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What is transformer :
an electrical device that converts AC electric energy at
one voltage or current level to another voltage or current
level at the same frequency

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150 kV 20 kV 0.4 kV
G

Step
Stepupup Interconnecti
Interconnecti Distribution
Distribution
Transforme
Transforme on
on Transforme
Transforme
rr Transformer
Transformer rr Load
20
20/ /150
150kV
kV 150
150/ /20
20kV
kV 20
20/ /0.4
0.4kV
kV

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Basic Principle of Transformer:
- consist of two inductive coils (primary and
secondary) which are electrically separated but Φ
magnetically linked V N N V
1 1 2 2
- mutual induction between the two circuit
- if one coil is connected to a source of
alternating voltage, alternating flux is set up in
the laminated core which is linked with the E = 4,44. f .φ m .N
other coil. Then it produces mutually induced
emf. I1 N
= 2

- If the second coil circuit is closed, a current I2 N 1

flows in it and so electric energy is transferred.


E1 V
= 1
E2 V2

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ΔU

I I
p s Us
Up

Np Ns
»SIEC = Up x (Is x Ns/Np)
»SANSI = Us x Is
»Cooling capacity =
»IEC 60076 = max. load loss + no load loss 100% excitation +
sun rad.
»ANSI C57 = max. load loss + no load loss (100% + ΔV) excit.+
sun rad.
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There are two type transformer based on its insulation :

The party active is immersed in the tank by dielectric liquid

The party active is immersed in the tank by air or gas

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The expansion of dielectric takes
place in an expansion tank placed
above the tank

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Expansion of the dielectric is
absorbed by compensating on the
radiator fins

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The oil volume expansion is
compensated with inert gas layer
between the surface of the dielectric
and the top of the tank.

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¾ HV 60° oblique winding patented by
AREVA
three dimensional
computerized
control automatic
and vertical micro
ordinat
winding machine eur

fully automated
casting and
mixing under
vacuum
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¾ No liquid dielectric
¾ no danger for environment due to oil leakage
¾ no loss of dielectric strength due to oil leakage
¾ no need for oil dams or containment systems
¾ no fluids to be targeted for regulation in the future
resulting in costly change-outs

¾ Excellent Fire resistance


¾ self-extinguishing,
¾ fire retardant,
¾ not explosive,
¾ no release of toxic or corrosive products and
opaque smokes in the event of fire

¾ Excellent response to service conditions


¾ High short circuit withstand ratings
¾ Resistant to mechanical and thermal stress caused
by over-loads, over-voltages and harmonics
¾ Low partial discharge, therefore high life 13
expectancy
- Core - Cooling equipment
- Winding - Termination
- Cooling medium - Control/Protection
- Insulation structure

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‰ Tank cover.

‰ Internal connection bushings

‰ Tap changer barrel and lead


outs connection

‰ Core & coil assembly

‰ Yoke clamping

‰ Pedestal

‰ Tank wall + base.


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TTransformer
ransformer for
for Hazardous
Hazardous Area
Area

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Basic description :
X Definition : Those areas where fire or explosion hazards may exist
due to flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible
dust or ignitable fibers

X For hazardous areas with risks of explosion, specific electrical


equipment is required.

X Application fields: Based on decades of filled tested experience in


electrical generation and distribution for both offshore and onshore
installations

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• Arcs and sparks produced by the normal operation of equipment, like motor
starters, contactors and switches, can ignite a hazardous location
atmosphere

• The high temperatures of some heat-producing equipment, such as lamps


and lighting fixtures, can ignite flammable atmospheres if they exceed the
ignition temperature of the hazardous material. The National Electrical Code
requires special marking of heat-producing equipment with temperatures
above 100°C (212°F)

• Electrical equipment failure is another way an explosion could be set off. A


burn out of a lamp socket or shorting of a terminal could spark a real
disaster in a hazardous location

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Zone 0 : an area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is
continuously present or present for long periods

