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SINTEZA LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR DAILY USE

Cursul practic (obligatoriu/opţional/facultativ) de limba engleză dedicat studenţilor anului I de


studiu îşi propune să fixeze şi să aprofundeze cunoştinţele de limba engleză generală dobândite de
studenţi în învăţământul preuniversitar, în vederea pregătirii acestora pentru înţelegerea şi
aprofundarea practicilor de succes din domeniul de specializare.
Pentru studenţii de la programul de studiu ID activităţile tutoriale se desfăşoară prin întâlniri faţă
în faţă cu coordonatorul de disciplină sau cu tutorele conform programării prevăzută în calendarul
disciplinei.
Activităţile tutoriale pentru disciplina Limba engleză – curs practic sunt următoarele:
Introducing yourself (1h)
Introduction to the British civilisation (1h)
Social network sites – between theory and practise (2h)

Bibliografie generală
Obligatorie:
Barbu A.M., Chirimbu S., English Practice for Daily Use, Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine,
Bucureşti, 2007.
Chirimbu S., Limba englezӑ –curs în tehnologie ID-IFR, Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine,
Bucureşti, 2014.

Facultativă:
Bondrea E., Mihăilă R. (Coord.), Aspecte ale civilizaţiilor europene, Editura Fundaţiei România de
Mâine, Bucureşti, 2009.
Banciu V., Chirimbu S., Aspecte ale vieţii britanice, EUO, Oradea, 2013.
Barbu A.M., Chirimbu S., Discurs cotidian în limba engleză, Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine,
Bucureşti, 2011.
Bondrea E., Mihăilă R. (Coord.), Dicţionar poliglot de termeni comunitari, Editura Fundaţiei România
de Mâine, Bucureşti, 2006.
Chirimbu S., English Language within a Business Context, Editura Stef, Iaşi, 2011.
Chirimbu D., Chirimbu S., Critu A., Marea Britanie între tradiţie şi realitate, Editura Doxologia, Iaşi,
2013.

Obiectivele cursului
însuşirea şi aprofundarea formelor şi structurilor gramaticale de bază legate de timpurile
verbale şi concordanta timpurilor;
dezvoltarea competenţelor lingvistice: citire, ascultare, exprimare orală şi
scrisă; îmbogăţirea vocabularului cotidian în limba engleză.
Competenţe conferite
La sfârşitul cursului studenţii vor fi capabili:
să înţeleagă sensul global al unui mesaj scris sau ascultat în limba engleză; să
folosească un limbaj adecvat pentru a descrie activităţi cotidiene;
să participe activ la interactiuni verbale bazate pe limbaj cotidian;
să decodeze corect un mesaj scris prin diferenţierea informaţiilor generale de detaliile
specifice;
să redacteze diferite tipuri de texte;
să identifice şi să îşi exprime opiniile personale asupra unor aspecte de civilizaţie britanică /
europeană;
să identifice timpurile verbale şi să le utilizeze în contexte adecvate.
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Resurse şi mijloace de lucru
Resursele de lucru sunt reprezentate de bibliografia obligatorie şi facultativă, precum şi de
materialele suplimentare încărcate pe platforma Blackboard pe parcursul fiecărui semestru.
Pe lângă cursul în format F.R., studenţii dispun pentru studiul individual şi de material publicat
pe Internet sub formă de sinteze şi teste de autoevaluare. În timpul convocărilor, în prezentarea
cursului vor fi folosite echipamente audio-vizuale, metode interactive şi participative de antrenare a
studenţilor pentru conceptualizarea şi vizualizarea practică a noţiunilor predate. Vor fi desfăşurate şi
activităţi tutoriale prin dialog la distanţă, pe Internet, dezbateri în forum, răspunsuri online la
întrebările studenţilor în timpul e-consultatiilor, conform programului fiecărui tutore.
Activităţile tutoriale se vor desfăşura în săli cu dotări multimedia şi vor conţine scurte expuneri
teoretice, activităţi intercative, prezentări PowerPoint.

Structura cursului
Cursul practic de limba engleză este structurat în 14 unităţi de învăţare cu următoarele
componente:
Unitatea de învăţare 1. HELLO!
Unitatea de învăţare 2. I’M A STUDENT
Unitatea de învăţare 3. CAREER
Unitatea de învăţare 4. GOING ON A HOLIDAYS
Unitatea de învăţare 5. THE UNITED KINGDOM 1
Unitatea de învăţare 6. THE UNITED KINGDOM 2
Unitatea de învăţare 7. THE EUROPEAN UNION 1
Unitatea de învăţare 8. GOING SHOPPING
Unitatea de învăţare 9. CAN MONEY BUY HAPINESS?
Unitatea de învăţare 10. EATING OUT
Unitatea de învăţare 11. COMMUNICATION
Unitatea de învăţare 12. THE USA 1
Unitatea de învăţare 13. THE USA 2
Unitatea de învăţare 14. THE EUROPEAN UNION 2
Teme de control (TC)
Tema de control 1: Choose a job advertsement from a newspaper / specialized web site and write
an Application Letter and a Curriculum Vitae for it.
Tema de control 2: Write a short essay about how you see yourself 10 years from now on; refer
to your possible personal and professional achievements. (20-25 lines)
Vor fi exploatate din punct de vedere lingvistic, gramatical, funcţii ale limbii, traducerii
textele reproduse în paginile următoare (Unităţile 1-14).
Metoda de evaluare
Evaluarea studenţilor este de tip electronic, folosind platforma Blackboard (test grila conţinând
20 de itemi), precedat de două teme de control / prezentarea orală a unui portofoliu.

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UNIT 1

1. Identify yourself using the following questions:


a) What is your name?
b) When and where were you born?
c) Where do you live? Where are you living now?
d) Who do you live with?
e) What are your hobbies?
f) Which zodiacal sign were you born under? Do you know any of its main characteristics?
g) Do you have a job? If the answer is positive describe it in a few words.
2. Reading objective
Greetings in every day life
Ten minutes to 8. I am going to the office. In front of the elevator door, my neighbour greets me:
“Morning”. “Morning”, I reply absent-minted.
After 9 hours I meet his uncle in the very place I’ve met him this morning. “Afternoon”, I say.
“Afternoon”, he answers.
7 o’clock p.m. I’d like to watch the news. But grandpa has a terrible
headache. “Have to go to the chemist’s to buy some pills for him”, I say to
myself. “Good evening”, I say. The chemist asks me smilingly: “Good
evening. What can I do for you?”
“I need something against a terrible headache”, I answer. She gives me a plastic bottle with some
pills.
“Twenty lei”, she adds.
“Here you are. Thank you. Good night”.
“Good night”, she says.
Our entire social life is marked by greetings. People’s greetings are connected with either certain
moments of the day or with certain events.
The greetings we utter in our everyday life are:
6-12 a.m. : “Good morning” to which we reply “Good morning”. In the informal speech we
use the short form “Morning”.
12-6 p.m. : “Good afternoon”, which will be answered the same way.
After 6 p.m. : “Good evening” and “Good night”.
No matter the hour we can say “Hello” when we meet somebody and “Goodbye” when we
leave a place or, more informally, “Hi” and “Bye”
What do you say if you meet someone you’ve never met before? You’ll have to introduce
yourself to the person whom is sitting next to you at a workshop/symposium or conference.
You will say your name and surname “My name is Elizabeth Parker”.
You may be introduced to an unknown person by one of your acquaintances: “Robert, this is
Elizabeth Parker.” Robert will say “Hello, Elizabeth”. You can answer: “Hello, Robert”. The interest
shown by the speaker is obvious in the question “How are you?”, which is generally answered “Very
well, thank you”, “Fine”, “Not bad”.
A polite person says: “Nice to meet you” if you see that person for the first time or “Nice to see
you”, if you know the speaker well.
If you arrive at a company for an appointment, your introduction will be more official. You’ll be
expected to say not only your full name, i.e. name and surname – Sebastian Chirimbu – but also the
reason why you are there.
“My name’s Sebastian Chirimbu. I have an appointment with Mr. Smith at 8.30 a.m.”, or “Can I
introduce myself?” “I’m Sebastian Chirimbu from the Spiru Haret University, Department of Foreign
Languages”.
If a person who knows both speakers is there he will say: “I don’t think you know each other, do
you? Sebastian, this is Robert White, our new marketing assistant manager. Robert, this is Sebastian
Chirimbu, the English trainer I’ve told you about”.
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If you introduce a person who is visiting your organisation, be it school, college or office, to
your colleagues, you’ll say: “Mr. White, may I introduce my colleague, Daniel Green to you. Daniel,
this is Ms. Samantha”.
After saying your name clearly, you add: “How do you do?”, sentence which has no particular
meaning, it’s simply a greeting.
If you are welcoming a visitor, you’ll be more polite than when welcoming an old friend:
“Mr. Green? How do you do?”
“How do you do, Miss Parker?”
“Do come into my office. I’m very pleased to meet you again”
Compare the above conversation, which is polite, formal with the following quite informal one:
“Hi, you must be Laura”.
“Oh, no, Liz, I haven’t seen you for ages!”
“Since we graduated. In the 1996. Makes 17 years
ago.” “How are things going?”

Reading comprehension:
a. According to the text, what are the greetings we utter every day?
b. What can we say when we meet somebody for the first time?

3. Practise introductions after the following models:

I’m Martin Grüber from Bonn, Germany. I’m a German citizen although my mother comes from
Romania. I live at Number 10 Weisstrasse Street. My parents and I live in a large house. I’m the only
child. My family is rather small. My uncle and aunt are both clerks. My cousin is a football player. I
work as a consultant in a large software company. I like playing sports, climbing mountains, reading
novels and poetry and speaking English. I also like travelling both inside Germany and abroad. So far,
I’ve visited some Eastern and Western European countries. I also visited Romania, the USA, Canada,
Japan, China and Thailand. I’d like to travel all over the world. I consider that all countries are very
interesting from many points of view. They really deserve to be visited.
I’m Ioana Pavelescu from Ploieşti, Romania. I’m 23 years old. I’m a Romanian. I live at
rd
Number 12, Iancului Street in a block of flats at the 3 floor, apartment no 22. My telephone number
is 021. 2506421. I have a large family. My dad is a businessman and my mum is a teacher. I also have
two younger sisters who are pupils at an elementary school in Bucharest. My uncle is an economist,
my aunt is an accountant and my cousins are both doctors. I’m a student. I love speaking English and
listening to English pop music, which is a great way of learning new words and every day expressions.
I also like listening to music and travelling a lot both inside Romania and abroad. I visited some
Western European countries. In future, I’d like to visit some countries from other continents, such as
Canada or the USA. I know they are very interesting. Now, I’d like to give you some more details
about my family. My father speaks English and Russian very fluently. He wants me to speak it well
enough so that I can join his company after graduating university. But I’d rather work in public
relations in the near future.

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UNIT 2

2.1. Lead in
Before reading the text of this learning unit let’s answer a few questions connected to the topic:
Do you remember which your favorite subject in school was? What about the subject you liked
the least?
What would you appreciate at a teacher? What attitudes/ behavior of the teacher might prevent
you from learning?
Why did you apply for the faculty where you are now a student? What do you know about Spiru
Haret University?
What useful things do you expect to learn in the next three years?
Why is it important for you to learn English / a foreign language in general?
2.2. Reading objective
Studying in the UK
When we think about studying in the UK, the names of two famous universities, Cambridge and
Oxford, definitely come to our mind. However, these two, although among the best known in the
world, are not the only ones which make the pride of an old, tradition based educational system.
Speaking about the British education in general, one of the first things to be noticed is that there
is no unitary system of education, but two systems: one covering England, Wales and Northern Ireland
and one covering Scotland, but the core organizational principles and the main examinations are the
same all over the country.
If you decide to study in the UK you have to know that higher education is divided into two
sectors: further education and higher education proper. Further education is offered by schools or
colleges to both young people between the ages of sixteen and eighteen and adults; it teaches skills
valuable in the work market such as Communication and Technological skills or sometimes they
prepare people for University admittance. Students who choose this type of education receive a
Vocational Diploma and Universities such as London Metropolitan University cooperate with
employers from all the spectrum of the marketplace in order to teach useful skills.
Higher Education is offered by Universities. There are about ninety universities in England, the
most notable being Oxford and Cambridge known collectively as Oxbridge. These two institutions
were established in the thirteenth century, and have a rich and distinguished history. They are
currently ranked in the top ten best universities according to Times Magazine and they receive the best
students from all over the world. Anyone may apply for a place at these universities and should they
be considered suitable by the admissions committee they will receive both a place and in some cases
financial help. The tuition fees of students from underprivileged backgrounds are paid entirely by the
state.
Higher education includes both the teaching and the research activities of universities, and as far
as teaching is concerned, it includes both the undergraduate level and the graduate levels.
Undergraduate degrees take three years to complete in England, Wales and Northern Ireland,
while at Scottish universities they last four years. At the graduate level, a master's degree is normally
obtained in a single year, a research master's degree takes two years and a doctoral degree is often
completed in three years.
Professional courses, such as medicine, veterinary medicine, law and teaching, usually are
undertaken as five-year undergraduate degrees.
UK universities are popular all over the world and about 270,000 foreign students come to study
in England every year. One of the features which makes UK Universities so popular with people from
all countries, backgrounds and cultures it’s the fact that high diversity and cultural exchanges are
traditionally encouraged among the student body.
Degrees and Graduation
There is a three-level hierarchy of degrees (Bachelor, Master, Doctor ) currently used in the
United Kingdom. A graduate student is an individual who has completed a bachelor's degree (B.A.,
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B.S./B.Sc., or another similar programme) and is pursuing further higher education, with the goal of
achieving a master's degree (M.A., M.S./M.Sc., M.Ed., etc.) or doctorate (Ph.D., Ed.D., D.A., D.Sc.,
D.M.A., Th.D., etc.)
Reading Comprehension
1. What are the two types of higher education you can attend in the UK?
2. What degrees can you get at the end of each higher education cycle in the UK?
3. Why are foreign students attracted by British universites?

2.3 Translation Practice (English→Romanian)


A. Education is an important part of British life. There are hundreds of schools, colleges and
universities, including some of the most famous in the world.
Education is free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 - 16. Some children are
educated at home rather than in school.
Children's education in England is normally divided into two separate stages. They begin with
primary education at the age of five and this usually lasts until they are eleven. Then they move to
secondary school, there they stay until they reach sixteen, seventeen or eighteen years of age. Find out
what year (grade) you would be in England.
Teachers in primary schools (4-11 year olds) are always addressed by their surname by parents
and pupils alike, always Mr, Mrs. or Miss Smith… In secondary schools (11-16 years), teachers are
usually addressed as Miss or Sir.
Education is important in England, as it is Wales and Scotland too. British children are required
by law to have an education until they are 16 years old. Education is compulsory, but school is not,
children are not required to attend school. They could be educated at home.
1996 Education Act of the UK . Section 7 of the 1996 Education Act states: "The parent of every
child of compulsory school age shall cause him to receive efficient full-time education suitable-
(a) to his age, ability and aptitude, and
(b) to any special educational needs he may have, either by regular attendance at school or
otherwise."
British children are required to attend school until they are 16 years old. In England, compulsory
schooling currently ends on the last Friday in June during the academic year in which a pupil attains
the age of 16. Current government proposals are to raise the age until which students must continue to
receive some form of education or training to 18. This is expected to be phased in by 2015.
At the age of 16, students in England, Wales and Northern Ireland take an examination called
the GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education). Study of GSCE subjects begins at the start of
Year 10 (age 14-15), and final examinations are then taken at the end of Year 11 (age 15-16).
In state schools English, Mathematics, Science, Religious Education and Physical Education are
studied during Key Stage 4 (the GCSE years of school); in England, some form of ICT and citizenship
must be studied and, in Wales, Welsh must be studied. Other subjects, chosen by the individual pupil,
are also studied.
In Scotland, the equivalent of the GCSE is the Standard Grade.
After completing the GCSE, some students leave school, others go onto technical college, whilst
others continue at high school for two more years and take a further set of standardized exams, known
as A levels, in three or four subjects. These exams determine whether a student is eligible for
university.
st
B. “Spiru Haret” University-21 Century University- Established in 1991, today “Spiru Haret”
University comprises 23 accredited faculties with over 43 specializations.
“Spiru Haret” University has a complex structure which reflects a diversity of specializations-
from law, public administration and economic studies to architecture and veterinary medicine, from
philosophy, journalism, sociology and psychology to history and international relations, from
mathematics and informatics to drama, music and physical education. But the most important aspect is
the fact that in terms of the content of studies, teaching methodology, the Faculties of “Spiru Haret”
University have reached European standards .Students working for their first degree at our university
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are called undergraduates. When they take their degree we say that they graduate and then they are
called graduates. If they continue studying at “Spiru Haret” University, after they have graduated,
they are called Post- graduates.
“Spiru Haret” has a highly-educated staff – the teaching quality at “Spiru Haret” relies, first of
all, on the activity of highly dedicated professors with excellent methodological skills. Moreover,
many of them are personalities well known nationally and internationally. Another aspect, just as
important as the one mentioned above, is the fact that “Spiru Haret” has a permanent staff of
professors, which ensures the continuity of teaching.
A national, cultural and academic television station that broadcasts live and recorded lectures,
debates, syntheses and seminars, TH2O represents a major advantage that “Spiru Haret” University has in
promoting distance learning, a form of attendance that has come up to a standard of EU countries….To the
young people who choose to attend one of our faculties and specializations we only wish them good luck
with the exams, as “Spiru Haret” University is a guarantee for their success in life. The long, medium and
short term objectives set by “Spiru Haret” University and Romania’s Tomorrow Foundations are meant to
add new dimensions to our academic community. They regard the fulfillment of high quality cultural tasks
and the improvement of a kind of educational system whose essential attributes should be modernity and
competitiveness, dynamism and flexibility, so as to adequately and efficiently meet the requirements raised
by the integration of Romanian higher education into the European higher education and research area.
(Adapted from „Monitorul Oficial” –
Official Bulletin, July 2002)
C. There are forty-seven universities in Britain and thirty polytechnics, plus 350 colleges and
institutes of higher education. Undergraduate courses normally take three years of full-time study,
although a number of subjects take longer, including medicine, architecture and foreign languages
(where courses include a year abroad). They lead in most cases to a Bachelor’s degree in Arts or
Science (BA or BSc). Students of law, architecture and some other professions can take qualifications
that are awarded by their own professional bodies instead of degrees. There are various postgraduate
degrees, including Master of Arts or Philosophy (MA or MPhil) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).
Universities accept students mainly on the basis of their “A” levels, although they may interview them
as well. At present, students who have been accepted by Universities or other institutions of higher
education receive a grant from their local authority, which covers the cost of the course, and may
cover living expenses, books travel, although parents with higher incomes are expected to make a
contribution. Before 1990 the grant was paid back, but since then a system of loans has been
introduced.
(Adapted from Britain Explored, Longman, 1998)

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UNIT 3

3.1. Lead in
How do you feel about working and being a student at the same time?
What kind of job would you like to have as a student?
Have you ever been to an interview? Why do you think you were / were not successful?
When applying for a job, the first step is usually to send an Application Letter (or Covering
Letter) and a Curriculum Vitae. What are the role and function of each?
3.2. Reading objective
The Curriculum Vitae and the Application/ Covering Letter
When you have decided to find a job, the first step is to read the ads for vacancies in different
newspapers, magazines, on specialised internet sites or to contact a recruitment agency. Then, after
you have selected some position that might suit your wishes and experience you need to write an
Application Letter and a Curriculum Vitae.
Read the following model of application letter and decide what its main communicative
functions are. The letter is written by a student of marketing who graduated an economic college and
also worked for eight months as a market research trainee for a company in Bucharest.

Advertisement: BEST FASHION Ltd, a multinational company providing expertise, human


resources and equipment for the clothing industry requires Assistant Manager (Ref. 095MK) for its
Marketing Department. Applications are accepted from students and recent graduates of marketing
and / or related fields. Applicants should be reliable and enthusiastic, willing to work in teams and
able to meet deadlines. Fluent English is a must while knowledge of French or German would be a
plus. E-mail or fax your covering letter and CV to Mr. Paul Densfield, Human Resources Manager,
tel./fax 021 3113030, e-mail bestfashion_hr@yahoo.com. Only shortlisted candidates will be
contacted.

APPLICATION LETTER

Attn. of: Mr. Paul Densfield


Human Resources Manager
Best Fashion Ltd.

