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Siemens PLM Software

LMS solutions for

pass-by noise
Meeting stringent noise
emission regulations
In urban areas, traffic noise can be a Organization for Standardization (ISO)
prominent source of discomfort, affect- 362 standard and the United Nations
ing the daily lives of millions of people Economic Commission for Europe (UN/
and potentially diminishing their health ECE) R51 regulation. It measures vehicle
and well-being. To create a more harmo- emission levels on an exterior test track.
nious living environment and reduce the The results are used to certify that vehi-
risks of noise exposure, legislators are cles comply with established standards.
working on establishing acceptable This type of certification is required for all
emission levels and imposing limits on types of road vehicles, including trucks,
pass-by noise (PBN) levels. buses, motorcycles, passenger cars and
recreational vehicles.
Pass-by noise testing is a standard proce-
dure that was developed in response to
the creation of the International

Versatile noise engineering
Noise limitations are being implemented in This evolving environment demands
the European Union (EU) in three phases. additional pass-by noise engineering
For passenger cars, the noise limit is being techniques. To date, engineers have been
reduced from 74 decibels A-weighted (dB(A)) looking more closely at individual parts that
to 68 dB(A). The first step, which limited the contribute to pass-by noise, such as engines,
noise to 72 dB(A), became effective on exhaust and tires. By employing such tech-
July 1, 2016. This means all new vehicles niques, automotive engineering teams are
must be tested according to new methods per able to decide which source they should
the ISO 362-1:2015 certification regulated in focus on to most effectively reduce overall
the EU under 54/2014. Revision 3 of regula- noise levels. This also enables them to set
tion UN/ECE R51 (R51.03) has been put in noise-level targets early in the development
place to harmonize these changes at a phase of subsystems.
global level.

Innovative techniques for
interior and exterior PBN
Streamlining the approval tests LMS pass-by noise testing solutions that are
Developing techniques to identify the pass-by integrated in the Simcenter™ portfolio
noise sources and set noise targets is critical provide:
for vehicle engineering teams. From type
• A fully integrated hardware solution on the
approval testing to source contribution analy-
LMS SCADAS™ hardware acquisition platform
sis, Siemens PLM Software offers a complete
• Software on the LMS Test.Lab™ software
range of proven techniques for advanced PBN
platform, with built-in processing, analysis
engineering. Siemens PLM Software pass-by
and reporting functionality
noise solutions provide all the necessary
• Driver guidance to guarantee maximum
hardware and software for exterior and
efficiency and effectiveness in order to do
interior pass-by noise testing and analysis,
the test correctly from the beginning
calibration and maintenance, and these
• Coverage for most existing standards and the
solutions are backed by our experienced
possibility to extend it
LMS™ Engineering services teams.
• A broad range of scalable pass-by noise
engineering techniques for advanced source
contribution analysis
• The ability to perform simulation early in the
development process

Exterior type approval testing

Increased level of engineering insights

Exterior pass-by noise for homologation tests

Integrated LMS Test.Lab and

In-vehicle data Add-on-in-vehicle data acquisition and analysis

LMS SCADAS platforms

acquisition (for type approval testing)

Interior pass-by noise

Superior in-room pass-by noise testing

Noise contribution analysis by means of insulation

Subsystem masking
(masking) of subsystems

Noise contribution analysis by means

Acoustic arrays
of acoustic arrays

Acoustic source quantification Acoustic source quantification-based noise

and ranking contribution analysis

Microphone In-vehicle


RPM Kick-down
Microphone 2
Ref. 1 Ref. 2

Light barrier LB 1 LB 2

Microphone 1

Weather Laptop

Comprehensive solutions for

pass-by noise engineering
Streamlining the approval tests Two typical configurations for standard PBN
Pass-by noise engineering includes the origi- testing are available:
nal equipment manufacturer (OEM) strategy
• Track-based exterior pass-by noise in which
of having a final vehicle prototype success-
LMS SCADAS is placed near the test track
fully pass the test: setting PBN targets,
• In-vehicle exterior PBN in which LMS SCADAS
predicting PBN levels in the early design
is placed in the vehicle to acquire additional
phase, assessing the contribution of individ-
measurement channels for more in-depth
ual noise contributors and conducting the
final approval test.
LMS Test.Lab for exterior pass-by noise from
Siemens PLM Software can be configured for
dedicated user-defined procedures and spe-
cific requirements.

