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LATIN FOR TODAY

GINN AND COMPANY LTD


7 QUEEN SQUARE, LONDON, W.C.I
Printed in Great Britain by The Ca111pficl<I Pre~. St. Alb1111
'
LATIN FOR TODAY
By MASON D. GRAY and THORNTON JENKINS
Edited by C. McEVOY, M.A.
Late Senior Classical Master, Waiford Grammar School
and F. DALE, M.A.
FormerJ.y Senior Classical Master, Berkhamsied School
LATIN !'OR TooAY is a method as well as a text-book. The primary aim is to
teach pupils to read Latin. There are two editions, the Original for schools
where the Certificate course is covered in three years, and the Alternative for
schools following a four-year Certificate course. Book Four is intended for use
with either edition and completes the series to General Certificate standard.
ORIGINAL (TWO-BOOK) EDITION
First Course 368 pages Second Course 496 pages
ALTERNATIVE (THREE-BOOK) EDITION
Book One 292 pages Book Two 368 pages Book Three 336 pages
FOR USE WITH BOTH EDITIONS
Book Four, by F. Dale 336 pages

GREEK THROUGH READING


By J. A. NAIRN, Litt.D .(Cantab.), D.Litt.(Oxon.)
Sometime Fellow of Trini~ Colle9e, Cambrid9e,
Former!J Headmaster of Merchant Ta1lors' School

and G. A. NAIRN, M.A.(Cantab.)


Sometime Scholar of Girton Colle9e, Cambrid9e,
Lecturer in Latin, Beijord Colle9e, Unirersi~ of London
pages 400

GREEK THROUGH READING has been written to encourage the study of


Greek by showing how soon an initial effort, rationally applied, will bring
worth-while literature within reach. It aims at taking advantage of the
experience of Latin.

The publishers will be pleased to send details ef both courses.


GINN AND COMPANY LTD.
7 QUEEN SQUARE, LONDON, W. C. l
Dirtcton: A. P. Davis A, L. Wilson C. H. Gannaway
596/ 115409
IULIUS
'July' is from Julius. Formerly in honour of the recently assassi-
·called QBintilis because it was the
fifth month of the old Roman cal-
endar. In 44 B.C. it was renamed fff nated Julius Caesar, by a law
which Mark Antony, then consul,
proposed and carried.

MCMLV
Sunday Monday Tuesday rvvcdnesda' Thursday Friday Saturday
I 2
VI
Kai. Iul. Non. Iul.
3 4 s 6 7 8 9
v IV Ill PRlD. VIII vu
Non. Iul. Non. lul. Non. Iul. Non. Iul. Non. lul. Id. Iul. Id. lul.
IO I I 12 13 14 IS I6
VI v IV Ill PRID, XVII
Id. Iul. Id. lul. Id. Iul. Id. Iul. Id. Iul. Id. lul. Kai. Au~.
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
XVI xv XIV XIII XII XI x
Kai. Aug. Kai. Aus. Kal. Aug. Kal. Au~. Kai. Aug. Kal. Aug. Kai. Aug.

,; ; ( . lf 16 27 28 29 30
VIII VII VI v IV Ill
Kai. Aug. Kai. Aug. Kai. Aug. Kai. Aug. Kai. Aug. Kai. Aug.

s · a.d. Ill NoN. luL. Poplifugia. A very ancient Roman festival, which may
have been celebrated to commemorate the disappearance of Romulus in the
darkness which followed an eclipse.
I 2 • a.d. 1v lo. luL. 1 oo B.C . Julius Caesar was born of patrician family during
the sixth consulship of his famous uncle, Marius.
13 • a.d. III Io. luL. Ludi .Apollinares. These games, in honour of Apollo, the
averter of evil, were instituted, after consultation of the Sibylline books, in
2 1 2 B. c., at a crises in the war with Hannibal.
18 · a.d. xv KAL. AuG. On this day in 390 B.c. was fought the battle of the
Allia in which the Gauls inflicted on the Romans one of the most terrible de-
feats of their history.
19 and 21 • a.d. xiv and x11 KAL. AuG. Lucario. Primitive festivals whose pur-
pose was to propitiate the deities of the woods.
26 to 29 • a.d. vn KAt. AuG . to 1v KAt. Aue. 46 B. C . Caesar celebrated a four-
fold triumph and received the dictatorship for ten years.
IUN1US
'June' is derived from Junius, the~ named in her honour. Other writers
origin of which is not exactly cer- • Sf/._, • connect it with the name of a
tain. Ovid, in the Fasti, makes - ~{tP famous Roman family or with the
Juno assert that the month was l 1? consulate of Junius Brutus.