Dear Mr. Densfield,

Ref.: 095MK (Assistant Manager Vacancy)

I am writing to apply for the position of Assistant Manager that you advertised in “Romania Libera”
newspaper on 15 June 2006 as I believe it offers the career challenge which I am seeking
As you will see from my Curriculum Vitae, I currently study Psychology and Marketing at “Spiru
Haret” University and last year I graduated from a theoretic college (humanities specialization) , which
offered me a strong background in the field.
I would like to highlight the following skills which I believe would add value to your organisation:
- basic practical marketing skills and team work abilities developed by working for a market research
company as well as theoretical marketing knowledge acquired as a student of marketing;
- ability to meet deadlines and to work under pressure developed as a market research trainee;
- fluency in English acquired by attending an intensive Business English Course and working in an
English speaking environment for almost a year.
I have a genuine interest in marketing and I would appreciate the opportunity of an interview to discuss
why I believe I am an eligible and suitable candidate for the vacancy you advertised.
I look forward to hearing from you.
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Yours sincerely,
Andrei Popescu
Tel. 021 222 2020, 0720304050
E-mail: andrei_popescu@yahoo.com

CURRICULUM VITAE – Eupropass Format


PERSONAL Replace with First name(s) Surname(s)
INFORMATION
[All CV headings are optional. Remove any empty headings]
REPLACE WITH HOUSE NUMBER, STREET NAME, CITY, POSTCODE,
COUNTRY
REPLACE WITH TELEPHONE NUMBER REPLACE WITH MOBILE
NUMBER
STATE E-MAIL ADDRESS
STATE PERSONAL WEBSITE(S)
REPLACE WITH TYPE OF IM SERVICE REPLACE WITH MESSAGING
ACCOUNT(S)

Sex Enter sex | Date of birth dd/mm/yyyy | Nationality Enter nationality/-ies

JOB APPLIED FOR


POSITION Replace with preferred job / job applied for / studies applied for / position
PREFERRED JOB (delete non relevant headings in left column)
STUDIES APPLIED FOR

WORK EXPERIENCE
[Add separate entries for each experience. Start from the most recent.]
Replace with dates Replace with occupation or position held
(from - to) Replace with employer’s name and locality (if relevant, full address and website)
▪ Replace with main activities

and responsibilities Business

or sector Replace with type of


business or sector

EDUCATION
AND TRAINING
[Add separate entries for each course. Start from the most recent.]
Replace with dates Replace with qualification awarded Replace with European
(from - to) Qualification Framework (or other)
level if relevant
Replace with education or training organisation’s name and locality (if
relevant, country)
▪ Replace with a list of principal subjects covered or skills acquired

PERSONAL SKILLS
[Remove any headings left empty.]
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Mother tongue(s) Replace with mother tongue(s)

Other language(s) UNDERSTANDING SPEAKING WRITING


Spoken Spoken
Listening Reading
interaction production
Replace with language Enter level Enter level Enter level Enter level Enter level
Replace with name of language certificate. Enter level if known.
Replace with language Enter level Enter level Enter level Enter level Enter level
Replace with name of language certificate. Enter level if known.
Levels: A1/2: Basic user - B1/2: Independent user - C1/2 Proficient
user Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

Communication skills Replace with your communication skills. Specify in what context they
were acquired. Example:
▪ good communication skills gained through my experience as sales
manager

Organisational / managerial Replace with your organisational / managerial skills. Specify in what context
skills they were acquired. Example:
▪ leadership (currently responsible for a team of 10 people)
Job-related skills Replace with any job-related skills not listed elsewhere. Specify in what
context they were acquired. Example:
▪ good command of quality control processes (currently responsible for
quality audit)

Computer skills Replace with your computer skills. Specify in what context they
were acquired. Example:
▪ good command of Microsoft Office™ tools

Other skills Replace with other relevant skills not already mentioned. Specify in
what context they were acquired. Example:
▪ carpentry

Driving licence Replace with driving licence category/-ies. Example:


▪B

ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION

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Replace with relevant publications, presentations, projects, conferences,
Publications
seminars, honours and awards, memberships, references. Remove headings
Presentations
Projects
not relevant in the left column.
ConferencesExample of publication:
Seminars▪ How to write a successful CV, New Associated Publishers, London, 2002.
Honours and awards
Example of project:
Memberships ▪ Devon new public library. Principal architect in charge of design,
References production, bidding and construction supervision (2008-2012).

ANNEXES

Replace with list of documents annexed to your CV. Examples:


▪ copies of degrees and qualifications;
▪ testimonial of employment or work placement;
▪ publications or research.

In Romania, there are different sources of job information (just use them to get the proper job):
– newspaper advertisements: the classified section of newspapers is a major source of job
openings. Two kinds of classified advertisements are listed in newspapers: signed and blind. A signed
advertisement includes the name of the firm placing the advertisement. A blind advertisement does not
show the firm’s name. In many cases only a telephone number or a post office box number is given in
a blind advertisement. Private employment agencies must place signed advertisements;
– employment agencies;
– placement offices and instructors: most schools and colleges have placement counsellors that
aid students in career planning;
– friends and relatives.

3.3 Identify the steps for a job apllication process. Then translate the text ointo Romanian:

The job application process


Before you apply for a job with a particular company, find out all you can about the company.
This information is needed for two major reasons. First, you need to know if you meet your career
goals by working for this company. Secondly, you need to know as much about the company as
possible in order to be prepared for the interview. One question often asked in the interview is “Why
do you want to work for this company” Unless you know something about the company, you cannot
satisfactorily answer this question.
When a company needs to employ new people, it may decide to advertise the job or position in a
newspaper. People who are interested can then apply for the job by sending in a letter of application
or covering letter (US cover letter) and a curriculum vitae or CV (US resumé) containing details of
their education and experience. In some cases a company may prefer to do this initial selection after
asking candidates to complete a standard application form. The company’s human resource
department will then select the applications that it considers the most suitable and prepare a shortlist
of candidates or applicants who are invited to attend an interview.

19
UNIT 4

4. 1. Lead in
1. When was the last time you went on a trip? Where did you go?
2. Do you have a favourite holiday destination?
3. What makes a perfect holiday destination?
4. If you won a trip at a contest would you rather choose to visit to visit a large city or a desert
island?
5. What specific points would you include in a sightseeing tour of Romania for foreigners?
4.2. Reading objective
Travelling in the UK
There are a lot of places worth visiting if you go on a trip to The United Kingdom. Besides the
well known destinations such as Stonehenge, Stratford upon Avon or Oxford, the capital cities of its
provinces should be on your sightseeing list. It goes without saying that any tourst to The UK should
stop for at least a few days in London, but there are other capital cities that you shouldn’t miss either.
Just like any other country in the world, officially, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland has just one capital city, London. However, Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland,
the other three countries (besides England) that are included in the UK, have their own capital cities.
LONDON – the capital of England and the UK, is the world's ninth-largest city and it is situated
on the banks of the river Thames, in the south-east of England. London is made up of two ancient
cities which are now joined together: the City of London (known as Londinium during Roman times)
and the City of Westminster.
The City of London or “the City” is the business and financial heart of the United Kingdom
while The City of Westminster, is the place where the Parliament and most of the Government
buildings are located. Here tourists can visit Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the
Queen and of the Royal family.
BELFAST is the capital of Northern Ireland. As this part of the UK has a certain degree o
independence, the Government and the Legislative Assembly of Northern Ireland are located here.
The city consists of seven "quarters", the historic centre of Belfast being situated in the Cathedral
Quarter.
CARDIFF – the capital city of Wales is the most important commercial and industrial centre of
this part of Britain as well as the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. Tourists can visit the very
old Cardiff Castle which was started during Roman times. The Norman and Victorian influences are
also present in the architecture and decorations of the castle.
EDINBURGH – the capital city of Scotland is the seventh largest city in the UK and the second
largest city in Scotland, after Glasgow. As the other capitals described above, it is also the seat of the
Scottish Parliament. It is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe due to its numerous medieval and
Georgian buildings and monuments. Something that few people know is that Edinburgh is situated on
two extinct volcanoes, one of them right in the City Center on which Edinburgh Castle is built.

Reading comprehension
A. Answer the following questions:
1. Where is London situated?
2. Which are the two ancient cities that gave birth to London?
3. What is Edinburgh famous for?

4.3 Translation Practice (English→Romanian)

New Year's Day is a public holiday in the United Kingdom on January 1 each year. It marks the
start of the New Year in the Gregorian calendar. For many people have a quiet day on January 1,

20
which marks the end of the Christmas break before they return to work. However, there are some
special customs, particularly in Scotland.
What do people do?
On New Year's Eve (December 31), just before midnight, many people turn on a television to
show pictures of one of the four clocks on the Clock Tower on the Palace of Westminster, or Houses
of Parliament, in London counting down the last minutes of the old year. At midnight, as the New
Year begins, the chimes of Big Ben, the bell inside the Clock Tower, are broadcast to mark the start of
the New Year. Champagne or other sparkling wines are often served at this point.
Many people hold parties at home or go out to pubs or night clubs. These parties often continue
into the early hours of the morning. Hence, for many people, New Year's Day is time for recovering
from the excesses of the night before. For others, it is the last day of the Christmas holiday before they
return to work. Some take the opportunity to carry out home improvements or to go for a walk in the
country. In many places around the United Kingdom's coast, groups of people dress up in fancy
costumes and run into the cold sea.
Many people make New Year's resolutions. These are promises to themselves that they will lead
a better life in some way in the coming year. Common New Year's resolutions include stopping
smoking, losing weight, eating more healthily, getting more exercise or spending less money. Some
types of resolution that would lead to a healthier lifestyle are supported by government advertising
campaigns.
In some areas, there are a number of customs associated with New Year's Day. In Scotland many
people sing the song 'Auld Lang Syne' at midnight as New Year's Day begins. In Scotland and
northern England, it is customary to go first footing. This is the first person to enter a house on
January 1. There are many traditions and superstitions associated with first footing. A male first-footer
brings good luck, but a female bad luck. In different areas there are different traditions about whether
the first footer should have fair or dark hair, whether the person should bring coal, salt or other things
and what food or drink that person should be served after arrival.
Public life
New Year's Day is a bank holiday. If January 1 is a Saturday or Sunday, the bank holiday falls
on Monday, January 2 or 3. Nearly all schools, large businesses and organizations are closed. In some
areas stores may be open, although this varies a lot. Public transport systems do not usually run on
their normal timetables. In general, public life shuts down completely on New Year's Day.
Background
Now the start of a new calendar year is marked in the winter on January 1. However, this was
different in the past. From the earliest times in Europe, winter festivals have been held around or just
after the winter solstice (December 21). These have now developed into the Christmas and New Year
celebrations that are now held. However, before the present Gregorian calendar was adopted in
England, in 1752, the Julian calendar was used. According to the Julian calendar, the administrative
year began on March 25.
The Julian calendar was introduced in the Roman Empire 45 years before the birth of Christ. The
average length of a year in this calendar was slightly shorter than the actual length of a solar year. For
this reason, by the 1700s, the official dates of the winter, spring, summer and autumn equinoxes had
moved about ten days from the days on which the actual equinoxes fell. This meant that a correction
to the date had to be made, when England changed over to the Gregorian calendar. Hence, in 1752,
Wednesday, September 2 was followed by Thursday, September 14.
This had important consequences for the tax, or fiscal, year. The British tax authorities and many
landlords were unhappy about potentially “losing” 11 days’ worth of revenue. For this reason, the
1752-1753 tax year did not end on March 24 but April 4 and so still lasted for 365 days. Another
correction was carried out in the calendar in 1800 and again the tax year was adjusted so that it still
lasted for the full 365 days. Since then the tax year in the United Kingdom has stated on April 6. This
tax year was also used in the Republic of Ireland until 2001, when the start of the tax year was moved
to coincide with the start of the calendar year on January 1.

21
UNIT 5

5.1. Lead in
1.What comes to your mind when you think about Britain / about London?
2.What is the official and full name of Britain?
3. Name a few important cities from the UK.
4. What do you know about the weather in the UK?
5.What specific points would you include in a sightseeing tour of Romania for foreigners?
5..2. Reading objective
What’s in a Name?
There is a number of names used to describe the country whose language you are trying to study,
which might lead to confusions: Britain, Great Britain, The United Kingdom, the UK, England.
Great Britain is made up of three separate countries - England, Wales and Scotland. England is
the dominant country, but the peoples of Scotland and Wales have kept a strong sense of national
identity. It is important to remember that the terms Great Britain and England refer to different
political entities; they are not interchangeable, and to say England when you mean Britain could cause
offense if you are in Wales or Scotland. Scotland has a separate parliament and church, plus its own
systems of law, banking and education. Wales has its own National Assembly- although it doesn’t
enjoy as much autonomy as the Scottish parliament.
The United Kingdom (UK) consists of Great Britain, Northern Ireland and some
semiautonomous islands such as the Isle of Man. The island of Ireland consists of Northern Ireland
and the Republic of Ireland (also called Eire).
Geographically speaking, the British Isles is the name given to a group of about 5,000 islands off
the north-west coast of Europe, situated between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, more precisely
between the latitudes 50ºN and 61ºN. The archipelago consists of the large islands of Great Britain
(the largest island of Europe) and Ireland and several smaller island groups :the Orkney Islands, the
Shetland Islands, the Hebrides, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Wight and the Isle of Man as well as
numerous other very small islands.
Together, Great Britain (made up of England, Scotland and Wales), Northern Ireland and the
smaller islands mentioned above form what is officially called The United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland (the UK).
The Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
st
The United Kingdom flag was officially adopted on the 1 of January 1801. Just like the country
itself, it is made up of more different flags put together: the flag of England (St. George's Cross - the
centered red cross bordered in white), St. Andrew's Cross of Scotland (the diagonal white cross on the
blue field), and the cross of the Patron Saint of Ireland (diagonal x-shaped red cross).
National Anthem
The National Anthem of the country is "God Save the Queen". When a male monarch is on the
throne of England, it becomes "God Save the King."
Public Holidays
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, public holidays are often called bank holidays. When
an anniversary day that is usually a bank holiday falls on a weekend, the date of the bank holiday is
postponed and declared for a following weekday. This new date is termed a 'bank holiday in lieu' of
the actual anniversary day. In this way, public holidays are not 'lost' on years when they coincide with
weekends (which will already be a day off for many people).
Increasingly, there are calls for public holidays on the patron saints' days in England, Scotland
and Wales (Northern Ireland already has St Patrick's Day as a holiday). An online petition sent to the
Prime Minister received 11,000 signatures for a public holiday in Wales on St. David's Day; the
Scottish Parliament has passed a bill creating a public holiday on St. Andrew's Day although it must be
taken in lieu of another public holiday; campaigners in England are calling for a bank holiday on St.
George's Day; and in Cornwall there are calls for a public holiday on St. Piran's Day.

22
Reading comprehension:
A. Answer the following questions:
1. Which are the three components of the British flag?
2. What is the title of the British National Anthem?
3. Name an important holiday in each of the British territories.

5.3 Translation Practice (English →Romanian)


There are currently around 61 million people living in the UK (National Statistics Online –
March 2009). Despite the UK being a relatively small surface area, experiences of living here can vary
greatly. The UK is a highly multicultural society with no official language. However, English is the
main language and the de facto official language but there are other languages spoken; in Wales,
English and Welsh are both widely used by officialdom, and Irish and Ulster Scots enjoy limited use
alongside English in Northern Ireland. Additionally, the Western Isles council area of Scotland has a
policy to promote Scottish Gaelic. The traditional UK culture has changed somewhat over the last 50
years and incorporates elements of other cultures due to its diversity. The following sections provide
an insight into typical UK culture as it stands today.
Many people enjoy spending social time in pubs (public houses) in the UK. It gives people an
opportunity to chat to friends and enjoy an alcoholic drink. Usually there is no table service in UK
pubs and you must order your drinks at the bar and pay for them immediately. It is not usual to tip the
barman every time you have a drink as it is in the USA and the legal age to drink in a pub is 18 years.
Should you or a family member decide to settle permanently in this country you will need to
apply for naturalization as a British citizen or for indefinite leave to remain. Part of this process
requires you to take a test to show that you know about life in the UK. If you live in England,
Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland, you can do this in two ways: by taking the Life in the UK Test or
by taking combined English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and citizenship classes.

23
UNIT 6

6. 1. Lead in
1. What is the name of the present British Monarch? What about the Prime Minister?
2. What do you know about the British political system?
6.2. Reading objective
The UK. Political System
The monarchy of the United Kingdom (commonly referred to as the British monarchy,) is the
constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. Monarchy is the oldest
form of government in the United Kingdom. In a constitutional monarchy, an elected Parliament
makes and passes laws, and the Sovereign plays a ceremonial and representational role.
The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, has reigned since 6 February 1952. She and her
immediate family have various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As a constitutional
monarch, the Queen must follow the advice of government ministers. Britain is governed by Her
Majesty’s Government in the name of the Queen.
The Queen is Head of State and an important symbol of national unity in the United Kingdom.
Her official title in the UK is "Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the
Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith".
The monarch is also the head of the church, commander in chief of the Armed Forces (the Royal
Navy, the British Army, and the Royal Air Force), accredits British High Commissioners and
ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states.
The king or the queen has the prerogative to summon and to dissolve the Parliament. Each new
parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, during which the Sovereign reads
the Speech from the Throne in the Chamber of the House of Lords, outlining the Government's
legislative agenda. The Queen is also metaphorically called Fount of Justice, from whom justice in the
United Kingdom derives.
The Queen has a special relationship with the Prime Minister, the senior political figure in the
British Government, regardless of their political party. Although she is a constitutional monarch who
remains politically neutral, the Queen gives a weekly audience to the Prime Minister at which she has
a right and a duty to express her views on Government matters. If either The Queen or the Prime
Minister are not available to meet, then they will speak by telephone. These meetings, as with all
communications between The Queen and her Government, remain strictly confidential.
The Parliament. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom the legislative power is
exercised by the two Houses of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons, located
in Westminster Palace.
The House of Commons. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the
United Kingdom and represents its dynamic power. The Commons is a democratically elected body,
consisting of 659 members, who are known as "Members of Parliament" or MP’s and who are
publicly elected. The party with the largest number of members in the Commons forms the
government. Members of the Commons (MPs) debate the big political issues of the day and proposals
for new laws. The Commons alone is responsible for making decisions on financial Bills, such as
proposed new taxes. The Lords can consider these Bills but cannot block or amend them.
The House of Lords. The House of Lords is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the United
Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords". It is not democratic in any sense at all but
its existence is a centuries old tradition. Members of the House of Lords are mostly appointed by the
Queen, a fixed number are elected internally and a limited number of Church of England archbishops
and bishops sit in the House. The Lords act as a revising chamber for legislation and their work
complements the activity of the Commons. The House of Lords is also the highest court in the land:
the supreme court of appeal. A group of salaried, full-time judges known as Law Lords carries out this
judicial work.
The Government. The Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.
24
Following a general election, the Queen invites the leader of the majority (or largest, in the absence of
an overall majority) party represented in the Commons, to form a government on her behalf.
Government ministers are invariably members of the House of Commons, but sometimes members of
the House of Lords are appointed. These are at a disadvantage since it is in the Commons that the
government is expected to explain its conduct of affairs. All government ministers, even the Prime
Minister, who are members of the Commons, continue to represent the parliamentary ‘constituencies’
which elected them. After a general election, the leader of the party which has the most seats in the
House of Commons becomes Prime Minister, who chooses the Chancellor of the Exchequer (for the
Treasury), the Foreign Secretary (for foreign affairs), the Home Secretary (for domestic affairs), and
others, to form the Cabinet. The composition of governments can vary both in the number of ministers
and in the titles of some offices. The Prime Minister is, by tradition, First Lord of the Treasury and
Minister for the Civil Service. The Prime Minister’s office is located at 10 Downing Street in central
London.
The doctrine of collective responsibility means that the Cabinet acts unanimously even when
Cabinet ministers do not all agree on a subject.
The UK is a multi-party system and since the 1920s. The two largest political parties have been
the Conservative Party and the Labour Party, before the Labour Party rose in British politics, while the
Liberal Party was the other major political party along with the Conservatives. Though coalition and
minority governments have been an occasional feature of parliamentary politics, the present electoral
system used for general elections tends to maintain the dominance of these two parties, though each
has in the past century relied upon a third party to deliver a working majority in Parliament.
The political party system has evolved since the eighteenth century, and since the first half of the
nineteenth century has been essentially a two-party system. Today, this two-party contest is between
the Conservative Party (still known by their previous nickname, the ‘Tories’) and the Labour Party,
which emerged at the end of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of universal suffrage
and the decline of the Liberal Party.
The Conservative Party is the party of the Right, identified with the idea of economic freedom
and until 1979 with the idea of resistance to change. It gives emphasis to the importance of law and
order, and the maintenance of strong armed forces to protect British interests.
The Labour Party is preeminently the party of social justice, though its emphasis is less on
equality than on the achievement of well-being and opportunity for all members of the society.
The Liberal Party, which traces its origins to the eighteenth century ‘Whigs’, merged with the
new Social Democratic Party in 1988 to become the Liberal Democrats, after fighting the 1987
election unsuccessfully as an alliance of both parties. It is the party keenest on constitutional and
electoral reform. It also prides itself on being less tied to either capitalist or union interests, and being
free to offer more radical policies.

Reading comprehension
a. Answer the following questions:
1) After a general election, who becomes Prime Minister?
2) Whom does the Prime Minister choose for the Treasury?
3) What do all the ministers chosen by the Prime Minister form?
4) What does the doctrine of collective responsibility mean?
5) Which are the most important British parties?
6) When was the universal suffrage introduced? What did that mean?
7) What are each party’s main interests / goals?

b. True or false?
1. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme
legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories.
2. The Parliament is located in London.
3. Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other
political bodies in the UK and its territories.
4. At its head is the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II.
25
5. The parliament is bicameral, with an upper house, the House of Lords, and a lower house, the
House of Commons.
6. The Queen is the third component of the legislature.
7. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual and the
Lords Temporal .
8. The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of
Union by both the Parliament of England and Parliament of Scotland passing Acts of Union.
9. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the
political leader of the United Kingdom and the Head of Her Majesty's Government.
10. Current Prime Minister David Cameron was appointed on 11 May 2010.
11. Current Prime Minister is Gordon Brown helped by Tony Blair.

