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Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Electromagnetic Stirring in Slab Caster Molds

What and Why

Pierre H. Dauby, Siebo Kunstreich

Danieli Rotelec
Tours Mercuriales
93176 Bagnolet/Paris Cedex, France.

Phone 33-1-
Fax 33-1-

Key Words: Slab, Stirring, EMS, EMLS, EMLA, EMRS, Single-Roll, Double-Roll,


The first successful industrial application of electromagnetic stirring in steel making goes back to 1973
by IRSID/CEM on a 240-mm² bloom caster at SAFE in France, and today there is practically no quality
billet/bloom caster in the world that has not adopted that process. The same may be said of stainless steel
slab casters that, since the 1980s, have recognized the benefits of electromagnetic stirring for equiaxed
zone or grain size control.

For low carbon steels cast on conventional thick slab casters, however, electromagnetic stirring
applications remain limited (1). DC brakes were introduced by KSC and ABB in 1982 (2). They were
tested and implemented on several curved-mold machines with some success, but really did not
breakthrough as initially projected (vertical/bending remains the best way to offset gravity). Rotative
stirring, induced by two long linear stirrers placed at the meniscus, was introduced by Nippon Steel at
about the same time to address shell formation and subsurface slab quality (3). Only recently, the
technology was applied outside NSC, at Kobe Kakogawa and China Steel Kaohsiung (on one strand for
test purposes). EMLS/EMLA was proposed by Nippon Kokan in 1991 (4). It uses four linear stirrers at
mid-mold/height to slow down or accelerate the steel directly at the exit of the submerged entry nozzle
and control steel meniscus velocity. Initially designed for the Fukuyama high-speed casters, the
technology was recently adopted on two more conventional casting speed machines at Posco.

And what’s next? Do we know more about continuous casting than 15 years ago? Is there really a need
for electromagnetic stirring in the thick slab caster industry? Did a new concept or new electromagnetic
stirring technology emerge that could address slab/coil defects after all?

It is with these questions in mind that the "what and why" of electromagnetic stirring in thick slab caster
molds will be re-assessed in this paper, namely: (1) examine the root cause of various defects the origin
of which is in the mold, (2) evaluate the efficiency/limit of countermeasures typically implemented by
caster operators and, (3) propose MM EMS, a new multi-mode electromagnetic stirring concept to
efficiently control mold operations.

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


Versatility in slab casting has been a key word in the steel industry for some time now. Very rare indeed
(most probably none) are machines that cast only one grade and one width at one speed. Most casters
nowadays have complex product mixes that include various steel grades and widths that must be cast at
different casting speeds. Other constraints are due to cost, productivity, refractory wear, clogging events,
breakout alarms or refining time and include changing ladles, tundishes and SENs on the fly, varying
SEN immersion depths, changing argon flow rate, casting double-width (slitting), waiting for steel, or
restranding the machine.

The effect of these transient casting operations on steel quality is generally well known. As a result, in
each plant, caster quality control departments have developed comprehensive lists of slab abnormality
codes that are used to inspect and apply slabs. Slab downgrading should not be ignored. It may concern 5
to 10% of the production of a machine and be very costly.


Experienced caster operators have learned to minimize the effect of the above-mentioned transient
casting operations. For example, they will program casting speed ramps and maximize tundish bath depth
to accommodate temporary casting speed changes, and they will implement quick tube change systems to
accommodate nozzle clogging. Unfortunately, most of the time the proposed practice changes are only
compromises as the continuous casting process is a complex and multi-variable system. Casting speed
may be reduced to minimize pencil pipe defects on curved-mold casters, but slivers will then increase
(longer negative stripping time, deeper oscillation marks, longer solidification hooks, increased powder
consumption). Casting speed may also be reduced to minimize internal defects, but surface defects will
then increase for the same reason as above. In other instances, mold powder viscosity may be increased to
reduce powder shearing, but lubrication will be affected and breakout alarms will increase; argon flow
rate may be increased to prevent nozzle clogging, but mold level fluctuations will increase; calcium
treatment may also be considered to prevent nozzle clogging, but reduced heat transfer to the meniscus
with frozen meniscus or deckles may result, or it is the ladle refining time that will be extended and
casting speed will have to be reduced.