MCMLV

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday I Saturdal


I 2 3 4
IV Ill PRID,
Kai. lun. Non. lun. Non. lun. Non. lun.
5 6 7 8 9 IO I I
VIII VII VI v IV Ill
Non. lun. Id. Iun. Id. Iun. Id. lun. Id. Iun. Id. lun. Id. Iun.
12 I3 I4 15 16 17 18
PRID. XVIII XVII XVI xv XIV
Id. Iun. Id. Iun. Kal. lul. Kai. lul. Kai. Iul. Kai. lul. Kai. Iul.
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
XIII XII XI x IX VIII VII
Kai. Iul. Kai. lul. Kai. Iul. Kai. Iul. Kai. lul. Kai. lul. Kai. Iul.
26 27 28 29 30
VI v IV Ill PRID.
Kai. Iul. Kai. Iul. Kai. Iul. Kai. Iul. Kai. lul.

3 · a.d. m NoN. IuN. 17 B.C. On the evening of this day ended the celebration
of the Ludi Saeculares for which the poet Horace wrote the ode.
9 · a.d. v Io. IuN. Vestalia. The Temple of the Vestals, which was shut the
rest of the year, and which no man except the Pontifex Maximus could enter,
was opened to all matrons. During the next seven days women crowded to it
barefoot to pray for a blessing on their households and to make offerings of
food. The Vestals offered the mola salsa. (See May 7.)
13 • Ious IuNIAE . Festival of Jupiter. On this day the guild of the flute-players
feasted in the Temple of Jupiter on the Mons Capitolinus.
23 · a.d. IX KAL. luL. 217 B.c. Traditional date of Battle ofTrasimene.
24 · a.d. vm KAL. luL. Festival of Fors Fortuna. This was particularly a fes-
tival of the plebs and of the slaves. It was celebrated with much merrymaking.
The Romans were not altogether solemn .... [and on this day in A.O. 1938
the 270,oooth copy of LATIN FOR TODAY was printed. LATIN FOR TODAY,
while being sound, like the Romans, is, like them, not altogether solemn.)
AUGUSTUS
'August' is from Augustus, the
name given the month in honour
of Augustus Caesar. He chose
August because in that month he
ft bad entered upon his first con-
sulship, had achieved several re-
markable victories, and had three
times celebrated triumphs.

MCMLV

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesda1 Thursday Friday Saturday


I 2 3 4 s 6
IV Ill PRID. YIU
Kai. Au_g. Non . Aug. Non. Au_g. Non. Aug. Non. Au_g. Id. Aug.
7 8 9 JO I I 12 13
vu VI v IV Ill PRID.
Id. Aue:. Id. Aue:. Id. Aue:. Id. Aug. Id. Aue:. Id. Au~. Id. Au~.
14 IS 16 17 18 19 20
XIX xvm XVII XVI xv XIV xm
Kai. Sept. Kal. Sept. Kal. Sept. Kai. Sept. Kal. Sept. Kai. Sept. Kai. Sept.
21 22 23 24 2S 26 27
XII XI ix VIII VII VI
"
Kai. Sept. Kal. Sept. Kai. Sept. Kai. Sept. Kai. Sept. Kai. Sept. Kai. Sept.
28 29 30 3I
v IV iii PRJD.
Kai. Sept . Kai. Sept. Kal. Sept . Kai. Sept.

