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ProducedbuAndrew Mead

The terraced lrcusefourished in tlrc UK in tlrc which tlrc scltemeslnue beenconceivedin section,and
18th and 19th centuries and is now enjoyinga sonrcarequite ingeniousin tlis respect.A historical
renaissance. Architectsof modernterracedhouses lnue prelude,presentinga typicalCeorgianplan andfour
to take into accotntta complexrangeof standards, 2)th-centuryexanrples, puts the currentprojectsitt
and theAJ wantedto seethe efectthis washauing conlext.
on design.Astlrc standardsimpingemostobviously On paqes22-26, Daniel Rosbottottr of DRDH
on planning,we hauefocused -
on plans and sections Architectsexplorestlrcproblemsandpossibilities in
puttitrg a railgeof schemesside-by-side,alnrostin the terraced housedesigtt.On page 41,Andy Jobling
mannerof a Ceorgianpattern book,to seehow andJulia Park of Levitt BernsteinAssociates spell
repetitiveor individualtltey are. out the currentregulatiotts.
The impactof Lifetine Homesstandardsand Additional schenrcs arefeaturedon theAJ
Secured by Designareobuiousin many,for they u,ebsite (, u,lrcre you are
tend to meandwellingsare largeron thegroundfloor inuitedto post LJourlwn terraced-house projects-
than above.One distinguishing fauor is tlrc extentto -iust irrplan and section.

Bu Daniel Rosbottom

The rehobilitotion ofthe streetos on ideo hos,in recent geors, responseto the current shift in ottitudes to densitg. In o number of
prefoced the return ofthe terroced house.It hos become cleor thot recent projects Toglor, like mong of his contemporories, hos looked
providing high-densitg,smoll-scoleoportments in existing town bock post modernitg to Georgion precedentsfor inspirotion, ond
centresdoes not reflect the diversitg ofhousing need. In our indeed the Chonce Street project beors o morked offinitg with
peripherol vision stonds the fomilg house, ond begond thot those illustroted in Peter Guillerg's excellent book Tfte Snnll House
suburbio.It is to theseconditions,too long ignored bg orchitects, in EighteenthCenturg l-ondon.A flot brick frontoge, punctured bg
thot rr'e need to turn our ottention. generouswindows, presentsitself to the street,with metol gotes
Minimurn legisloted densities,os specified in Plonning ogoinst the povement opening up to o relotivelg lorge threshold
Policg Stotement 3, stond ot 30 dwellings per hectore (dph) os ond o ground-floor room offlexible use.Thisbelies the foct thqt
the government strugglesto creote 240,000 new housing units the portg wolls stond ot onlg 3.8m centresqnd thot the outside
per geor, to meet gools set out in the recent Housing Green Poper, spoce ot the reor is the verticol shoft of o lightwell. In the foce of
Hotnes-for tlrc Future:More Afordable,More Sustainable(ltJ 20.09.A1. such restriction thesehouses,in the honds ofo skilful orchitect,still
For o lorge suburbon housing mosterplon in theWest of Englond, monoge to offer ottroctive, well-designed ond flexible interior
which nrg prqctice DRDH is working on, both client ond plonners spoces- even including on informol omenitg spoce on the roof.
proposeo densitg of between 50-60 dph. This mirrors our However, the high densitg ot Chonce Street (96 dph) should be
experienceelsewhereond suggests,ot leost,thot the codified rosh considereddongerousos o model.
of the EssexDesign Guide, regorded os required reoding for Moss housing tgpologies tend to reflect the legislotive,
designersof low-densitg schemes,is destinedfor consignment to economic ond, one would hope, sociol demands of their time.
o porticulorlg gloomg corner of our islond'sorchitecturol historg. Given the long-stonding desire to escope from the terroce ond the
As densities rise, it seemsvoriotions on the terroce ore likelg to inner citg to the freestondinghouse in its own gorden plot, there
dominote, muscling out the bungolows, semisond detoched houses seemscr donger thot this return to tgpe is counter to the ospirotions
thot hove chorocterisedsuburbio for the lost centurg. of the public. AcrossNorthern cities such os Monchester ond its
Recentlg, polemicol projects hove emerged,investigoting surrounding conurbotion, new estote developments bg volume
the terroce os o tgpe. Chonce Street, o smoll infill terroce of three housebuilders,of o kind usuollg derided bg orchitects,remoin
housesin Tower Homlets, Eost London, bg StephenToglor populor. This is in stork counterpoint to the swothesof decoging
Architects (seepoge 40), offers on interestingond perhops extreme terrocesin neighbouring Housing Morket Regenerotion (HMR)