6.3 Translation Practice (English →Romanian)


Monarchy is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom. In a monarchy, a king or
queen is Head of State. The British monarchy is known as a constitutional monarchy. This means that,
while The Sovereign is Head of State, the ability to make and pass legislation resides with an elected
Parliament. Although the British Sovereign no longer has a political or executive role, he or she
continues to play an important part in the life of the nation. As Head of State, The Monarch undertakes
constitutional and representational duties which have developed over one thousand years of history. In
addition to these State duties, The Monarch has a less formal role as 'Head of Nation'. The Sovereign
acts as a focus for national identity, unity and pride; gives a sense of stability and continuity; officially
recognizes success and excellence; and supports the ideal of voluntary service. In all these roles The
Sovereign is supported by members of their immediate family.
The British Sovereign can be seen as having two roles: Head of State, and 'Head of the Nation'.
As Head of State, The Queen undertakes constitutional and representational duties which have
developed over one thousand years of history. There are inward duties, with The Queen playing a part
in State functions in Britain. Parliament must be opened, Orders in Council have to be approved, Acts
of Parliament must be signed, and meetings with the Prime Minister must be held. There are also
outward duties of State, when The Queen represents Britain to the rest of the world. For example, The
Queen receives foreign ambassadors and high commissioners, entertains visiting Heads of State, and
makes State visits overseas to other countries, in support of diplomatic and economic relations.

26
UNIT 7

7.1. Lead in
1. How would you define the European Union?
2. Do you happen to know how many countries have joined the European Union so far?
3. Think of some advantages / risks generated by or related to the European membership, for you
as an individual and for our country.
7.2. Reading objective
Introduction to the European Union
Historic Steps
The idea of a united Europe was at first just a dream in the minds of philosophers and
visionaries. Victor Hugo, for example, imagined a peaceful “United States of Europe” inspired by
humanistic ideals.
After World War II a few courageous statesmen (Konrad Adenauer, Winston Churchill, Alcide
de Gasperi, Robert Schuman) decided to put an end to international hatred and rivalry in Europe and
to build a long lasting peace.
Robert Schuman (French Foreign Affairs Minister) took up an idea originally conceived by Jean
Monnet and on 9 May 1950 proposed setting up a European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC),
which was a big success. It was the start of an extraordinary and ever tighter cooperation among
European states.
Today’s European Union is the result of half a century hard work. In no other region of the
world have sovereign countries pooled their sovereignty to this extent and in so many areas of crucial
importance to their citizens. The EU has created a single market in which people, services, goods and
capital move around freely.
Founding Treaties
The ground rules of the European Union are set out in a series of treaties:
The Treaty of Paris, which set up the above mentioned European Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC) in 1951, signed by six European states: France, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy,
Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg, considered the EU founding members.
The Treaties of Rome, which set up the European Economic Community (EEC), replacing the
former ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in 1957. The EEC came as a
natural continuation of ECSC, as the six member states decided to enlarge and deepen their
cooperation. The EEC was based on a common market in awide range of goods and services. Customs
duties between the six countries were completely removed on 1 July 1968 and common policies –
notably on trade and agriculture – were also set up during the 1960.
The founding treaties were subsequently followed by the Single European Act (1986) signed in
Luxembourg and The Hague, by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht, 1992) which makes the
name “European Union” official, the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Treaty of Nice. All of these treaties
have created very strong legal ties between the EU’s member states and have offered a legal frame for
important European matters such as EU institutions functioning procedures, the rights of European
citizens, trade, defence policies, the European Currency Unit, etc.
Enlargement
So successful was the EEC initiated by France The Federal Republic of Germany, The
Netherlands, Italy, Belgium and Luxembourg that Denmark, Ireland and The United Kingdom decided
to join the Community. This first enlargement from six to nine members took place in 1973. New
social, regional and environmental policies were introduced and the European Regional Development
Fund (ERDF) was set up in 1975. In 1981 Greece joined the Community, followed by Spain and
Portugal in 1986. The future European Union was thus being built little by little. Three more
countries, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the EU on 1 January 1995. The Union now had 15
members and was on the way for its most spectacular achievement yet – replacing its national
currencies with a single European currency, the euro. On 1 January 2002, euro notes and coins came

27
into circulation in 12 EU countries (‘euro area’). The euro is now a major world currency, having a
similar status to the US dollar.
Soon after the European Union grew to 15 members another 12 countries began knocking at its
door. The EU welcomed this opportunity to help stabilise the European continent and to extend the
benefits of European unification to the young democracies in Central and South-Eastern Europe. For
ten of the candidate countries negociations were completed in Copenhagen, at the end of 2002 and
starting from May 2004 the EU enlarged to 25 members, by welcoming the Czech Republic, Hungary,
Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Cyprus and Malta as full members.
Romania and Bulgaria became EU members on 1 January 2007, after the implementation of all
the 31 chapters of the Community Acquis.

The European Union’s Symbols


The idea of a “citizens’s Europe” is very new. Making it a reality means, among other things,
obtaining popular support for symbols that represent shared European identity. That is why the
European Union has a very special anthem – Beethoven’s Ode to Joy, from Symphony 9, a
Celebration Day – 9 May and a flag (a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background).
Things like the introduction of the euro, the European model of passport (in use since 1985) and
the EU model driving licences also contribute to the creation of a sense of belonging to a common
space.
“We are not bringing together states, we are uniting people” said Jean Monnet back in 1952.
More than half a century of integration has had an enormous impact on the history of Europe and
on the mentality of Europeans. The member state governments, whatever their political colour know
that only by joining forces and pursuing a shared destiny can their ancient nations continue to make
economic and social progress and maintain their influence in the world.

Reading Comprehension
1. Who were the initiators of the European Union?
2. Name, in chronological order, the main treaties that have forged the identity of the European
Union.
3. When was the European single currency introduced?
4. Which European countries joined the Union in:
- 1951:
__________________________________________________
- 1973:
___________________________________________________
- 1981:
___________________________________________________
- 1986:
___________________________________________________
- 1995:
___________________________________________________
- 2004:
___________________________________________________
- 2007:
___________________________________________________
4. Which are the main areas of cooperation between members states?
5. Which are the EU’s symbols?

7.3 Translation Practice (English →Romanian)

Already in the 1920s some politicians (such as Briand and Stresemann) tried to achieve
reconciliation between France and Germany as the basis for establishing a durable peace in Europe. A
few intellectuals, such as Fritz von Unruh in Germany, even talked and wrote about a union of sorts

28
between France and Germany. However, the Great Depression and the rise of the Nazis wrecked their
efforts.
After WW2 there were fresh efforts, however. Initially, the countries actively involved were
France, West Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries. The move also had the support of Churchill.
It began in 1951 with European Coal and Steel Community which created a common market for coal
and steel amongst 6 member-states (West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and
Luxembourg).
The next step was a customs union - the European Economic Union (1957) - with tax
harmonization in some areas. It was also felt that economic interdependence would strengthen peace.
The first expansion occurred in 1973 when Britain, the Irish Republic and Denmark joined. The EU
has continued to expand and now consists of 27 countries with an overall population of about 492
million people (2007). Additional countries are clamouring for admission. After all, nothing succeeds
more than success. Britain appears to be a reluctant member. It has still not succeeded in finding a
post-imperial role for itself. Moreover, at key junctures many British politicians have badly
underestimated the potential of the EU - and still do so.

29
UNIT 8

8.1. Lead in
1. How frequently do you go shopping? What do you buy most often?
2. Do you prefer super/hypermarkets or small shops? Explain your answer.
3. Which is the most extravagant thing you have ever bought?
4. Which is the most expensive thing you have ever bought?
5. How important is it for you to buy branded products? Which are your reasons for (not) buying
no name products?
6. Can you define FMCG, durables, white goods, brown goods?
7. How much does advertising influence your buying choice?
8.2 Reading objective
One of the most successful brands exported by Britain, known all over the world, is the famous
Marks & Spencer. There are a few M&S stores in Romania as well, selling clothes; However clothes
are just one of the company’s product lines, as it also sells food.
Marks and Spencer plc (also known as M&S) is a British retailer headquartered in the City of
Westminster, London, with over 700 stores in the United Kingdom and over 300 stores spread across
more than 40 countries. It specialises in the selling of clothing and luxury food products. M&S was
founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds.
In 1998, it became the first British retailer to make a pre-tax profit of over £1 billion, though a
few years later it plunged into a crisis which lasted for several years.
The company was founded by a partnership between Michael Marks, a Litvak Jew from Slonim,
Poland (now in Belarus), and Thomas Spencer, a cashier from Yorkshire. The next few years saw
Michael Marks open market stalls in many locations around the North West of England. In 1894,
Thomas Spencer invested in Marks' activities and they opened their first store, in partnership, in
Manchester.
Marks and Spencer, known colloquially as "Marks and Sparks", "Markies", or "M&S", made its
reputation in the early 20th century on a policy of only selling British-made goods (a policy eventually
discontinued in 2002). It also accepted the return of unwanted items, giving a full cash refund if the
receipt was shown, no matter how long ago the product was purchased, which was unusual for the
time. It adopted a 90-day returns policy in 2005 but on 12 April 2009 the refund policy changed once
again to 35 days.
The company put its main emphasis on quality, for most of its history having a reputation for
offering fair value for money. M&S has historically been an iconic retailer of 'British Quality Goods’.

Reading comprehension:
1. How old is the M&S brand?
2. Who created it?
3. What does M&S sell?
4. Which have been its refund policies which changed in time?

8.3 Translation Practice (English →Romanian)


Oxford Street is undeniably the West End's main shopping attraction. Start at Marble Arch -- the
westernmost end -- for an enormous branch of budget clothes chain Primark and designer department
store Selfridges. As you walk the length of the famous street toward Tottenham Court Road, you'll
notice that the quality of shops goes downhill, especially east of Oxford Circus. Think bargain
basement tat and cheap souvenirs, and you have the idea. Topshop remains an Oxford Street must-
visit (the branch here is the largest clothes shop in Europe), and a giant New Look close to Marble
Arch offers yet more great value clothes. You're certainly very brave to attempt Oxford Street at the
weekend; weekday mornings are best for your sanity.

30
Oxford Street is also a great starting point for hitting the more interesting shopping areas, such
as affluent Marylebone. If you're looking for some extreme shopping adventures, this is where
London's top plastic surgeons are based -- and it's impossible not to fall in love with the quaintness of
Marylebone's main street. The street's chocolate shops and interiors brands ooze luxury; make sure
you pop into Rococo, 45 Marylebone High St. (tel. 020/7935-7780; www.rococochocolates.com), for
some chocolate samples -- they're sometimes free.
Regent Street -- home to an Apple Store -- crosses Oxford Street at Oxford Circus. Regent Street
shopping is more toward the high end of "high street," typified by the affordable luxury of chain shops
such as Mango and French Connection. Boutique lifestyle shop Anthropologie is a relatively new
addition, but is expensive in comparison to its U.S. equivalent. Head south from Oxford Circus for the
world-famous Liberty department store. Inside a mock-Tudor building, Liberty is a London landmark.
You're now at the top of Carnaby Street, and although it's not quite the Sixties' style mecca it once
was, it's worth a stroll -- especially if you veer off into the Newburgh Quarter. The area is also home
to Kingly Court, a gorgeous little piazza of independent shops and vintage boutiques -- the cafes are
generally overpriced, but do provide a great perch to sit and people-watch.
Parallel to Regent Street, the Bond Street area connects Piccadilly with Oxford Street, and is
synonymous with the luxury rag trade. It's not just one street, but a whole area, mainly comprising
New Bond Street and Old Bond Street. It's the hot address for international designers -- Donna Karan
has two shops here, and Tiffany is quite at home nestled among designer jewelry shops. A slew of
international hotshots, from Chanel to Versace, have digs nearby. Make sure you stop off at Dover
Street Market -- not a market at all, but actually a designer shop housing all sorts of fashionable folk
under one roof.
Burlington Arcade (Tube: Piccadilly Circus), a glass-roofed Regency passage leading off
Piccadilly, looks like a period exhibition, and is lined with 35 mahogany-fronted intriguing shops and
boutiques. Lit by wrought-iron lamps and decorated with clusters of ferns and flowers, its small,
upscale stores specialize in fashion, gold jewelry, Irish linen, and cashmere. If you linger there until
5:30pm, you can watch the beadles (the last London representatives of Britain's oldest police force), in
their black-and-yellow livery and top hats, ceremoniously place the iron grills that block off the arcade
until 9am, at which time they remove them to start a new business day. Also at 5:30pm, the Burlington
Bell is sounded, signaling the end of trading. Make sure to catch the clock at Fortnum and Mason -- it
moves on the hour in a rather lovely display.
Nearby Jermyn Street (Tube: Piccadilly Circus), on the south side of Piccadilly, is a tiny two-
block street devoted to high-end men's haberdashers and toiletries shops; many have been doing
business for centuries. Several hold Royal warrants, including Turnbull & Asser, 71-72 Jermyn St.
(tel. 020/7808-3000), where HRH Prince Charles has his PJs made. A bit to the northwest, Savile Row
is where you'll find London's finest men's tailors.
The West End theatre district borders two more shopping areas: the still-not-ready-for-prime-
time Soho (Tube: Tottenham Court Rd. or Leicester Sq.), where the sex shops are slowly morphing
into cutting-edge designer boutiques -- check out clothing exchange Bang Bang, 9 Berwick St. (tel.
020/7494-2042), for designer bargains -- and Covent Garden, a shopping masterpiece stocked with
fashion, food, books, and everything else. The original Covent Garden marketplace has overflowed its
boundaries and eaten up the surrounding neighborhood; it's fun to shop the narrow streets. Just off
trendy Neal Street and Seven Dials, Neal's Yard is a stunning splash of color on rainy days if you're
looking to buy foodstuffs from Neal's Yard Dairy. Monmouth Street is somewhat of a local secret.
Many shops here serve as outlets for British designers, selling both used and new clothing. In addition,
stores specialize in everything from musical instruments from the Far East to palm readings. Make
sure, too, to take in Charing Cross Road and get your nose into one of the many secondhand
bookshops. You can't avoid Foyles (and nor should you), but the smaller shops have some great
options and well-priced first editions if you're particular about your Pulitzers.
West London
If you're heading west, the first place you should find yourself in is Notting Hill. Of course, one
of the main draws for shopping in West London is Portobello Market. Every Sunday, the whole of
Portobello Road turns into a sea of antiques, cool clothing (and even cooler shoppers), and maybe
even a celebrity or three.
31
Some of the best boutiques in London are also here. The independent shopping scene thrives;
this is an area where people want to be unique, but still look expensive and groomed. Expect one-off,
vintage-style dresses, quirky homewares, and more than a handful of retro record shops. Stick to
Portobello for antiques, but head to Westbourne Grove and Ledbury Road for boutiques.
The area is also full of organic and fancy food stores, with Whole Foods having its flagship
home here. They take their food very seriously in West London: It does come at a price, but the
quality is good so make sure you pick up a few bits. Pop into Melt on Ledbury Road for luxury
chocolate, or head to one of London's top cupcake bakeries, the Hummingbird Bakery at 133
Portobello Rd. (tel. 020/7851-1795).
West London is also home to two American-style shopping malls. Westfield takes up residence
in Shepherd's Bush and Whiteleys sits in Bayswater. They're huge, they have everything, and they're
busy. If it's raining and you still want your high-street shops, head here. Just don't expect to find
anything special or out of the ordinary.
Southwest London
The home of Harrods, Knightsbridge is probably the second-most famous London retail district
(Oxford Street just edges it out). Sloane Street is traditionally regarded as a designer area, but these
days it's more "upscale high-street," and nowhere near as luxurious as Bond Street . This is where you
can grab some aromatherapy from Jo Malone, 150 Sloane St. (tel. 0870/192-5121;
www.jomalone.co.uk; Tube: Sloane Sq.), a haven for bespoke perfumes.
Walk southwest on Brompton Road -- toward the V&A Museum -- and you'll find Cheval Place,
lined with designer resale shops, and Beauchamp Place (pronounced Bee-cham). It's high end, but
with a hint of irony. Expect to see little lapdogs in handbags.
If you walk farther along Brompton Road, you'll connect to Brompton Cross, another hip area
for designer shops made popular when Michelin House was rehabbed by Sir Terence Conran,
becoming the Conran Shop. Seek out Walton Street, a tiny snake of a street running from Brompton
Cross back toward the museums. Most of the shops here specialize in nonessential luxury products,
the kind a severe Victorian moralist might dismiss as "vanities and fripperies." You'll also be near
King's Road (Tube: Sloane Sq.); once a beacon of Sixties cool, this is now a haven for designer
clothes and homewares. About a third of King's Road is devoted to independent fashion shops, another
third houses design-trade showrooms and stores for household wares (Scandinavian designs are
prominent), and the remaining third a mix of dress shops and shoe boutiques. The clothes shops tend
to suit a more mature customer (with a more mature budget), but you'll have fun shopping here if you
remain oblivious to shop assistants who can be on the snooty side.
Finally, don't forget all those museums in nearby South Kensington. They have fantastic and
exclusive gift shops. If you're looking for jewelry and homewares, the V&A and the Design Museum
are must-visits. The Science Museum shop is perfect for inquisitive youngsters. Make sure to view the
collections, too. They're free, and have some world-class exhibits.
Kensington High Street (Tube: High St. Kensington) is the hangout of the classier breed of teen,
one who has graduated from Carnaby Street. While there are a few staples of basic British fashion
here, most of the stores feature items that can be described as modern classics with a twist. Think
black, well cut, and tailored, with a fun edge for the youngsters. From Kensington High Street, you
can walk up Kensington Church Street. Like Portobello Road, this is one of the city's main shopping
avenues for antiques, offering everything from antique furniture to Impressionist paintings.
Insider Tip: Kensington might scream money, but there are still places to pick up a bargain. The
charity shops here (particularly along Kensington Church Street) are full of designer bargains. After
all, where else is London's upper crust going to drop off last season's clobber? It might not be good
enough for them, but if you're looking for cut-price Gucci and Pucci, that's where you'll find it. That's
not to say you'll be paying pennies for your wares (the people who work here aren't stupid), but you
can pick up a vintage bargain and do your bit for charity at the same time. There's nothing better than
virtuous shopping, is there?
Herne Hill (Train: Herne Hill) and Dulwich (Train: North Dulwich) merge slightly, and both
attract a "yummy mummy" crowd -- that's middle-class mothers with posh buggies, in case you're
wondering -- but the shops also benefit from a local community vibe. It's certainly worth browsing

32
here, in preference to Clapham -- which apart from a few gems such as Lisa Stickley, is unlikely to
wow you.
The best place for shopping in London's far southwest is Chiswick (Tube: Turnham Green),
which has always had a thriving artsy community. This is where you'll find modern little galleries on
the corner of residential streets, and unique homewares retailers such as Eco as well as pop-up stores
(temporary shops). It's still a mostly residential suburb, but there's always something new happening
here, especially when it comes to shopping. Start your browsing along Devonshire Road and follow
your senses.
On the Outskirts -- The outskirts of South London are a bit of an odd bag, because the shopping
areas are so widely separated. You can easily get to each area by train or bus (usually from London
Bridge or Victoria stations), but you can't hop between them very easily like you can in the center of
town. One place to head is Crystal Palace (Train: Crystal Palace) for its cute collection of vintage
shops and indie stores. Check out the Bookseller Crow, 50 Westow St. (tel. 020/8771-8831;
www.booksellercrow.co.uk), for unique children's books, and then Crystal Palace Antiques.
The South Bank
Apart from Gabriel's Wharf, the South Bank isn't really a shopping destination on its own --
although the area is slowly getting a facelift. The OXO Tower, Bargehouse St. (tel. 020/7021-1600;
Tube: Waterloo), now has a collection of upscale boutiques in its lower floors, and Hay's Galleria, 2
Battle Bridge Lane (tel. 020/7403-3583; Tube: London Bridge), by the Tooley Street entrance to
London Bridge station, is cute, if rather empty (you'll find a toyshop and a ubiquitous Starbucks, but
not much else). Borough Market brings foodie crowds south in their droves, as does Tate Modern with
its fabulous shop for artsy visitors and locals.
Something delightful happens to the area over Christmas, however. There's a Christmas Market,
which stretches along the whole South Bank, offering festive delights. Everything from food to
Christmas decorations can be bought, all before taking a trip to see Santa himself. There's also a Slow
Food Market in winter (visit www.slowfood.org.uk), offering roasted meats and chutneys and foods
that you'll want to savor.
The City & East London
The financial district itself doesn't really offer much in the way of shopping -- especially at the
weekend, when everything tends to be shut. However, a new shopping center, One New Change, is
attracting a rich crowd for its luxury goods. It's opposite the eastern end of St. Paul's Cathedral. You'll
also find a handful of tailors in the area, and there are several high-end brands in the nearby Royal
Exchange (www.theroyalexchange.com; Tube: Bank). Unless you're often suited up for work,
however, it's really not a shopping destination by itself.
Wander west from St. Paul's and you'll wind up in the jewelry district around Hatton Garden
(Tube: Chancery Lane). On Saturdays it's a sea of nervous men hunting the perfect engagement ring.
If you're not in the market for fancy finger adornments, Lamb's Conduit Street is a short stroll farther
west. It's a beautiful street, full of history -- and now independent shops and restaurants. Make sure
you pop to Persephone for unique literature, and pick up food goodies from Kennards, 47 Lamb's
Conduit St. (tel. 020/7404-4030; www.kennardsgoodfoods.com), next door.
Continue your adventure farther east on Commercial Street (Tube: Liverpool St./Train:
Shoreditch High St.), Shoreditch. This is where you'll find the best vintage shops in the city. They're
on almost every corner, and new ones seem to appear every day, alongside pop-up stores just here for
the weekend. Make sure you hit Absolute Vintage and the smaller Blondie around the corner, on the
way to the antiques market in Spitalfields.
A short stroll north, Columbia Road is more than just a flower market; in many ways, the main
attractions are the artist studios that line the street. Head up every single one of those staircases you
see. If the door is open, you're allowed in. You'll find artists at work and shops such as Jessica
Chorley, 158a Columbia Rd. (tel. 07708/921550; www.jessiechorley.com; Train: Shoreditch), selling
handmade notebooks and jewelry. Once you're done with the studios and shops -- Ryan Town sells
fabulous papercuts -- everything at the flower market will be going cheap come 3pm.
North London