A complete set
of sensors
A single pass-by noise system can be used in noise solution has a complete set of sensors,
both configurations. Testing teams can easily including speed radar or Global Positioning
swap or combine configurations for advanced System (GPS) speed sensors, track-based light
tests. The demands of the updated testing barriers, optical engine speed (revolutions per
standard (ISO 362:2015, UN/ECE R51.03, minute) and kick-down sensors, a weather
regulation EU 54/2014) place greater data station and wired or wireless microphones.
management demands on pass-by noise
All sensors are conditioned with dedicated
testing setups, linking them with advanced
pass-by noise modules in LMS SCADAS Mobile
engineering tasks. This is especially true for
hardware. The sensors are powered directly
the R51.03 testing method for Additional
by LMS SCADAS Mobile without requiring any
Sound Emission Provision (ASEP).
additional external power supply.
For techniques such as masking, large
amounts of data must be captured near the
track and on the vehicle. The exterior pass-by

Modular hardware for reliable
data acquisition
The centerpiece of the solution is the LMS user-centric approach. Increased testing and
SCADAS Mobile Pass-by Noise Conditioner shorter development timeframes can make
module, a dedicated two-slot module that documenting and reporting results a burden.
features high-quality integrated signal condi- Thanks to the PBN application, data and
tioning. This module conditions sensor inputs reports can be easily archived, retrieved and
and delivers outputs for all sensors. By using compared.
telemetry, all sensors are synchronized with
To support permanent outdoor installations,
track and vehicle sides. Standalone wireless
standard hubs are installed at trackside.
microphone conditioner units provide a
These provide local connection points for
high-speed data link for the moving vehicle
track sensors, such as light barriers and
and are used for in-vehicle configuration.
support transport, over long cables to a
This expanded portfolio provides maximum measurement cabin outside the mandatory
efficiency and is easy to deploy and use. obstacle-free area. In the cabin, the lightning-
The LMS SCADAS Mobile Pass-by Noise strike-protected unit connects the sensor
Conditioner module is suitable for testing input to LMS SCADAS.
on standard configuration types such as
track-only, track-based and in-vehicle. The
postprocessing software reflects the same

Maximizing valid
PBN runs
With the changing testing standards, the engine speeds, guides the driver to reach
number of PBN runs per vehicle increases these targets by both visual and auditory
from 2 to 30. These involve accelerations, means, and updates the approach-speed
constant speed and ASEP: all in multiple target after each correctly-executed run. LMS
gears. Moreover, the operational testing Smart Driver’s Aid allows drivers to maximize
condition differs from one vehicle to another the number of successful PBN runs and mini-
when it comes to reaching the target speed mize the number of invalid runs. After the
of 50 kilometers per hour (km/h) at the center test is completed, a report shows the success-
of the track during wide-open throttle ful and failed tests to the driver so that
acceleration. corrections can be made for the next run.
The LMS Pass-by Noise Smart Driver’s Aid
helps test drivers reach these targets. This
application runs on a tablet and gives real-
time feedback on ideal target vehicle and

Microphone In-vehicle


RPM Kick-down
Microphone 2
Ref. 1 Ref. 2

Light barrier LB 1 LB 2

Microphone 1

Weather Laptop

Maximizing efficiency
on the track
Multi-vehicle driving is a common request network automatically decides which vehicle
from large PBN test teams that have lots of is allowed to use the measurement zone and
different vehicle types and configurations to connects to the track hardware and/or dis-
test. Such teams typically use oval test tracks patches the right set of data (typically
and have multiple vehicles driving around the microphone data) to the appropriate vehicle
test track at the same time, while additional before clearing the measurement zone for the
vehicles are instrumented. following vehicle.
Siemens PLM Software offers a dedicated
multi-vehicle system in which data is mea-
sured both on the track and in the vehicle. A
monitoring system using a secured Wi-Fi data

Enhancing the level of accuracy
Such distributed system architecture creates a then be used to select the microphone pair
reliable, autonomous and smart PBN system that is closest to the target engine speed.
with data transferred to and stored inside the This increases the repeatability and facilitates
vehicle. Drivers are fully autonomous on the a more accurate comparison of PBN runs.
test track. A screen indicates whether the
driver is allowed to engage in the next
A central observer monitors the progress of
measurement schedules, while further data
analysis is typically done in the office after
the measurement. Finally, multiple sets of
microphones are supported for advanced
analysis, a few pairs before the center line
and a few after. A dedicated algorithm can

Gaining increased
engineering insight
Conducting interior pass-by noise testing in a Additionally, the time-based method enables
controlled laboratory environment simulates the user to listen to the synthesized time
PBN while eliminating work delays due to signal and use it for the overall sound pres-
weather conditions. This increases productiv- sure (level calculation and throughput
ity and keeps the testing process on schedule. postprocessing). This provides better correla-
Additionally, it facilitates vehicle develop- tion analysis, enabling engineers to glean
ment programs, making the run and re-run insight into which components contribute
test requirements associated with vehicle the most.
modifications reliable and easy to reproduce.
The in-room pass-by noise solution provides
LMS Test.Lab for in-room pass-by noise facili-
the ability to combine interior pass-by noise
tates quickly finding and verifying solutions.
with engineering solutions for sound source
The in-room PBN solution is similar to exterior localization and source ranking, reducing
pass-by noise measurements. It measures an development time while increasing productiv-
array of microphones on each side of the ity and accuracy.
vehicle, and recreates the noise level results
as a function of vehicle position, as if a single
pair of microphones were being measured.