26 AJ 18.10.07
.Two odjocent housesin Soho,
centrol London: cited in Isooc
Wore's.,{ CompleteBody of
(1756) os o tgpicol
urbon Georgion tgpe.
. Georgion densitieswere 70-90
dph (dwellings per hectore) on
4.5-6m wide plots.


. Housesot Plumsteod,South
London, bg Lubetkin ond


..-., r. --;--;' --,n

.rreos.There ore of coursenlong other issuesot work here,but exomple being, in porticulor, o much sought ofter tgpe.Whotever
s'hot genercllu chorocterisesthe lotter in phgsicol terms is the the period ond however lorge the house,though, whether it be o
r.rniformitgond homogeneitg of the housing stock;bosicollg,long Nosh terroce on Regent's Pork or workers'housing in the Eqst End,
hnes of two-up, wvo-downs set directlg on to the povement on the strength ofthe tgpologg is derived from repetition rother thon
qridded streets.AlthoughI must odmit to on oestheticoffinitg with voriegotion; informing q collective urbonism where the identitg
rhosestrong,hord geometriesond surfocesof glimmering ond scole of individuol homes is suppressedin relotion to thot of
Accrington brick, which I recoll from mg own childhood, theg the street,neighbourhood or citg. I recentlg met withJonothon
hove not endured in the ofFectionsofhouse-bugers. Sergisonond StephenBotes of SergisonBotes,o proctice which
In 2006 Me Architects,o proctice thot hos concentroted hos produced o number ofinteresting prototgpes ond voriotions
()n issuesof housing ond housing policA,undertook o studg on such on contempororg terroced housing. Theg suggestedthot this is o
lrn oreo, Whitefields in Nelson, Loncoshire,responding to o conception thot sits uneosilg in relotion to o culture increosinglg
iontroversiol proposol for mossdemolition. Met project included built oround expressionsof individuolitg.
.ome selectivedemolition but primorilg focusedon odjustmentsto It is tempting to osk whg we connot simplg reiterote o
ihe existing houses.The proctice suggestedlongitudinol ond successfulprototgpe,such os the Georgion terrqced street;but ifthe
ironsverseconversions,creoting more voried occommodotion. terrqce hos stood still ot o culturol level,it is now undergoing o
Ertensionsto the reor contoined the more high-lgservicedelenrents processof ropid tronsformotion ot the level of legislotion.
requiredbg modern domesticitg ond oflered privote omenitg spoces Frustrotinglg,this is o processwhere, os orchitects,we lorgelg
.rbove.The project is interestingin thot it reossessesond odopts, oppeor to be occupging the role of possiverecipients;moking it
ruther thon simplg rejecting on unloved tgpologg. This opprooch work, rother thon setting the ogendo. Nonetheless,from o plethoro
:. too often dismissedin the tabularasaeconomics of modern ofcodes, new potterns ore emerging: porking; refuseond recgcling;
housebuilding.Interestinglg,Urbon Splosh'srecent Chimneg Pot rneonsofescopeond occess; securitg;ocousticseporotion:
[)ork developmentin Solford,designedbg Shed KM, emplogsjust relotionshipsto privote externol omenitg spoce;ond of course
.uch o model in relotion to existing terroces,even if the retention of issuesofenergg use ond sustoinobleconstruction ore oll shifting
rhe originol housesdoes not oppeor to go for begond the focode. the tgpologg.
Other historic exqmples of terroces hov'e fored for better A current project in mg own office, for o mix of terroced
:n the public consciousness.The oforementioned Georgion house conditions within o much lorqer suburbon mosterplon,