In all situations, compromises are the rule more than the exception. There is an optimum casting speed
for slivers; there is an optimum SEN depth for longitudinal cracks; there is an optimum mold level
fluctuations window for surface defects; there is an optimum negative stripping time for strand
lubrication. The list is endless, but operators' complaint is always the same: "we wish we have some other
tools to master the operations in the mold!" Let us keep this comment in mind for a while.


It is well established now that steel flow pattern in thick slab caster molds is not of any sort. Moreover,
steel flow pattern affects steel quality, and there is one preferred flow pattern (5-11).

Steel flow pattern can be single or double-roll (Fig. 1). High casting speeds, narrow slab widths, low
argon flow rates, and deep SENs promote double-roll. Vice-versa, wide slabs cast at slow speeds with a
shallow SEN immersion depth and a lot of argon will be single-roll (6,7).

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Single-roll is cause of many slab defects as showed in a recent analysis of TKS, LTV, IRSID and NKK
data pertaining to curved and vertical-bending casters (5). Conversely, a well-balanced double-roll flow is
key for maximizing slab/coil quality.

Instability of the flow has been known for several years to downgrade steel quality (in a ratio of 4 to 1 vs.
stable flow conditions (6)). Until recently (5,12) little known was that for "unfortunate" combinations of slab
width, casting speed, argon flow and SEN depth, the steel flow can establish itself somewhere between
single and double-roll and become "steadily unstable," unsuspected from the operating and quality
control personnel (events 11 thru 16 in Table I). This observation is important. Metallurgists and QC
personnel all remember quality crises in their steel plants when the cause of a defect could absolutely not
be identified. Heat sheets would not reveal any transient casting conditions. Everything would be as if the
defect occurred in "stable" casting conditions! In fact, it is not the individual casting parameters (slab
width, casting speed, argon flow rate, SEN depth) that correlate with the defects; it is their combination,
i.e., the steel flow pattern that correlates with the defects. (6,7). The defect is the result of an intrinsic
process flaw!
Events SEN Depth Casting Speed Argon Flow Slab Width Flow Pattern
No. Mm m/min l/min mm Single/Double
1 144 1.16 20.4 1168 S
2 127 1.65 9.6 1397 D
3 127 1.65 9.6 1397 D
4 162 1.65 8.5 1422 D/S
5 142 1.50 9.6 1422 D
6 144 1.47 25.5 1422 D
7 155 1.57 26.9 1422 D
8 162 1.52 30.3 1422 D
9 144 1.16 31.7 1422 S
10 165 1.14 19.8 1448 D
11 155 1.16 31.7 1448 D/S
12 150 1.27 15.8 1525 D/S
13 152 1.35 19.8 1525 D
14 173 1.16 20.4 1525 S/D
15 157 1.52 19.8 1575 S
16 173 1.65 28.3 1575 S/D
17 137 1.19 18.7 1600 S
18 162 1.04 14.7 1727 D
19 111 1.14 18.4 1778 S
20 111 1.14 18.4 1778 S/D
21 122 1.12 10.5 1879 S
22 122 1.12 10.5 1879 S
23 109 1.12 10.5 1879 S
24 122 1.12 10.5 1879 S
25 137 1.14 17.0 2133 S
26 137 1.12 17.0 2133 S
27 137 1.12 17.0 2133 S
28 137 1.12 17.0 2133 S
29 122 1.12 17.0 2133 S
Table I - Industrial (nail board) data show that steel flow pattern/stability depends on slab width, argon flow rate, casting speed and SEN
immersion depth. Events 2 thru 8 are mainly double-roll flow. Events 21 thru 29 are single-roll, although at approximately same throughput.
Events 11 thru 16 represent the “steadily unstable” configurations. LTV Steel data.


