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LECTURE 1

Aggregates and
Grain Size Analysis
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Aggregates
Natural:

from quarries and rivers

Manufactured:

slag (from steel mills)

Recycle concrete

Styrofoam beads as light weight aggregates

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Natural Aggregates

Classification of rocks:

1. Igneous (from volcanic acting)

2. Sedimentary (solidification of chemical and


mineral sediments deposit)
e.g. Limestone; Dolomite; Shale

3. Metamorphic (above two under heat and pressure)

e.g. Slate, Marble, quartzite

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Properties

• Weight
• Gradation
• Specific gravity and absorption
• Shape and surface texture
• Hardness
• Durability
• Deleterious substances
• Crushing strength

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Weight

This is a primary property for large size stones


used for wall stability (or slope stability) which
are experienced wave acting.

This type of aggregates are called riprap.


Their size ranges from 4 to 5”. Sometime the
aggregates are confined by metal wire called
gabions.

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Gradation

Gradation describes the particle size distribution


of the aggregates.

Size classification:

Coarse aggregates - >4.75 mm (#4 sieve)


Fine aggregates - between 4.75 and 0.075 mm
(#4 and #200 sieve)
Mineral fillers - < 0.075 mm (#200 sieve)

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Grain Size distribution
curves
Plotting percent passing versus log(particles
size (mm) or sieve size)

Types:
 uniform (dense-graded)
 gap-graded
 well-graded
 open-graded

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Properties with fines

Properties Open-graded Well-graded Gap-graded


(no fine) (dense) (Large fine)
Stability Medium Excellent Poor

Density Low High Low

Permeability Permeable Low Impervious

Frost No May be Yes


susceptibility
Cohesion Poor Medium Large

Handling Difficult Medium Easy

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3-important parameters in GSD

• Effective size D10 – size at 10% passed


It affect permeability; k = C(D10)2

• Coefficient of gradation
Cc= (D30)2/D60*D10
Well graded soil Cc from 1 to 3

• The uniformity coefficient


Cu = D60/D10
well graded soil Cu>6

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Max. density gradation

Maximum density with minimum voids

Fuller relationship:
Pi = 100(di/D)0.45
Pi = percent passing a sieve of size di
di = the sieve size in question
D = maximum size of the aggregate

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Blending aggregates

Iterative Methods for Soil Blending

• For blending more than 2 types of soils

• Pi = Aa + Bb + Cc + ….

• Pi = percent blend material passing sieve size i


• A, B and C = percent of aggregates A, B and C passing
sieve size i
• a, b and c = fraction of aggregate of A, B and C in the
blended soil (the total should be 1.00)

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Properties of Blended Soil

Except for Specific Gravity or Density are other properties


of the blended soil can be calculated using the
following equation.

X = P1X1 + P2X2 + P3X3 + …..

X = property of the blended soil


P1, P2 and P3 = fraction of aggregates 1, 2 and 3 in the blended soil
(total is 1.00)
X1, X2 and X3 = property value of aggregates 1, 2, and 3

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Properties of Blended Soil

For Specific gravity or Density


1
G=
P1/G1 + P2/G2 + P3/G3 + …

P1, P2 and P3 = fraction of aggregates 1, 2 and 3


in the blended soil

G1, G2 and G3 = specific gravity of aggregates


1, 2 and 3.

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Example: Three types of aggregates X, Y and Z are to be blended together. The
following are pertinent data:

Aggregate Type X Y Z

Mass (kg) 2000 3000 5000


% passing the #4 Sieve 68 54 80
% passing the #200 Sieve 12 15 4
Specific Gravity 2.61 2.76 2.58
Hardness (H) 5.87 4.95 5.12

a. What will be the percent passing in the # 4 sieve of the blended aggregates?

b. What will be the percent passing in the #200 sieve of the blended aggregates?

c. What will be the specific gravity of the blended aggregates?

d. What will be the hardness number of the blended aggregates?

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Strength of Aggregates

Aggregates transmit compression load via friction


and interlocking which is characterized via friction
angle ().

Rounded: Angular:
Poor interlocking good interlocking
Smooth surface – Rough surface – high
low friction friction

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Two Methods of Grain Size Analysis

Sieve/Mechanical Analysis – generally used for


coarse grained soil by allowing a given soil
sample pass through a set of sieves of different
size either by manual shaking or by mechanical
means.

Hydrometer Analysis – generally used for fine grained


soil by allowing a given soil sample settle in
water for a certain period of time.

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PROB
Following are the results of sieve analysis. Make the necessary calculations and
draw the particle distribution curve.

Sieve No. Opening (mm) Mass of soil retained (g)


4 4.75 66
10 2.00 73
20 0.85 88
40 0.425 159
60 0.250 220
80 0.180 102
200 0.075 56
Pan 36

1. Determine the effective particle size 5. % of fines


2. Compute the Uniformity coefficient 6. % of gravel
3. Find the coef. of gradation 7. % sand
4. Determine the average particle size 8. Sorting Coefficient

Dx = Diameter of an imaginary sieve wherein x% of sample passes through it


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Sieve No. Opening (mm) Mass of soil Percent Cumulative % Cumulative %

retained (g) Retained Retained Passing

4 4.75 66 8.25 8.25 91.75


10 2 73 9.125 17.375 82.625
20 0.85 88 11 28.375 71.625
40 0.425 159 19.875 48.25 51.75
60 0.25 220 27.5 75.75 24.25
80 0.18 102 12.75 88.5 11.5
200 0.075 56 7 95.5 4.5
Pan 36 4.5 100 0

800 100
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Sieve # Sieve size Mass Retained % Retained Cumulative % Retained Cumulative %Passing
4 4.75 66
10 2 73
20 0.85 88

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1.30
0.21
0.24

0.40

0.57
0.13

1. D10 = 0.13mm
A large CU represents large range in grain sizes,
therefore the soil is regarded as well graded
D60 0.57
2. CU = = = 4.38 A value of CU near unity represents sizes of the
D10 0.13 same magnitude and if CU is less than 4.
the soil is uniform
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D302
3. Cc =
(D10) (D60)
0.242
=
(0.13) (0.57)
= 0.78
4. D50 = Ave. part. size
= 0.40 mm
5. % of fines = 4.5%

6. % of gravel = 8.25%

7. % of sand = 87.25%
A large coefficient of curvature or concavity It is the mass retained in the # 200
or gradation (CC) measures the shape of the sieve but passing the # 4 sieve
GSD When CC is close to 1, soil is well D75
graded. If CC is much much less or greater 8. S0 = = 2.5
D25
than 1, soil is poorly graded.

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a. D10 = 0.13 mm

Dx = Diameter of an iaginary sieve wherein x% of sample passes through it


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PROB
Following are the results of sieve analysis. Make the necessary calculations and
draw the particle distribution curve.

Sieve No. Opening (mm) Mass of soil retained (g)


4 4.75 66
10 2.00 73
20 0.85 88
40 0.425 159
60 0.250 220
80 0.180 102
200 0.075 56
Pan 36

1. Determine the effective particle size 5. % of fines


2. Compute the Uniformity coefficient 6. % of gravel
3. Find the coef. of gradation 7. % sand
4. Determine the averate particle size 8. Sorting Cofficient

Dx = Diameter of an iaginary sieve wherein x% of sample passes through it


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