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Milestone 2:


Metatarsalgia is a common overuse injury. The term describes pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot. It is
often thought of as a symptom of other conditions, rather than as a specific disease.

Morton’s Toe:

Morton’s toe causes the bones to be displaced, thereby putting more. In most cases, individuals
with Morton’s toe will experience frequent callus formation directly under the second metatarsal.
These calluses can cause aching pain while walking. Patients with Morton’s toe can also suffer
from knee pain, hip and lower back pain. Arthritis, bunions, metatarsalgia (ball of foot pain),
metatarsal stress fractures, plantar fasciitis,

Flat feet (Over pronation):

The tissues get stretched or the arch is low and flat then the middle bones are sitting down as well.

When the foot is flat, it can damage knee, and hips. The hight of the curvature needs to be 25 mm

Displacement of Talus and Calcaneous.

In Flat feet the tibia rotates inward, there fore it changes the mechanics of knee and that can cause nock knee

And that can cause the femur rotates inward and that can cause some stress on the pelvis muscles

Motion control shoes is used for flat feet. Motion control shoes are rigid since a flat foot is so flexible and soft. So it
need s a shoes the provide the stiffness for it and stability.

The common treatment for the flat feet is a custom made orthotics.
Which is not and arch support since placing a support under the
arch does noting to rallying the bones. But the purpose of the
orthotics is to hold the hill bone in a correct position to allow the
other bones to line up.

High Arch (Under pronation):

Suggested to use Cushioned footwear. Cushion footwear’s do not have stability , since high arch do not need
stability. But all it needs is cushion. Because the high arch it self is a very rigid foot. In contrast to flat feet.

Types of insoles

Comfort insole:

Not for support, only for comfort. They are usually tiny.

Cushioning insole:

Has a bit os arch support. A bit cushiony and squeezable. Support the hill, raise up the hill which helps if have any
problem with the Achilles tendon and calf muscle (Since it lifts the up a bit)

flat feet:

Design Ideas:

Collagen + Alo vera Gel Advantages:


Low arch-Flat Feet High arch

Rigidity Shifting Insole-

Collagen+ Mycelium

Shapeshifting Insole
Cellulose and collagen


Shapeshifting Shoes

Burn Marks or Scratches Tattoo that promotes skin Anti Ageing


Children character collagen boundage Tattoo or bandages for adults to promote healthier Collagen/ Bacteria + Hydrogel. anti agin mask -
skin or healing Fashion piece

UV Protection- anti wrinkle, mole ,..

Bio Printing:

Bacteria + hydrogel:

Bacteria can be chemical reactive, healing, moisture reactive, living material.

Monuka Honey