It becomes obvious from the precedent section that steelmakers need a technology that can maintain a
stable double-roll flow in the mold, independently from slab width, casting speed, SEN depth and argon
flow rate.

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

The technology exists. It uses four linear stirrers that are positioned at mid-height of the mold, two by
two, behind each broad-face backup plate, on each side of the submerged entry nozzle (Fig. 2). Powered
with 2-phase AC current, the stirrers generate electromagnetic volume forces that push the liquid steel
horizontally in a direction that is chosen by electrical phase commutation (detailed description in a
following section).

In the first two operating modes of Figure 2, the magnetic fields create forces in the steel that can slow-
down (EMLS) or accelerate (EMLA) the steel. In contrast with "passive" DC electromagnetic systems
that can only brake what goes too fast with a braking effect that is proportional to the actual speed of the
liquid steel, the traveling AC fields are "active." They brake with considerably higher efficiency than DC
systems and can also accelerate the liquid steel (actually, they can put in motion dead zones that do not
In a third operating mode (called EMRS), appropriate selection of the direction of the four traveling fields
(going in the same direction all over one broad face, but in the opposite direction on the other broad face)
can generate forces at the meniscus that will rotate the steel in a horizontal plane.


Fig. 3 confirms the capability of the EMLS/EMLA modes to slow down or accelerate the steel flow:
indeed, the angle of a refractory paddle immersed in the liquid steel varies with the intensity of the
current that is used to energize the stirrers.

Fig. 4 refers to numerical simulations that confirm the capability of the system to transform a single-roll
into a double-roll flow pattern.

Recently, nail board measurements conducted at Posco-Pohang made apparent the effect of the
EMLS/EMLA stirring modes on the steel flow pattern and molten slag layer thickness (14).

The demonstration that the EMRS mode can put liquid steel in rotation is difficult as only one thin layer
of steel moves along the perimeter of the mold and local measurements are difficult. Indirectly, however,
the point can be made, as metallurgical results obtained with rotative stirring are indeed improved!
− Fig. 5 shows EMRS results obtained at NKK(15) with stirrers installed at mid-height of the mold. Note
that they are similar to those presented by NSC for stirrers installed close to the meniscus (3,16).


Table II on the next page summarizes the negatives of the various types of steel flow patterns that exist in
the mold and lists the corresponding electromagnetic-based stirring solutions.

As can been seen, three functioning modes are included in the new Multi Mode EMS concept:
− The EMLS/EMLA mode that was initially proposed by NKK to slow down or accelerate steel
meniscus velocity on the Fukuyama no. 5 and 6 high-speed casters (up to 3.0 m/min).
− The EMRS mode to be used on specific grades.
− And a new permanent EMLA accelerating mode to transform unstable and single-roll type steel flow
pattern into stable and optimised double-roll flow on conventional casting speed casters.

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Flow Pattern Associated Negatives Examples of Induced Solution

Steel Defects
Hyperactive – Excessive narrow-face wave height – Mold powder-based defects
Double-Roll – Excessive meniscus velocities (slivers, pipe) EMLS
– Excessive mold level fluctuations – Loss of lubrication
– Slag thinning near the narrow faces – Breakout events
– Mold powder shearing – Breakout alarms
Optimum -
Weak – Reduced heat transfer to meniscus – Alumina-based defects
Double-Roll – Reduced mold powder melting rate – Cold/frozen meniscus EMLA
– Slow meniscus velocities – Slag spots
– Sticking alarms
Steadily – Steel flow reversion – Slab casting abnormalities
Unstable and – Abrupt/local meniscus velocity – Downgraded slabs EMLA
Transitioning increase – Various unexplained defects
Double/Single – Flux entrainment
– Flux vortexing
Single-Roll – Slag thinning near the SEN – Mid broad-face longitudinal
– Un-opposed, full-momentum flow cracks EMLA
of steel to the narrow faces – Alumina-based inclusions
– Un-opposed drive of argon bubbles – Argon bubbles and inclusions
and inclusions to the slab edges accumulation in a 30-cm band
along the slab edges
Biased – Asymmetrical/unbalanced flow – One-side accumulation of Asymmetrical
Right/Left – Mold level fluctuations bubbles/inclusions Forces
Flow – Non-uniform molten slag layer
Sluggish Flow – Non-uniform steel velocities and – Subsurface alumina and
at the meniscus temperature gradients along mold calcium aluminate inclusions
perimeter – Argon-based pinholes in
– Non-uniform solidification shell fully-killed steels EMRS
thickness – CO-based blowholes in
– Weak heat convection to the mold pseudo-rimming steels
faces – Longitudinal cracks on
peritectic grades
Table II – Negatives of various mold steel flow patterns and electromagnetic-based countermeasures. Rotelec data.