33
Shoppers should split north London in two: Camden (Tube: Camden Town) has its heavy metal
and Goth shops; Primrose Hill (Tube: Chalk Farm) and its surrounds has perfect little streets full of
local finds. The two could not be more different, but that doesn't mean either is less enticing.
Camden could never be dull. Even if the bustling high street with its black leather-clad crowds
isn't your thing, it's worth a stroll just for the spectacle: street-food stalls and Goths in full make-up at
lunchtime against a backdrop of Camden Lock and the canal. Camden Market itself has changed
somewhat since a fire in 2008. The refurbishment has tidied things up a little, although many would
argue that some of the charm has gone with it. The stalls are back, the Stables area is more exciting,
and everything is just perhaps a little more refined; it still has some rough Camden charm, but also a
wider appeal, whether you're looking for neon industrial clubwear or handmade jewelry. It's best to
avoid the food stalls, though.
Primrose Hill is Camden's northern neighbor, and the Cinderella to North London's ugly sister.
Everything is pretty, perfect, and rather posh. The original cupcake Primrose Bakery, 69 Gloucester
Ave. (tel. 020/7483-4222; www.primrosebakery.org.uk), is here, and the area is popular with fashion
celebs such as Kate Moss and Sadie Frost. Designer stores, chi-chi art galleries, and overpriced clothes
are what you'll find in this part of town. Some might claim that there's not much substance, but if
you're willing to search, there are great frocks in Anna, 126 Regent's Park Rd. (tel. 020/7483-0411;
www.shopatanna.co.uk), and beautiful interiors shops for any budget.
Angel -- in Islington, south and east of Camden -- bridges the gap between indie and vintage
cool, and luxury and boutique style. Head to Camden Passage for the best of vintage (we favor other
shops over Decorexi). The weekend market stalls are interesting, but the real charm lies in the street's
small shops. Upscale vintage and specialized antiques flank both sides, leading up to Essex Road and
Upper Street. Both these major thoroughfares have shops lining them: Essex Road is good for
independent designers; Upper Street sticks to high-street and specialist chains such as Joy and Oliver
Bonas, 147-148 Upper St. (tel. 020/7424-5305; www.oliverbonas.com). Make sure you walk south
from Angel along St. John Street; My Sugarland is a beautiful shop showcasing the very best in
women's clothing.
Greenwich
Although many London stores now open on Sundays, the best weekend shopping is still the
stalls of Greenwich's flea and craft markets. The ideal way to arrive is to float downstream on a boat
from Embankment or Westminster piers. The trip takes about a half-hour. Both the DLR station (Cutty
Sark) and the pier are minutes from the indoor craft market, which is held Wednesday through
Sunday. Greenwich town center isn't very big: Follow the signs -- or the crowd -- and you'll find it.
Greenwich Market is bursting with art and crafts, both global and local. The shops around the outside
of the market are also worth a look, and make sure to walk through the food market when you're done,
if only to try the churros filled with dulce de leche (milk caramel).
You're now only 5 minutes from Greenwich rail station, on Greenwich High Road, from which
there's a train back to the center of London every half-hour until about 11:30pm. Make sure you check
out the shops around the rest of Greenwich first. Buy pies and tarts at Rhodes Bakery, 37 King
William Walk (tel. 020/8858-8995; www.rhodesbakery.co.uk), or vintage accessories and retro music
from Beehive, 322 Creek Rd. (tel. 020/8858-1964). Booktime, 227 Greenwich High Rd. (tel.
020/8293-0096) is great for bargain books.

34
UNIT 9

9. 1. Lead in
1. If you could save, invest or spend 1,000 euros in just one day what would you do with it?
Explain your answer.
2. Does it matter if a wife earns more than her husband?
3. Were you given or did you earn your pocket money as a child? What about now?
4. What was the first thing you saved up for and bought yourself?
5. What can’t money buy?
6. What do you understand by plastic money?
7. How many ways of paying for a product do you know?
9.2. Reading objective
Can Money Buy Happiness?
The following questions and answer make up an imaginary interview that sum up the real
answers to the same questions, given by more hundreds of people, as part of an opinion survey about
how important money is in our life.
Q: Were you given or did you earn pocket money as a child?
A: I was given two shillings a week by my father, but on condition that I behaved myself. If I
didn’t behave well, I didn’t receive it. Parents were much stricter in those days.
Q: What was the first thing you saved up for and bought yourself.
A: A set of toy soldiers. Not the plastic ones you get nowadays, but little metal ones, beautifully
hand painted. It took me nearly a year to save up for them. If I’d known that they would be valuable
antiques today, I would have kept them. They would probably be worth a fortune now.
Q: It’s impossible to have too much money – do you agree?
A: Yes. If you have dreams, money makes them possible. Personally, I can’t imagine having too
much money. I’m always broke. Anyway, if I ever felt I had too much money, I’d give it away to
charity.
Q: Would you prefer fame or fortune?
A: Being practical, I’d say fortune, but if I were single, with no kids and no responsibilities, I’d
go for fame.
Q: If you could buy yourself a skill, a talent or change in your appearance, what would you
choose?
A: Well there are lots of things I’d like to be better at, but if I had to choose one, I ‘d like to be a
brilliant football player.
Q: What can’t money buy?
A: Happiness. I tend to think that once I have enough money to buy some new clothes or get a
better car, then I’ll be happy. But it never works out like that.

Reading comprehension?
1. What did the respondent first save up money for?
2.What would the respondent choose between fame and fortune? Why?
3. What can’t money buy according to the text?

9.3 Language in use


I. Paying and bargaining. If a product you want to buy has no price label you may ask : How
much is it ? or How much does it cost ? The shop assistant can ask you : What method of payment do
you you prefer : cash, by cheque or by credit card ?
If you go shopping in an ellegant boutique in the centre of a large city it is quite probable that
bargaining is not accepted. But if you go to small shops, to bazaars in Greece, Turkey or the Middle
East the shopkeepers will be happy to haggle and most of them speak English.

35
If you don’ agree to their price you can say something like : I’ll buy this for … (sum) . or : How
much is that if I buy two ? , I’ll buy a T-shirt as well if you give me the jeans for 10 euros.
Now imagine you are a customer. What would you say if you want to buy the following for a
lower price: a) a shirt (initial price 25 euros) for 15 euros ; b) a gold bracelet (initial price 100 euros)
for 80 euros.

II. Stating preferences. When you go shopping (and not only) you may need to express your
preferences.
Comparing things often involves making a choice. If we are comparing different cars, items of
clothing, etc for example, we often state our preferences at the same time. Here are some useful ways
of stating what you prefer:
As far as I’m concerned, the best …
From my point of view, the best …
I’d go for this one because …
I’d much prefer that one because …
This one is preferable because …
I’d rather have that one because …
Decide how you would use these expressions to talk about a) a dress / a pair of trousers / a suit /
a computer you want to buy; b) different things to eat and drink. (Perhaps look at a restaurant menu
and decide what dishes to select.)

9.4. Translation practice (English →Romanian)


'The best things in life are free, But you can give them to the birds and bees, I want money,
That's what I want, That's what I want.'' In 1959, these words were written by Barrett Strong in a song
called ''Money (That's What I Want).'' The song was later made famous throughout the United States
and the UK when The Beatles covered it in 1963.
One year later, The Beatles again topped the charts with the hit song, ''Can’t Buy Me Love.''
When asked about the meaning of the lyrics, Paul McCartney said, ''The idea behind it was that all
these material possessions are all very well, but they won't buy me what I really want.'' However,
when reflecting on the perks that money and fame had brought him, he was to later comment: ''It
should have been 'Can Buy Me Love.' ''
Paul McCartney and The Beatles are not the only ones who have contradictory views around the
age-old question, ''Can money buy happiness?'' Put another way, ''Does money, or lack thereof, impact
how happy we are?'' Psychologists, philosophers and ordinary folks have debated this question for
years.
In the last decade, the field of psychology took a dramatic turn from only looking at mental
illness, to exploring what makes people feel fulfilled, engaged and happy. This Positive Psychology
Movement has produced an expansive amount of researchers who are looking at things such as
happiness, positive emotions, optimism and healthy character traits. At some point, every one of these
top researchers explored the effects of money on happiness and positive emotions.
What we are finding out is that happiness is the ultimate currency. Not only do happy people
enjoy life more and have more fun, but they also practice positive lifestyle habits and have stronger
immune systems. When faced with illness, happier and more optimistic individuals have been shown
to be more proactive in their medical care, more compliant with treatment and medication, have
quicker recoveries and show better health outcomes. So, if we want to be healthier and happier, it’s
worth figuring out where money comes into play.
When we talk about happiness, we need to look at it from two separate aspects--life satisfaction
as a whole vs. moment-to-moment moods. I can be satisfied with my overall life, yet still have
moments when I am not happy. Vice versa, some folks can be dissatisfied with their current
circumstances and wish for change, but still have many moments of joy throughout the day.
Interestingly, money affects our feelings about both aspects of happiness.

36
UNIT 10

10.1. Lead in
1. How many meals do you have daily?
2. Are you a good cook? What can you cook best?
3. Ask your desk mate about his/ her favourite food/ drink. Then tell him/her what to cook if
he/she invites you to have dinner together.
4. What do you think about being a vegetarian?
5. In terms of food, what comes to your mind when you think of the following countries: the
USA, France, Austria, Japan, China, Greece, Turkey, the UK?
6. Can you add any more countries to the list above? What food/ drink are they famous for?
7. What Romanian traditional dishes would you recommend a foreigner?
10.2. Reading objective
British Food and Cuisine
British cuisine has always been multicultural, a pot pourri of eclectic styles - in ancient times
influenced by the Romans and in medieval times by the French. During Victorian times good old
British stooge mixed with exotic spices from all over the Empire. The Britons learnt quite a lot from
the colonies. In London especially, one can not only experiment with the best of British, but the best of
the world as there are many distinct ethnic cuisines to sample, Chinese, Indian, Italian and Greek
restaurants are amongst the most popular.
Among English cakes and pastries, many are tied to the various religious holidays of the year.
Hot Cross Buns are eaten on Good Friday, Simnel Cake is for Mothering Sunday, Plum Pudding for
Christmas, and Twelfth Night Cake for Epiphany.
Some traditional dishes such as roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, Cornish pasties, steak and
kidney pie, bread and butter pudding, treacle tart, spotted dick or fish and chips, remain popular. Roast
beef is still the national culinary pride. It is called a "joint," and is served at midday on Sunday with
roasted potatoes, Yorkshire pudding, two vegetables, a good strong horseradish, gravy, and mustard.
The British Breakfast
The great British breakfast is famous throughout the world! Actually many British people are
more likely to have a bowl of cornflakes or a cup of coffee but the typical English breakfast is a 19th
century invention, when the majority of English people adopted the copious meal of porridge, fish,
bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, that has now appeared on English breakfast tables for 100 years.
The annual consumption in the United Kingdom is 450,000 tones of bacon, 5,000 tones of sausages
and millions of eggs, so you can see the Great British Breakfast is very much alive and well. It has
retained its popularity as one of the country's favorite meals, and survived a whole series of eating
trends and food fads. Nowadays the great British breakfast consists of toast with jam or marmalade,
pastries, fresh orange juice, freshly brewed coffee, a choice of cereals, porridge, stewed fruit ,
scrambled egg, streaky and back bacon, black pudding or grilled mushrooms.
Tea
Tea, that most quintessential of English drinks, came relatively late to British shores. Although
the custom of drinking tea dates back to the third millennium BC in China, it was not until the mid
17th century that the beverage first appeared in England. It was the Portuguese and Dutch traders who
first imported tea to Europe, with regular shipments by 1610. England was a latecomer to the tea trade,
as the East India Company did not capitalize on tea's popularity until the mid-18th century. It was the
London coffee houses that were responsible for introducing tea to England. One of the first coffee
house merchants to offer tea was Thomas Garway, who owned an establishment in Exchange Alley.
He sold both liquid and dry tea to the public as early as 1657. Three years later he issued a broadsheet
advertising tea at £6 and £10 per pound (ouch!), touting its virtues at "making the body active and
lusty", and "preserving perfect health until extreme old age". Tea gained popularity quickly in the
coffee houses, and by 1700 over 500 coffee houses sold it.. By 1750 tea had become the favored drink
of Britain's lower classes. Nowadays , it is Britain’s favorite drink and it is also a meal in the
afternoon, consisting in cookies, other sweets and of course tea.
37
Reading comprehension
1. What does a traditional English breakfast consist of?
2. Enumerate a few traditional English dishes.
3. Why is tea not only a drink but also a meal?

10.3 Translation Practice ( English →Romanian)

A. Potatoes have a unique place in the British diet. We each eat around 130kg every year;
boiled, baked, roasted, mashed and chipped, the humble spud is a familiar, much loved part of
mealtimes. What is surprising, though, is that although there are around 500 varieties of potato, only
about 80 varieties are grown commercially, so only a few are well known and available in Britain's
supermarkets.
We're all familiar with delectable Jersey Royals, with their wonderfully distinctive flavor; Cara
are excellent for baking; King Edwards are superb roasted, mashed or chipped; Maris Piper are dry
and floury and good for all methods of cooking, while the dense, moist flesh of Charlottes makes
wonderful potato salad.
But how many of us have come across Lady Christl, Dunbar Rover or Mr Little's Yetholm
Gypsy? These old-fashioned potato types are now deemed 'heritage' or 'gourmet' varieties and are hard
to find, although you may be lucky and come across them at farmers' markets or from a specialist
grower.
The trouble is that these heirloom potatoes are not cosmetically perfect. Even the Prince of
Wales had his organic potatoes rejected by the supermarkets because they weren't shiny enough! He
sold them to South Gloucestershire County Council instead, who supply them to local schools. It's not
surprising that many people think of potatoes as bland and insipid if they can only buy flawless,
perfectly shaped specimens with little flavor.
The supermarkets may offer us a choice beyond just 'White' or 'Red' nowadays, but there's still a
terrific range of potatoes with unique flavors and textures far beyond those currently available.
Fortunately, some supermarkets are dipping a cautious toe in the water and are offering a few
'heirloom' varieties. I discovered some Shetland Blacks in the supermarket recently. These small,
purplish/black-skinned potatoes have yellow flesh and a floury texture and are very tasty baked or
sautéed.
Different potatoes have their own distinctive taste and their texture varies considerably too, so
it's important to cook them correctly. A potato may be described as having a waxy or floury texture.
Floury potatoes tend to break up when boiled, so are best baked, roasted or chipped, while waxy
potatoes are moister and have less starch, so are good for boiling and in potato salad and layered
potato dishes.
Some old-fashioned varieties date back a century or more and come in an amazing range of
shapes, colors and interesting flavors. I'm going to try and track down as many unusual varieties as
possible, not only for their unique flavors, but also to experience a true taste of our culinary history.

B. Britons eat out much more than they used to—which means their diets are even worse than
those figures suggest. The average Briton eats just three grams of green vegetables in a restaurant each
week. He dines out on 44 grams of chips and 75 grams of meat.
Engels was partly right about the reasons for this: harried working mothers have less time to
cook. Steady advances in technology—not just freezers and microwave ovens but better containers for
processed food—mean they do not need to. Above all, people have far more choice. The speed with
which Britons have abandoned foods like cabbage suggests they never liked them much. Brussels
sprouts were once such a staple that they were part of the basket of goods used to calculate inflation.
Sprout consumption has fallen by more than four-fifths since 1974.
But if worries about changes in what people eat are well-founded, fears about the decline of
cooking and family meals are much less so. Britons are no worse in the kitchen than they were in the
past. They are just no better. Most people can rustle up about seven different meals and simply repeat
them, says Jon Firth of Kantar World panel, a market-research firm. That is not all that different from
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1950s family meals in which the same dishes—Sunday roasts, leftovers made into cottage pies,
sausage and mash—featured every week. And today’s repertoires might at least feature once-exotic
dishes such as pasta.
Nor has the tradition of family eating declined as much as is commonly supposed. Britons have
never eaten together as much as they like to think. People interviewed in the 1970s about their
childhoods in the early 20th century often remembered meals without parents. Posh mothers were
commonly off doing charity work; working-class fathers were on unsociable shifts. People still sit
down to a roast Sunday lunch, a meal rarely eaten in solitude, 14 times a year on average.
Mealtimes are no longer conventional or clearly defined. People eat often and quickly. One
study comparing Britain and Spain found that about 40% of Spaniards were eating at 2.50pm and
about 30% at 9.30pm. At no point in the day were as many as 20% of Britons eating. Over the years,
peaks in sewage flow have greatly diminished, notes Rob Smith, chief sewer-flusher for Thames
Water.
Still, include the number of hours spent eating out, and the total time that families spend together
over food has stayed remarkably constant over the years, says Peter Jackson, a geographer who studies
families and food at Sheffield University. Britons eat badly and erratically. But they do it together.

10.4. Language in use


Ordering food. Talking to the waiter.
If you go abroad you may want to eat out, so it would be useful to know a few words coonected
to ordering food. Read the following short dialogues between a guest and a waiter and then build your
own dialogues.
a) A : Hello, sir !
B : Hello. Can I have a have sandwich, please ?
A : Yes, of course. Here you are. Anything else ?
B : No, thanks.
A : Fifty nine cents, please.
B : Thanks. Keep the change.
A : Thank you, sir.
b) A : Hello, I’m John Howard. I have booked a table for six for 9p.m. tonight.
B : Hello, sir. Just a moment to check your booking…. You’re right, table for six, near the
window, 9 p.m.. The waiter will see you off at your table.
C : Hello, ladies and gentlemen, follow me. This way, please… this is your table… and here are
the menus. Enjoy your evening.
c) A : Are you ready to order, madam ?
B : Yes, I’d like two tuna salads, two chocolate icecreams and a white coffe for my friend.
A : Sure, madam. Anything else ?
B : A glass of still water for me, please.
A : OK, madam.
B. Thank you.
d) A : Yes, sir ?
B : A coffee, please.
A : Black or white ?
B : Sorry ?
A : Black or white ? Milk ?
B : Ah ! Black please. No milk.
A : Sixty pence, sir.
B : Thanks.

Now imagine you are hungry and you go to a nice restaurant in London. How do you order your
food ? You can also think of a menu.

39
UNIT 11

11..1. Lead in
1. How is communication different now from what it was a) 20 years ago; b) 50 years ago; c)
150 years ago; d) 1000 years ago?
2. What new communication devices do you think will be invented in the next 25 years?
th
3. The Internet is among the most important inventions of the 20 century. What are its main
uses? What do you, as a student, use it for?
4. Are you a member of social networ sites? How have they changed the way we conceive
communication? What do you use them for mainly? What are their other possible uses?
11.2. Reading objective
Social Network Sites
Since their introduction, social network (or networking) sites have attracted millions of users,
who have integrated them into their daily routines. As statistics say, most of SNS-s users are young
and very young people who become members of such sites for socializing, keeping in touch with
friends and making new friends. But private issues are not the only ones discussed on SNS-s. Public
ones (such as politics, social problems) are of interest for SNS-s members.
Regarding a possible definition of a social networking service, it is an online service, platform,
or site that focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations among people,
who, for example, share interests and/or activities. A social network service essentially consists of a
representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services.
Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their
individual networks.
The main types of social networking services are those which contain category places (such as
former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages)
and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of these, with
Facebook and Twitter widely used worldwide, Nexopia (mostly in Canada); Bebo, VKontakte, Hi5,
Hyves (mostly in The Netherlands), Draugiem.lv (mostly in Latvia), StudiVZ (mostly in Germany),
iWiW (mostly in Hungary), Tuenti (mostly in Spain), Nasza-Klasa (mostly in Poland), Nyx.cz (mostly
]
in Czech Republic), Decayenne, Tagged, XING, Badoo and Skyrock in parts of Europe; Orkut and
Hi5 in South America and Central America; and Friendster, Mixi, Multiply, Orkut, Wretch, renren and
Cyworld in Asia and the Pacific Islands and Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Orkut are very popular
in India.
Social networks or social communities such as Facebook, Hi5.com, YouTube, MySpace, Xing
or Friendster are currently the most popular ways of meeting people. These networks meet the young
people’s needs of communication, help them develop / find their identity, (re) present themselves,
practice peer-group experiences, offer them spaces of freedom, experimentation and crossing any
boundaries. The popularity of these communities could be explained by children and young people’s
needs to be noticed, recognized and to become popular. They want to be seen and, in the same time, to
see how appreciated and sympathized they are – or how they seem to be.

