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Activity 8 Digestive System 3.

Sublingual gland – elongated gland near the

submaxillary duct accompanied by sublingual
I. Oral cavity and pharynx 4. Infraorbital gland – found within the orbit
1. Mouth – external to the teeth and the internal 5. Molar gland – very small gland, in front of the
opening of the spiracles masseter muscle
2. Teeth – all similar in shape II. Oral cavity – anterior cavity within the
3. Pharynx – cavity between mouth and esophagus mouth, bounded by lips and cheeks
3.1 gill slits – openings of lateral wall on the 1. Vestibule – lying between teeth and lips
pharynx 2. Palate –
3.2 gill rakers – guard the gill slits Hard palate – anterior part, supported by
3.3 spiracles – 1st branchial slit, paired openings premaxilla, maxilla, and palatine bones
3.4 gill pouches – between internal and external Soft palate – posterior part, has no bony
gill, lined with gill filament support
3.5 gills – extends laterally from arches, supported 3. Tongue – fleshy muscular organ on the floor of
by branchial arches and gill rays oral cavity
II. Alimentary tract 3.1 frenulum –attaches the tongue to the floor
1. Esophagus – between pharynx and stomach of the oral cavity
2. Stomach – J shaped organ 3.2 filiform papillae – hard and spine like,
 Fundic portion = long straight part covering the anterior part of the tongue
 Pyloric portion = the short limb the bend 3.3 fungiform papillae – soft papillae that
 Greater curvature = the outside bend occupy the rest of the tongue
 Lesser curvature = inside bend 3.4 vallate papillae – consist of 4 – 6 papillae in
 Pylorus = where the stomach ends a v-shaped row at the posterior end
3. Duodenum – from pyloric sphincter to valvular 4. Pharynx – common passage way for both
intestine digestive and respiratory system
4. Pancreas III. Esophagus – tube that extends from
Ventral pancreas = flattened white gland in pharynx to the stomach
craniad cord of duodenum IV. Peritoneal cavity – large cavity posterior to
Dorsal pancreas = long slender white gland from the diaphragm , where several visceral
ventral pancreas to triangular spen organs are lodged
5. Liver – largest organ. Right and left lateral lobes 1. Diaphragm –its movement is important for
and ventral median lobe respiration, thin muscular dome-shaped
6. Bile duct – collects bile from liver, continues to structure
the duodenum and empties the bile 2. Liver – large lobed organ, right and left lobes
7. Gall bladder – a greenish sac, thin walled subdivided into median and lateral one. Left
reservoir for bile lateral and right median lobes
8. Spiral intestine – also known as typhlosole. Caudate lobe – small lobe between the liver and
Lumen of the intestine is divided to form spiral stomach
passage 3. Gall bladder - large elongated sac in right
9. Rectum – terminal portion of the gut between median lobe
vascular intestine and cloaca 4. Pancreas – flattened irregular shaped pinkish
gland attached to duodenum
5. Stomach – large bag-shaped elongated organ
I. Salivary glands – outgrowths of oral 5.1 cardiac region – junction of stomach and
epithelium esophagus
1. Parotid gland – pinkish gland, communicates Cardiac sphincter- area of stomach adjacent to
with the oral cavity near the second molar teeth junction
via the duct 5.2 fundic region – large middle sac on the left of
2. Submaxillary gland – roundish mass, near the cardiac
posterior margin of the masseter
5.3 pyloric region – caudal portion that opens to the 2.1.2 Thyroid cartilage – large shield
duodenum shaped on ventral lateral walls of
Pyloric sphincter – regulates the opening from larynx
stomach to small intestine 2.1.3 Cricoid cartilage cartilaginous
5.4 greater curvature – convex posterior surface of structures forming a ring around
the stomach on the intestine side the larynx
5.5 lesser curvature –slightly concave anterior 2.1.4 Arytenoid cartilage – small
surface of the stomach, from cardiac to pylorus triangular cartilage between the
on the hepatic side dorsal rim of the glottis and
6. small intestine – longest and most coiled part of esophagus
the digestive tube 2.1.5 Vocal cords – a pair of folds. (1) the
6.1 Duodenum – short anterior portion of small false or cranial pair (2) the true or
intestine caudal pair
6.2 Jejunum – the much coiled portion that follows 2.1.6 Trachea – long median tube
the duodenum connecting larynx to lungs.
6.3 Ileum – the remainder less coiled portion that Supported by cartilaginous rings
follow the jejunum 2.2 Bronchi - opening and caudal end of trachea
7. Large intestine - posterior portion of the into the lungs
digestive tube 2.2.1 Primary bronchi – bronchial tubes
7.1 ascending colon – anterior from the junction of are supported by U-shaped
ileum to transverse colon cartilage line by ciliated cells
7.2 transverse colon – across the peritoneal cavity 2.2.2 Secondary and tertiary bronchi –
from right to left formed by primary bronchi within
7.3 descending colon - turns abruptly to the left, the lungs
proceeds posteriorly 2.2.3 Terminal bronchioles – smallest
Caecum – slight projection, junction between division of bronchi, some have
ileum and transverse colon alveoli in their walls called =
7.4 rectum – terminal portion of descending colon, respiratory bronchioles
concealed in pelvic region 2.3 Lungs – 2 lungs a right and left lung. Right
8. anus – posterior opening of the digestive tube lung is larger. Subdivided into 3 lobes:
Activity 10 Respiratory System anterior lobe, median lobe, posterior lobe.
Right lung is subdivided into 2 a small
CAT medial lobule and a lateral lobule
1. Upper respiratory tract Caval fold –projects into a special
1.1 Nasal cavity – by means of external nares mesenterial fold of the mediastinal septum
1.2 Nasal septum – it seperates nasal cavities Each lung is held by a – Pulmonary ligament
1.3 Choanae – internal ends of nasal passages Radix of the lung - attached region of the
that lead to nasopharynx lung contains pulmonary blood vessels and
1.4 Nasapharynx – dorsal to the soft palate that bronchus
opens the pharynx 2.4 Diaphragm – dome shaped sheet, seperates
1.5 Glottis – longitudinal slit on the floor of the the thoracic and abdominal cavity
pharynx, leading to larynx, trachea, bronchi, Central tendon – in central part of the
and lungs diaphragm, a circular patch of connective
2. Lower respiratory tract tissue
2.1 Larynx or voice box – chamber with
cartilaginous walls, wall of larynx is held
rigid by 5 cartilages
2.1.1 Epiglottis – triangular leaf-like
cartilaginous flap