1 • KALENDAE AuGUSTAE. 30 B.c. Octavian (Augustus Caesar) captured Alex-


andria, and Antony and Cleopatra died by their own hands .... Io B.C. Birth
of the Emperor Claudius, who began the conquest of Britain.
9 ·a.cl. v Io. AuG. 48 B.C. Caesar defeated Pompey in a decisive battle at
Pharsalia and thereby became undisputed master of the entire Roman world.
13 • Ious AuGUSTAE. The Festival of Diana was celebrated on the Mons Aven-
tinus in a temple which was built in honour of the goddess by Servius Tullius.
I9 • a.d. xiv KAL. SEPT. Vinalia. On this day the wine of last year's vintage
was first brought into the city ..... 14 A.D. Death of Augustus Caesar at Nola.
23 · a.d. x KAL. SEPT. Volcanalia. This day was sacred to the fire-god Volcanus.
After the great fire at Rome in Nero's reign a new altar was erected to the
god at which a red calf and a boar were sacrificed.
24 •a.cl. IX KAL. SEPT. Mundus patet. (See Octobers and November 8.)
3 I • PRID. KAL. SEPT. I 2 A.D. Birth of the Emperor Caligula, cruel, extrava-
gant and mad.
MA'1US
'May' is from Maius, which is
thought by some scholars to be de-
rived from the name of the Roman
goddess Mai a, the mother of Mer-
6 cury, the messenger of the gods.
Roman women offered sacrifices to
her, under the name of Bona Dea,
on the first day of the month.

MC MLV

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesda• Thursday Friday Saturday


I 2 3 4 s 6 7
VI v IV Ill PRID.
Kai. Mai. Non. Mai. Non. Mai. Non. Mai. Non. Mai. Non. Mai. Non. Mai.
8 9 IO I I I 2 13 14
VIII Vil VI v IV III PRID.
Id. Mai. Id. Mai. Id. Mai. Id. Mai. Id. Mai. Id. Mai. Id. Mai.
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
XVII XVI xv XIV XIII XII
Id. Mai. Kai. Iun. Kai. Iun. Kai. lun. Kai. Iun. Kai. Iun. Kai. Iun.
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
XI x IX VIII Vil VI v
Kai. lun. Kai. Iun . Kai. Iun. Kal. lun. Kai. Iun. Kai. Iun. Kai. Iun.
29 30 3r
IV III P RID
Kai. Iun. Kal.l iun . Kai. lun.

7 • NoNAE MAIAE. From May 7th to May 14.th the Vestal Virgins were en-
gaged in preparing the salted roasted grain (mola salsa) from the first ears of the
harvest of spelt (hard-shelled wheat). These were used at the Vestalia in June,
on the Ides of September, and at the Lupercalia in February.
9 • a.d. vu Io. MAI. Lemuria. A very ancient festival, which occurred on t his
day and also on the eleventh and thirteenth of the month, in which ceremonies
were performed to appease the spirits of the dead.
12 • a.d. IV Io MAI. Ludi Marti ales wer e held in honour of Mars Ultor.
1s · Ious MAIAE. Festival in honour of Jupiter, Mercury, and Maia. On this day
(or perhaps on the 14th) bundles of rushes resembling men bound hand and
foot were taken to the Pons Sublicius by the pontifices and magistrates and cast
into the river by the Vestals.
29 • a.d. IV KAL. IuN. Ambarvalia. The priests and the chanting people,
crowned with garlands, paraded the fields. The sacrificial victims-a bull, a
sheep, and a pig- purified the crops from evil influences.
SEPTfMBER
'September', derived from septem,
'seven', was the seventh month in
the old Roman calendar. In the
ITT
'A(
former name, it became the ninth
month. The Ludi Romani, games
in honour of Jupiter, began on
later calendar, while retaining its ~ the fourth of the month.

