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Statics of Masonry Solids and Structures

Prof. Christian Carloni

Part IV
(Mechanism and Collapse States)
MECHANISM STATES
The body is subject to load p=g+q. Equilibrium is possible
if  is less than a certain value.
Assume that a structure in equilibrium under load p can be
freely deformed (in the sense of a mechanism) by a
displacement field um. In such a state, we need to consider
that internal stresses and reactions do not oppose the
development of the deformation (mechanism) of the body.

This happens if (u∈ M):

σ,δε  r,δu  p,δu  t   n   n


,  δu 
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MECHANISM STATES
And:
σ, εm  0 when P∈ um)

r, um  0 when P∈ ∂r

 
t n ,  n δum  0 when P∈ um)

These conditions are not altered if the mechanism um is


multiplied by a constant factor.
Note that: If the mechanism
occurs we need to
p, um  0 reduce live loads
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COLLAPSE STATE
The body is subject to load p. While increasing the factor ,
the structure will pass through a sequence of equilibrium
states until = c, which defines a mechanism state uc.
Thus:
g  q, u  0 if <c. Note the strict form!

g  cq, u  0 if =c. u∈ M, u≠ uc

g  cq, uc  0 if =c. uc∈ M. Note that q, uc  0

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COLLAPSE STATE
If > c
When  is
increased g does
 d 
 p    , uc   q, uc  0 not vary.
 d c d
q, uc  q, uc
d

This means that equilibrium is not possible p,δu  0


At collapse we switch from existence of an equilibrium state
to the non-existence of an equilibrium state. Collapse occurs
under constant loads by gradually increasing uc.

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COLLAPSE STATE
The failure mechanism (collapse) occurs under frozen loads.
There is no energy dissipation. During the development of
the failure mechanism, masonry maintains its limit strength. It
looks like it behaves like a plastic structure at yielding!

Is this correct? Loads must be


decreased if the failure mechanism
must be controlled. We are dealing with
an instable phenomenon!

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COLLAPSE STATE

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COLLAPSE STATE
Briefly,

  n   n

σc ,δε  rc ,δu  tc ,  δu  g,δu  c q,δu u∈ M

g  cq, uc  0 if =c. uc∈ M. Note that q, uc  0

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STATIC THEOREM
We consider a masonry structure loaded by dead loads g
(which are permanent and constant) and live loads q.
 is the multiplier of loads q.

We will term  the stress state that satisfies the equilibrium


conditions together with loads g+ q.

The static theorem states that:

Loads g+ q are not greater than the collapse load g+ cq if
equilibrium exists between the loads and internal stresses.

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STATIC THEOREM
Under the assumptions of the theorem:

 

  n

 
 n
σ ,δε  r ,δu  t ,  δu  g,δu    q,δu 
0 0 0

u∈ M,

To prove the theorem we start from collapse

0  g, uc  c q, uc

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STATIC THEOREM
If u =uc:

 

  n

 

 n

σ , εc  r , uc  t ,  uc  g, uc    q, uc
0 0 0

And by considering that with collapse load

0  g, uc  c q, uc

We subtract

 


 


σ , εc  r , uc  t ,  uc      c  q, uc
 n  n

0 0 0 11
STATIC THEOREM
Thus:

  c  q, uc  0
 

Since q, uc  0

   c

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KINEMATIC THEOREM
We assume that a structure is in a mechanism state under
loads g+q. The mechanism is defined by u+.
 is the multiplier of loads q.

We can write:
g, u    q, u  0
It is a mechanism
state
g, u
  
q, u

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KINEMATIC THEOREM

If we assume that q, u  0

The kinematic theorem states that:

The kinematic multiplier  cannot be lower than the collapse


multiplier c.

To prove the theorem we use the collapse loads

  n   n
σc , ε  rc , u  tc ,  u  g, u  c q, u
 

  



0 0 0

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KINEMATIC THEOREM

If we remember that:

g, u    q, u  0

We subtract
 

  


  n

σc , ε  rc , u  tc ,  u   c     q, u
 n 

0 0 0

Since we assumed q, u 0

   c
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KINEMATIC THEOREM

What’s the collapse load of this wall (consider thickness=1)?

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KINEMATIC THEOREM

We could use the kinematic theorem



FH W B  0
2

B
F W
2H
Careful: did we
actually use the
kinematic theorem?
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STATIC AND KINEMATIC THEOREMS
If we look at the two theorems together:

   c   
Is it possible that there are more than one c?
We can prove the uniqueness of the collapse multiplier.
Let’s assume that we have two collapse multipliers c1 and c2
We can also assume that

c1  c2
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STATIC AND KINEMATIC THEOREMS
However, c2 is statically admissible and if we recall the
static theorem :

c2  c1
This yields:

c1  c2
We could have proven the same equality the other way around.

It is important to note that the collapse load does not


depend on the material properties but only on the geometry
of the structure and the magnitude of the loads.
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KINEMATIC THEOREM

Determine one of the


kinematically
admissible multipliers
for the wall given
below (the thickness
of the wall is equal to
1 and m the specific
weight of masonry)

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KINEMATIC THEOREM
We assume the
location of the
hinges:
each set of
hinges is
associated with
a kinematically
admissible load

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KINEMATIC THEOREM
Relationship between angles:
 b 2
b   3b       b   2  
3 2 3
Work:
b 21 b 5
W1 W2 b W3  b γm b  0
2

2 10 2 2
b2 b 5b2 21 2 b 5
 γm   γm 3 b  b γm   b γm 3 b  0
2 2

2 2 2 10 3 2 2
  W 3
W1 W2

1 63 1 15 98
     0 
4 4 3 2 45 22