AJ 18.10.07 27
. Terroce ofthree housesot
Willow Rood, Hompsteod,
north London, bg Ernci



illustrotes our own emerging owcreness of this. In line with received requirements ore derived is o fundomentollg importont one, it
good urbon-design proctice, the project ploces porking within the is worth considering whether oll elements of this provision ore
curtiloge of the propertg, in order to limit the need for on-streer simultoneouslg necessorg,os the code requires. The overoge
porking. The odoption of theJoseph Rowntree Foundotionl household in the UK moves once everg seven Ueors- hordlg o
Lifetime Homes stondords (housing stondords thot oim to provide liferime - ond it mog be thot, os o societg, we should rother be
the flexibilitg to meet the chonging needs of residentsos their trging to provide o diversitg ofpropertg tgpes, rother thon relging
personol circumstonces chonge) thus requires o 3.3m-wide covered on o single model. Mg own grondmother hos both o stoirlift ond
porking spoce with connection to the front door. The desire to keep downstoirs focilicies but, ultimotelg, would rorher hove the
o continuous street line brings these into the volume of the opportunitg to move to o bungolow - unfortunotelg o scorce
building, creoting verg wide, perforoted frontoges. A hobitoble commoditg in her neighbourhood.
room on the ground floor focing the street is required under As o proctice, our ottitude hos been to fovour those
Securedbg Design (police guidelinesfor'designing out crime'); elementswhich'civilise'the house.The 900mm-wide, shollow stoir
while Lifetime Homes requires o entrg-levelWC, lorge enough to becomes o generous moment in o tight plon, whereos the lift would
occept o shower. The consequence ofoll these foctors is thot the destrog the volume of the room. The lorge downstoin sonitorg
ground floor is much lorger thon the upper floors,leoding to on L fociliries ore designed to double os q utilitu spoce,ond so on.
shope in both plon ond seccion.Given this, it come os little surprise, Another concern stemming from the provision of
when Mr's Alex Elg, writing in o recent AJ piece on the Housing such omenities is thot their impingement upon overoll spoce
Design Awords (AJ 16.08.07),suggestedthot'fomilg housing of rhe requirements is not occounted for bg the ogents who'odvise'clients.
eorlg port of the 21st centurg mog come to be chorocterised bg the New UK housing boosts the highest number of rooms per dwelling
courtgord or whot could be termed the L house'. of ong countrg in Europe but simultoneouslg offers the smollest
Experience of working with these issuesis teoching us to floor oreos (seewww.designfonhomes. org) - lorger stoirs ond the
think criticollg in relotion to codes.A good exomple of this is in proliferotion of sonitorgwore onlg exocerbotes thot problem.
relotion to the Lifetime Homes requirements for disobilitg occess. Porodoicdlg, the Joseph Rowntree Foundotion's reseorch into
This colls for on ombulont disobled stoir, copoble of occepting o housing need determined thot'when foced with trode-ofB
stoirlift, the oforementioned downstoirs WC ond shower; ond o consumers show thot theg stronglg prefer odditionol bedrooms
position for o future lift. Although the issue from which these or lorger rooms sizesto odditionol bothrooms.' Of course,sizes

28 AJ 18.10.07
1 9 5 2- 1 9 6 5 1977
. Development of T1 to T2Y terroce house tgpes,bg Eric Lgons . Duol-ospect house,from GreaterLondon Council PreferredDwellinq
ond Spon. (From .Ericl4ons and Span,RIBA Publicotions). Plans.

