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COMPUTERIZATION OF SPIN PLAN AND

DETERMINA nON OF LABOUR NORM AT RING FRAME


CONSIDERING THE NET LOSS RECOVERY THROUGH
PIECING UP THE BROKEN ENDS OF YARN

MD. RAMZAN ALI

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION :HNGINEERING


BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY of ENGINt:ERING & TECHNOLOGY
DHAKA-IOOO
BANGLADESH
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COMPUTERIZATION OF SPIN PLAN AND


DETERMINATION OF LABOUR NORM AT RING FRAME
CONSIDERING TIlE NET LOSS RECOVERY TIIROUGH
PIECING UP THE BROKEN ENDS OF YARN

by

MD. RAMZAN ALI

II thesis submitted to the Department of Industrial and Production


Engineering (IPE), Bangladesh University of Engineering &
Technology, Dhaka in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
degree of Master of Engineering in Industria! and Production
Engineering.

DEPARTMENT OF INDUS'IRlAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOOY


DHAKA-IOOO
., BANGLADESH

JUNE 11, 1996
lJ" •

COMPUTERIZATION OF SPIN PLAN AND


DETERMINATION OF LABOUR NORM AT RING FRAME
CONSIDERING THE NET LOSS RECOVERY TIIROUGH
PIECING UP THE BROKEN ENDS OF YARN
by

MD. RAMZAN ALI


Accepted as satisfactory in partial fulfilment of requirements for
the degree of Master of Engineering in Industrial and Production
Engineering.

Approved to the style and content by

I. Dr. Ahaan Ali Khan (Chairman)


Associate Professor
Department of IPE
BUET

2. Dr. . F. M. Anwarul (Member)


Professor
Department of IPE
BUET

uL-,.~ (Member)
J. Dr. Ali N~a~ Khan
Counsellor & Head
Department of Testing, Quality Control'" Research
Textile Industries Development Centre{TIDC)
Nayar Hat, Sayar, Dhaka.

• •

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING


BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
DHAKA-lOOO

BANGLADESH

JUNE 11, 1996



CERTIFICATE

This is to ce~tify that this work has been done by me and it

was not submitted to elsewhere for the award of any degree or

diploma or for publication.

Supervisor •Author

"

r:
CONTENTS
Fagll.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi
ABSTRACT vi i
LIST OF FIGURES viii

LIST OF TABLES ix

CHAPTER TITLE
, INTRODUCTION
,
1.1 General Introduction
,
1.2 Present Situation of Spinning
,
Mills in Bangladesh
1.3 Aims and Objectives 9
1.4 Organisation of the Thesis 9

, STUDY OF RING SPINNING TECHNOLOGY H

2.1 Introduction H

2.2 Description of Machines


for Ring Spinning "
2.2.1 Blow Room

2.2.2 Carding

2.2.3 Dfllwing

2.2.4 Combing

3.2.5 Speed Frame/Simplex


"
2.2.6 Ring 26

2.3 Causes of Yarn Breaks in


Ring Spinning

2.4 Influence of End Breakages in 38


Ring Section

2.5 Importance of control and


Elimination of Yarn Breakage

,v
CHAPTER TITLE Page

3 SPIN PLAN 42

• 3 .,

3.2
'd uctlon
Intra

Parameters
.

of Spin Plan
42

43

U Machine Allotment
"
3.4 Requirement of Accessories 47

4 PREPARATION OF RING PRODUCTION TABLE (RPT) 52

4. 1 lntroduct ion

4.2 Input Pa;rameters of m

4.3 Preparation of • m 56

••• Output Elements of RPT

4.5 Interpretation of RoT 60

4.6 Applications of RPT (RPT)

5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR


FUTURE WORK

5.1 Conclusion 63

5.2 Recommendations for Future Works

J31BL IOGRAPHY 66

ANNEXURE-A 68

ANNEXURE-J3

ANNEXURE-C 81

v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authol' expresses his deep gratitude 8nd profound respect to


his supervisor Dr. Ahsan Ali Khan, Associate Professor,
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering, BUET for his
cont iouons encouragement, constant guidance and keen
supervision throughout the progress of the work. The author
deeply appreciates those time and efforts to make the work a
success.

The author also acknowledges his thanks and gratitude to Dr.


Ruhul Amin Sarker, Associate Professor, Department of
Industrial and Production Engineering, BURT for his suggestions
and advices.

The author is grateful to the officials of Bangladesh Textile


Mills Corporation (BTMC) and teachers of Textile Industry
Development Centre (TIOC) for their valuable advices and
suggestions from time to time.

Indebtedness is due to Mrs. Hosne Ara Begum, Lecturer (Tech.),


Bangladesh College of Textile Engineering & Technology for her
cordial cooperation by providing the author with essential
study materials.

