cellular automaton models are easy to code, and resemble real
jamming behavior. Not much further focus here.
Cell-transmission models will be seen not as separate models, but as
finite volume discretizations of macroscopic models.
Microscopic models converge to macroscopic models as one scales
vehicles smaller and smaller.
First-order models (both micro and macro) exhibit shock
(compression) waves, but no instabilities.
Second-order models (both micro and macro) can have unstable
uniform flow states (phantom traffic jams) that develop into traveling
waves (traffic waves, jamitons).
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 26 / 69
The Lighthill-Whitham-Richards Model
Overview
6 Traffic Networks
ρ ρ
f (ρ) = ρmax 1− ρmax umax
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 28 / 69
The Lighthill-Whitham-Richards Model Evolution in Time
Method of characteristics
ρt + (f (ρ))x = 0
Look at solution along a special curve x(t). At this moving observer:
d
ρ(x(t), t) = ρx ẋ + ρt = ρx ẋ − (f (ρ))x = ρx ẋ − f 0 (ρ)ρx = ẋ − f 0 (ρ) ρx
dt
If we choose ẋ = f 0 (ρ), then solution (ρ) is constant along the curve.
Solution method
Let the initial traffic density ρ(x, 0) = ρ0 (x) be represented by points
(x, ρ0 (x)). Each point evolves according to the characteristic equations
(
ẋ = f 0 (ρ)
ρ̇ = 0
Shocks
The method of characteristics eventually creates breaking waves.
In practice, a shock (= traveling discontinuity) occurs.
Interpretation: Upstream end of a traffic jam.
Note: A shock is a model idealization of a real thin zone of rapid braking.
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 30 / 69
The Lighthill-Whitham-Richards Model Weak Solutions
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 32 / 69
The Lighthill-Whitham-Richards Model Entropy Condition
Problem
For RP with ρL > ρR , many weak solutions for same initial conditions.
Entropy condition
Single out a unique solution (the dynamically stable one −→ vanishing
viscosity limit) via an extra “entropy” condition:
Characteristics must go into shocks, i.e., f 0 (ρL ) > s > f 0 (ρR ).
For LWR (f 00 (ρ) < 0): shocks must satisfy ρL < ρR .
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 33 / 69
The Lighthill-Whitham-Richards Model Exercises
Exercises 1
Explain characteristic speed and shock speed graphically in FD plot.
Exercises 2 & 3
LWR model ρt + f (ρ)x = 0 with Greenshields flux f (ρ) = ρ(1 − ρ).
-x -x
(
0 |x| < 1 0.4
x < −1
ρ0 (x) =
1 |x| ≤ 1 ρ0 (x) = 0.8 |x| ≤ 1
0.2 x >1
Exercise 4
1
What changes if we use Daganzo-Newell flux f (ρ) = 2 − |ρ − 21 |?
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 34 / 69
The Lighthill-Whitham-Richards Model Limitations
Result
The LWR model quite nicely explains
the shape of traffic jams (vehicles run
into a shock).
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 35 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models
Overview
6 Traffic Networks
Payne-Whitham model
(
ρt + (ρu)x =0
(p(ρ))x 1
ut + u ux + ρ = τ (U(ρ) − u)
Examples for traffic pressure:
shallow water type: p(ρ) = β2 ρ2 ⇒ px
ρ = βρx
ρ px βρx
singular at ρm : p(ρ) = −β ρ + ρm log(1 − ρm ) ⇒ ρ = ρm −ρ
Model parameters:
relaxation time τ ( τ1 = aggressiveness of drivers).
anticipation rate β.
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 38 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models PW & ARZ
Payne-Whitham (PW) Model [Whitham 1974], [Payne: Transp. Res. Rec. 1979]
(
ρt + (ρu)x =0
ut + uux + ρ1 p(ρ)x = τ1 (U(ρ) − u)
Parameters: pressure p(ρ); desired velocity function U(ρ); relaxation time τ
0
Second order model; vehicle acceleration: ut + uux = − p ρ(ρ) ρx + τ1 (U(ρ) − u)
Remark
The ARZ model addresses modeling shortcomings of PW (such as: negative
speeds can arise, shocks may overtake vehicles from behind).
However, the arguments regarding instabilities and traffic waves apply to PW and
ARZ in the same fashion. Below, we present things for PW (simpler expressions).
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 39 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Linear Stability Analysis
System of balance !
laws Eigenvalues
ρ u ρ ρ 0
λ1 = u − c dp
+ 1 dp = 1 c2 =
u t ρ dρ u u x τ (U(ρ) − u) λ2 = u + c dρ
Key point
In fact, m and s can not be chosen independently:
Denominator has root at u = s + c. Solution can only pass smoothly
through this singularity (the sonic point), if u = s + c implies U = u.
m
Using u = s + ρ, we obtain for this sonic density ρS that:
(
m
Denominator s+ ρS = s + c(ρS ) =⇒ m = ρS c(ρS )
m
Numerator s+ ρS = U(ρS ) =⇒ s = U(ρS ) − c(ρS )
Algebraic condition (Chapman-Jouguet condition [Chapman, Jouguet (1890)] ) that
relates m and s (and ρS ).