h ste-+
il rEStud , LB

in plon predominote in such discussions, but we should not forget If the spoceberween us oll is diminishing, then whqt
volume, with room height being one of the other greot ottrocrions occupiesit olso comes under threot. In controst to strictlg defined
of older housing. On one current project,we ore monipuloting the ;nternol requirements,where the Housing Corporotiont Scheme
section to ollow the principol room ofeach tgpe to hove q 3m ,)evelopment Stondords con tell gou oll the requirements for
rother thon 2.4m ceiling height. It remoins to be seenwhether ( ,.;/o-personroom down to the size of the dressingtoble, no
this will moke it through the'volue engineering'process. i, islotion or locol outhoritg guidonce defines the provision of
Thinking begond the individuol terroced dwelling r renitu ond gorden spoces.
roisesother issues.The plon's width ond the need to meet densitg As o profession we were vilified for decodes over the
requirements ploces pressureon the plot's depth. This con result mistokes mode in the provision of housing ofter the wor, ond we
in o smoller bock gorden, minimol overlooking distonces ond smoll connot offord to moke them ogoin.After the dogmo of Modernism
bulfer spocesin front ofthe houses,ogoinst relotivelg norrow streets. ond the mong irrelevoncies of Post-Modernitg, we now hove o
These frontoges hove, in ong cose,to be smoll - so there is no moment of opportunitg to reflect upon how strong historicollg
chonce ofthe future occupont poving over ond porking o cor on successfulmodels,of which terroced housing is o primorg exomple,
them. Collectivelg, these profmities, olong with the need for level mog be reinvigoroted ond redefined.'Whetherwe ore successfulor
occessunder Port M, meon clever design is needed to offer required not, our efforts will, nonetheless,shope ond define our settlements,
levelsof privocg, something o volume housebuilderconnot our sociol relotionships ond the views ocross our countrqside for
outomoticollg be expectedto engoge with. More fundomenrollg, decodesto come.
theg offer o vision for suburbio thot is in foct distincdg urbon.
We mog breothe o collective sigh of relief thot
urbon-design guidonce from institutions like CABE hos been
instrumentol in undermining plonning outhorities' insisrence
on minimum overlooking distonces.These hove often denied
the opportunitg for densitg ond for sensiblerelotionships with the
historic street pottern. However, we now oppeor to be in freefoll,
ond seriousreseorchon whct is, in reolitg, occeptobleis necessorg
if we ore not to simplg orrive bock in the 19th centurg.

30 AJ18.10.07
. Crown Terroce ot Elephont ond Cosde, south London.
. Five units ot o densitg of 109 dwellings per hectore (dph).

'It reconciles
theDIY desires S e c o n df l o o r
of theoccupier with theciui,c
demands of a publicstreet.
actiuelyencourages residents u lfll\H]1ffi
to adapttheirhomestofit
- Qof ShearooJt,AOC
Finst floon

. One of severql house tgpes for o development in Milton Kegnes.
. This tgpe ollows o densitg of 75 dph, but the overoll densitg will
be in the region of100 to 120 dph.


First floor'

32 AJ 18.10.07
. 2006 Moidstone Stotesmon House: one of Bqrrott's stondord
house tgpes intended for o wide ronge of sites.
. The plon shows end- ond mid-terroced units.

First floor

. Melodg Lone, Islington, north London: 14 units in rwo porollel
terrocesot o densitg of48 dph


'Theschemeis built to LfetimeHomesand

by Designstandards,
Secured butprouides
dramaanddaylightat thecentreof theplan.'
- Iulian Cowie

AJ 18.10.07 33
. Slim House 2: o model terroce schemewhich con ochieve
densities of up to 92 dph.
| ,--]

ffirs a newurbanpatternthat
combines thebestaspectsof modest il=t il
il=t I
- Pierred'Avoine
with a
gardencityscape.' u5m


. New Islington, Monchester: 14 units ot o densitg of 70 dph

'It\ ledby goodsense ratherthan

code,but still achieues
Secured by
Designand LifetimeHomes
-Julian deMetz, DMFK

G n o u n df l o o r ' First floor'

34 AJ 18.10.07
. New Islington, Monchester: o development of 23 units ot 70 dph

'We like to think that thedesign

but transcends
incorporates the
fairly onerous statutorytargets
we hadto achieue.We wantedto
reinuentthepopularhome for the
2 1stcentury
- CharlesHolland, FAT

AJ 18.10.07 35
. Street, Somerset:one of eight tgpes of dwellings in
o development of 400
homes ot o densitg of oround 41 dph.

First floor

Ground floon I

. PrincessGote, Edinburgh: 23 units ot o densitg of 28 dph

G n o u n df l o o r ' Finst floor

Gnound ffoor Fir^st floor

. Hollg Street,Hockneg, Eost London: o developnrentof terroced
housesond cportnrents ot on overoll densitg of125 dph.