To explain the drive of the EMLS, EMLA, and EMRS functions into the three operating modes, the
single- and double-roll flow events of table I have been represented in a slab-width/casting-speed
diagram (Fig. 6). The schematic was chosen to show the limits of a "naturally-existing” single-roll
domain at slow speeds/wide widths (< 1.3 m/min, > 1550 mm) and of a "naturally-existing” double-roll
domain at higher speeds/narrower widths (> 1.3 m/min, < 1550 mm).
− The 2-D representation of the 4-D concept (width, speed, argon, depth) is of course limited. One must
understand that the position and slope of the single/double-roll separation line will vary with argon
flow rate and SEN depth/design. For example, for deeper SENs and lower argon flows (events No. 10
and 18 in Table I) the separation line will shift to the left; and the double-roll domain will widen

The EMLS/EMLA operating mode specifically pertains to high casting speed conditions. It covers the
"naturally-existing” double-roll domain.
− The operation is based on NKK’s finding (4,17) that there is an optimum double-roll intensity required
to minimize coil defects (Fig. 7). EMLS mode is used to slow down the double-roll intensity in case
of high-throughput/low-argon casting (that typically leads to mold powder-based defects). EMLA
mode is used to accelerate in case of low-throughput/high-argon casting (that typically results in
alumina-based defects).
− In industrial mode, an F-value that combines slab width, casting speed, argon flow and SEN
design/depth is calculated every 5 seconds, and stirring intensity/direction is actuated accordingly.

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

− Fig. 8 schematizes the break-even line between EMLS and EMLA operations. For given SEN
depth/design and argon flow, this line can be understood as the iso-throughput line of the ideal
operating "window" where no electromagnetic flow control is required. Moving away from this line,
higher throughputs require stronger EMLS settings; lower throughputs require stronger EMLA
− Wrong settings must be avoided, as they generate defects. Interestingly, mathematical simulations
show that too strong EMLS settings (i.e., too much braking) induce a third loop in the mold (Fig. 9)
which disturbs the principal double-roll flow, thereby confirming mathematically the existence of the
optimum window represented on Fig. 7.

The permanent EMLA operating mode specifically pertains to wide-slabs and/or slow-speed casters. It
covers the "naturally-existing” single-roll domain.
− In this case, the steel flow exiting the SEN needs to be accelerated to transform the single-roll flow
into a steady and optimized double-roll flow. This operating mode also addresses the various transient
casting conditions described above such as slow-speed head/tail slabs in sequence casting or the
“steadily unstable” situations.
− In contrast to past opinion that EMLS/EMLA technology is only of interest to high-speed high-
throughput machines, this second EMLA mode addresses the majority of the currently existing

The EMRS operating mode is grade-specific.

− Its role is not to maintain the double-roll flow pattern in its optimized operating window, but rather to
generate a flow pattern that homogenizes steel temperature gradient along the mold perimeter and
washes the solidification front. For this reason, currently, the EMRS mode is limited to specific steel
grades such as tin plate, enameling, peritectic and pseudo-rimming steels.