Zone 1 : an area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is


likely to occur in normal operation

Zone 2 : an area in which an explosive gas atmosphere


does not normally exist

Type of Area IEC NEC


Continuous Hazard ZONE 0 DIVISION 1
Intermittent Hazard ZONE 1 DIVISION 1
Hazard under abnormal conditions ZONE 2 DIVISION 2

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SEALING FITTING
EXPLOSION PROOF TERMINAL
BOX

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CONDUIT CABLES
¾ Standard Applicable

IEC 76, ANSI C-57 and AS 2734


Information required with enquiry and order:
A.General Information - BIL and power frequency
- dry type or oil immerse - connection
- single or 3 phase - Accessories
- frequency
- indoor or outdoor B. Special information
- type of cooling - impedance
- rated power and voltage - altitude and ambient temp.
- tapping (if needed); on load or off load - special installation space
- highest voltage level - tests required : lightning impulse etc.
- method of earthing
C. Paralel operation
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- Part active : this is the main part of transformer, consist of core
magnetic and winding
- Bushing
- Cooling Device : oil (for oil immersed transformer), radiator, fan
- Protection Device : Bucholz relay, protection relay for OLTC RS 2001,
pressure relief device, pressure vacuum gage &
bleeder
- Accessories : Oil Level Indicator (OLI), Oil Temperature Indicator (OTI),
Winding Temperature Indicator (WTI), etc
- Valve : oil sampling valve, butterfly valve, screw end globe type valve

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- Magnetic core
- Low voltage winding
- High voltage winding
- Active part clamping

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1

3 4 5 LV Winding
Gradins
2
HV Winding
1 Top yoke
2 Bottom yoke
3 Left outer limb
Choice of gradins used must be as
4 Center limb close as possible to the circle
5 Right outer limb section

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• There are two kinds of magnetic core stacking :

1. Flat yoke :
The silicon steels of the
yoke are arranged with
the same distance to
each other

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2. Non flat yoke :
The silicon steels of the
yoke are arranged like
stairs

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There are three kinds of Current density (δ)
wire used for winding: limitation used :
Copper wire :
1. Round wire (email)
1.4 <= δ <= 4.4 A/mm2
2. Rectangular (meplate)
Aluminium wire :
3. Foil (Bande)
0.6 <= δ <= 2.4 A/mm2

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Winding Temperature Indicator

Function :
To measure the winding temperature

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Winding Temperature Indicator

1. Case 9. Microsw. Setting


2. Locking Glass Pointer
Ring
10. Junction Box
3. Fixing Rear
Flange 11.Glass or
polycarbo-nate
4. Air Hole window
5. Capillary Output 12. Potentiometer for
6. Dial heating resistance
adjustment
7.Microsw. Setting
Dial
8. Max. indicating
pointer

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Oil Temperature Indicator

Function :
To measure the oil temperature inside power
transformer tank

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Oil Temperature Indicator

1. Case 8. Max. indicating


pointer
2. Locking Glass Ring
9. Microsw. Setting
3. Fixing Rear Flange
Pointer
4. Air Hole
10. Junction Box
5. Capillary Output
11.Glass or
6. Dial polycarbo-nate
window
7.Microsw. Setting
Dial

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Oil Level Indicator

Function :
to measure the level reached by the oil in a
transformer conservator

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Pressure Vacuum Gauge

Function :
To check the vacuum pressure inside the
tank

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Sudden Pressure Relay

Function :
To minimize the damage on the equipment caused
by excessive gas pressure that occurred from
internal arcing in oil filled transformers.

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Pressure Relief Device

Function :
An equipment to relieve large volumes of gas
or insulating fluid rapidly when the pressure
inside a transformer reaches a pre-
determined limit.