Thanks are also due to all those nice people of TIDe and
Bangladesh College of Textile Engineering and Technology for
their help and whole hearted cooperation during the study of
the spinning process.

Finally, thanks to those who have helped the author directly or


indirectly during the different stages of this work.

The Author

-, Vl

,
-
ABSTRACT

Bangladesh IS one of the lest developed countries llnd its


textile sector has been declared as "thrust sector" for
industrial development. Creation of necessary backward linkage
by establishing sophisticated spinning mill is the precondition
to achieve the economic goals through developing the Textile
Sector.

End down or end breakage is one of the major problems that


reduces production and increases labour cost of spinning mills.
End breakage is an unavoidable phenomena during spinning and
accordingly a number of manpower is engaged to eliminate end
breakage by piecing up the broken ends. The number of side(s)
to be allocated per tenter (labour) at any end breakage rate
has been introduced in spin plan (determination of optimal
number of machines and accessories in all sections of spinning
mi 11) •

Spin plan is an essential but laborious and time consuming


task. To overcome the constraints a computeri:;:ed method has
been developed for spin plan which requires least time to
provide almost all required features.

A table has been prepared under the title "Ring Production


Table (RPT)"' containing some essential techno-managerial
indexes and instantaneous vivid features of ring production
data and also shows among others (interalia) the optimal labour
norm against the ring frames, revenue generation per day etc.

vii
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE # TITLE PAGE

2. 1a Flow Chart of a Ring Spinning Mill


"
2. 1b Flow Chart fo< Product ion of Cot ton Yarn
"
2.1 c Flow Chart fo< Production of Polyester Yarn ['
2.1d Flow Chart foc Production of poly-Cotton Yarn
"
Mechanism of Carding [9
2. 2

2.' Drafting

Mechanism
Mechanism of Draw Frame

of Speed Frame/Simplex
"
25
2.4

U Mechanism of Ring Spinning


"

Vl11
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE # TITLE

1.1 Contribution of Textile Sector to National 2


Export Earnings of Bangladesh

1.2 Demand Projection of Fabrics vis-a-vis Yarn 6


for Local Consumption and Export and Demand
Gap of Yarn and Fabrics

1.3 Growth of Spinning Mills and RMG Industries


in Bangladesh

2. 1 Tabular Presentation of Objectives of 13


Individual Section of Ring Spinning Mill

Machine Parameters Related to Production


Capacity of Individual Machine of Different
Sections

3.2 Machine Output Parameters Related to Production 45


Capacity of Individual Machine of Different
Sect ions

Requirement of Accessories in Ring Spinning


Mills

ix
CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION


Industrial development plays an important role on the economic

development of developing countries like Bangladesh and Textile

Industry is considered as pr iroe mover of industrial

development. Bangladesh has a historical background of Textile

Industry and at present it is an important industrial sector as


60% of the export earnings comes from this sector. This has

been possible as the export oriented Ready Made Garments (RMG)

industry has made an spectacular growth over tne last few

years.

Clothe is one of the five basic needs of human beings. It is


also the symbol of civilization, the key item to flourish the
beauty of human beings and used as safe-guard during movement

in unfavourable weather.


The contribution of Texti Ie Sector to National export earnings
is shown in Table iI 1.1. This table illustrates the importance

of textile sector in economic development of Bangladesh.

High quality fabrics are required for best quality garments,


TAllLE • 1. 1 CONTRIBUTION OF TEXTILE SECTOR TO NATIONAL
EXPORT EARNINGS OF BANGLADESH

(Figure in crore Taka)

EXPORT EARNING

CONTRIBUTION
SERIAL YEAR
TOTAL OF TEXTILES
NO.
TOTAL

1 1978-79 928.22 0.16 0.02

2 1985-86 2431.40 390.22 16.05

3 1990-91 6056.09 3138.21 51. 02

4 1991-92 7590.85 4572.21 60.23

5 1992-93 9257.54 5726.60 61.86

Source ITET Grand Convention Bulletin, 1995, derived


from the Data Bank of TSMU (Textile Strategic
Management Unit), Ministry of Textiles,
Bangladesh .

2
consequently high quality fabrics must be originated from high

quality yarns which are manufactured in spinning mill.

End breakage in spinning mills is an unavoidable occurrence

that deteriorates yarn quality and reduces production. No

spinning technology free from end breakage has yet been

developed in the world.