As briefly mentioned in a previous section, the technology proposed in the present paper uses four
identical linear stirrers (modular construction), positioned at approximately mid-height of the mold, two
by two, behind each broad-face backup plate, on each side of the submerged entry nozzle.

Mechanically speaking, each pair of stirrers on each broad face is mounted on one same frame which
makes handling/maintenance easier (Fig. 10). Each frame is inserted in a cavity that has to be provided
for in the mold cooling jacket to minimize the gap between the stirrers and the mold backup plates (these
must be in non-magnetic stainless steel) and is bolted to the mold assembly. Assembling/un-assembling
of mold and stirrer is done in the mold repair aisle. Once installed on the caster, each pair/frame is
connected to a closed-loop pure-water cooling circuit and dry air or nitrogen for moisture purging.

Electrically speaking, flexible dry-type power cables connect each stirrer to VVVF-type electrical power
supplies that feed low-frequency two-phase AC current and generate a traveling magnetic field that is
proportional to the current intensity.

For those who are not familiar with magnetic traveling fields (or linear asynchronous AC motors), Fig. 11
shows the principle of a two-phase system where poles 1-3-5 are connected to the first phase I1 = I0 cos ωt
and poles 2-4-6 are connected to the second phase I2 = I0 cos ωt + π/2:

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

− At instant ωt = 0, the first phase of current I1 is maximum: it creates one north, one south and one
north pole in coils 1-3-5, respectively.
− At ωt = π/2, the first phase of current I1 is zero, but the second phase of current I2 is maximum: it
creates a similar configuration with north, south and north poles in poles 2-4-6, hence shifted by τ/2.
− At ωt = π, the second phase is zero, and the first phase is maximum again but with inverse sign: this
means that the former north, south north poles have become south, north, south poles.
− After a full ωt = 2π period, it results that the magnetic field will have traveled a distance of two times
the pole pitch (τ) at a velocity v that equals 2τf.

The traveling magnetic field induces eddy currents J in the liquid steel that combine with the magnetic
induction B to create an electromagnetic volume force F in the slab. The force F points to the direction of
travel of the magnetic field (horizontal and parallel to the mold broad faces) and equals

F = σsteel.v.B2 with v = 2.τ.f and B is f(σi, f, ej, τ)

where σi is the electrical conductivity of the different material (steel, copper and back-up plate) and ej
represents the respective thicknesses

The electromagnetic volume force pushes the liquid steel in the traveling direction of the magnetic fields.
Its direction can be chosen electrically by phase commutation; its magnitude depends on the intensity and
frequency of the electrical current. With appropriate, inventive cabling and PLC-controlled electrical
connections, the four-stirrer unit can become a very versatile tool, as either transverse or longitudinal
traveling magnetic fields can be generated:
− Transverse magnetic fields (when face-to-face poles are of opposite polarity) create high magnetic
forces in the middle of the thickness of the mold (plug-flow type) and will be used for the EMLS
slowing-down and EMLA accelerating functions.
− Longitudinal magnetic fields (with face-to-face opposite traveling directions) will zero the magnetic
force in the middle of the mold and concentrate tangential forces along the perimeter of the mold for
the EMRS rotative function.

The decision to accelerate, slow down or rotate and at what intensity is made automatically and on line by
a predictive computer model in function of steel grade, SEN geometry and depth, slab size, casting speed
and argon flow rate. Table III lists the main technical data of the proposed stirring system.

Item Data
Operating modes EMLS, EMLA, EMRS
Position of the stirrers Mid-height of the mold
Coil construction Resin-cast hollow-copper conductors
Yokes and poles Stacked silicon steel sheets
Power supply VVVF-type IGBT transistor converter
Operation mode commutator PLC-controlled
Power installed per strand 700 – 1000 kVA AC
Coil current per phase 800 – 1000 A
Frequency 0.5 – 1.5 Hz
Mold plates Conventional CuCrZr copper
Copper conductivity 85% IACS max
Weight 4 x 1.5 tonnes
Overall thickness 500 mm in mold cavity + 600 mm back space
Overall height 450 mm in mold cavity
Overall length Mold width
Electrical power consumption 2 kwh/tonne
Table III – Example of technical data for the proposed stirrer system
(numbers vary with slab width and current frequency) - Rotelec data.