'KrA issuesdriuingthedesignwere
to thechangingneedsof theresident
andthedemands of modernliuing.'
Jo .\lcCafcrrq. La,irr Bcutitcitt

AJ18.10.07 37
wasto dealwith
thecontrastinqdemands offamily ME
. Luton, Bedfordshire:o developmentof 40 units ot oround 57 dph.
howsing andhigttdensitiiiby
ffiring outdoorspacefor DIY
- AIex Elu. Mce

Gnound floor Fir^st floor'

'The organisation
of theplan
LAVINGTONand locationof thestair
. Accordio, Combridge: o terroce of 13 studio ond five deck housesot o
densitg of63 dph.
maximisesthe width of the
liuing spaces
on a relatiuely
narrowplot. Fire escapewas
an importantconsideration.'
- Ridnrd l-auinqton

38 AJ18.10.07
'In lrelandthis degree
of densityis
RICHARD IJormallythere'dbe
. Westport,Countg Mogo, Republic of Irelond:23 units ot o densitg
holfa mileof bungalows strung
of40 dph.
out downtheroad.'
o5m - RichardMurphy


t -.1 I -'{1
I /- \\fl
r- -f '-'---\\ \

First floor of Studio House

Gnound floon of Studio House

AJ 18.10.07
'Our designexplores
NORD buildingmassin relationto
. Highlond Housing Fcir, Inverness:four units ot o densitg of
56 dph.
of thehome.'
- BrianMtcinlau, NORD

r, -, |-r, -- -
T- --- r r--------l-

o lom First floor

0 4.5m

Upper first floor Upper second floor Third floon

40 AJ 18.10.07
. South Chose, Newholl, Horlow Essex:three-bed unit in o
development of oportments ond houses ot on overoll densitg l

of52 dph. I

First floor

. Sigmo Home: project for two odjocent houses on o 9 x 9m site.

'A contemporara update

of the traditionalterracedtown
house.It\ designed to Lfetime
Homesstandards, achieuesCode
hasan open-
5for sustainability,
plan layout,andisfiexible.'
-Alan Budden,PRP

AJ 18.10.07 41
. Duncon Street,Liverpool: one ofseverol housing tgpes in o
10-unit development ot o densitg of75 dph.

'We haueto corformto a long list of

designstandardsIt canbea struggle
to designanAthingbeyonda
normatiue box'
- Annalie Riches

G n o u n df l o o r First floor

. Oxleg Woods, Milton Kegnes:one of 10 different house tgpesin
o 145-unit developmentot on overogedensitg of40 dph.

'Workingcloselywith GeorgeWimpey,
ajoint approach
linkinghousedesignto construction,'
- Iuan Harbour

Groundfloor Finst fLoor

42 AJ 18.10.07
. Conning Town, Eost London: o mixture of terroced houses ond
oportments ot on overoll densitg of 113 dph.

'Despitethedensityrequirements, it
is stillpossible
to designa stronglA
uarietyof externalspaceand
reasonably proportionedrooms.'
- StephenBates

First floor Second fLoor

Gnound floon

AJ 18.10.07 43
. Letchworth, Hertfordshire:60 units ot o densitu of 36 dph.

Groundfloor' First floon

. Chonce Street: o terroce of three housesin Bethncl Green, Eost
London, ot o densitg of96 dph.