Broken ends are pieced up manually. The number of labours

required per machine depends on end breaks per hour and piecing

up capacity of labour. Conventionally, the number of labours

required per machine is determined by past experience which

sometimes found inaccurate. The number of machines required in

different sections (Blow Room, Carding, Drawing, Combing,

Simplex, Ring and Finishing), total production per shift, total

labour cost etc. are calculated manually which is much

laborious and time consuming. Recently, Computer Aided Data

Recording System, known as "Ring Data" has been developed to

monitor instantaneous information such as spindle speed, twist

per inch {TPIl, count, end breaks, total production and

efficiency of ring section. Though Ring Data is much effective

to monitor ring section, it requires considerable amount of

investment /lnd it does not provide any information regarding

optimal number or labours required per machine against present

end breakage rate and net loss recovered by piecing up of

broken ends of yarn in ring section.

3
1.2 PRESENT SITUATION OF SPINNING MILLS IN
BANGLADESH
Textile goods of Bengal, especially the "muslin" of Dhaka

(Dacca) was world famous until the beginning of eighteenth

century. lndustrial revolution in Europe and the political

defeat of Benga! crashed the textile supremacy of Bengal within

half a decade. At present Ready Made Garments (RMG) industries

contribute 60% of total export earnings of Bangladesh. But the


real foreign exchange earnings from export of garments from

Bangladesh is only 20-30% of the total value of exports due to

the dependence on imported fabrics and accessories. The

requirement of fabrics for the export-oriented garments

industries is about 1800 million metres for which only 3%

locally produced fabrics sre used. Moreover Bangladesh needs


more than 1300 million metres of fabric for domestic use for

her 112 million people.

The rcady-made garments industries are now growing rapidly dua

to cheap labour and favourable situation created by quota


system. Under MFN (Most Favoured Nation), Bangladesh currently

enjoys benefits from such a quota system. With the emergence of


World Trade Organisation (WTO) the MFN that currently governs

textile and clothing trade and quota system will be phased out
., by the year 2005. withdrawn of quota system would throw the

garments export from Bangladesh to open competition and reduce

....
- -',,-
4

.~
~
the CMT (Cutting, Making & Trimming) business of our RNG

industries. In that case, demand for locally produced quality

fabrics wi I 1 increase.

Considering the above facts, Textile Sector has been declared

as ~Thrust Sector" and it could be easily said in general that

textile is a potential industrial sector. But we have little

idea about the potentialities of different sub-sectors of

textiles and the development of different lIub-sectors

(Spinning, Weaving, Dying and Finishing) are not balanced.

The projected demand of fabrics vis-a-vis yarn for domestic

need and export through RNG by the terminal year 1994-95 of

FFYP (Fifth Five Year Plan) and onwards up to 1992-2000 is

shown in Table # 1.2.

The growth of spinning mills and RNG industries as shown in

Table' 1.3 indicates the importance of textile sector in

economic development of Bangladesh.

It would appear from the Table' 1.2 that the demand gaps of

yarn and fabrics during 1993-94 are 230.00 million kg and 1930

million metre respectively, which are expected to increase to

417.30 million kg and 3,710.00 million metres respectively by

1999-2000.

5
ODlAND PROJECTIOO OF FABRICS VIS-A-VIS YARN FOR l.OCAL
TABLE' 1.2
CONSlMPTHfi AND EXI'(lIIT AND ~ Gt.P OF YARN AND

v_
FABRICS

..
FABRIC (NILLIOO ME:rRES) (MILLla< KG)

YEAA IXMESTIC
"'" ""AI. PR<JOO DI>WID """, "n'" """""CW'
"""
,CflOO CW'
""" "" PR<JOO
"ro",
1000 2320 860 [460 2>8 91.33 [66
1992-93 1320
1380 1350 2730 soo 1930 30' 73.00 230
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1450
1520
1820
2000
3270
3520
840
880
2430
2640
,
363
391
113.7
113.7
'"m
2200 3800 930 2870 422 113.7 008
1996--97 1600
1680 2420 4100 970 3130 "6 113.7 342
1997-98
1998-99 1760 2060 4420 1020 3400 "[ 113.7 m
1999- 1850 2930 4780 1070 3710 m 113.7 m
2000
, L GIlIIIhlate a aOlIdewd 1111 beemm •• d to lnmlle b, l1 Oldtut a 1I1!,!,ltdeNnEIhll bm
"""
lumd ta dedi •• IIl'Idie Ie ililct al i"llllenlilion 01rIO rIles in ,lms.
2. Prodl,tioolml ollll!and !Iblies deell.eddlrin~ IllHllra, l~lHllml die t~~illi~~,
~l !t~,1 ~f p~bllcml~r lills, lacl of 10lti~i capil!1!iune!. cla~ll of ,om 10011lid Iud !00Il, 111inlalf
ollD publicmI., Iii!! lar prilitillliOll.

Source : ITlIT Grand Convention Bulletin, 1995, dedved from the


Data Bank of TSMU(Textile Strategic ManagementUnit),
Ministry of Textiles, Bangladesh.