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1. Measurement of Winding Resistance

2. Measurement of voltage ratio

3. Measurement of no-load loss and no-load current

4. Short duration induced AC withstand voltage test (induced overvoltage test)

5. Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss

6. Separate-source AC withstand voltage test ( Applied protential test)

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1. Lightning impulse test

2. Temperature rise test

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1. Measurement of partial discharge

2. Measurement of sound levels

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Carefully examined to detect any signs of damage in transport:
• Damaged or deformed packing blocks
• Dielectric stains or leaks
• Broken pieces of wooden crate
• Cracked or spilled bushings
• Broken or damaged wiring
• Low nitrogen pressure on pressure gauge
• No dielectric oillevel reading on gauge
• Damaged tank body
• Bent or broken fittings
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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
USE THE LIFTING AND
JACKING POINTS SHOWN
ON THE GENERAL
ARRANGEMENT DRAWING
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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¾ Purpose:
To condition oil before filling
of transformer

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9 Check the list of components

9 Check the condition of parts

9 Any operation involving opening a passage into the inside of the


transformer must be done in the shortest time and good weather

9 Installation, erection, and commissioning of transformer may only


be carried out by qualified, skilled personel and only in
accordance with the instruction manual.

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Tools should be ready for Erection :

DESCRIPTION QUANTITY REMARK

Crane 5 ton 1 unit Lifting and assembling

Sling wire for crane 5 ton 1 set

Oil filtering/purely and vacuum machine 1500 - 3000 1 unit Filling & treatment oil if
lt./hours equipment with horse necessary

Torque wrench 1 set

Spanner : 8mm, 13mm, 22mm, 30mm etc 1 set

Adjustable wrench 1 set

Screw driver (plus & minus) 1 set

Multi tester 1 unit

Megger 1 unit

Oil tester 1 unit

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Tightening Torques

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¾ Take a sample, to ensure it meets the requirements for dielectric
strength

¾ DO NOT pour dielectric directly into the transformer

¾ Oil should flow in through a valve located below the level of the
dielectric already in the transformer

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1. Inject N2 gas through N2 injection valve

2. Control N2 gas pressure (± 6 psi.)

3. For leakage test, the voltage regulator is applied by 6-psi


pressure for 24 hours

4. After the test the pressure is down to 2 psi on pressure


vacuum gauge

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¾ Protective Accesories and Setting Values

NAME OF PROTECTIVE SET VALUES NOTE


No ACCESSORIES
ALARM TRIP
OK -
1 Sudden Pressure relay OK

2 Oil temperature indicator 85o 95o Adjustable

3 Winding temperature indicator

- Winding temperature 95o 105o Adjustable

- Fan (future) • start 70o /stop 60o C 70o - Adjustable

4 Oil level indicator for main tank Min level -

5 Pressure relief device - 7 psi

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¾ Inspection and checking before operation

No. CHECK ITEMS DESCRIPTION SPECIFIED REMARK


1 Out line drawing Specification Compliance with drawing
and specification

2 Oil level Main tank Level gauge to read


correctly for existing level
and oil temperature

3 Valve position 1. Valves


Open and close position
2. Radiator valves

3. Other valves

4 Off load tap changer Manual operation through all tap As specified
position
As reference
1. Insulation resistance of 1 MΩ/kV
windings

2. Ratio and polarity Acc. to specification


5 Electrical tests 3. Dielectric strength of oil See CT606MO
1. Wired properly and
4. Alarm, tripped, control circuits, comply with wiring
and auxiliary circuit 2. Contacts open or close
as specified. 50
¾ Inspection and checking before operation (Cont’d)

No. CHECK ITEMS DESCRIPTION SPECIFIED REMARK


6 Earthing Tank and Marshalling kiosk It should be connected to
earth

7 Bushing 1. Porcelain Clean

2. Spark Gap Proper continuity and


tightness
3. Connected

8 Other Cleans rust Cleans Clean and


touch point

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Efficient protection should prevent the transformer from any incident.