Detecting dominant
pass-by noise sources
Source identification is a major impediment The masking technique provides insight into
to conducting enhanced pass-by engineering. the contribution of subsystems to the overall
Different techniques can be used to localize PBN level. This technique consists of testing a
the most dominant sources during a PBN test. vehicle indoors or outdoors when noise
sources, such as the powertrain, exhaust,
Acoustic beamforming allows engineers to
tailpipe and tires, are modified or insulated to
track moving sources by calculating the time
eliminate their contribution to the overall
delays of source signals upon reaching the
noise level. The Pass-by Noise Source
array microphones. The technique is sup-
Contribution module in LMS Test.Lab allows
ported in LMS Test.Lab and is recommended
you to derive the contribution from masked
when combined with LMS Test.Lab In-room
components by analyzing the difference
Pass-by Noise Testing. Since it is an outdoor
between the original vehicle and the vehicle
test setup, it requires a relatively large dis-
with masked components.
tance between array and vehicle. Applying
this solution in-room prevents the source
separation quality from dropping in lower
frequencies and provides safe testing without
hitting the array.

Analyzing pass-by noise
source contributions
To improve identification and ranking of the target microphones are used to calculate
noise contribution from different subsystems, the propagation of these identified sources
such as intake, powertrain, exhaust, tailpipe toward the pass-by noise microphones.
and tires, we have developed a dedicated The combination of source power and target
pass-by noise source ranking application. It is noise transfer ultimately reveals the individ-
a technique based on airborne source quanti- ual source contributions.
fication (ASQ), a transfer path analysis (TPA)
To acquire all the noise transfer functions and
derivative. It facilitates troubleshooting for
optimize the directionality and noise output
reducing pass-by noise and is increasingly
level, a dedicated LMS Qsources™ hardware
used for target setting, thus front-loading
monopole sound source has been developed.
PBN engineering in the design process.
It covers a frequency range from 150 hertz
The method uses the operational signals of (Hz) to 10 kilohertz (kHz).
microphones placed near noise sources to
quantify their sound power. The sound power
is estimated using an energetic matrix inver-
sion calculation method based on local noise
transfer functions. Target noise transfer
functions between the sources and exterior

Creating the ideal virtual test

Noise transfer functions (NTFs) are most Simcenter 3D provides state-of-the-art power-
often physically measured. Alternatively, they ful acoustic simulation methods, such as the
can be simulated with Simcenter 3D software. fast multipole boundary element method (FM
The added value of using simulation models BEM) and the adaptive order finite element
is that they make it possible to easily create method (FEM AO) to obtain the acoustic NTFs
an ideal virtual test environment and obtain for all sources contributing to the overall
results for a large number of designs early in pass-by noise level.
the test and prototype phases. For an effec-
tive simulation model, the results should
typically range from 20 Hz up to 4 or 5 kHz.
Since the model represents the geometry of
the full vehicle, the required computer-aided
engineering (CAE) models can become very
large and, as a result, many frequencies have
to be computed, resulting in time-consuming

Supported standards

Light vehicles • UN/ECE regulation No 41.02 for L3 category

• ISO 362:1998, implementing UN/ECE motorcycles
regulation 51.02 • UN/ECE regulation No 63.01 for L1 category
• ISO 362-1:2007, ISO362-1:2015 for type motorcycles
M (light vehicles), implementing UN/ECE • UN/ECE regulation No 9.03 for L2, L4, L5
regulation 51.03 and EU regulation (EU) category motorcycles
54/2014 • ASEP regulation 41: extension for motorbikes
• Additional sound emission provisions (ASEP) ISO 362-2:2009
ISO 362 for light vehicles (M1) • F76A US
• ISO 16254 for minimum noise
Exhaust noise
• Test Requirements and Instructions for
• Exhaust noise: European Economic
Automobile Standards (TRIAS) 20 (with tire
Community (EEC) 93/ 97, ISO 5130, TRIAS 20
coasting noise test)
• SAE J1169 exhaust noise
• SAE J1470
• SAE J986 Tire noise
• UN/ECE regulation 117 for tire noise
Heavy vehicles
• General tire noise test for generic coast-
• ISO 362-1:2007, ISO362-1:2015 for type
down testing and regression analysis (no
M3 and type N (trucks), implementing UN/
checks defined)
ECE Regulation 51.03 and EU regulation (EU)
• Official Mexican Standard (NOM-082-
ECOL-1994) motorbikes
• SAE J366
• Tire-noise modeling according to ISO
Motorcycles 362-3:2015 for in-room pass-by noise
• ISO 362-2:2009 for L category motor cycles certification
(L1, L2, L3) • TRIAS 20 (tire coasting noise test)

About Siemens PLM Software
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Factory Division, is a leading global provider of product lifecycle
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(MOM) software, systems and services with over 15 million
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