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


In 15 years, important changes have occurred in the slab continuous casting industry. Caster operations
are now more versatile than ever. Zero-defect tolerance is each customer's motto. Fortunately, during the
same time period, understanding of the root causes of many slab/coil defects has considerably progressed;
and electromagnetic stirring technology also. The effect of steel flow pattern on steel quality is now well
established. Also, super-flexible electromagnetic technology is available that makes multi-mode
construction and operation possible.

More specifically, this paper highlights the following:

• Steel flow pattern in the mold is a 4-D combination of casting speed, slab width, argon flow rate and
SEN depth.
− Caster operators cannot control steel flow pattern; but steel flow pattern controls steel quality.

• Steel flow pattern can be single or double-roll.

− Steel flow pattern can also be naturally steadily unstable, unsuspected to the caster operators. This is
different from the unstable configurations that result from temporary casting condition changes. The
observation is critical as casting speed, slab width, and SEN immersion depth changes are, generally,
beyond operator's control.

• Steel defects are minimum for stable double-roll flow configurations.

− Single-roll and unstable flow situations must be eliminated.

• MM EMS, a new versatile multi-mode electromagnetic-based stirring technology is available to

address the need of the steel continuous casting industry.
− The technology allows to slow down (EMLS), accelerate (EMLA) and rotate the liquid steel (EMRS)
in the mold with one same equipment.

• The control concept of the new technology includes three operating modes.
− The EMLS/EMLA mode is used to optimise flow velocity in double-roll flow configurations.
− The EMLA mode is used to consistently transform single-roll and unstable flow configurations into
forced double-roll flows.
− The EMRS mode addresses specific subsurface quality issues on difficult grades.
− Appropriately-designed EMS technology can provide all three control modes on the same caster.

• Customer satisfaction (less claims and better coil quality ratings), better yield (less slab downgrading
abnormalities, less alumina/powder defects, less conditioning) and casting operation improvement
(higher productivity, casting speed increase without defect increase, better copper/strand lubrication)
are some of the incentives that are claimed in this technology.

The pertinence of the steel flow pattern concept described in this paper can easily be evaluated at any
caster using simple tool such as nail boards or paddle probes. A uniform molten slag layer over the entire
width of the mold is good indicator of a stable flow and uniform solidification.

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


The authors wish to thank Dr. J. Kubota from the Fukuyama Works Steelmaking Department and Messrs.
T. Kondo and S. Mizuoka from the Steelmaking Group Consulting Department of NKK Corporation in
Japan for their valuable suggestions in support of this paper. They also wish to thank Dr. Lee Sang-Min
from the Posco Iron & Steel Making Research Group for the discussions he stimulated during the writing
of this paper.


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Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


Thickness (mm)

Thickness (mm)
Mold Powder
60 Mold Flux
Liquid Mold Flux Liquid
Liquid Mold Flux

20 Steel Steel
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Dis tance From Narrow Face (mm)
Distance From Narrow Face (mm)


Fig.1 The two most typical steel flows in the mold and their effect on molten slag layer profile/thickness.
LTV/Rotelec data.

slowing-down mode,
magnetic field traveling

x accelerating mode,
magnetic field traveling
y outward

rotative stirring mode,
magnetic field traveling

Fig. 2 Four electromagnetic stirrers are operated in three different modes. Rotelec data.

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


1080A 1080A

2160A 2160A

Speed 1.6 m/min Speed 2.0 m/min

Measurement of surface stream velocity
Slab size 1550 x 235 mm, -45° Nozzle

Fig. 3 The angle of a refractory paddle immersed in the liquid steel makes apparent the slowing-down or accelerating
capability of the EMLS/EMLA modes. NKK data.

