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Church Reform Movements:

Church Reform in the High Middle Ages (900 AD - 1300 AD)


Includes the Crusades and Celebate Clergy

Heresy: Incorrect belief (belief which disagrees with Roman Catholic Church
Authority)

All Christians during the High Middle Ages are Catholics


Not all are Roman Catholics.
(Greek, Coptic, ect)
We will be focusing on Roman Catholics.

Catholocism evolves

Later, (during Witch Trials), we will also be talking about Protestants

Heresy can only be declared if there is an authority to declare it a heresy.

During the High Middle Ages, the Papacy begins to gain stregnth, defining the
borders of its power

Mosts Heretics did not realize that they were Heretics, but rather as reformers
They would often derive their beliefs from the Bible.

Paul says Heretics get 3 tries before they are cast out
he also predicts that herecies must exist, due to the complexity of the subject
matter

Bishops Councils
There was no bible until the Bishops put it together 700 AD
Bishops claim Apostolic Succession for Authority

Christians first called themselves The Way, then Catholics, then Christians
Their enemies were the first to call them Christians

Arians believe that god is three, not one

Manicheans believed that creation was split directly between Material and
Spiritual, and so Jesus was not trully man

The Heart of Christianity was in Egypt and in the middle east until the rise of
Islam

Western Church spoke Latin, Eastern Church spoke greek.


Western Roman Empire collapses, Church takes over
From 500 to 1000 AD, Heresy disapears in the West, due to poverty and lack of
interest in theology
Developement of Church Dogma basically stagnates

Overall sense of decay in the church after 1000 AD, priests and monks begin to seek
reform
monestaries become primary centers of belief and reform

First monestary to begin refom was Cluny


Concerned that the money in the Monestaries was corrupting them
People donate money to them as thanks for their prayers
concern that they have lost their way because of this
Duke of Aquitaine sets up Cluny
Then, to prevent simoney, he releases control of the Abbey to an Abott
"Releases authority to Saint Peter and Saint Paul"
Effectively, Abott becomes most powerful leader of Christianity in the World, as
new Monastaries under his control pop up
Pope is not powerful enough yet to claim control over the Abbey

Monks are Regular (or Regulated) (Obediance, Chastity, and Poverty)


Secular is Priests and Bishops

Reforms begin in Regular Church, spread to Secular Church

Values and practices of Regular Church begins to spread to Secular Church,


including Celebacy, and a rejection of Simony (buying of holy objects and power)

Investiture is the passing of the staff and ring of the bishop from one bishop to
another

They decided that no Lay Man can declare and Invest a Priest with the powers of a
Bishop
Really contravertial, however

The highest office of the Secular Church was the Pope


political power influenced the papacy, aristocrats electing themselves
two families competed for it's power

Popes needed reform, because of Bonefus (Crazy Pope) and John XII (Teen Pope)

John crowns Otto the Holy Roman Emperor, and then Otto promptly deposes John, to
produce a less corrupt replacement

Emporer Henry III goes to get crowned by a Pope, and finds 3 Popes (a reformer, and
one from each of the two italian clans)

Henry deposes them, and gets them to elect a new pope, to try to get them to reform
the papacy

Pope Leo produces a lot of reforms, started cardinals to thwart the aristocrats,
went on tour to see how the church is doing at large, did councils

Nicholas the 2nd officially passes the election of the Pope to the Cardinals

Gregory VII Did a lot of reforms, went even farther than Leo
Combatted married priest, violance, and simony
declared that the Holy Roman Emporer cannot depose Popes or appoint them
This starts a war between Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire (angry letters)
claims the right to excommunicate, and then excommunicates the Holy Roman Empire

Most political leaders began taking sides

Matilda of Tuscany was the Ruler of Northern Itally, and the greatest supporter of
the Pope
When the Pope's seal was stolen by Henry, the Pope use Matilda's seal
She was the Emporer's sister

Henry apologizes to the Pope, and then does penance and pilgramages
Pope forgives him

Henry V makes a deal with the Pope


The Emporer could name bishops, but the Pope was the only one who could invest them
with the Staff and the Ring of the Bishop

The Papacy emerged from the conflict much more powerful than it had been.

Indulgence for those who help the Pope

A direct result of Church Refrom is the 12th Century Renaissance: Revival of Law,
Philosophy, and Theology

Establishment of Code of Canon Law. Codified the rulings of the Church Councils.

Trying to understand god through reason and logic


most important in this effort was Peter Abelard, who reinvented Aristotilian
Philosphy from scratch (1079 - 1142 AD)
Abelard wrote Sic et Non, and took contradictory statements from various councils
and put them together (two natures, one person)
use reason to reconcile the two

Orthadoxy is the opposite of Heresy