Reading comprehension:
1.How would you define a social network site?
2.What are its main functions?
3.What needs ane expectations of young people (and not only) do they satisfy?

11.3. Language in use


Telephoning. Making and changing arrangements.
1. Complete the following conversations with phrases from the list
below: Dialogue 1:
A: _______________________
40
B: Good morning! Could I speak to Ms. Reynolds, please?

Dialogue 2:
A: I need Mr. Stevens’ number, please.
B: ______________________________

Dialogue 3:
A: _____________________________
B: Yes, hold the line one moment and I’ll put you through.

Dialogue 4:
A: I’m afraid he’s in a meeting at the moment.
B: ______________________________

Dialogue 5:
A: ___________________________
B: Mihai Ionescu from Flamingo electronics.
Phrases:
a) OK. I’ll call back later. Thank you.
b) Hello, RB Advertising. Can I help you?
c) Just a moment, sir. I’ll look it up for you.
d)Hello. Extension 4521, please.
e) Who’s calling, please?

2. Unscramble the sentences below so as to obtain three coherent telephone


conversations: Dialogue 1:
____ A: Oh, good morning, Miss Smith!
____ B: Mr. Hartley? Good morning!
____ A: Good. See you the. Good bye.
____ B: I’m ringing to remind you about the meeting tomorrow. 10 a.m., at your office as
arranged?
A: 10a.m., that’s right.

DIALOGUE 2:
____ A: Right. I’m looking forward to seeing you. goodbye.
____ B: Oh, hello, Mr. Williams, nice to hear from you!
____ B: I’m afraid I can’t today. What about tomorrow?
____ A: Hello! Ms. Lester? This is Tom Williams speaking, from RB Advertising.
____ A: I called to see if we can discuss a business proposition that our company wishes to
make.
____ B: Yes, 1 p..m. is OK. See you tomorrow.
____ A: Actually I hoped we could meet and talk about it. How about me coming to your office
later today?
____ B: I see. Could you be more specific?
____ A: Tomorrow will be fine. Let’s say 1 p.m., if it’s suitable for you, too.

Dialogue 3:
____ A: Would it be possible for you to meet us on Tuesday afternoon instead?
____ B: Hello, John Andrews speaking, from Durham Building.
____ A: Hello, Mr. Andrews.
____ A: I’m calling on behalf of my boss. He is very sorry he won’t be able to meet you this
afternoon.
____ B: OK, I’ll be waiting for your call. Good bye, then.
____ B: Let me check my diary… I’m afraid I can’t. What about Wednesday morning?
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____ B: Oh, I see.
____ A: Wednesday morning is all right. However I’ll call you back later on to confirm.
____ A: Thank you. Goodbye.

3. Together with your desk mate imagine a few short telephone conversations in which: a) you
ask for an extension; b) you want to speak to someone but the line is busy / the person is not in the
office; c) you make an arrangement to meet someone tomorrow at 4 p.m.; d) you try to change an
arrangement already made.
11.4 Translation practice (English →Romanian)
Who can turn around your day with a kind word or a smile?
At my local coffee shop, there is a barista who always makes my day. She greets me with a big
smile, always has a compliment at the ready and is sincerely interested in my life. I love getting coffee
from her. If I am having a crap time, she makes it a bit brighter. She does this for all of her customers.
She knows their names, their orders, and their lives. My barista is a shiny beacon of positivity and joy.
There is push-pull effect in all communication. The way you communicate can pull people
toward you like a magnet or repel people away like a deadly scorpion hiding in the rug. Every time
you open your mouth, the question needs to be asked: “is what I am about to say going to pull people
in or push them out of my life?”
Luckily, there are 11 inspired minds (and one fictional rabbit) who can guide us to have
improved communication and better relationships in these 12 brilliant quotes:
1. “You never know when a moment and a few sincere words can have an impact on a life” ~
Zig Ziglar
A well-timed positive word or compliment can change the course of someone’s day.
2. “Who you are is speaking so loudly that I can’t hear what you’re saying” ~ Ralph Waldo
Emerson
Being authentic to who you are speaks volumes. People are drawn to authenticity and
vulnerability. Coming off like a slimy, fake used-car dealer (or Kardashian) pushes people away.
3. “If you don’t have something nice to say, don’t say anything at all” ~ Thumper from Bambi
Negative words traumatize and leave an impression that can last for days. If the communication
is going to do harm, take Thumper’s advice.
4. “You can make more friends in two months by becoming interested in other people than you
can in two years by trying to get other people interested in you” ~ Dale Carnegie
“You” is the most important word in any conversation. Minimize the “I” and the “Me” and focus
on the “you.”
5. “What will they think of me? Must be put aside for bliss” ~ Joseph Campbell
Put aside your worries about what other’s will think of you and just serve others with your
message.
6. “I speak to everyone in the same way, whether he is the garbage man or the president of the
university” ~ Albert Einstein
Treat everyone with respect no matter their status.
7. “Don’t be embarrassed by your failures. Learn from them and start again” ~ Sir Richard
Branson
Miscommunications and misunderstandings happen! You learn much about how you
communicate through your mistakes and you learn a lot about the person you are talking to as well!
8. “The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn’t said” ~ Peter Drucker
The ability to read the emotions and nonverbal communication of another person increases
understanding and elevates relationships.
9. “Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say
something” ~ Plato
Speak with a purpose, not just to fill-up a silence. Remember: silence is a gift that allows self-
reflection.

42
10. “Be sincere; be brief; be seated” ~ Franklin D.
Roosevelt Amen!
11. “The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between
lightning and a lightning bug” ~ Mark Twain
Words are powerful! When you chose just the right word, you increase understanding ten-fold.
12. “The way we communicate with others and with ourselves ultimately determines the quality
of our lives” ~ Anthony Robbins
If you are positive and communicate positivity, you will attract more of that into your life.
Here’s your challenge: go out today and make a positive impact on someone’s day. Listen. Be
sincere. Smile generously. Be generous in praise and compliments. Communication has power to
make a difference and change lives, or at the very least make someone’s day more luminous.

43
UNIT 12

12.1. Lead in
1. What comes to your mind when you think of the USA?
2. Enumerate a few reasons why you would like to visit the USA.
3. Think of some positive and some negative aspects of the American civilisation, which, in your
opinion, have an effect on your daily life.
4. What comes to your mind when you think about sports in the USA?
12.2. Reading objective
The United States of America (also referred to as the United States, the U.S., the USA, or
America) is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. The country
is situated mostly in central North America, where forty-eight states and Washington, D.C., the capital
district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to
the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to the east and Russia
to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The
country also possesses several territories in the Caribbean and Pacific.
2
At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km ) and with over 310 million people, the United
States is among the largest and most populated countries in the world. It is one of the world's most
ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many
countries. The U.S. economy is the world's largest national economy, with a 2010 GDP of $14.780
trillion.
How did we come to call this vast territory America? In 1507, German cartographer Martin
Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere
"America" after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci. The former British colonies
first used the country's modern name in the 1776 Declaration of Independence. Later on, other official
documents used this name as well.
The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a constitutional republic and
representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". In
the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal,
state, and local.
The federal government is composed of three branches: legislative (the bicameral Congress,
made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves
treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting
members of the government), executive (the president and the government; the president is the
commander-in-chief of the military forces, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and
appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer
and enforce federal laws and policies), judicial (the Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose
judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval, conduct trials, interpret laws and change
those they find unconstitutional).
The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history. Since the
th
middle of the 19 century, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and the
Republican Party, founded in 1854.
Within American political culture, the Republican Party is considered center-right or
"conservative" and the Democratic Party is considered center-left or "liberal". The states of the
Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as "blue states", are relatively
liberal. The "red states" of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively
conservative.
The winner of the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama, is the 44th U.S.
president. The 2010 midterm elections saw the Republican Party take control of the House and make
th
gains in the Senate, where the Democrats retain the majority. In the 112 United States Congress, the
Senate comprises 51 Democrats, two independents, and 47 Republicans; the House comprises 242

44
Republicans and 193 Democrats. There are 29 Republican and 20 Democratic state governors, as well
as one independent.
The USA are many times seen as a symbol of freedom; they are the land where people go to
achieve their dreams and the lad which as influenced the world’s culture in a decisive way.
Who hasn’t fallen in love with the American film industry and its stars, who has never eaten in a
fast food restaurant, who has never watched a baseball match (the American national sport), at least in
movies? We are going to end this first presentation of the USA by talking about American sport,
promoted by everybody, from the President himself to educational and health policies. Besides
baseball, American football and basketball are also very popular among Americans, as well as golf
and auto racing.
However sport is not the only important issue when talking about American culture; customs
and traditions, food, holidays are also very present in the Americans’ lives, and not only as they have
been successfully exported worldwide. The following Reading objective will be dedicated to them.
Reading comprehension:
1. Which are the main two parties in the USA?
2. What two structures does the Congress consist of?
3. Which are the three branches of the American federal Government?
4. Enumerate a few aspects of culture / civilization that the USA are famous for.
5. Enumerate a few sports popular among the Americans.

12.3. Vocabulary
1. Having a hobby is good both for your physical and mental health. Check the meaning of the
new words from the list below and tell if any of them is your hobby: dancing, visiting museums, doing
crosswords, walking, skiing, listening to music, watching TV, taking photographs, ice-skating,
cooking, playing computer games, sailing, painting, swimming, reading, going to the cinema, playing
volleyball, windsurfing, sunbathing, playing cards, fishing.

2. Write play or go in front of the following:


_______ football, _______ iceskating, _______, swimming, ______ windsurfing, _______ golf,
_______ baseball, ______ ice hockey, _______ sailing, _______ fishing, _______ tennis, _______
walking, _______ dancing, _______ volleyball, _______ skiing.

12.4 Language in use


Inviting. Accepting / refusing an invitation. Apologising .
1. Depending on the addressee, an invitation can be more or less formal. Read the following
possible invitations and rank them according to their degree of formality.
a) We’re going to the theatre on Sunday evening and we were wondering if you’d like to join us.
_____
b) If you’re free tonight, why not come round for a drink ? _____
c) If you don’t have any plans for the weekend I’d be happy to show you the old town and some
museums. I’m sure you’ll love it. _____
d) Hello, sir. Andreea Popescu speaking, Mr. Howard’s assistant manager. He would like to
invite you to dinner tomorrow evening. Woud that be possible for you ? _____
th
e) It gives me great pleasure to invite you to the hotel’s inauguration ceremony , on the 20 next
month. ______
f) We would be honoured if you accepted to have supper with the members of our department
at the company club on Friday evening. _____
g) How about going to a movie on Saturday ? _____

2. Now look at the following thank you expressions. Some of them can be used when accepting,
others when declining an invitation. Use them to build your own answers to the invitations above.
45
It’ very kind of you to invite me bu I’ve already got something planned.
What a pity. I don’t think I can come. I’ve got some friends coming for dinner.
Thank you very muck, that would be nice.
Sure, why not ? Thank you for the invitation.
That’s very nice of you but unfortunately I’ m busy this weekend.

1. You are an assistant manager and you have to invite a foreign guest : a) to dinner ; b) to look
round the factory ; c) to make a speech at an official dinner ; on behalf of your boss. Together with
your desk mate decide what exactly you can say.

12.5. Translation practice (English →Romanian)


The Story of Helen Keller, The Girl Who Could Not See, Hear or Speak
I’d like you to know the story of Helen Keller, who could neither see nor hear from the time she
was a baby. Yet the brilliant girl was able to overcome all those handicaps, to graduate from a college
with honors and become a useful citizen.
I must say there was nothing wrong with Helen Keller when she was born. Her father and
mother were very proud of their pretty baby, who tried to say “pa-pa” and “ma-ma”.
For nineteen months Helen grew bigger and stronger. She was able to walk when she was a year
old; she could say a few words.
But one day the child fell ill. She must have been very ill. For days she was laid up with a high
fever and soon the parents learned that their darling would never be able to see and hear.
The little child was now doomed to a life of silence and darkness. She could not hear what was
said to her and did not know how to talk, she was unable to play with other children.
When Helen was 6 years old her parents took her to Baltimore and then to Washington to
famous doctors to find out if they could do something to make her hear and see again, but the doctors
could do nothing. The child was hopelessly deaf. Dr. Bell said the Kellers should address the Perkins
Institution for the blind in Boston and ask if they could send someone to help the child.
It was a wonderful day for Helen Keller when Ann Sullivan arrived in March 1887 to take
charge of the child who could neither hear nor speak. Helen was nearly seven, Ann Sullivan was past
twenty.
Ann Sullivan found a way to make herself understood. She gave the child a doll, and taking
Helen Keller’s hand she slowly spelled out "d-o-l". The child learnt for the first time that things must
have names.
When Miss Sullivan later spelled into the little girl’s hand the word “w-a-t-e-r” and then let the
water from the pumps run over her hand, a new light seemed to brighten the face of the child. During
the next 3 months, she learned 300 words and could even put some of them into sentences.
Miss Sullivan loved her pupil who was so quick to learn. She lived with Helen, played with her
and worked with her every hour of the day. By means of the hand language, Helen and her teacher
were able to talk to each other.
Helen learned to read books that were printed for the blind with raised letters. She also learned
to use the typewriter to write what she wanted to say.
When Helen was 10 she was determined that she would learn to speak. At first she learned only
the sounds of the letters of the alphabet, but soon she was able to say words and sentences.

In the story of her life Helen Keller writes, “I shall never forget the surprise and delight I felt
when I uttered my first connected sentence: “It is warm.”
At first she had much difficulty with her speech, but Ann Sullivan understood what Helen trying
to say. Helen practised speaking day after day until at last she developed a clear voice.
Later she was able to speak before large crowds which came to hear her whenever she lectured.
At the age of 20 Helen Keller passed all the difficult entrance examinations to Radcliffe College.
Helen did extremely well in her classes and was able to keep up with the other students. Helen wrote

46
“The Story of My Life” while she was in college. In her writings and lectures Helen did everything
she could to help and encourage others who were blind.
(From "Short Stories of Famous Women")

47
UNIT 13

13.1. Lead in
1. Name a few official or unofficial American holidays which have come to be celebrated
worldwide (Romania included).
2. What do you know about these holidays?
3. Enumerate a few differences bettween the UK and the USA in terms of culture, civilisation,
language.

13.2. Reading objective


American Holidays
Americans celebrate a variety of holidays throughout the year. Many of them are the same with
those celebrated in many other parts of the world, such as the New Year, Christmas or Easter but there
are also other celebrations which are specifically American.
Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday in January. The
Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. was an African American promoter of equality among people; he is
recognized for his tireless efforts to win civil rights for all people through nonviolent means.
Groundhog Day is February 2 and has been celebrated since 1887. On Grounghog day crowds
gather in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, to see if the groundhog sees his shadow after emerging from
his burrow, thus predicting six more weeks of winter weather.
Valentine’s Day is celebrated on February 14. The day was named after an early Christian
martyr and on Valentine’s Day Americans give presents like candy or flowers to the ones they love.
The first mass produced valentine cards were sold in the 1840’s.
Washington’s Birthday is a federal holiday observed in the third Monday of February to honour
George Washington, the first president of the United States. This date is commonly called Presidents’
Day and people honour the legacy of past presidents on this date.
Mother’s Day celebrate mothers every second Sunday of May. President Woodrow Wilson who
issued a proclamation in 1914 asked Americans to give a public expression of reverence to mothers on
this day.
Father’s Day celebrates fathers every third Sunday of June. Father’s Day began in 1909 in
Spokane, Washington when a daughter requested a special day to honour her father, a Civil War
veteran who raised his children after his wife died.
Independence Day is July 4. This holiday honors the nation’s birthday – the adoption of the
Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. It is a day of picnics and patriotic parades, a night of
concerts and fireworks.
Labor Day is the first Monday of September. This federal holiday honors the nation’s working
people, typically with parades. For most Americans it marks the end of the summer vacation season
and the start of the school year.
Haloween is celebrated on October 31. On Haloween American children dress up funny or scary
costumes and go “trick or treating” by knocking on doors in their neighborhood. The neighbors are
expected to respond by giving them small gifts of candy and money.
Thanksgiving Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. In the
fall of 1621 the Pilgrims held a three-day feast to celebrate a good harvest. Many people consider this
event as the nation’s first Thanksgiving. The Thanksgiving feast became a tradition when families
gather together and give thanks to God for the good thing in their lives. The traditional dishes eaten on
this day are roast turkey, cranberry sauce, potatoes and pumpkin pie.

Reading comprehension
1. What do the Americans celebrate at the end of October?
2. What holidays are celebrated in the first two months of the year?
3. How do the Americans celebrate Independence Day?

48
13.3. Language in use
Making a date. If you like a person and you want to invite him / her out you have to make a date.
These are expressions you can use to arrange to meet someone. Some possible answers are also given.
Oh, um, are you doing anything this evening, by any chance?
Um, I was thinking of going to the cinema this evening, would you like to come?
Er, are you going to be busy this evening? I was wondering if you might like to come to the
cinema with me.
I’m going out to the theatre with some friends. Would you like to join us?

YES! That’d be lovely.


I’d love to.
How nice of you, thanks very much.
Mmm, that’s a great idea.

NO! Oh, dear, I’m afraid I’m busy tonight.


Tonight’s difficult. Perhaps tomorrow evening, though.
I’m sorry, I’m expecting some visitors this evening.
This evening’s a bit of a problem. What about tomorrow?

Task: Decide when each of these expressions would be appropriate and what you might say
before and after. Think of some possible situations in which you would use each expression.

13.4 Translation Practice (English →Romanian)


A. Native American life is different today than it was centuries ago, but there is still a great
degree of pride and independence in Native American life. Pride in one’s tribe, care of the land and
respect for nature characterize native American life, and many Native Americans share these
principles today. Although the history of American Indians on the continent has in later years has
included many sad events, Native American pride still remains and Native American life is ideally
filled with pride for one’s roots and love of nature.
Many Native Americans today live on reservations, but in generations past, they spanned the
continent and their lifestyles and traditions varied from tribe to tribe as they do today. Some Native
Americans survived by hunting and gathering and lived in tents, while others lived in complex
longhouses and had a very organized and complex political system. Before white settlers came to the
continent, Native American life was free of European influences, and Native Americans lived simply
off the land. They were not yet acquainted with the serious diseases that would later claim many lives,
as Europeans brought smallpox against which Native American populations lacked resistance.
Although there was often cooperation between tribes regarding farming and trade, other tribes were
continuously at war with each other, such as the Algonquin and the Iroquois. However, the Iroquois
would often incorporated conquered tribes into their sophisticated political system and thus enlarge
their nation. Many of these alliances and rivalries were exploited when white settlers landed on the
American continent, and some tribes were pitted against others to serve the colonist’s designs.

B. The American Way of life is individualistic, dynamic, pragmatic. It affirms the supreme value
and dignity of the individual; it stresses incessant activity on his part, for he is never to rest but is
always to be striving to "get ahead"; it defines an ethic of self-reliance, merit, and character, and
judges by achievement: "deeds, not creeds" are what count. The "American Way of Life" is
humanitarian, "forward-looking", optimistic. Americans are easily the most generous and
philanthropic people in the world, in terms of their ready and unstinting response to suffering
anywhere on the globe. The American believes in progress, in self-improvement, and quite fanatically
in education. But above all, the American is idealistic. Americans cannot go on making money or
achieving worldly success simply on its own merits; such "materialistic" things must, in the American
mind, be justified in "higher" terms, in terms of "service" or "stewardship" or "general welfare"...
49
UNIT 14

14.1. Lead in
Name a few institutions of the European Union.

14.2. Reading objective


Structure of the European Union : “The Three Pillars”
The EU constitution arises from the totality of rules and fundamental values by which those in
authority perceive themselves to be bound. These rules and values are best summarised in a tripartite
structure metaphorically called a three pillar structure.
The first pillar is made up of the three European Communities (EC, Euratom and ECSC) which
have been deepened and enlarged by economic and monetary union. At the heart of the EC is the
single market with its four basic freedoms (free movement of goods, free movement of workers,
freedom to provide services and free movement of capital and payments) and its rules on competition.
Policy areas for which the Community is responsible include: economic and monetary affairs (centred
around the single European currency, the euro); agriculture; visa requirements, asylum and
immigration; transport; taxation; employment; trade; social welfare, education and youth welfare;
culture; consumer protection and health; trans-European networks; industry; economic and social
cohesion; research and technology; the environment; development aid.
The second pillar is related to the common foreign and security policy, with the following
declared aims: safeguarding the commonly held values, fundamental interests and independence of the
EU; strengthening the security of the EU and its member States; securing world peace and increasing
international security; promoting international cooperation; promoting democracy and the rule of law
and safeguarding human rights and basic freedoms.
The third pillar of the European Union covers the domain of cooperation in justice and home
affairs. The aim is to offer citizens freedom, security and justice by jointly preventing and combating
crime (especially terrorism, trafficking in human beings, illicit drug and arms trafficking corruption
and fraud), racism and xenofobia.