Blowholes count (index)

Meniscus flow velocity
Mold height (m)


Broad faces
Narrow faces
Coil current = 0 A 75

Half mold width (m) Half mold width (m)

50 without EMRS
Meniscus flow velocity
Mold height (m)


with EMRS

Coil current = 250 A

Half mold width (m) Half mold width (m) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Depth from surface [mm]
Meniscus flow velocity

Fig.5 Subsurface blowholes are reduced with the

Mold height (m)

EMRS rotative mode. NKK data; 0.13%C,


0.008%Al steel.
Coil current = 450 A

Half mold width (m) Half mold width (m)

Fig. 4 The EMLA acceleration mode can transform

a defect-prone single-roll flow into an optimized
double-roll flow pattern. Rotelec data; 2-D
simulation of 2,600-mm wide slabs cast at 1.0

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


2000 Single Roll

Double Roll
Slab width [mm]


1600 Single Roll

Double Roll
1200 Domain

1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8

Fig. 6 Steel flow pattern (single or double-roll flow) does not depend on machine throughput. Rotelec/LTV data.

Surface Defects on CR Coils (Index)





1 2 3 4 5 6

Low Optimum High

Meniscus Steel Flow Velocity (Index)

Fig. 7 Slab/coil defects are minimum in an optimum window of steel meniscus velocities between weak
and excessive double-roll flow conditions. NKK data; 700/1,650-mm wide, 235-mm thick slabs cast at
1.6/2.8 m/min.

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.



slab width [mm]


F-value control

0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,6 2,8
casting speed [m/min]

Fig. 8 The three proposed operating modes. (1) EMLS/EMLA in the double-roll domain with
automatic F-value control to maintain meniscus flow velocity within the optimized operational
window. (2) Permanent EMLA in the single-roll domain to convert single-roll and unstable flows into
optimized double-roll flows. (3) EMRS in both domains for specific steel grades. Rotelec and NKK

Fig. 9 EMLS (at 280 A in this

example) reduces steel meniscus
Meniscus flow velocity
Mold height (m)

velocities significantly. Excessive

braking (at 360 A in this example)

reverses the double-roll pattern into a

Coil current = 0 A detrimental "returning" single-roll
proving the existence of an optimum
Half mold width (m) Half mold width (m) window of operation. Liquid steel
trajectories on the left; SEN at far left.
Steel meniscus velocities on the right;
Meniscus flow velocity

positive velocities from SEN to

Mold height (m)

narrow face. Meniscus velocities at 0


Amp represented in all three diagrams

for reference. Rotelec data. 2-D
Coil current = 280 A
simulations of 2,600-mm wide slabs
Half mold width (m) Half mold width (m) cast at 1.25 m/min.
Meniscus flow velocity
Mold height (m)


Coil current = 360 A

Half mold width (m) Half mold width (m)

Presented at the ISS International Technology Conference & Exhibition, April 27-30, 2003, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Cooling Water

Dry Air

Automatic Cable Frequency MV

Connector Converter FEEDER

EMS CC Computer
PLC Steel grade, slab size,
casting speed, Ar flow,
SEN design/depth
HMI Automatic Controller

Fig. 10 Block diagram depicting stirrers, electrical supply and control equipment. On each side of the mold, each pair of
stirrers is mounted on one same frame and inserted in a cavity in the mold. Automatic cable connection makes handling
and mold change easier. Rotelec data.

0 π/2 π 3π/2 2π 1 2 3 4 5 6 ω t = 2π
1 2 3 4 5 6 ω t = 3π/2
1 2 3 4 5 6 ωt=π
1 2 3 4 5 6 ω t = π/2
1 2 3 4 5 6 ωt=0

Fig. 11 Two-phase AC current is used to create traveling forces that push liquid steel in the chosen direction. Rotelec data.