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 43 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Traveling Wave Solution and Jamiton Construction
m
Jamiton ODE (u − s)(U( u−s ) − u)
u0 = 2 m 2
(u − s) − c( u−s )
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 45 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Jamitons in Numerical Simulations
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 46 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Jamitons in Numerical Simulations
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 47 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Jamitons in the Fundamental Diagram
Q(ρ)
ρ = ρ(η), u = u(η), where η = τ ,
yields equilibrium curve
ρt + (uρ)x = 0 sonic point
maximal jamiton
s 1 actual jamiton
− ρ0 + (uρ)0 = 0
τ τ ρ
(ρ(u − s))0 = 0
• Plot equilibrium curve Q(ρ) = ρU(ρ)
ρ(u − s) = m • Chose a ρS that violates the SCC
q = m + sρ • Mark sonic point (ρS , Q(ρS )) (red)
• Set m = ρS c(ρS ) and s = U(ρS )−c(ρS )
Hence: Any traveling wave is a line • Draw maximal jamiton line (blue)
segment in the fundamental diagram. • Other jamitons with the same m and
s are sub-segments (brown)
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 48 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Jamitons in the Fundamental Diagram
0.6
Conclusion
0.4
Set-valued fundamental diagrams can be
equilibrium curve
explained via traveling wave solutions in 0.2 sonic points
jamiton lines
second-order traffic models. 0
jamiton envelopes
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
density ρ / ρmax
Z ∆t
0.6
1
ρ̄ = ∆t ρ(x̄, t)dt .
0 0.4
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 49 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Jamitons in the Fundamental Diagram
Remark
0.6
Statement is equivalent to: If ∆t → ∞,
(ρ̄, q̄) lies below the equilibrium curve: 0.4
equilibrium curve
data.
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
density ρ / ρmax
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 50 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Validation of Second-Order Models via Real Traffic Data
3
Flow rate Q (veh/sec)
velocity
2
0 0
0 density ρ ρmax 0 density ρmax
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 51 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Validation of Second-Order Models via Real Traffic Data
velocity
Equivalent formulation
ρt + (ρu)x = 0 ← for different w
wt + uwx = 0
where u = w − h(ρ)
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 52 / 69
Second-Order Macroscopic Models Validation of Second-Order Models via Real Traffic Data
Approach
• Construct macroscopic fields ρ and u from
vehicle positions (via kernel density estimation) Space-and-time-averaged model
• Use data to prescribe i.c. at t = 0 and b.c. at errors for NGSIM data
left and right side of domain
• Run PDE model to obtain ρmodel (x, t) and Data set LWR ARZ
u model (x, t) and error 4:00–4:15 0.127 (+73%) 0.073
|ρdata (x,t)−ρmodel (x,t)| |udata (x,t)−umodel (x,t)| 5:00–5:15 0.115 (+36%) 0.085
E (x, t) = ρmax
+ umax 5:15–5:30 0.124 (+6%) 0.117
• Evaluate model error in a macroscopic (L1 )
sense: 1
Z TZ L
E = E (x, t)dxdt
TL 0 0
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 53 / 69
Finite Volume and Cell-Transmission Models
Overview
6 Traffic Networks
-x -x
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 55 / 69
Finite Volume and Cell-Transmission Models Godunov’s Method
Key Points
Solution evolved exactly
• If we choose ∆t < 2 maxh |f 0 | (“CFL condition”), ρ
waves starting at neighboring cell interfaces 6
never interact. Thus, can be solved as local
Riemann problems. - -
-x
Fj− 1 Fj+ 1
• Because the exactly evolved solution is 2 2
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 56 / 69
Finite Volume and Cell-Transmission Models Godunov’s Method
ρj (t +∆t) = ρj (t) + ∆t f
h (Fj− 1 − Fj+ 1 ) 2 2
6
Flux between cells:
Fj+ 1 = min{D(ρj ), S(ρj+1 )} -ρ
2 ρc ρmax
demand function: D(ρ) = f (min(ρ, ρc ))
supply function: S(ρ) = f (max(ρ, ρc )) Supply function
f
Principles 6
The flux of vehicles between cells j and j + 1
cannot exceed: -ρ
ρc ρmax
a) the demand (on road capacity) that the
sending cell j requires;
b) the supply (of road capacity) that the
receiving cell j + 1 provides.
The actual flux is the maximum flux that
satisfies these constraints.
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 58 / 69
Finite Volume and Cell-Transmission Models Convergence Results
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 59 / 69
Traffic Networks
Overview
6 Traffic Networks
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 61 / 69
Traffic Networks Generalized Riemann Problem
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 62 / 69
Traffic Networks Bifurcation or Off-Ramp
1-in-2-out node
In-road: f1 (ρ1 ); out-roads: f2 (ρ2 ) and f3 (ρ3 ).
Additional info: split ratios α2 + α3 = 1 (how many cars go where).
Wait a minute. . .
1 If the off-ramp is clogged (ρ = ρmax ), this produces F = 0, i.e., no
3 3
traffic passes on along the highway.
2 No contradiction, because we required F2 and F3 to be distributed
according to split ratios: FIFO (first-in-first-out) model.
3 One can also formulate non-FIFO models. Problem there:
consequences of queuing of vehicles that want to exit are neglected.
4 Fix of these issues: [J. Somers: Macroscopic Coupling Conditions with Partial Blocking for Highway
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 64 / 69
Traffic Networks Confluence or On-Ramp
General Networks
The presented 1-in-1-out, 1-in-2-out, and 2-in-1-out nodes already
enable us to put together large road networks.
Can use CTM to compute LWR solutions on such a network.
Even for the simple on- and off-ramp case, there is still some
modeling and validation work to be done with regards to the question
which choices of fluxes are most realistic.
The general n-in-m-out case can be treated similarly. However, the
constrained flux maximization leads to a linear program that may
need to be solved numerically (can be costly).
Second-order models: coupling conditions for the ARZ model have
been developed, albeit not for the most general case.
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 66 / 69
Microscopic Traffic Models
Overview
6 Traffic Networks
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 68 / 69
Microscopic Traffic Models
Benjamin Seibold (Temple University) Mathematical Intro to Traffic Flow Theory 09/09–11/2015, IPAM Tutorials 69 / 69
Mult mai mult decât documente.
Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.
Anulați oricând.