MCMLV

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday


I 2 3
IV III
Kai. Sept. Non. Sept. ~on. Sept.
4 s 6 7 8 9 IO
PRID . VIII vu VI v IV
Non. Sept. INon. Sept. Id. Sept. Id. Sept. Id. Sept. Id. Sept. Id. Seft·
I I I2 I3 14 I) 16 I7
Ill PRID. XVIII XVII XVI xv
Id. Sept. Id. Sept. Id. Sept. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct.
I8 I9 20 2I 22 23 24
XIV XIII XII XI x IX VJJI
Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kal. Oct. Kai. Oct.
2) 26 27 28 29 30
VII VJ v JV m PRID.
Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct. Kai. Oct.

2 • a.d . IV NoN. SEPT. 3 1 B.c. Oc tavian (Augustus Caesar) defeated Mark


Antony and Cleopatra in a memorable sea-fight off Actium.
4 to I9 • Pnrn. NoN. SEPT. to a.d. xm KAL. Ocr. Ludi Romani. Games held
in honour of Jupiter, the chief god of the Romans. A solemn procession (pompa)
was followed by chariot races in which each chariot carried, in addition to the
driver, a warrior who leaped out and ran on foot at the end of the race. There
were also boxing matches, gymnastic contests, and dramatic plays.
I 3 · Ious SEPTEMBRES. Epulum lovis. This festival was one of thanksgiving to Jupi-
ter for the preservation of the state from the perils of the war season (summer).
2 I • a.d. XI KAL. OcT. 19 B.C. Virgil died at Brundisium, aged fifty .
23 • a.d. IX KAL. OcT. 63 n.c. Octavian (Augustus Caesar), grandnephew and
foster son of Julius Caesar, was born in Rome.
28, 29 • a.d. 1v KAL. OcT. a.d. m KAL. OcT. 61 n.c. Pompey enjoyed for the
third time the honour of a triumph.
30 • Pnrn. KAL. OcT. 106 n.c. Birth of Pompey, friend and colleague of Julius
Caesar.
APRILIS
' April ' is from Aprilis, which may open. From the fourth to the
be derived from aperire, ' to open',
in allusion to its being the season
when trees and flowers begin to
4fll tenth of the month Ludi Me9a-
lesiaci were celebrated in honour of
the Great Mother of the Gods.

MCMLV
Sunday Monday Tuesday !Wednesday Thursdal Friday Saturday
I 2
JV
Kai. Apr. Non. Apr.
3 4 s 6 7 8 9
Ill PRID. Vlll VII VI v
Non. Apr. Non. Apr. Non. Apr. Id. Apr. Id. Apr. Id. Apr. Id. Apr.
IO II 12 IJ 14 IS I6
JV Ill PRJD. XVIII XVII XVI
Id. Apr. Id. A~r. Id, Apr. Id. Apr. Kai. Mai. Kal. Mai. Kai. Mai.
17 18 19 20 2I 22 23
xv XIV Xlll XII XI x IX
Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai. Kal. Mai. Kal. Mai. Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai.
24 2S 26 27 28 29 30
VUI VII VI v IV Ill PRID .
Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai. Kai. Mai,

4 • PRID. NoN. APR. 204 B.c. On the advice of the Sibylline books, the wor-
ship of the Asiatic Mother Goddess, Cybele, was imported into Rome.
8 · a.d. VI Io. APR . .P B.c. Cicero spoke in defence of Milo.
19 · a.d. XIII KAL. MAI. Cerealia. FestiYal in honour of Ceres. The first temple
to Ceres was founded, according to tradition, in consequence of a famine in
496 B.c . It was dedicated April 19, 493 B.c., in honour of Ceres, Liber, and
Libera, in obedience to the Sibylline oracle. After 202 B.c. Ludi Cereales were
celebrated from April 12th to April 19th.
2 I • a.d. XI KAL. MAI. Natalis Urbis Romae.
28 • a.d. IV KAL. MAI. Floralia. The festival and games in honour of Flora were
established in 23 8 B.c. on the advice of the Sibylline books, because of a famine.
The games were later extended to May 3rd.
Feriae Latinae. This great festival of all the Latins was held in April on the Mons
J.lbanus under the direct supen'ision of Rome. The exact date was fixed and an-
nounced by the Roman consuls on their entrance into office.
OCT-OBER
'October', derived from octo,
'eight', was the eighth month in tf'i,
l:l' tt1..
to rename it in honour of various
of the emperors, and it was tem-
the old Roman calendar. Several .J ~ , ) porarily called Germanicus, An-
unsuccessful attempts were made toninus, and Heracleus.

