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Excutive Summary.

Somaliland has one of the lowest coverage of improved water supply systems. The health problems prevailing in the
region with outbreaks of water born and water related diseases clearly call for improvement in both water supply and
sanitation.

A feasibility study has been undertaken in order to fully ensure the technical feasibility, economical viability, social
acceptability and environmental sustainability of the envisaged Haffir Dams Construction. And this report presents
the findings of the environmental assessment and recommendations for consideration during the design, construction
and operation phases of the project.
The Deyr (September to November) rains have almost entirely failed throughout eastern Somaliland, except for limited
patches. This follows three years of erratic or poor rains, and has led to large scale loss of livestock (50% to 100% in
the areas visited), large population movements, and a desperate shortage of water for humans and animals alike. The
area east and south east of Hargeisa (to Oodweyne) is also affected by drought, but less seriously.

The study started in Jan, 2018, with first step of the study being literature review developing of the study and
assembling the study team, for a period of one week. Next step in the study was field survey and data collection. Final
step of the study was analyzing the collected data, and developing the design of the Haffir dams. The analysis of part
of the study took long time, due to un availability of required metrology data for all of the sites, and complexity of the
activity many specialties and time/ Energy

In this feasibility study, the suitability of catchments and dam sites assessed through satellite image, GIS, Google
earth, physical observation and focus group discussion and interview of local people. Further the previous experience
of Haffir dam design and construction reviewed. Runoff availability of the catchment was assessed based on spatial
rainfall distribution data from Word bank web site “ Historical Climate data for Somalia”, runoff coefficient estimated.
By master plan study report, physiographic characteristics (slope, shape, ) and previous Haffir dam study report. As a
result it had been found that sufficient runoff to fill the medium size Haffir dam (200 m by 250 m and 5 m
depth=250,000 m3)

The selected catchment size is minimum or more than 9.5 sq km, mean annual rainfall varies from 265mm to 430mm
and runoff coefficient from 0.1 to 0.01 depend on the physiographic (land use, soil, slope and shape) condition of the
catchment. The rainfall dataset was generated from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia
(UEA) using the nearest meteorological data and elevation of the area and Rational method used to estimate the
catchment yield.
Each project design to provide safe drinking (filtered) for 35500 people (15 liter per person per day) and 49,500 liters
per day for livestock’s from raw water. The project major components comprises, Haffir dam, silt trap, spillway, fence,
well and raw water pump, slow sand filter, clear water pump and reservoir, elevated roto tank, water taps and cattle
troughs. Therefore a proper closure of the watershed and construction of drainage channel and guide wall to divert the
flow toward the inlet are crucial, the water source of this kebele is Natural pond.
Figure 1 Map showing main displacements of pastoralists during the course of this Deyr (based on interviews with pastoralists).
Blue circles show areas that had some rain. Red arrows show the main directions of movement, brown is early movements,
green is later

Objective of the Project Activity.

The objective of this project is to identify and design suitable Haffir dams to satisfy the demand of the population both
in quality and quantity with a feasible/affordable cost without affecting the environmental circumstance of the project
area.

Generally the following are some of the objectives of the project activity:

 After implementation of this project the residences of these sites get portable water requirement in terms of
quality and quantity.

 The living standard of the population of these sites will be improved.

 The healthy and hygienic standards of this communities as a whole will be upgraded.
Livelihood

Pastoralism has been the major livelihood of Somaliland whereby populations with their livestock follow seasonal
migration patterns depending upon rainfall and pasture availability. Nevertheless, for the past decades, there has been
a dramatic changes in the socio-economy of the pastoral population as a result of the recurring droughts and massive
change of land use, which in turn had negative impacts on availability of fodder, and thus adversely D ‫و‬ecting
‫ٴ‬ livestock
production.

Climate Generally, Somaliland has an arid to semi-arid climate, with four seasons. the first main rainy season of Gu
occurs between April and June, when around 50-60% of rain falls. the second rainy season is called Deyr (from August
to November) and accounts 20-30% of total rainfall. the two dry seasons in are Jilaal and Hagga, which occur between
December and March and July and August, respectively (Table 1). Нe amount of rainfall received annually reduces
further While the area around Erigavo receives up to 400 mm annually. the northern coastline is characterized by low
rains of less than 100 mm per year. the rest of Somaliland receives an annual rainfall of 200-300 mm . In the higher
altitudes of the mountains and plateau areas temperatures vary considerably with the seasons, with a mean annual
temperature of 20-24°C, while the coastal region has mean annual temperatures of 28-32°C.

Proposed Sites

No Village/ Near by town V= A*Depth


1 Lasanod 250*350*5
2 Burao 200*300*5
3 Burao (Beer) 200*350*5
4 Warimran 200*300*5
5 Odwayne 200*300*5
6 Gunburaha 200*250*5
7 Aleybadey 200*250*5

Lasanod Haffir Dam

The project area location is Lasanod (Kalabaydh Village) in Sool region, Kalabaydh is Away from Lasanod town
15km in north East direction, lies between altitude 687m and 689 meter above sea level. The population of village and
sourounding estimated 6000 person. the topography of the project area and its vicinity is very rugged and hill with
well-defined stream existed and has averagely 3 % gradient slopes.

This is also a Natural pond dependent village . The majority of the population here are pastoralists. Due to this the
village is facing critical water shortage.

Prior to the selection of the site an intensive discussion was done with the Ministry of water reources as per the
information from Ministry ensure a high potential flow of the runoff at the selected catchment could be expected and
enough to filled up the Haffir dam.

Following the survey work, accurate alignment of individual Haffir dam, their size, and location of inlet outlet
structures, erosion protection structure drainage and diversion channel and other associated structures would be made.

The dam size provisionally estimated to 525,000 m3 and would benefit 24000 peoples and 3200 Camel and 18000
Sheep and goat”.

Lasanod dam site:


The selected site has enough area to construct the dam, water treatment system and other water system components
with estimation of 9.04sq km. The general physical soil characteristic at dam site looks like slightly reddish silt clay
overlaying Calcic Combisol/Eutris Regosols deposit. The soil condition at this site therefore could be considered as
moderately low infiltration rate 0.48 cm/hr which suitable for Haffir construction but need a sealing material like
polyethylene plastic.

Recommended Sites: Burao, Beer, Odwayne and Warirman

A medium sized haffir dam is proposed from the catchment rainfall and runoff study (250m*200m*5m). The size of
the dam is estimated to benefit 3500-4000 individuals and 30,000 heads livestock tropical unit (LTU). According the
data received from the government.

Aleybedey and Gunburaha

These two sites were selected with consultation with Ministry of water resources and local community and the
stakeholders discussed the importance of these haffir dams and their impact in the future. The two villages are the
most populated villages in terms of people and livestock and during dry season its one of the worst areas which needs
water trucking and the dam expected to support more 14000-18000 in individual with their livestock. For these reasons
it was selected.

Conclusion and recommendation

The average slope and size of all the watersheds are suitable for Haffir dam construction, which have limited or no
hazard on overflow and sedimentation load. the At the site a minimal work to divert small streams in to the Hafirs
would be required due to lack of well-defined streams or gullies and flat topography, guide bunds or cutoff drains
shall be constructed for 1km in upstream of dam inlet at both left and right wind, Thus banks will therefore serve as
artificial gullies.

The social condition generally favorable, not owned by individual and the sanitary condition of the water shed is
generally good
Haffir Dam Water system constructions drawings
Figure 2 Sectional view of Haffir Dam
Figure 3 Typical Water points drawing
Figure 4 Generator, and Pump Room