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Summit 2 – Achivments

Grammar – Unit 1

Although the present perfect expresses a past event or state, it is used to convey information
that has relevance to the present.

I love animals and the outdoors, so I’ve decided to become a naturalist.

The following adverbs and expresions are often used with the present perfect:

Ever – Never – already – yet – so far – still – once – twice – times

Have you ever thought about a career in law?

Grammar 2 – Unit 1

Use either the present perfect or the present perfect continuous to describe unfinished or
continuing actions. Choose the present perfect continuous instead of the present perfect to
suggest that the action may continue.

Present perfect

Ballard has searched for shipwrecks for many years (not suggesting that it will continue to search)

Present perfect continuous

He has been searching for shipwrecks for many years (may suggest that he will continue to search)

Review – Unit 1

B) Prepositions

1 .- She has always wanted to take up the piano and has enrolled in a program that teaches the
basics of music

2.- Anyone applying for a job in the newspaper business should have training in journalism

3.- He has decided on a career as a chef and has been accepted to a world

4.- her experience in the diplomatic service and her knowledge of international law make her an
excellent

C) Present Perfect / Present perfect continuous

1. Robert ballard’s achivments as a deep sea explorer and inventor are impressive. He has
published over 50 scientific articles and has received more than 30 awards. He has design a robot
that can enter sunken ships and photograph them. Ballard has always believed that more history
is preserved underwater than in museums.

2. Frans lanting has been documenting wildlife from amazon to antartica for more than two
decades. His photographs has been dazzling people for just as long, and he has been an inspiration
for nature photographers and environmentalists all over the world. Lanting has had a deep love of
the natural world ever since he was a child.
3. Arundhati roy has won worldwide acclaim and literary prizes for her novel, the god of small
things. Since its publication, however, she has been devoting her energies to political writing on a
number of global issues. For example, she has spoken at various.

Notes :

Use Present perfect continuous when you cant know the specific time.

Grammar – Unit 2 – Adjective clauses


Whose, where, when = possessions location or time

Who, whom

which

Note: Use whom and which instead of who and that respectevly after a preposition

Like : on, in, at , since, for , ago, before, to, past, till, until, by.

Examples:

1. The workplace is the place where people tend to tell the most lies.
2. The people who lies are discovered lose the trust of those they work with.
3. The people with whom I work are trustworthy.
4. People who break their promises cannot be trusted.
5. There are situations in which it’s imposible to tell the truth.

Review

B) Complete the sentences

1. If matt makes a mistake, he never admits it and instead tries to shift the blame to other people
in his office.

2. Dan forgot to prepare his report for the sales meeting. He didn’t want to admit his mistakes, so
he decided to make up an excuse . He told his boss that his computer deleted the file.

3. After borrowing my umbrella, alice forgot it on the train. She ofrred to buy a new one to make
up for it.

C) Complete the paragraph with words from the box

Nora Richards, with whom I worked for five years, was a person who could never get her work
done on time. I still remember the time when she asked me to help her write a long report which
was due the next day! The report, on which she had been working for an entire month, was
needed for a business deal with a very important client. The deal, about which nora talked all the
time, fell through, and nora was fired. There are situations in which you simply have to meet your
deadlines. Nora was one of those persons who fails to understand that the office is a place where,
as the proverb says, “actions speak louder than words”.
Grammar – Unit 3 – Describing the relationship of past events and actions to each other
Simple past Tense – Can be used to describe a past event or action that occurred right
after another past event or action.
When they arrived, I sent an SOS message
(First they arrived. Then I sent the message)

Past Perfect – Can be used to describe an event or action that occurred before another
past event or action.
When they arrived, I had already sent an SOS message.
(First I sent the message. Then they arrived)

Past Continuous – can be used to describe an event or action that continued at the same
time as another past event or action.
When they arrived, I was sending an SOS message
(They arrived while I was sending the message)

Past perfect continuous - can be used to describe an event or action that had continued
before another past event or action occurred.
When they arrived, I had been trying to send an SOS message for an hour.
(I was trying to send the message for an hour. Then they arrived.)

Examples:
1. (The plane took off. Then they arrived.)
The plane Took off when they Arrived at the airport.
2. (They left the airport. Then the plane took off)
They had left the airport by the time the plane took off
3. (The plane took off at the same time they arrived)
When they arrived at the airport, the plane was taking off
4. (They canceled the expedition. Immediately the sky cleared)
When they canceled the expedition, the sky cleared
5. (I lost my cell phone. That’s why I didn’t phone for help)
I had locked all the doors by the time I went to bed.
6. (I lost my cell phone. That’s why I didn’t phone for help)
I didn’t phone for help because I had lost my cell phone.
Grammar – Unit 4 – The subjunctive
The subjunctive form of a verb is used in noun clauses following verbs or adjetives of
urgency , obligation, or advisability. The subjunctive form is always the same as the base
form, no matter what the time frame is.
Urgency, obligation and advisability
Verbs = Demand, insist, propose, request, recommend, suggest.
Adjectives = critical, crucial, desirable, essential, important, necessary.
The doctor suggests she exercise more and not work on weekends
Exercise
1. Sue thinks that jack (overreact/overreacts) to problems
2. Its essential that your father (avoid/avoids) taking on more than he can handle
3. Everyone agrees that a certan amount of stress (be/is) unavoidable
4. Its critical that shelly (learn/learns) how to deal with pressure at work.
5. Bills manager demanded that he (be/is) fired inmediately.
6. Its crucial that she (doesn’t accept/not accept) more projects than she can handle.
7. I really hope that this plan (be/is) successful
8. John proposed that he (continue/continues) cooking dinner while we clean the
house
Grammar – Unit 5 – Non-count nouns made countable
Phrases that make non-count nouns countable
A piece of (fruit/paper/wood/metal/advice)
A gran of (sand/salt/rice/sugar)
A game of (tennis/soccer/chess)
A type (or kind) of (energy/behavior/courage)
A symbol of (love/companionship/eternity)
An act of (kindness /love/hatred/evil)
An article of (clothing)
A bolt (or flash) of
A clap of (thunder)
A drop of (rain/coffee/water)
A bowl of (rice/soup/cereal)