MCMLV
Sundal Monday Tuesday Wednesda) Thursday Friday Saturday
1

Kai. Oct.
2 3 4 S" 7 6 8
VI v IV Ill PRID. vm
Non. Oct. Non. Oct. Non. Oct. Non. Oct. Non.Oct. Non. Oct. Id. Oct.
9 IO I I I 2 13 14 IS°
VII VI v IV Ill PRID.
Id. Oct. Id. Oct. Id. Oct. Id. Oct. Id. Oct. Id. Oct. Id. Oct
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
XVII XVI xv XIV Xlll XII XI
Kal. Nov. Kai. Nov. Kal. Nov. Kai. Nov. Id. Oct. Kal. Nov. Kai. Nov.

I~
26 27 28 29
[){.' 25
VIII vu VI v IV
0 I
Kai. Nov. Kai. Nov. Kai. Nov. Kal. Nov. Kal. Nov.

5 • a.d. 111 NoN. Ocr. Mundus patet. The mundus was a round pit on the Mons
Palatinus in the exact centre of Roma QJ!adrata, a square underground chamber.
The popular belief was that when open it gave free egress to the inhabitants of
the underworld. (See November 8 and August 24.)
12 • a.d. IV Io. OcT. Augustalia. This day was sacred ex senatusconsulto because
on it Augustus returned to Rome from a tour of the overseas provinces. An
altar to Fortuna was set up to celebrate the event.
15 • Ious OcTOBRES. 70 B.c. The poet Virgil was born at Andes, near Mantua.
Between 7 n -717 B.c. Romulus celebrated a triumph over the Veientines.
18 · a.d. xv KAL. Nov. 48 B.C. Octavian (Augustus Caesar) assumed the toga
virilis before Caesar's triumph over King Juba.
19 • a.d. XIV KAL. Nov. Armilustrium. Consecration of arms on the Mons
Aventinus, a ceremony in honour of Mars.
21 • a.d. XII KAL. Nov. 63 B.C. In a meeting of the Senate Cicero called upon
Catiline to declare his intentions or voice his complaints. In his reply Catiline
made his famous remarks concerning the two bodies of the Senate.
MAR~flUS
' March ' is from Martius, which is , , formed the calendar in -1-6 B.c. It
derived from Mars, the Roman continued to be the beginning of
god of war. It was the Romans' the legal year in England until the
first month until Julius Caesar re- middle of the eighteenth century.

MCMLV
Sunday Monday Tuesdal Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
I 2
v
3 4 s
VI IV III
Kai. Mar. Non. Mar. Non. Mar. Non. Mar. Non. Mar.
6 7 8 9 IO I I I2
PRID. VIII VII VI v IV
Non. Mar. Non. Mar. Id. Mar. Id. Mar. Id. Mar. Id. Mar. Id. Mar.
I3 I 4- IS I6 I7 I8 I9
Ill PRID. XVII XVI xv XIV
Id. Mar. lei. Mar. Id. Mar. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr.
20 2I 22 23 2f 25 26
XIII XII XI x IX VIII VII
Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr.
27 28 29 30 3I
VI v IV Ill PRIO.
Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr. Kai. Apr.