The European Union’s Main Institutions


The foundations of a united Europe were laid on fundamental ideas and values to which the
Member States subscribe and which are translated into practical reality by the Community’s
operational institutions.
The main actors on the Community stage are the European Council and the EC institutions – the
European Parliament, The Council of the EU, The European Commission (these three being the most
important) , the European Court of Justice and the Court of Auditors. There are also a number of
ancillary bodies: the European Central Bank and the European Investment Bank, the Economic and
Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
The function of the European Council is to establish policy guidelines for European integration.
The Parliament officially represents the peoples of the Member States. The number of seats may
not exceed 700 and its functions can be divided up into three areas: decision-making functions
(legislative function), advisory function (it can be consulted by the Council and the Commission) and
supervisory function (over the Commission). The Parliament also appoints an Ombudsman to whom
complains about maladministration in the activities of Community institutions.
The European Commission consists of 20 members including 1 President and 2 Vice-Presidents,
all elected by common accord of the governments of the Member States for a renewable term of five
years. Among its main responsabilities are : initiatives for the further development of Community
policy, monitoring observance and proper application of Community law, administering and
implementing Community legislation, representing the Community in international organisations.
The seat of the European Commission is in Brussels.

50
Reading comprehension:
1. What does the three pillar structure consist of?
2. Which are the EU’s main institutions? Which are the main attributions of each of them?
3. Where is the seat of the European Commission? What about the European Parliament?

14.3. Vocabulary
Use the following words and expressions in sentences of your own: fundamental values, single
market, free movement of goods, free movement of workers, free movement of capital, single
European currency, taxation, social welfare, rule of law, human rights, home affairs, tyrafficking,
xenofobia, ancillary bodies, policy guidelines, Ombudsman, maladministration, observance of
community law, financial instrument(s), non-reimbursement funds.

14.4. Language in use


Agreeing and disagreeing
Here are some useful ways of agreeing or disagreeing with someone’s opinion. Notice that you
need to be very polite when disagreeing with someone in English – even someone you know quite
well.
AGREEMENT I couldn’t agree more.
That’s just what I was thinking.
You know, that’s exactly what I think.
I agree entirely.
That’s a good point.
DISAGREEMENT Yes, that’s quite true, but …
I’m not sure I quite agree …
Well, you have a point there, but …
Perhaps, but don’t you think that …
I see what you mean, but …
If you know someone very well you can disagree more directly using expressions like these:
I can’t agree with you there.
You can’t be serious!
Come off it!
Don’t be so silly!

Tasks:
1. What do you say if you want to agree / to disagree with someone who tells you that: a) Nadia
Comaneci is the most famous sport personality in Romania; c) Hagi was one of the best football
players in the world.
2. Here is a series of extreme opinions:
“Learning English is pointless.”
“Britain is unpleasant to live in.”
“Football is boring.”
“Marriage is out of date.”
“Space travel is a waste of money.”
“Strikes should be made illegal.”
“All motorists should be obliged to wear seat
belts.” “There should be a 50 km speed limit on all
roads.” “English is a very easy language to learn.”
Build a short conversation about each topic, using the expressions presented above. Follow this
pattern:
A: It says here that learning English is pointless!
B: I’m not sure I quite agree, I’d say it was very worthwhile.
A: Why do you think that?
51
B: Well, because English is a world language – you need it to communicate with people from
other countries.
A: That’s just what I was thinking.

14.5 Translation Practice (English →Romanian)


The European project relies on a number of principles, such as solidarity, openness and a vision
for the future, but also on the relinquishing of nationalism, the source of numerous conflicts on our
continent. European integration is a constantly evolving process. The secret of its success is constant
re-invention and adaptation to new circumstances and needs. By bringing together former enemies in
this process, the EU is the most successful guaranty for peace our continent has ever seen. The EU has
managed to find a peaceful way for neighbors to cooperate. It relies largely on harmoniously
coordinating the policies of its member states, but integration, the famous Community method, gives it
‘extra soul’. Instead of looking for the lowest common denominator, here we have for the first time a
model which can achieve much more than simply adding up the various components.
The European Union is a family of 27 countries and 490 million citizens, working together for
peace and prosperity. Therefore European integration is a large project incorporating areas as diverse
as economics, social policy, consumer protection, competition policy, monetary policy, cooperation in
the area of internal affairs and justice, humanitarian aid, development cooperation, the Common
Foreign and Security Policy, as well as European citizenship.
Whilst it may be easy for me to tell you about all of the EU’s great achievements in furthering
integration on the continent and improving the lives of its citizens, these achievements may not always
be apparent to the EU’s general citizen. It is important in our modern information technology society
to inform our citizens as best as we can of the advantages that membership in the European Union
brings them, as the EU cannot move forward in its drive for further integration without the full
backing of its citizens.
One thing is clear: Ordinary people have other worries on their minds than what institutional
changes the new Lisbon Treaty will bring. To put it in a nutshell: what matters most to citizens is to
find solutions for the problems they face in their everyday lives - in particular against the background
of changes due to globalization.
In a way citizens expect the EU to provide them with a kind of insurance certificate for what I
would call the “European way of life”. In my mind this is a wide concept which goes well beyond
European preferences for certain pastimes or fashions: The European way of life stands for some of
the most important achievements in European politics: peace and stability, the rule of law, human
rights and the respect for minorities, solidarity, pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, equality of
men an women, but also the aim of full employment, sustainable jobs, social security, healthcare, a
healthy environment, education, security and last but not least the respect of diversity.
It may sound ironic, but it is still true: the European way of life is in fact outlined rather well by
the very Lisbon Treaty that we find difficult to familiarize the citizens with. In fact, a great number of
the new instruments in the Treaty are there to better defend our way of life.
Each European Citizen has the right to live, work and study in each member state. Free
movement of workers is a fundamental right which permits nationals of one EU Member State to work
in another Member State under the same conditions as that Member State’s own citizens. This is an
important instrument to make sure people can develop their skills in the best possible way.

52
Appendix 1

BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

It is widely known that there are differences between American and British English, but it is
also important to remember that there are differences between American English and, well, American
English.
The English language was introduced to the Americans through British colonization in the
early 17th century and it spread to many parts of the world because of the strength of the British
empire. Over the years, English spoken in the United States and in Britain started diverging from each
other in various aspects. This led to two dialects in the form of the American English and the British
English.
Prior to the Revolutionary War and American independence from the British in 1776,
American and British accents were similar. Both were rhotic i.e. speakers pronounced the letter R in
hard. Since 1776, the accents diverged but English accent in America has changed less drastically than
accents in Britain. Towards the end of the 18th century, non-rhotic speech took off in southern
England, especially among the upper class; this "prestige" non-rhotic speech was standardized, and
has been spreading in Britain ever since.
To be fair, both American and British English have several types of accents and there is no
one true American or British accent. In British English the present perfect is used to express an action
that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment. For example: I've
misplaced my pen. Can you help me find it? In American English, the use of the past tense is also
permissible: I misplaced my pen. Can you help me find it? In British English, however, using the past
tense in this example would be considered incorrect.
Other differences involving the use of the present perfect in British English and simple past in
American English include the words already, just and yet. British English: I've just had food. Have you
finished your homework yet? American English: I just had food. OR I've just had food. I've already
seen that film. OR I already saw that film.
While some words may mean something in British English, the same word might be
something else in American English and vice versa. For example, Athlete in British English is one
who participates in track and field events whereas Athlete in American English is one who participates
in sports in general. There are also some words like AC, Airplane, bro, catsup, cell phone etc. which
are common in American English and not used very often in British English. Some words widely used
in British English and seldom in American English are advert, anti clockwise, barrister, cat's eye.
A majority of the spelling differences between American and British English fall into the
following categories:
Latin-derived spellings
o -our (British) and -or (American). e.g. colour vs color
o-re (British) and -er (American). e.g. centre vs center
o-ce (British) and -se (American). e.g. defence vs defense
Greek-derived spellings
o-ise (British) and -ize (American). e.g. centralise vs centralize
o-yse (British) and -yze (American). e.g. analyse vs analyze
o-ogue (British) and -og (American). e.g. dialogue vs dialog
o Simplification of ae and oe in American English. e.g. gynaecology vs gynecology There
are also a few differences between British and American English in the use of
prepositions. For example: While the British would play in a team, Americans would play on a team.
Another example: While the British would go out at the weekend, Americans would go out on the
weekend. Both languages have a slightly different structure of telling the time. While the British
would say quarter past ten to denote 10:15, it is not uncommon in America to say quarter after or
even a quarter after ten. Thirty minutes after the hour is commonly called half past in both languages.
Americans always write digital times with a colon, thus 6:00, whereas Britons often use a point, 6.00.
While the British would write Mr, Mrs, Dr, the Americans would write Mr., Mrs., Dr.
53
Engleza Britanica Engleza Americana Traducerea
Aerial Antenna Antena
Autumn Fall Toamna
Biscuit cookie Fursec
Bonnet hood Capota
Boot trunk Portbagaj
Braces suspenders Bretele
chemist's drugstore farmacie
the cinema the movies cinematograf
Cotton thread Aţa
crossroads intersection intersecţie
curtains drapes Perdele
dust-bin trashcan căldare de gunoi
Engine motor Motor
Film movie Film
Flat apartment apartament
Ground floor first floor parter
handbag purse poşeta
Holiday vacation vacanţa
Ill sick Bolnav
Jug pitcher container cu lichid, ulcior
Lift elevator Lift
Lorry truck camion
luggage baggage Valiza
Maize corn porumb
Nappy diaper Scutec
pavement sidewalk trotuar
to peep to peek a trage cu ochiul
Petrol gasoline benzina
postman maiman Postas
Pub bar Bar
Queue line Coada
Rubber eraser Guma de sters
Sweet desert Desert
timetable schedule Orar
Tin can conserva
Torch flashlight lanterna
trousers pants pantaloni
waistcoat vest Vesta
wardrobe closet şifonier
Zip zipper fermoar

54
Appendix II

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

BASE FORM PAST SIMPLE PAST PARTICIPLE TRANSLATION


Arise Arose Arisen A se ridica, a răsări
Be Was, were Been A fi
Bear Bore Born A (se) naşte
Beat Beat Beaten A bate
Become Became Become A deveni
Begin Began Begun A începe
Bend Bent Bent A îndoi
Bet Bet Bet A paria
Bind Bound Bound A lega
Bite Bit Bitten / bit A muşca
Bleed Bled Bled A sângera
Blow Blew Blown A bate (despre vânt)
Break Broke Broken A rupe, a sparge
Breed Bred Bred A creşte (animale)
Bring Brought Brought A aduce
Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast A transmite
Build Built Built A construi
Burn Burnt / burned Burnt / burned A arde
Burst Burst Burst A izbucni
Buy Bought Bought A cumpăra
Catch Caught Caught A prinde
Choose Chose Chosen A alege
Come Came Come A veni
Cost Cost Cost A costa
Creep Crept Crept A se târî
Cut Cut Cut A tăia
Deal Dealt Dealt A se ocupa de
Dig Dug Dug A săpa
Do Did Done A face
Draw Drew Drawn A desena
Dream Dreamt / dreamed Dreamt / dreamed A visa
Drink Drank Drunk A bea
Drive Drove Driven A şofa
Eat Ate Eaten A mânca
Fall Fell Fallen A cădea
Feed Fed Fed A hrăni
Feel Felt Felt A simţi
Fight Fought Fought A se lupta
Find Found Found A găsi
Fly Flew Flown A zbura
Forbid Forbade Forbidden A interzice
Forget Forgot Forgotten A uita
Forgive Forgave Forgiven A ierta
Freeze Froze Frozen A îngheţa
Get Got Got A obţine
Give Gave Given A da
55
Go Went Gone A merge
Grind Ground Ground A măcina
Grow Grew Grown A creşte
Hang Hung Hung A atârna
Have Had Had A avea
Hear Heard Heard A auzi
Hide Hid Hid A ascunde
Hit Hit Hit A lovi
Hold Held Held A ţine
Hurt Hurt Hurt A răni
Keep Kept Kept A ţine
Kneel Knelt Knelt A îngenunchea
Know Knew Known A şti
Lay Laid Laid A întinde
Lead Led Led A conduce
Lean Leant / leaned Leant / leaned A (se) sprijini
Learn Learnt / learned Learnt / learned A învăţa
Leave Left Left A pleca
Lend Lent Lent A da cu împrumut
Let Let Let A lăsa
Lie Lay Lain A (se)întinde
Light Lit Lit A aprinde
Lose Lost Lost A pierde
Make Made Made A face
Mean Meant Meant A însemna
Meet Met Met A (se) întâlni
Pay Paid Paid A plăti
Put Put Put A pune
Read Read Read A citi
Ride Rode Ridden A călări, a merge cu
bicicleta
Ring Rang Rung A suna
Rise Rose Risen A se ridica, a răsări
Run Ran Run A alerga
Say Said Said A spune
See Saw Seen A vedea
Seek Sought Sought A căuta
Sell Sold Sold A vinde
Send Sent Sent A trimite
Set Set Set A apune
Shake Shake Shaken A scutura
Shine Shine Shone A străluci
Shoot Shot Shot A împuşca
Show Showed Shown A arăta
Shrink Shrank Shrunk A (se) micşora
Shut Shut Shut A închide
Sing Sang Sung A cânta
Sit Sat Sat A sta jos, a se aşeza
Sleep Slept Slept A dormi
Slide Slid Slid A aluneca
Smell Smelt Smelt A mirosi

56
Speak Spoke Spoken A vorbi
Speed Sped Sped A se grăbi, a merge cu
viteză
Spell Spelt Spelt A ortografia
Spend Spent Spent A petrece (timp), a
cheltui (bani)
Spill Spilt Spilt A vărsa (un lichid)
Spin Spun Spun A se roti
Split Split Split A despica
Spoil Spoilt / spoiled Spoilt / spoiled A strica, a răsfăţa
Spread Spread Spread A (se) împrăştia
Stand Stood Stood A sta în picioare
Steal Stole Stolen A fura
STICK Stuck Stuck A lipi
Sting Stung Stung A înţepa
Strike Struck Struck A bate (despre ceas), A
Stroke Stricken lovi
Swear Swore Sworn A jura
Sweep Swept Swept A mătura
Swim Swam Swum A înota
Swing Swung Swung A (se) legăna
Take Took Taken A lua
Teach Taught Taught A preda
Tear Tore Torn A sfâşia
Tell Told Told A spune
Think Thought Thought A se gândi
Throw Threw Thrown A arunca
Understand Understood Understood A înţelege
Wake Woke Woken A (se) trezi
Wear Wore Worn A purta
Win Won Won A câştiga

57
Appendix III

SPELLING RULES

A. Doubling of consonants
Final consonants (except x) are doubled before ending beginning with a vowel letter when the
vowel before it is stressed and spelled with a single letter.
permit permitting, permitted
hot hotter, hottest

There is no doubling when the vowel is unstressed or written with two letters.
enter entering, entered
dread dreading, dreaded

Exceptions:
i. Words ending in certain consonants are doubled also after single unstressed
vowels:
-g -gg- -c ck-
humbug humbugging, humbugged
traffic trafficking, trafficked

ii. British English breaks the rule as regards certain other consonants as well:
-l -ll- -m -mm- -p -pp-
signal signalling, signalled (BrE)
signaling, signaled (AmB)
travel travelling, travelled (BrE)
traveling, traveled (AmE)
programme programming, programmed (BrE)
program programming, programmed (AmE)
worship worshipping, worshipped (BrE)
worshiping, worshiped (AmE)
Most verbs ending in –p, however, have the regular spellings in both BrE and AmE,
eg: develop, envelop, gallop, gossip.

B. Treatment of –y
i. -y changes to –ie before –s

lady ladies
carry carries
ii. -y changes to –i before -ed

58
carry carried
iii. -y changes to –i before –er and -est
easy easier, easiest
iv. -y changes to –i before -
ly heavy heavily
v. -y does not change before -
ing carry carrying
vi. -y does not change if the word ends in vowel + y
play plays, played
boy boys
Exceptions: day daily
pay paid
lay laid
say said

C. Treatment of –e
i. Final –e is regularly dropped before –ing and -
ed shave shaving, shaved
ii. Verbs ending in –ie change –ie to –y before -ing
die dying
iii. Verbs with ending in –ee, -ye, -oe, and often –ge, are exceptions to the rule in that they do
not drop the –e before –ing; but they do drop it before –ed.
agree agreeing, agreed
dye dyeing, dyed
hoe hoeing, hoed
singe singing, singed

59
Appendix IV

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS

AT
at a loss / a profit
at a time (when)
at all costs
at Christmas / Easter
at church / the hairdresser’s / school
at ease
at first (sight)
at hand
at home / the office
at last
at least
at lunch
at this / any rate
at night
at once
at peace / war
at present
at sea
at the end (place)
at the same time (as)
at the weekend
at times
at work

BY
by accident
by air / bus / car / plane / sea / ship
/ train (and other means of transport)
by all means
by chance by
day / night
by far
by mistake
by post by
sight by
surprise
by yourself (alone)

FOR
for a while / time
for ever
for goodness’ sake
for heaven’s sake
once and for all

60
FROM
from A to Z
from beginning to end
from head to toe
from morning to night
from time of time

IN
in a hurry
in a loud voice in a sense
in a way
in all
in any case
in bed
in common
in danger
in debt
in difficulties
in fact
in general
in half
in ink / pencil
in love
in my opinion
in other words
in particular
in prison
in private
in public
in secret
in sight
in spite of
in stock
in tears
in the end (time)
in the morning
in time
in turn

OF
ahead of
by means of
dozens of
hundreds of
in case of
in front of
instead of
on account of
on behalf of

OFF
off duty
off limits
61
off work

ON
on business
on duty
on foot
on holiday
on purpose
on sale
on the other hand
on the whole
on time

OUT OF
out of breath
out of control
out of danger
out of date
out of order
out of practice
out of reach
out of stock
out of the question
out of work

TO
according to
due to
in addition to
owing to

UNDER
under control
under oath (in a court of law)
under orders

UP
up-to-date (modern)
ups and downs (good times and bad ones)

WITH / WITHOUT
(what’s) wrong with (?)
green with envy
with / without difficulty
with best wishes
with love
with pleasure
without any fuss

62
COMPENDIU DE CIVILIZAŢIE BRITANICĂ
(Bondrea E., Mihăilă R. (Coord.), Aspecte ale civilizaţiilor europene,
Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, Bucureşti, 2009.

Description of Great Britain


The British Isles is the geographical term used to designate a group of about 5,000 islands off
the north-west coast of mainland Europe, situated between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean,
more precisely between the latitudes 50ºN and 61ºN.
The archipelago consists of the large islands of Great Britain and Ireland; several island groups,
namely, the Orkney Islands, the Shetland Islands, the Hebrides, the Channel Islands; the Isle of Wight
and the Isle of Man as well as numerous other islands and tiny islets.
The largest island is Britain or Great Britain, which is also the largest island in Europe. It
consists of England, Wales and Scotland.
The next largest island is Ireland, which is made up of Northern Ireland (or Ulster) and the Irish
Republic (also known as Eire).
Great Britain is a little bit under 1,000 km long and just under 500 km across in its widest part.
Its most mountainous region is Scotland, which also has a wide lowland area between the
Grampians and the Southern Uplands, where most of the large towns, including Edinburgh and
Glasgow, as well as three- quarters of its population are located.
Much of Wales is also mountainous and in England, the Pennine Range (also called the
‘backbone of England’) extends to 224 km.
The rest of England tends to be rather undulating, and not even the large agricultural plains of
East England are perfectly flat.
In Ireland all the highland areas are around the edge, but there are no peaks over 1,100 m.
www.worldatlas.com

Weather and Climate


Britain is as far north as Canada’s Hudson Bay or Siberia. For example, Edinburgh is 56 degrees
north of the Equator, the same latitude as Moscow, yet its climate is much milder because of the
Gulf Stream, which brings warm water and air across the Atlantic from the Gulf of Mexico.
As a result, snow falls only occasionally and does not remain for long, except in the Scottish
Mountains, where skiing is possible.
Average temperatures in England and Wales vary from 4ºC in January to 16ºC in July and
August.
In Scotland averages are one or two degrees cooler and an average July day is about as warm
as Marseilles in December.
The wind brings rain from the Atlantic to the hills of the West. This means that the western
parts of Britain are wetter than the east, which is fairly sheltered. London is drier than other
continental cities such as Hamburg. Its weather may be unpredictable but it is not particularly wet.

Population
The most recent studies show that the total population of the United Kingdom is of
61,113,205, the third largest in the European Union, the fifth largest in the Commonwealth and the
twenty-first largest in the world.
Current population growth is mainly due to net immigration but a rising birth rate and
increasing life expectancy have also contributed to this.

