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BIOLOGY IN FOCUS

THE SEARCH FOR BETTER HEALTH

Chapter 4 Defence of the body I


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Student Worksheet: The second line of defence ). &/#53

1. Refer to the non-specific defence adaptations listed below and match them with
their descriptions shown in the table: Linked to
page 287
inflammation response, phagocytosis, lymph system, cell death to seal off
pathogens

Non-specific defence adaptation Description

If an area in the body is very badly infected and the other responses are
unable to control the pathogen, a layer of dead cells is formed around
the infection site. This is followed by a layer of macrophages as well. This
seals off and contains the pathogens, which eventually die and are then
consumed by the macrophages.

This system is responsible for filtering the lymph fluid and removing the
pathogens, dead cells and other debris. This occurs in the lymph nodes,
which also contain phagocytes that destroy any foreign material that is
brought into the lymph node by the tissue fluid.

This response is brought about by cells that have been infected or injured
in some way. Chemicals such as histamine are released, causing the blood
vessels to dilate so that fluid containing the phagocytes can enter the
tissues and destroy the invaders. The area becomes hot and swollen and
the increased temperature inhibits the activity of the pathogens.

This is the process in which the phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages)


surround then enclose the foreign particle within their cell. The foreign
particle is then bathed in the enzyme lysozyme, which destroys it.

2. Read the following passage and complete it by filling in the blanks.


_________________ are any molecules the body recognises as foreign and that
trigger the immune response.
The _____ of the body have chemical ____________ molecules on their
__________, allowing the body to ____________ them as belonging to the
_________. This prevents the ______________ system from attacking and
destroying them.
_______________ _______________ such as pathogens, toxins or protein
fragments also have ‘marker’ molecules (_____________) attached to
them. The body recognises that they are different and the ______________
______________ is triggered in order to _____________ the body from invasion
by foreign particles.
When organs are ___________________ into a recipient, the ______________
on the surface cells of the ________________ organ are recognised by the body
as ________________ and an immune response is triggered.

Copyright © 2008 McGraw-Hill Australia. Permission is granted to reproduce for classroom use.