I • KALENDAE MARTIAE. New Year's Day until Caesar re-formed the calendar.
The sacred fire of Vesta was allowed to go out and was ceremonially renewed
each year on this day .... 222 B.C. Marcellus celebrated a triumph over the
Gauls. He had won the spolia opima by killing the opposing general in battle,
for the third time in Roman history.
s · a.d. m NoN. MAR. 187 B.C. Volso celebrated his triumph over the
Galatians. The Romans used to say that this Asiatic victory brought an end to
the old Roman virtue.
1 s · Ious MARTIAE. 44 B.c. Caesar was murdered at a meeting of the Senate in
Pompey's theatre in the Campus Martius.
17 • a.d. XVI KAL. APR. Liberalia. The festival of Uber, the god of wine. Boys
usually assumed the to9a virilis on this day.
20 • a.d. xm KAL. APR. 43 B.c. Birth of the poet Ovid.
21 • a.d. xn KAL. APR. Traditional date of the birth of Minerva.
27 ·a.cl. VI KAL. APR. 49 B.c. Cicero in a conference with Caesar refused to
give Caesar his entire support.
NOVEMBER
'November', derived from novem, ~whose birthday was the 16th, but
'nine', was the ninth month of the he declined, saying, ' What will
old Roman year. The Senate de- you do, 0 Conscript Fathers, if
sired to rename it after Tiberius, you have thirteen Caesars? '

MCMLV

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesda' Thursday Friday Saturday


I 2 3 4 s
JV lII PRID.
Kai. Nov. Non.Nov. Non. Nov Non.Nov. Non.Nov.
6 7 8 9 JO I I 12
Vlll VII VI v IV Ill PRID.
Id. Nov. Id. Nov. Id. Nov. Id. Nov. Id. Nov. Id. Nov. Id. Nov.
13 I 4 IS 16 17 18 19
XVIII XVII XVI xv XIV Xlll
Id. Nov. Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec.
2o 2I 22 23 24 2S 26
XII XI x IX Vlll VII VI
Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kal. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kal. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec.
27 28 29 30
v IV Ill PRID.
Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec. Kai. Dec.

4 to 17 · PRIDIE NoN. Nov. to a.d. xv KAL. DEC. Ludi Plebeii. These games,
begun in 2 20 B.C., took place in the Circus Flaminius, built in the same year.
6 · a.d. VIII Io. Nov. 63 B.C. Catiline and his fellow-conspirators met at the
house of Porcius Laeca in the scythe-makers' street.
8 . a.cl. VI Io. Nov. Mundus patet. (See Au9ust 24 and Octobers.) . . . . 63 B.C.
In the temple of Jupiter Stator Cicero denounced Catiline to the Senate (the
First Oration a9ainst Catiline). Catiline left Rome that night, never to return.
9 · a.d. v lo. Nov. 63 B.c. Cicero delivered the Second Oration a9ainst Catiline.
1 3 · Ious NovEMBRES. 49 B.C. The date Pompey and the Senate set for Caesar

to leave his provinces.


17 · a.d. xv KAL. DEc. 8 B.c. The poet Horace died.
24 • a.d. vm KAL. DEC. A.O . 62. Death of Persius who ranks third among the
satiric poets of Rome, the first two being Juvenal and Horace.
27 to 29 • a.d. v KAL. DEC. to a.d. III KAL. DEc. 167 B.C. Lucius Aemilius
Paullus triumphed over the Macedonian king Perseus.
FEBRUARIUS
' February ' is from Februarius, V -~ great Roman festival of purifica-
which is derived from jebruare, ' to ~...:: tion, which in the fifth century
purify '. On the fifteenth of the ~...ifl. A.D., became transformed into the
month occurred the Lupercalia, the ~~-:f" Christian Feast of the Purification.

MCMLV

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesda) Thursday Friday Saturday

I 2 3 4- s
IV III PRID.
Kai. Feb. Non.Feb. Non.Feb. Non.Feb. Non. Feb.

6 7 8 9 IO I I 12
VIII VII VI v IV lll PRID.
Id. Feb. Id. Feb. Id. Feb. Id. Feb. Id. Feb. Id. Feb. Id. Feb.