Languages Spoken in UK
According to latest surveys, it is estimated that in UK, besides the monolingual English
speakers, there are various minority Celtic languages, but speakers of these are invariably bilingual
English speakers.
For instance, in Scotland 1.4% speak Scottish Gaelic as well as English.
In Northern Ireland 6.6% of the population are bilingual in Irish Gaelic and English.
In Wales, 21% also speak Welsh. Welsh is the only Celtic language that enjoys official status.
In Scotland, Northern Ireland and some border areas of England, Scots is a distinct minority
language although at times it overlaps with Scottish English.

UK’s Capital Cities


Broadly speaking, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has just one
capital city and that is London. Still, Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland, the other three countries
that are included in UK, pride themselves with their own officially recognized capital cities. Please
see below a brief description of all these four Capital Cities.

LONDON
London, the capital of England and the UK, is the world's ninth-largest city. It is situated on the
banks of the river Thames, in south-east England. London is made up of two ancient cities which are
now joined together: the City of London and the City of Westminster.
The City of London, usually simply known as “the City” or as the “Square Mile” (2.59 sq km/1 sq
mi) is the business and financial heart of the United Kingdom.
The City of Westminster, is the place where Parliament and most of the Government offices are
located. Here you can also visit Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the Queen and
of the Royal family.

BELFAST
Belfast is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of Government and Legislative
Assembly in Northern Ireland. It is partially composed of seven "quarters", each dedicated to reflect
the history of the city. The historic heart of Belfast is the Cathedral Quarter.
The birthplace of the ill-fated Titanic, Belfast remains today a centre for industry, as well as for
arts, higher education and business.
Its uniqueness is portrayed at its best by places such as the Ulster Museum, City Hall, the Ulster
Folk and Transport Museum, as well as by many of the city's well-preserved historic buildings.

CARDIFF

Cardiff, the capital city of Wales and the chief commercial centre of the country, is also the seat
of the National Assembly for Wales.
The City Centre is a mix of new and old. Cardiff Castle which is part Roman, part Norman and
part Victorian, stands next to the modern Millennium Stadium, the finest sports and music venue in
the world, of the moment.
History lovers shouldn’t miss the National Museum Cardiff where they can admire works by
Monet, Van Gogh as well as the largest collection of Impressionist paintings outside of Paris. Entry to
this fascinating attraction is free.
Another major touristic destination is the National History Museum. The spectacular open-air
museum is set in 100 acres within the grounds of St Fagans Castle.
After an exciting sightseeing tour there’s no better way to relax than Cardiff Bay, one of
Europe’s biggest and trendiest waterfronts, with numerous bars and trendy restaurants. Cardiff Bay
is also the home of the National Assembly for Wales and one of the world’s most environmentally
friendly public buildings.

EDINBURGH
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland. The seventh largest city in UK and the second largest
Scottish city, after Glasgow, it is also the seat of the Scottish Parliament. Owing to its rugged setting
and vast collection of Medieval and Georgian architecture, including numerous stone tenements, it is
often considered one of the most picturesque cities in Europe.
In 1995, Edinburgh’s Old Town and New Town districts were listed as a UNESCO World
Heritage Site. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city.
Edinburgh's unique features include two extinct volcanoes, one of them right in the City Center
onto which Edinburgh Castle is built.
The city was one of the major centres of The Enlightenment, led by the University of
Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North.

UK Flag

The United Kingdom flag was officially adopted on January 1, 1801. It's a composite flag of
England's St. George's Cross (the centered red cross bordered in white), St. Andrew's Cross of
Scotland (the diagonal white cross on the blue field), and the Patron Saint of Ireland (diagonal x-
shaped red saltire).

National Anthem
"God Save the Queen," is most commonly credited to a keyboard piece written in 1619, by
John Bull. When a male monarch is on the throne of England, it's referred to as "God Save the King."
National Holiday Except for the internationally-celebrated New Year, Christmas and Eastern, in
UK there is no (one) specific national holiday since each country has its own.

“United Kingdom” or “Great Britain”?


The terms Britain and British have two meanings. They sometimes refer to Great Britain alone
and sometimes to the UK including Northern Ireland.
England and English are often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Great Britain.
Strictly speaking, “Great Britain” is a common geographical expression, but the correct political
expression is “the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”, usually shortened to “the
United Kingdom” or “UK”.
This long title, is the result of a complicated history, since the island of Great Britain contains
three “nations” which were separate at earlier stages of their history: England, Scotland and Wales.
Wales had become part of the English administrative system by the sixteenth century.
Scotland was not completely united with England until 1707.
In 1801, when Great Britain become united with Ireland, they introduced the name “United
Kingdom”
Still, in 1922, when the Republic of Ireland became independent of London, the title was
changed to its present form: “the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”.
As a result, today, the British Isles are shared by two separate and independent states: the
smaller of these is the Republic of Ireland, with its capital Dublin, while the larger, with London as its
capital, is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

LONDON
Most people think they have already seen everything is worth seeing in their home country. UK
is not an exception in this case. A lot of British citizens want to go on vacation to the so called exotic
countries without considering the opportunity to visit their wonderful country and especially their
capital London. Prince Charles for example is buying land and old houses - which he completely
refurbishes - in Transylvania and many other British are buying properties in Spain or Italy. The
wonderful city of London has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The Romans conquered Britain
and built a settlement (castrum) here and named the place Londinium replacing thus the traces left by
the Picts. Later the Anglo-Saxons came and built their unique civilization. In 1066 William the
Conqueror (Guillaume le Batard) came with his Norman warriors and started a new era in the long
history of England. The banks, the companies and the cultural life of the city turned it into one of the
most successful and influential capitals of the 21st century. London's population draws from a wide
range of peoples, cultures, and religions, and over 300 languages are spoken within the city. It is also
one of the world's most important business, financial and cultural centers and its influence in politics,
education, entertainment, media, fashion and the arts contributes to its status as a major global city.
The British Museum
It is the oldest and the most important museum in the world, its public displays and collections
representing an important part of the cultural and material heritage of the world. One of the single
greatest museums in the world, the British Museum houses collections that date from the prehistoric to
the modern—in sum, the works of mankind. The Egyptian rooms are famous for their mummies and
the eventual key to deciphering hieroglyphics, the Rosetta Stone. Then there are the controversial
Elgin Marbles, stolen from the Parthenon, and countless other Greek and Roman antiquities. The
leathery, ancient Lindow Man, preserved for centuries in a Cheshire bog after having been ritually
slaughtered, and the treasures from the seventh-century Sutton Hoo royal burial grounds are also here.
If you only have a few minutes to spare, trot in to see the 2000 addition—Sir Norman Foster's
spectacular two-acre interior Great Court with its glass-grid roof. The museum is free, though special
exhibitions are not.

Buckingham Palace
Is the official residence of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The changing of the guards is one
ritual that no tourist should miss when visiting London. Dating back over ten centuries, the Monarchy
plays an important role in the UK and Commonwealth. This web site provides information on the
work of The Queen in modern society, biographies of the Royal Family, a history of kings and queens
through the ages, background on Royal residences and art collections, and coverage of recent Royal
events.The queen's London pied-à-terre is not the most beautiful of palaces, but it's big. Most of the
year, all you can do is peer through the iron railings at the guards in busbies—those silly two-foot-tall
black fur hats—and check the flagpole to see whether Brenda, as Private Eye calls her, is at home (the
standard only flies when she's in residence). But from late July to September, even commoners can
enter those gates. The Throne Room, Picture Gallery, Ballroom, and 16 other state rooms are open, as
is (a bit of) the south side of the unbelievably huge palace gardens. The Royal Mews, with working
stables and display of fancy state vehicles, is just around the corner and also worthy of a visit, as is the
Queen's Gallery.

GREENWICH
Greenwich is a bustling little market town in its own right, colored by bucketfuls of maritime
history. Most importantly, it's where time begins. No, seriously, it does: At the top of a hill in
Greenwich Park, a brass line marks longitude 0 degrees, the starting point of every time zone in the
world—better known as GMT (Greenwich Mean, or Meridian, Time). The Royal Greenwich
Observatory is up there, too, and for the effort of walking up a gentle hill, you'll be rewarded with
excellent views. Down below are architectural gems: Georgian houses, the National Maritime
Museum—designed by Inigo Jones, it displays Admiral Nelson's coat from Trafalgar, complete with
the fatal bullet hole in the left shoulder as well as the stunning University of Greenwich and Trinity
College of Music, designed by Sir Christopher Wren. The Cutty Sark, the last clipper ship to be built
(dating back to 1869), has rested in a dry dock in Greenwich since 1954. On May 21, 2007, a fire
swept through the historic vessel as it was undergoing restoration. Nearby is the glazed cupola
entrance to the Greenwich Foot Tunnel, which runs under the Thames. Alternatively, in keeping with
Greenwich's nautical roots, catch a boat back up the river to central London.

LONDON EYE
The 443-foot-high British Airways London Eye, designed by husband-and-wife architects David
Marks and Julia Barfield, is the largest observation wheel in the world. Perched on the banks of the
Thames, more or less opposite the Houses of Parliament, it has become a capital-L Landmark since it
appeared for the millennium festivities. The real point, of course, is the view from inside the 32 glass
capsules, which, on a clear day, extends 25 miles and is quite spectacular (www.royalnetwork.com).
Night or day the London Eye offers spectacular views across London and its famous landmarks
including the Houses of Parliament, St. Paul’s Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. Take a gradual
flight lasting approximately 30 minutes in one of our 32 high-tech glass capsules and enjoy the
skyline at your leisure. Bring London to life with a flight on the London Eye. Astonish, amaze and
excite pupils with an incredible perspective of London that is at once a history lesson, geography
lesson, cultural lesson and a lesson in engineering and design.
The Houses of Parliament (The Westminster Palace)
The mother of all parliaments, the Palace of Westminster comprises Big Ben (which is the bell,
not the tower) as well as the chambers of both Houses, Commons and Lords. The Gothic revival
building you see today, built between 1840 and 1888 on the site of the original 11th-century palace,
was designed to blend in with nearby Westminster Abbey. During the early-August to late-
September summer recess, you get to roam through it all. When parliament is in session, visitors can
stand on line outside the St. Stephen's entrance to view debates in either house from the public
galleries. The world famous Big Ben is the major attraction of the building. The huge clock tower
dominates the City and it precisely strikes every hour.

Westminster Abbey - The Coronation Cathedral


Beginning with the 25 of December1066 - when William the Conqueror (William I r. 1066-1087)
was anointed king of England - all the kings and queens receive the Westminster Abbey. The huge
Gothic church beside the Houses of Parliament, has been the setting for every coronation since
1066, as well as a burial site for monarchs, aristocrats, writers (Charles Dickens), musicians (Henry
Purcell), generals, politicians, scientists (Charles Darwin), and pretty much anyone who it was felt
deserved the honor. The lines are extremely long in summer for a shuffle past Poets' Corner, the
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and the Coronation Throne—although the mystical Stone of Scone
(renamed the Stone of Destiny) that underpinned it for nine centuries is now back in Edinburgh
where it belongs.

The Tower of London


Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and
historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England, on the north bank of
the River Thames. The Tower of London is often identified with the White Tower, the original stark
square fortress built by William the Conqueror in 1078. However, the tower as a whole is a complex
of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. The tower's
primary function was a fortress, a royal palace, and a prison (particularly for high status and royal
prisoners, such as the Princes in the Tower and the future Queen Elizabeth I). This last use has led to
the phrase "sent to the Tower" (meaning "imprisoned"). It has also served as a place of execution and
torture, an armoury, a treasury, a zoo, the Royal Mint, a public records office, an observatory, and
since 1303, the home of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom.
Before his being anointed king of England, William ordered the Norman builders to erect a
tower -The White Tower – which, after repeatedly being extended, became what is today known as
the Tower of London - a series of fortifications that were used as royal residence, prisons or Royal
Treasury (for the Jewels of the Crown). Today is a famous museum and the Beefeaters are most
pleased to guide all the tourists.

CASTLES OF GREAT BRITAIN


CASTLES. Tudor castles replaced Norman castles, which replaced Saxon castles, which replaced
Roman castra, which replaced prehistoric hill-forts. But the age of castles as we know them- grand
stone edifices dominating their surroundings- came with the Normans after 1066. (Sue Clifford and
Angela King, “England in Particular- A Celebration of the Commonplace, the local, the Vernacular &
the Distinctive”, Hodler & Stonghton, pg. 72) They were not defending against invaders, rather
making a statement of conquest. Actually, castles were there to threaten and intimidate, extract
taxes and service- military and domestic. Often new communities grew around them. Initially,
wooden palisades or baileys on top of man- made mounds or motte, Norman castles quickly adopted
the stone as a symbol of their wealth and power.
COLCHESTER CASTLE MUSEUM (“Britain’s most Amazing Places”: 141) A visit to Colchester
Castle Museum takes you through 2000 years of some of the most important events in British
history. Once the capital of Roman Britain, Colchester has experienced devastation by Queen
Boudica (Boadicea), invasion by the Normans and siege during the Civil War. The Castle itself is the
largest keep ever built by the Normans. It was constructed on foundations of the Roman Temple of
Claudius, which can still be seen today. The museum is open from: Mon-Sat: 10 a.m. - 5 p.m. all year
round; Sun: 11 a. m- 5 p. m. Last admission 4.30 p.m. Telephone: 01206 282939; Fax: 01206 282925.
Available after admission to the Castle: £5.20; Children aged 5 - 15, retired and concessions: £3.40;
Group Rate (Applies to groups of 20 or more): Adults: £4.70; Children: £3.10. Additional guided tours
of the Roman vaults, Norman chapel and Castle roof with a Blue Badge Guide. Available after
admission to the Castle: Adults: £2.10; Children: £1.10. Colchester Castle Museum is situated in
Castle Park at the eastern end of High St. The nearest car parks are St Botolph’s, Britannia and
Osborne Street. The museum is a five minute walk from the bus station and Colchester Town railway
station. (www.colchestermuseums.org.uk )
One of the most important Norman fortresses was the POMFRET CASTLE. “Pomfret“ is the
English translation of the Latin “ponte fracto”, meaning “broken bridge”. The Motto of Pomfret is
“Hora e sempre”, meaning “Now and always”. Built up approximately in 1070 in West Yorkshire,
Pomfret became a royal castle upon the accession of Henry Bolinbroke to the throne, as King Henry
IV, in 1399. His cousin, Richard II died there in 1400 after being one of many important prisoners to
lodge there. For that reason, William Shakespeare called it “Bloody Pomfret” in his plays. During the
Civil War (1642 - 1649), it was a royal castle. For that reason, it was largely demolished as a result of
three sieges from Oliver Cromwell’s armies. The remains of the castle, and the underground
magazine chamber, are open to visitors. There is also a working blacksmith on site. The cellars of the
11th – century great hall were used as a “magazine” (=military store) from medieval times through
the Civil War period. You can visit the underground magazine cut out of the solid rock and see where
Civil War prisoners carved their names into the cell walls. Magazine tours are available during the
school holidays and summer weekends. Groups can tour the magazines by prior appointment by
phoning 01977 723440. It is advisable to telephoning to confirm availability of the tours. Housed in
an attractive art nouveau building, the museum traces the history of Pontefract Castle and borough
up to the present. Magazine Tours Admission Charges: Adults £ 1.00, Concessions 50 p. There is
access for wheelchair users to much of the castles and toilets. Disabled car park is available outside
the castle gates. Pontefract Castle is open at the following times: from Monday to Friday: from 10.00
a. m to 4.30 p.m.; On Saturday from 10.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m (www. castleuk. net/castle_ lists_north/
105/ pontefractcastle.html). Address: Castle Chain, Pontefract, W F 8 1 QH; Tel: 01 977 723440; For
school visits Tel: 01924 305902.
WARWICK CASTLE was built on the site of an old Anglo- Saxon burh, established in the year 914
to defend the Kingdom of Mercia against the marauding Danes. The legend mentions the fact that
the construction of the fortifications was instigated by Ethefleda, daughter of the famous Anglo -
Saxon King of Mercia Alfred the Great (871- 899). Its position allowed it to dominate the crossing
over the River Avon. It became a Norman Castle in 1068 to maintain control of the Midlands. During
the War of the Roses (1455- 1485), it was the ownership of Richard Neville, also known as “Warwick
the Kingmaker” and the place where King Edward IV (1461- 1470; 1471- 1483) was imprisoned.
(“Britain’s Most Amazing Places“: 220) Warwick Castle has been compared with WINDSOR CASTLE in
terms of scale, cost, and status (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warwick Castle). To find out more
information, please call at: 870 442 2393. Warwick Castle Privilege Pass Prices: Adults: £34.00; Child
(4- 16 years inclusive): £20.00; Family (2 adults + 2 children): £95.00; Family (2 adults + 3 children):
£120.00.
The expression “an Englishman’s home is his castle “was first quoted in 1623, demonstrating
that the purpose of the castle was shifting away from the purely defensive. In time, their military use
declined.
The English castles also became the symbol of lost chivalry to the Romantics of the
seventeenth century. Nineteenth - century Gothic inspiration prompted the building of Eastnor
Castle in Herefordshire, its stones brought by pack mule from the Forest of Dean at great expense.
(Sue Clifford & Angela King: 73)

UNITED KINGDOM INSTITUTIONS – POLITICAL LIFE


The monarchy of the United Kingdom (commonly referred to as the British monarchy,) is the
constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. Monarchy is the oldest
form of government in the United Kingdom. In a constitutional monarchy, an elected Parliament
makes and passes laws, and the Sovereign plays a ceremonial and representational role.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of constitutional government, wherein either an elected or
hereditary monarch is the head of state, unlike in an absolute monarchy, wherein the king or the queen
is the sole source of political power, as he or she is not legally bound by the national constitution. The
constitutional monarchy's government and its law are the government and the law of a limited
monarchy.
The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, has reigned since 6 February 1952. She and her
immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As a
constitutional monarch, the Queen is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours.
Though the ultimate executive authority over the government of the United Kingdom is still by and
through the monarch's royal prerogative, in practice these powers are only used according to laws
enacted in Parliament or within the constraints of convention and precedent. On the whole, the Queen
must follow the advice of government ministers. Britain is governed by Her Majesty’s Government in
the name of the Queen.

Royal Prerogative
The Queen is Head of State and an important symbol of national unity in the United Kingdom.
Her official title in the UK is "Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the
Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith".
As a constitutional monarch, The Queen does not 'rule' the country, but fulfils important
ceremonial and formal roles with respect to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and the devolved
assemblies of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Some of the government's executive authority is theoretically and nominally vested in the
Sovereign, and is known as the Royal Prerogative. The monarch acts within the constraints of
convention and precedent, only exercising prerogative on the advice of ministers responsible to
Parliament, often through a body called the Privy Council. In practice, prerogative powers are only
exercised on the Prime Minister's advice—the Prime Minister, and not the Sovereign, exercises
control. The monarch holds a weekly audience with the Prime Minister. The monarch may express his
or her views, but, as a constitutional ruler, must ultimately accept the decisions of the Prime Minister
and the Cabinet (providing they command the support of the House). In Bagehot's words (the
constitutional writer): "the Sovereign has, under a constitutional monarchy ... three rights—the right to
be consulted, the right to encourage, the right to warn." Although the Royal Prerogative is extensive
and parliamentary approval is not formally required for its exercise, it is limited. For example, the
monarch cannot impose and collect new taxes; such an action requires the authorization of an Act of
Parliament. According to a parliamentary report, "The Crown cannot invent new prerogative powers",
and Parliament can override any prerogative power by passing legislation.
The Royal Prerogative includes the powers to appoint and dismiss ministers, regulate the civil
service, issue passports, declare war, make peace, direct the actions of the military, and negotiate and
ratify treaties, alliances, and international agreements.
The monarch is commander in chief of the Armed Forces (the Royal Navy, the British Army,
and the Royal Air Force), accredits British High Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives
diplomats from foreign states.
It is the prerogative of the monarch to summon, prorogue and dissolve Parliament. Each
parliamentary session begins with the monarch's summons. The new parliamentary session is marked
by the State Opening of Parliament, during which the Sovereign reads the Speech from the Throne in
the Chamber of the House of Lords, outlining the Government's legislative agenda. The Queen is also
Fount of Justice, from whom justice in the United Kingdom derives, and has important relationships
with the Armed Forces and the established Churches of England and Scotland.

Constitutional role
In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom legislative power is exercised by the two
Houses of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised
by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The Sovereign is the ceremonial Head of State. Oaths of
allegiance are made to the Queen, and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen (or God Save the
King) is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, coins, and
banknotes. As a constitutional monarch, the Sovereign's role is largely limited to non-partisan
functions, such as granting honors. This role has been recognized since the 19th century; the
constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather
than the "efficient part" of government.
The English Bill of Rights of 1689 curtailed the monarch's governmental power.

Whitehall – the seat of government


Her Majesty’s Government’ governs in the name of the Queen, and its hub, Downing Street, lies
in Whitehall, a short walk from Parliament. Following a general election, the Queen invites the leader
of the majority (or largest, in the absence of an overall majority) party represented in the Commons, to
form a government on her behalf. Government ministers are invariably members of the House of
Commons, but infrequently members of the House of Lords are appointed. These are at a
disadvantage since it is in the Commons that the government is expected to explain its conduct of
affairs. All government ministers, even the Prime Minister, who are members of the Commons,
continue to represent the parliamentary ‘constituencies’ which elected them.