Finst floor


G n o u n df l o o r
4 I

44 AJ 18.10.07

plan is as relevanttoilag a it was200 years

fie traditionalterraeeil-house schemesore ossessedoccording to Housing Quolitg Indicotors
ago,but moderndesignsare heavily infuenced,both in termsoffootprint under three heodings: locotion; site ond unit design; ond externol
and internal layout, by extensiveregulationsand guidance.Theprineipal environment. The requirements for unit size ond logout relg on
ndtionalstandards,both regulatoryand aduisory,whiehafea the designof the Notionol Housing Federotion (NHF) Standardsand Quality
terracedhomes,are outlinedbelow. in DevelopmentWhile the requirements ore broodlg compotible
with Port M ond Lifetime Homes. the NHF stondords ore in some
NGREGULATTONS cosesstricter - requiring, for exomple, thot entronce doors be ot
w w wp. l a n n i n g p o r t a l . g o v . u k leost 800mm cleor.
PARTB con be onerous for three-storeg houses,becouse o protected
stoircoseroute to the moin exit must be provided unlessthere is on LIFETIMEHOMES(JOSEPH
opproved meons of escope from the top floor. This con rule out w w wl.i f e t i m e h o m e s . o n g . u k
open-plon logouts ond moke loft conversions problemotic. The Lifetime Homes stondords ore increosinglg being opplied bg locol
lotest revision to Port B (Aprit 2007) encouroges o fire-engineered outhorities to oll new homes. Bg requiring o 300mm-wide spoce
opprooch using o combinotion of fire-detection, worning ond besidesthe leoding edge of doors, the width of the internol
sprinkler sgstemswhich ollow more flexibilitg in open-plon logouts entronce oreo qrows to 1.3-1.4m. The stondordsolso require o
futuie shower irovision for the entronce-floor'WC, which meons
PARTEIogs down clecr requirements for the ocoustic performonce this needsto be ot leost 1.4 x 1.8m.
of the portg woll ond impocts woll construction, which in turn The moin living room hos to be ot entronce level ond
influences street frontoge between dwellings. The lotest revision while o kitchen,/diner is sometimes regorded os occeptoble for the
to Port E (April 2003) chonged the ronge offrequencies thot ore of this requirement, it would not sotisfg the need
tested in on ottempt to control boss frequencies from loud music. for o tempororg bedspoce.The bothroom must be suitoble for use
bg o person in o wheelchoir ond there is o need to plon for the
PARTLlimits glozing oreos, moking it difiicult to ochieve odequote provision of o hoist from bedroom to bothroom.
doglighting when deep plons ore combined with norrow frontoges.
PARTMrequiresthe entronce level to be occessibleto o wheelchoir w w wp, l a n n i n g p o r t a l . g o v . u k
user.It governs the widths ofentronces ond corridors ond the Since April 2007, publiclg funded new housing hos been required
locotion of WCs. The entronce ond internol doors on the to meet Level 3 of the Code for Sustoinoble homes, o six-level
entronce level must hove o cleor width of 775mm or more. A environmentol performonce stondord for new homes.
wheelchoir-occessible WC must be provided ot entronce level Solor orientotion is o keg ospect of the code which
or on the principol storeg.WCs must be ot leost 1,000mm wide impocts terroced housing. The need to optimise possivesolor
internollg, with o cleor spoce of 750mm deep outside so thot the goin is difticult to reconcile with urbon-design considerotions of
door con open outwords. This mokes it difticult to locote the WC streetscope.Similorlg, qs the instollotion of renewqble technologies
beneoth the stoirs,leoving little option but to locote it next to the such os solor ponels ond photovoltoics becomes commonploce, the
front door, or between the rwo ground-floor rooms, or ot the back built form of terroced houseswill need to incorporote the need for
ofthe house blocking o through-route to the gorden. south-fqcing roofslopes.A secondorgconcern is provision for
recgcling, cgcle storesond individuol metering, oll of which impoct
SECURED the design of semi-privote spoce.
www. secunedbydesign. com
The rigid recommendotions of this non-stotutorg occreditorion FORLrFE(CABE/HBF/CtVrC
hove been the source of disogreement betlveen the police, the w w wb. u i l d i n g f o r l i f e . o r g
DCLG ond CABE. One recommendorion - street occessonlg to This is intended to be the notionol benchmork, encouroging
terroced houses ond bock-to-bock gordens - meons occessto the housebuilders to provide new housing thot demonstrotes o
gorden hos to be through the kitchen or living room. commitment to high design stondordsond good ploce-moking.
Question 8 (Is cor porking well integroted so it supports the street
STANDARDS scene?)ond Quesrion 15 (Do internol spocesond o logout ollow
oHE HOUSTNGCORPORATTON) for odoptotion, conversion or extension?) deserveporriculor
w w wh. o u s i n g c o r p ,g o v . u k ottention in relotion to terroced housing.
These estoblish requirements qnd recommendotions for oll new
homes thot receive Sociol Housing Gronts. Since April 2007, new Bg Andy Jobling andJulia Park, lwitt BernsteinAssoeiates

AJ 18.10.07 45