13 I 4- 1) 16 17 18 19
XVI xv XIV XIII XII XI
Id. Feb. Kai. Mar. Kai. Mar. Kai. Mar. Kai. Mar. Kai. Mar. Kai. Mar.

;(, 24 2) 26
/ . 22 23
VIII VII VI v IV
7 Kai. Mar. Kai. ~far. Kai. Mar. Kai. Mar. Kai. Mar.

1 • KALENDAE FEBRUARIAE. This was the traditional date of the birth of


Hercules.
s · NoNAE FEBRUARIAE. 2 B.c. Augustus Caesar was acclaimed as Pater Patriae
by the Senate and the Roman people.
13 • Ious FEBRUARIAE. The Dies Parentales, days devoted to the honouring of
the dead, extended from this day to the 21st or 2 ind of the month.
1s · a.d. xv KAL. MAR. Lupercalia. This, the wolf-festival, was celebrated at a
cave called the Lupercal at the foot of the Mons Palatinus, the spot where tradi-
tion said the flooded Tiber deposited Romulus and Remus and where they were
nourished by the she-wolf. The offering of the last of the mola salsa was part of
the ceremony. (See May 7.) ... 44 B.C. In this year took place the famous cele-
bration of the Lupercalia at which Mark Antony three times offered Caesar a
crown, which Caesar three times refused.
24 · a.d. VI KAL. MAR. Traditional date of the Re9ifu9ium, flight of the kings
from Rome.
2 s · a.d. v KAL. MAR. p B.C. Pompey was elected consul without a colleague.
DECtMBER
'December', derived from clecem, canus, 'hoary'. Ovid styles it geli-
'ten', was the tenth month in the
old Roman calendar. Martial ap-
plies to the month the epithet
1'r MCMLV
clus, 'frosty', and Jumosus, 'smoky'.
The Saturnalia, a most lively popu-
lar festival, took place in December.

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday


I 2 3
IV Ill
Kai. Dec. Non, Dec. Non. Dec.
4 !) 6 7 8 9 IO
PRID. VIII VII VI v IV
Non. Dec. Non. Dec. Id. Dec. Id. Dec. Id. Dec. Id. Dec. Id. Dec.
I I 12 13 14 I!) 16 17
Ill PRID. XIX XVIII XVII XVI
Id. Dec. Id. Dec. Id. Dec. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian.
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
xv XIV XIII XU XI x IX
Kal. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian.
2!) 26 27 28 29 30 3I
VIII vu VI v IV Ill PRID.
Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian. Kai. Ian.

3 · a.d. m NoN. DEc. 63 B.c. Cicero, after the arrest of the conspirators, was
hailed as Pater Patriae by the Senate. In the afternoon he delivered the Third
Oration a9ainst Catiline before the people in the Forum.
4 • PRID. NaN . DEC. A.O. 34. Birth of the poet Persius.
s · NoNAE D ECEMBRES. 63 B.c. Cicero demanded and secured from the Senate
the death penalty for the conspirators (the Fourth Oration a9ainst Catiline).
7 • a.d. vn lo. DEc. 43 B.c. Cicero was beheaded by Antony's soldiers.
8 • a.d. Vl Io. DEC. 6s B.C . The poet Horace was born at Venusia.
1 1 • a.d. m Io. DEC. A9onia. A festival in honour of the Septimontium, the Seven

Hills on which Rome was built.


1 7 · a.cl. xvi KAL. IAN. Saturnalia. On this, the first day of the festival, a public
sacrifice was performed in the Temple of Saturn. A public feast followed.
18 • a.d. xv KAL. IAN . This and the following day were general holidays, con-
tinuing the Saturnalia. There were family sacrifices, calls on friends, presenta-
tions of gifts, games, and much riotous merrymaking.
IANU ARIUS

I
' January ' is from /anuarius, which first hour of each day and the
is derived from /anus, the name of Kalends of each month, aJ well aa
the Roman god of gates and doors, the first month of the year, were
and hence of all beginnings. The considered sacred to Janus.