Westminster – the seat of Parliament


Her Majesty’s Government’, in spite of its name, derives its authority and power from its party
representation in Parliament. While the government machinery is frequently referred to as
‘Whitehall’, Parliament is known as ‘Westminster’, since it is housed in the Palace of Westminster,
once a home of the monarchy. Like the monarchy, Parliament is also an ancient institution, dating
from the middle of the thirteenth century.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme
legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. It alone has parliamentary
sovereignty, conferring it ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories.
At its head is the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II.
Parliament is an essential part of UK politics. Its main roles are:
 Examining and challenging the work of the government (scrutiny)
 Debating and passing all laws (legislation)
 Enabling the government to raise taxes
 Discussing important political issues
Free from the constraints of a written constitution, Parliament may make any laws it pleases. It
could even prolong its own life without consulting the electorate, if it chose to do so. Thus Parliament,
rather than the will of the people, is clearly the real sovereign power in the state.
The life of a Parliament is not fixed, and the government of the day may call for a general
election at any time during its five-year term.
The parliament is bicameral, with an upper house, the House of Lords, and a lower house, the
House of Commons. The Queen is the third component of Parliament.
Parliament is the seat of democracy, but it is worth remembering that while the House of Lords
was created in order to provide a council of the nobility for the king, the Commons were summoned
originally in order to provide the king with money. The more money a king demanded, the more the
Commons questioned its use.
The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual (the senior
bishops of the Church of England) and the Lords Temporal (members of the Peerage); its members
are not elected by the population at large but are appointed by past or current governments. The House
of Commons is a democratically elected chamber with elections to it held at least every 5 years. The
two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster (commonly known as the
"Houses of Parliament"), in the City of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all
government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less
often, the House of Lords, and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature.
The work of the two Houses is similar: making laws (legislation), checking the work of the
government (scrutiny), and debating current issues. The House of Commons is also responsible for
granting money to the government through approving Bills that raise taxes. Generally, the decisions
made in one House have to be approved by the other. In this way the two-chamber system acts as a
check and balance for both Houses.
House of Commons
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and
represents its dynamic power. The Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 659
members, who are known as "Members of Parliament" or MPs. The Commons is publicly elected. The
party with the largest number of members in the Commons forms the government. Members of the
Commons (MPs) debate the big political issues of the day and proposals for new laws. The Commons
alone is responsible for making decisions on financial Bills, such as proposed new taxes. The Lords
can consider these Bills but cannot block or amend them.

House of Lords
The House of Lords is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also
commonly referred to as "the Lords". It is not democratic in any sense at all. Members of the House of
Lords are mostly appointed by the Queen, a fixed number are elected internally and a limited number
of Church of England archbishops and bishops sit in the House. The Lords acts as a revising chamber
for legislation and its work complements the business of the Commons. The House of Lords is also
the highest court in the land: the supreme court of appeal. A group of salaried, full-time judges known
as Law Lords carries out this judicial work.

The party system


The political party system has evolved since the eighteenth century, and since the first half of
the nineteenth century has been essentially a two-party system. Today, this two-party contest is
between the Conservative Party (still known by their previous nickname, the ‚Tories’) and the Labour
Party, which emerged at the end of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of universal
suffrage and the decline of the Liberal Party.
The Conservative Party is the party of the Right, identified with the idea of economic freedom
and until 1979 with the idea of resistance to change. It gives emphasis to the importance of law and
order, and the maintenance of strong armed forces to protect British interests.
The Labour Party is preeminently the party of social justice, though its emphasis is less on
equality than on the achievement of well-being and opportunity for all members of the society.
The Liberal Party, which traces its origins to the eighteenth century ‘Whigs’, merged with the
new Social Democratic Party in 1988 to become the Liberal Democrats, after fighting the 1987
election unsuccessfully as an alliance of both parties. It is the party keenest on constitutional and
electoral reform. It also prides itself on being less tied to either capitalist or union interests, and being
free to offer more radical policies.

Queen and Prime Minister


The Queen has a special relationship with the Prime Minister, the senior political figure in the
British Government, regardless of their political party.
Although she is a constitutional monarch who remains politically neutral, The Queen retains
the ability to give a regular audience to a Prime Minister during his or her term of office, and plays a
role in the mechanics of calling a general election.
The Queen gives a weekly audience to the Prime Minister at which she has a right and a duty to
express her views on Government matters. If either The Queen or the Prime Minister are not
available to meet, then they will speak by telephone.
These meetings, as with all communications between The Queen and her Government, remain
strictly confidential. Having expressed her views, The Queen abides by the advice of her ministers.

European Union - a mixed jurisdiction


Since European Union has brought together different legal system under a single legislature,
the phrase “mixed jurisdiction” has been used to best define the mixed European legal system,
which has adopted laws and directives that have taken precedence over national laws. Considering
the two major legal traditions in Europe – the civil law of the continental countries and the common
law of England, Wales and Ireland – we shall see how different authors defined the notion of “mixed
jurisdiction”. The classic definition of a mixed jurisdiction of nearly one hundred years ago was that
of F. P. Walton: “Mixed jurisdictions are legal systems in which the Romano-Germanic tradition has
become suffused to some degree by Anglo-American law.” This is not too different from the modern
definition of a mixed legal system given by Robin Evans-Jones: “What I describe by the use of this
term in relation to modern Scotland is a legal system which, to an extensive degree, exhibits
characteristics of both the civilian and the English common law traditions.”
In his article about “mixed jurisdictions”, William Tetley considers that both Walton and Evans-
Jones are referring to common law/civil law mixed legal systems which stem from two or more legal
traditions. He says that: “Mixed jurisdictions are really political units (countries or their political
subdivisions) which have mixed legal systems.” and goes on to enumerate the common law/civil law
mixed jurisdictions in the world, which include Louisiana, Québec, St. Lucia, Puerto Rico, South
Africa, Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia), Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, the
Philippines, Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), and Scotland.
(William Tetley - Mixed jurisdictions: common law vs. civil law (codified and uncodified)
http://www.unidroit.org/english/publications/review/articles/1999-3.htm)

British labour law


“The vast majority of employment law before 1960 was based upon the Law of Contract. Since
then there has been a significant expansion primarily due to the “equality movement” and the
European Union. There are three sources of Law: Acts of Parliament called Statutes, Statutory
Regulations (made by a Secretary of State under and Act of Parliament) and Case Law (developed by
various Courts).
The first significant modern day Employment Law Act was the Equal Pay Act of 1970 although
as it was a somewhat radical concept it did not come into effect until 1972. This act was introduced as
part of a concerted effort to bring about equality for women in the workplace. Since the election of the
Labour Government in 1997, there have been many changes in UK employment law. These include
enhanced maternity and paternity rights, the introduction of a National Minimum Wage and the
Working Time Directive which covers working time, rest breaks and the right to paid annual leave.
Discrimination law has also been tightened, with protection from discrimination now available on the
grounds of age, religion or belief and sexual orientation as well as gender, race and disability.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_law)

A Working Student in the EU


If you want to become a working student in EU or UK, you should know what a student visa is
and what requirements are to be fulfilled before getting one. The following material will be quite
informative for you:
“Today, the easiest way for an expat to get into the EU is with the use of a Student Visa. A
student Visa not only affords the individual the right to stay in a specific country, it also provides the
individual with a chance to work. Of course, there are a lot of requirements to fulfill before one is
awarded a student visa. First and foremost, the prospective student must present proof that he/she
is enrolled in an EU school. This proof could be the student’s enrolment slip. The schools may also
assist their future students in attaining a student Visa.
Another requirement attached with a student Visa is that the student needs to have a certain
amount of money to their name. This is practiced by most EU countries, although the amount
required can vary from one EU country to another. This protocol ensures the government that the
student applying for Visa can support themselves while they are in the EU. This is also an assurance
that the student has something to go back to and that they won’t stay as illegal expats.
In most countries in the EU, students are allowed to work. But, they are restricted to a set
number of hours a week. After all, a student has travelled abroad to the EU to study and not to work.
Some EU countries also offer their students health coverage. The UK offers students basic health
coverage, plus dental.”

“Skilled Migration” – immigration policy


If you consider yourself a skilled professional, here are some useful information about how the
EU countries and particularly UK have implemented new immigration laws to ease the skilled expats’
access to work:
“There is a new trend among EU countries and they are following in the steps of Canada and
Australia. This trend is point based immigration. Some EU countries including the UK are modifying
their immigration laws to make it easier for skilled expats to gain work in the country. France is also
doing the same thing. As long as expats meet the skill category set by the country – they can get
work permits without much hassle. Some skilled expats may enter the UK without a job offer. As
long as they prove to be an asset to the UK, they can get a work permit. These include business men,
skilled artists, CEOs, etc. Other expats and foreigners still need job offers before they can be given
work permits.” (http://www.workandliveabroad.com/article_item.php?articleid=)

Education in the UK
The education system in the United Kingdom is an old and respected entity which
encompasses many subjects. It is important to note that some of the best schools and universities in
the European Union such as Eton, Oxford and Cambridge are located in the UK. Universities in
England are ranked in the top ten Higher Education Institutions in the world by Times Magazine. The
concept of Lifelong Learning, continuing education for people of all ages is upheld in the United
Kingdom and many courses and degrees are offered by local authorities, schools and universities. UK
citizens are actively encouraged to develop new skills, update their existing ones and acquire
knowledge for professional as well as recreational purposes. Schools and Universities offer
scholarships to deserving individuals of all ages and nationalities in order to encourage excellence
and diversity among the students body.
There is no unitary system of education in the United Kingdom. Basically, there are two
systems: one covering England, Wales and Northern Ireland and one covering Scotland. However the
core organizational principles and the main examinations are the same all over the country.
By law, all children between ages 5 and 16 must receive a full-time education which covers
primary and secondary education. The UK introduced a National Curriculum in 1992 and state
schools are required to adhere to it until students reach age 16. However, independent schools are
not obliged to do so. After five years of secondary education, students take examinations in a range
of subjects at the level of General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The GCSE is a single-
subject examination set and marked by independent examination boards. Students usually take up
to ten (there is no upper or lower limit) GCSE examinations in different subjects, including
mathematics and English language.
After taking GCSEs, students may leave secondary schooling; alternatively, they may choose to
continue their education at vocational or technical colleges, or they may take a higher level of
secondary school examinations known as AS-Levels after an additional year of study. Following two
years of study, students may take A-Level (short for Advanced Level) examinations, which are
required for university entrance in the UK.
Higher education in Britain
Higher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award
academic degrees, such as university colleges, and liberal arts colleges.
Higher Education in the UK is divided into two sectors: further education and higher education
proper. Further Education is offered by schools or colleges to both children between the ages of
sixteen and eighteen and adults and teaches skills valuable in the work market such as Communication
and Technological skills or sometimes they prepare people for University admittance. Students who
elect for this type of education receive a Vocational Diploma and Universities such as London
Metropolitan University cooperate with employers from all the spectrum of the marketplace in order
to impart useful skills. Higher Education is offered by Universities. People who go to University
receive a degree after the completion of their studies.
There are about ninety universities in England the most notable being Oxford and Cambridge
known collectively as Oxbridge (AboutEnglishUniversities,http://www.ehow.com/about_
4611677_england-universities.html).

Customs and Traditions in Britain


Some British customs and traditions are famous all over the world and a lot of them have very
long histories.
In January, there is a festival, called Up-Helly-Aa. In the ninth century, men from Norway came
to the Shetlands, some islands near Scotland. These men were the Vikings. Now, 1000 years later,
people in the Shetlands remember the Vikings with a festival. They call the festival "Up-Helly-Aa".
Every winter, in January, the Shetlanders dress in Viking clothes, carry the ship through the town to
the sea and there they burn it. They do this because the Vikings put their dead men in the ship and
burned them. It goes without saying that there aren’t any men in the modern ships. Now the festival
is a party for the people of the Shetland Islands.
In February the Britons celebrate St Valentine’s Day and in the beginning of spring April Fool’s
Day on April 1st.
In May there is also a tradition with a long history. May 1st was an important day in the Middle
Ages. In the very early morning, young girls went to the fields and washed their faces with dew. They
believed this made them very beautiful for a year after that. Also on May Day the young men of each
village tried to win prizes with their bows and arrows, and people danced around the maypole. Many
English villages still have a maypole, and on May 1st, the villagers dance round it.
Midsummer’s Day is on June 24th. This is the longest day of the year. On that day you can see a
very old custom at Stonehenge in Wiltshire. Stonehenge is one of Europe’s biggest stone circles, a lot
of the stones are ten or twelve metres high. It’s also very old, the earliest part of Stonehenge is
nearly 5 000 years old. The Druids, they were the priests in Britain 2 000 years ago, used it for a
calendar. They used the sun and the stones at Stonehenge to know the start of months and seasons.
There are Druids in Britain today, too and every June 24th a lot of them go to Stonehenge, because
on that morning the sun shines on one famous stone-the Heel stone. For the druids this is a very
important moment in the year.
In October people celebrate Halloween. Halloween is an old word for "Hallows Evening", the
night before "All Saints’ Day". On that one night of the year, ghosts and witches are free. A long time
ago people were afraid and stayed at home on Halloween. But now in Britain it’s a time for fun.
There are always a lot of parties on October 31st . At these parties people wear masks and they
dress as ghosts, witches or monsters and make special Halloween lamps from pumpkins.
November 5th is Guy Fawkes’ Day in Britain. All over the country people build wood fires or
"bonfires", in their gardens. On top of each bonfire is a guy. That’s a figure of Guy Fawkes. People
make guys with straw, old clothes and newspapers. The British remember Guy Fawkes on November
5th, because on this day in the year 1605, he tried to kill King James I. He and a group of friends put a
bomb under the Houses of Parliament in London. But the King’s men found the bomb and found Guy
Fawkes, too. They took him to the Tower of London and there the King’s men cut off his head.
In December there are lots of Christmas and New Year traditions in Britain. Before Christmas,
groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money and sing traditional Christmas songs
or carols. There are a lot of very popular British Christmas Carols. Three famous ones are: "Good King
Wenceslas", "The Holly and The Ivy" and "We Three Kings".
On Christmas Eve that’s on December 24th, British children don’t open their presents. Father
Christmas brings their presents in the night and then they open them on the morning of the 25th. In
Britain the most important meal on December 25th is Christmas dinner. Nearly all Christmas food is
traditional, but a lot of the traditions are not very old. For example, there were no turkeys in Britain
before 1800. And even in the nineteenth century, goose was the traditional meat at Christmas, but
not now. A twentieth- century British Christmas dinner is roast turkey with carrots, potatoes, peas,
Brussels sprouts and gravy, but there are sausages and bacon, too. Then, after the turkey, there is
Christmas pudding. Crackers are also usual at Christmas dinner. These came to Britain from China in
the nineteenth century. Two people pull a cracker and usually there’s a small toy in the middle and
often there’s a joke on a piece of paper, too.
December 26th is Boxing Day. Traditionally boys from the shops in each town asked for money
at Christmas. They went from house to house on December 26th and took boxes made of wood with
them. At each house people gave them money and this was their Christmas present. So the name of
December 26th doesn’t come from the sport of boxing, it comes from the boys’ wooden boxes. Now,
Boxing Day is an extra holiday after Christmas Day.
In Scotland there is a tradition, called First Footing. The name for New Year’s Eve in Scotland is
Hogmanay. After midnight people visit their friends and they take a piece of coal as a present,
because traditionally the first visitor of the year must carry coal into the house. This is first footing
and it brings good luck. It also helps to make fire in the middle of winter.
In Britain there are many Royal Traditions.
For example the trooping of the colour: The Queen is the only person in Britain with two
birthdays. Her real birthday is on April 21st, but she has an "official" birthday on the second Saturday
in June, too. And on the Queen’s official birthday, there is a traditional ceremony called the Trooping
of the Colour. It’s a big parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers at Horse Guards’ Parade in
London. A "regiment" of the Queen’s soldiers, the Guards, march in front of her and at the front of
the parade is the regiment’s flag or "colour", which the guards are trooping. Thousands of Londoners
and visitors watch in Horse Guards´ Parade and millions of people at home watch it on television.
The changing of the guard is an another royal tradition: This happens every day at Buckingham
Palace, the Queen´s home in London. Soldiers stand in front of the palace. Each morning these
soldiers (the "guard") change. One group leaves and another arrives. In summer and winter tourists
stand outside the palace at 11.30 every morning and watch the Changing of the Guard.
Maundy Money: Maundy Thursday is the day before Good Friday, at Easter. On that day the
Queen gives Maundy money to a group of old people. This tradition is over 1,000 years old. At one
time the king or queen washed the feet of poor, old people on Maundy Thursday, but that stopped
in 1754.
Swan Upping: Here’s a very different royal tradition. On the River Thames there are hundreds
of swans and a lot of these beautiful white birds belong, traditionally, to the king of queen. In July
the young swans on the Thames are about two months old. Then the Queen’s swan keeper goes, in a
boat, from London Bridge to Henley. He looks at all the young swans and marks the royal ones. The
name of this strange but interesting custom is Swan Upping.
The Queen’s Telegramm: This custom is not very old, but it’s for very old people. On his or her
one hundreth birthday, a British person gets a telegram from the Queen.
The Birthday Honours list and the New Year’s honours list: Twice a year at Buckingham Palace,
the Queen gives titles or "honours", once in January and once in June. There are a lot of different
honours. Here are a few: C.B.E. - Companion of the British Empire, O.B.E. - Order of the British
Empire, M.B.E. - Member of the British Empire. These honours began in the nineteenth century,
because then Britain had an empire.
Knighthood - a knight has "Sir" before his name. A new knight kneels in front of the Queen. She
touches first his right shoulder, then his left shoulder with a sword. Then she says "Arise, Sir…and his
first name, and the knight stands. Peerage - a peer is a lord. Peers sit in the House of Lords, which is
one part of the Houses of Parliament. The other part is the House of Commons. Dame/Baroness -
these are two of the highest honours for a woman.
The State opening of Parliament: The parliament, not the Royal Familiy, controls modern
Britain. But traditionally the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. She travels from Buckingham
Palace to the Houses of Parliament in a gold carriage - the Irish State Coach. At the Houses of
Parliament the Queen sits on a "throne" in the House of Lords. Then she reads the "Queen’s
Speech". At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown and she wears other jewels
from the Crown Jewels, too.
The Order of the Garter Ceremony: The order of the Garter ceremony has a long history. King
Edward III started the Order in the 14th century. At that time, the people in the Order were the
twenty-four bravest knights in England. Now the knights of the Order aren’t all soldiers. They’re
members of the House of Lords, church leaders or politicians and there are some foreign knights,
too. For example, the King of Norway, the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and the Emperor of Japan.
They’re called Extra Knights of the Garter. The Queen is the Sovereign of the Order of the Garter. But
she is not the only royal person in the Order. Prince Charles and Prince Philip are Royal Knights, and
the Queen Mother was a Lady of the Garter. In June the Order has a traditional ceremony at Windsor
Castle. This is the Queens favourite castle and it’s also the home of the Order of the Garter. All the
knights walk from the castle to St George’s Chapel, the royal church at Windsor. They wear the
traditional clothes or "robes" of the Order. These robes are very heavy. In fact King Edward VIII once
called them "ridiculous". But they’re an important part of one of Britain’s oldest traditions.
The Queen´s Christmas Speech: Now here’s a modern royal custom. On Christmas Day at 3.00
in the afternoon, the Queen makes a speech on radio and TV. It’s ten minutes long and in it she talks
to the people of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth is a large group
of countries. In the past they were all in the British Empire. Australia, India, Canada and New Zealand
are among the 49 members. The B.B.C. (the British Broadcasting Corporation) sends the Queen’s
speech to every Commonwealth Country. In her speech the Queen talks about the past year.
Traditionally in speeches, kings or queens say "we", not "I". Queen Elizabeth II doesn’t do this. She
says "My husband and I", or just "I".

The Dos and Don’ts of British Life


►If you meet somebody don’t forget to say “How do you do?” and shake his/her hand. Don’t
expect an answer, because this is only a greeting and not a question. The person you are greeting
will then answer, “How do you do?”
►The British are a little reserved at first, but given time they will be good friends.
►The Brits like to smile, so do smile, but don’t say “Hi” to somebody you don’t know. They may
feel embarrassed because they don’t know you.
►Don’t jump a queue in Great Britain. The British all stand in line when waiting for a bus or
when buying things.
► If someone is in your way, then say, “Excuse me, please.” They will then move out of your
way.
► “Please” and “Thank you” are very important words, which you should say as often as
possible.
►Please hold the door open for others., because the British will never throw the door into your
face.
►If you go into a pub a nice pint, then don’t forget to order at the bar and pay as you go. Don’t
be annoyed if your “pint” doesn’t have a “head” on it, because if there is too much “head” on the
beer the Brits think they are being done.
►Don’t spit in the street. The British hate this and consider it to be extremely bad mannered.
►Don’t worry about making language mistakes, because the Brits won’t hold against you.
►They will try hard to understand what you are saying.