¾ Setting of Protective Devices


Most of the protective devices, ordered wtih the transformer are installed and
pre-adjust at the factory.
The choice of the protective device thet is not directly installed on the
transformer must take into account the effect of switching transient voltages
and currents caused by energising the transformer.

¾ Inrush Current
Energising a transformer gives rise to high over current. This inrush current
is between 3 – 5 times the rated current of the transformer.
This current reduces accordingly to an exponential law whose time constant
depend on the winding resistance and the secondary load.

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NORMAL OPERATION

¾ All radiators valves must be opened, and all other valves closed

¾ The tap changer secured in correct position.

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EMERGENCY OPERATION

¾ Over load
Can be operated under permissible load, which is given according to IEC
publication 354

¾ Over excitation
150
50/60 Hz
at No Load
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130

120

110

100

0
1 2 3 5 7 10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500 700

time (sec)

PERMISSIBLE OVER-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTIC

¾ Maximum duration of short circuit in second is 2 second at LV and HV


feeder. 54
¾ Maintenance Check-List
NO ITEMS CONTENTS NOTES JUDGING STANDARD ACTION IN CASE
OF ABNORMAL
1. Check and record oil indicator Reading in proper range
1. Winding and Oil considering load and Watching
temperature indicator ambient temperature
2. Record ambient temperature, temperature variation
load (MW, MVAR)

Difference within 10°


2. Oil level indicator Check oil level gauges. between oil level indicator Watching oil level
reading and temperature variation
indicator reading

3. Noise Check for abnormal sounds Without abnormal sound Stop operation
compared with other units
1. Check for loose connections
such as those found in main
circuits, grounding circuits,
auxiliary circuits and others.
4. Loose connections Without loosening of nuts Refastening
and bolts

2. Check valves for looseness

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¾ Maintenance Check-List (Cont’d)
NO ITEMS CONTENTS NOTES JUDGING STANDARD ACTION IN CASE
OF ABNORMAL
Check for oil leaks in connections
5. Oil leakage such as those of valves, meter Without oil leakage Refastening
especially in gaskets joints and
welded parts

1. Check for leaks Without oil leakage Stop & repair

6. Cooling equipment 2. Check for abnormal rotating Without abnormal sound Stop & repair
can not operate sounds and vibration compared with other units

3. Check valve status Shall be open

Evaluate the extent of the


7. Bushing porcelain contamination by Without much dust Cleaning
appropriate method

8. Instrument Check indicators and relays Without oil leakage Stopping and coating
the anti-oil leak paste

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¾ Maintenance Check-List (Cont’d)
NO ITEMS CONTENTS NOTES JUDGING STANDARD ACTION IN CASE
OF ABNORMAL
9. Hazardous Area Sealing Fitting Bar properly seal Find leakage, reseal

Check to see if paint is chipped or Check to see if rust is Clean off rust and
10. Paint Work pitting showing touch-up painting

11. Oil strength Take oil sample and test every 2 Should not be less than Filter oil, or add new
years 30kV/2.5 mm oil, or change all oil

12. Other

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¾Elimination of Leakage
Leakage can occur in:

• HV or LV bushings

• Transformer Instrumentation

• Tank sealing gaskets

• Pipework device

• Valves

• Radiator and on tank

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¾ Leakage on HV and LV bushings

Cause → Cracked insulator

→ Defective seal

Solution → Tightening

→ Replace the defective seal

Note: It is important for all seal and gasket replacement operations to be


carried out in a dry palce
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¾ Safety precautions:

• The tap-changer is to be operated off-load. Before operating ensure that


the transformer is de-energized.

• Installation, erection, and commissioning of transformers may only be carried


out by qualified, skilled personel and only in accordance with the instruction
manual.

• When handling the transformer, use the lifting and jacking points shown on
the general arrangement drawing for lifting the complete unit (see outline
drawings).

• If possible the transformer should be placed at least 0.5 m from the walls, to
avoid excessive and harmful temperature rises.

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