MCMLV

SWldal Monday Tuesday IWedne.sday Thursday Friday Saturdal


I

Kal. Ian.
2 3 4- s 6 7 8
IV Ill PRID. VIII Vil VI
Non. Ian. Non. Ian. Non. Ian. Non. Ian. Id. Ian. Id. Ian. Id. Ian.
9 IO I I 12 13 1.4 I)
v IV III PRID. XIX XVIII
Id. Ian. Id. Ian. Id. Ian. Id. Ian. Id. Ian. Kai. Feb. Kai. Feb.
16 17 18 19 20 2 I 22
XVII XVI xv XIV xm XII XI

x: ;{.
Kai. Feb. Kai. Feb. Kal. Feb. Kai. Feb. Kai. Feb. Kai. Feb. Kai. Feb.
2) 26 27 28 29
VIII Vil VI v IV
0 1
Kai. Feb. Kai. Feb. Kal. Feb. Kai. Feb. Kal. Feb.

I ·KALENDAE IANUARIAE. Festival of Janus. Gifts, called strenae, consisting of


sweetmeats and copper coins, were exchanged .... 49 B.c. Curio delivered
Caesar's ultimatum to the Senate .... 46 B.c. The Julian calendar was in-
augurated.
3 ·a.d. Ill NoN. IAN. 106 B.c. Cicero was born near Arpinum, sixty miles
south-east of Rome.
7 ·a.cl. vu Io. IAN. 49 B.c. The Senate declared Caesar a public enemy.
I I ·a.cl . 111 Io, IAN. 29 B.C. The temple of Janus was closed for the third time
in Rome's history. The temple was closed only in times of peace.
27 to 28 · a.d. v1-v KAL. FEB. 81 B.C. The dictator Sulla, nicknamed Felix
(Lucky), celebrated his triumph over Mithradates, King of Pontus.
27 • a.d. VI KAL. FEB. 484 B.C. According to one tradition, the date of the
dedication of the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum. The temple was
restored by Tiberius in A.D. 6. Three of its beautiful Corinthian columns are
still standing near the Temple of Vesta.
How the Romans Reckoned Time
The Romans reckoned time quite differently from us. The first day of the
month was called Kalendae (noun, fem. pl.) 'Kalends.' Nonae (noun, fem. pl.)
'Nones' were usually * the fifth day. Jdus (noun, fem. pl., 4th decl.) 'Ides'
were usually * the 13th day of the month.
*But-In March, July, October, May,
The Ides fell on the fifteenth day,
and consequently the Nones on the 7th day of the month.
From these three points the days of the month were reckoned backwards,
as so many days before the Nones or Ides of the same month, or the Kalends of
the next month . The point of departure was, by Roman custom, counted in
the reckoning, the second day being three days before, and so forth.
The names of the months were treated as adjectives agreeing with the
nouns Kalendae etc. The days of the month were indicated as follows:
The days on which the Kalends, Nones and Ides fell by ablatives
of these nouns and of the name of the month.
On 1st April Kalendis Aprilibus
The days immediately preceding the Kalends, Nones and Ides by
putting pridie (the day before) before these nouns in the accusative case.
On 14th July Priclie Idus lulias
All other days by putting ante diem (or a.d.) tertium, quartum etc. before
the accusative Kalendas etc. with the name of the month also in the accus-
ative.
On 30th October Ante diem tertium Kalendas Novembres (briefly, Ill Kai.
Nov.)
In earlier times the Roman year was named after the consuls. Later it was
reckoned from the building of the city (ab urbe condita), 7 S3 B.c. In order to
transform Roman dates to those of the Christian Era, subtract the Roman date
from 7 H B. C . For example ab urbe condita (A.U.C.) DCCX is 44 B.C . (M =
1000, D= soo).
NOTE:
The week of seven days with the names Sun-day, Moon-day, Mars' day etc.
was not introduced until after the reign of Theodosius. No Latin names for the
days of the week have therefore been included in the calendar.
The information in thi.r calendar has been obtainedfrom the Corpus lnscriptionum
Latinarum, Ovid's Fasti and similar sources.
Additional copies of the Calendar can be supplied, price 9d. each.
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