6
TABT,E' 1.3 GROWTHOF SPINNING MILLS AND RNG INDUSTRIES IN
BANGLADESH

YEAR
".
'0.
NAME OF
SUBSECTOR 1947 1970 1972 1982 1992 1994

\.
.
Spinning
)
b)
'0.
No. of
of
• units ,
750
45
"
m
"
1094
lU

1883
'"
2099
,.
spindles(OOO)
Ready Made
""- - - 74 1481 1706
Ganllen t s (RMG)

Source ITET Grand Convention Bulletin, 1995, derived


from the Data Bank of TSMU (Textile Strategic
Management Unit), Ministry of Textiles,
Bangladesh.

7

The demand gaps of different textile products show that there

is a tremendous scope for creation of new capacity to attain

self-reliance in phases. Even to meet the present gap of yarn


lind fabrics, Bangladesh requires about 100 spinning mills each

with 25,000 spindles, 243 weaving mills each with 300 shuttles

or 120 shuttle less looms, Bnd 243 dyeing &: finishing units

each with processing capacity of 10 million meters per year.

The projected demand gaps show that the number of ml lis

required to be set up to meet the gaps of textile products by

1999-2000 will be 156 for yarn, 371 for grey fabrics and 371

for dyeing and finishing. Implementation of such a big number

of projects within such a short period will be difficult if

special efforts are not taken.

Since there exists huge demand of yarn against it's supply, the

import of yarn will always prevail over the market until and

unless the local production will be able to compete them in



terms of cost and quality. The known ways of minimizing the

cost are to reduce the wastage through rational utilization of

raw material and increase the labour productivity by improving

the services and performance of workers. II cost effective

labour norm in the ring frame can considerably reduce the

labour cost as well as product cost (yarn cost). Improper

breakage elimination or failure in piecing up of broken ends at

ring frame yields wastage, deteriorates quality of yarn and

reduces the productivity. lis such, it ultimately brings

8
financial loss to spinning mills, it is of great importance to

calculate the net loss recovery by end breakage elimination.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


On the basis of the discussions made above, the aims and

objectives of the present wot"k wet"e set up as follows:

1. Study of pt"ocess-technology in t"ing frame.

2. Study of causes of end bt"eakage in t"ing ft"ame and

its impact on pt"oduction.

3. Computet"ization of spin plan which includes

requirements of different machines in different

sections for a pat"ticulat" production target.

4. Preparation of "Ring Production Table (RPT)" to

determine some techno-managerial indexes and

inst.antaneous ring production featut"es (yarn

production rate, waste rate, pt"oduction pet" shift,

requit"ed number of labours per machine, total labour

cost, net loss recovered by piecing up of broken

ends etc.) without any computation work.

1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS


This thesis has been organized within five chapters. The

importance of spinning mills, the present status of spinning

mi lis of Bangladesh and the objectives of this thesis have been

9
described in chll.pter-I. A brief description of ring spinning

technology has been highlighted in chapter-II under the title

"Study of Ring Spinning Technology". Conventional method of


I spin plan and the computerized method of the same have been

described in chapter-III. The "Ring Production Table (RPT)" has

been prepared in chapter-IV. Chapter-V contains the concluding

remarles on this thesis and some recommendations for future

worles to increase production of ring section by reducing end

breakage rate and wastes.

10
ow

,
~,
CHAPTER-II

STUDY OF RING SPINNING


TECHNOLOGY

2,1 INTRODUCTION

Spinning is the process or processes used in production of spun

yarns or filaments. This term may apply to drafting and

twisting of natura! or man made fibres, to the extrusion of

filaments by spider or silk worms or to the production of

filaments from glass, metals or fibre forming polymers.

Continuous research in numerous directions applying modern

,science and technology bas created a number of methods for

processing fibres (natural or man made) slld production of

yarns. Some of these methods are in primary stage of

commercialization, and some are suitable for special type of

yarn snd rest fewer methods are applied commercially world wide

for production of spun yarn in large scale. An attempt has been

taken to describe spinning method used world wide for large

scale production of spun yarn, the Ring Spinning Method.


2.2 DESCRIPTION OF MACHINES . FOR RING
SPINNING

l Product ion of staple yarn by ring spinning method requires

different processing sect ions equipped wi th different

machineries. Table II 2.1 shows the objectives of different

sections of a ring spinning mill and Figure' 2.la, 2.lb, 2.1e,

and 2.1d represent the flow chart for production of different

types of staple yarns. The related machineries are described in

the following sections.

2.2.1 BLOW ROOM

In blow room, mixed cottons are fed as input to get lap of some

desired qualities. A number of operations are occurred on

fibres in this section as described below:

Cotton is passed from bales onto apron. Apron moves cotton to

blending apron. Blending apron has sharp spikes that raise

cotton until part of it is knocked off by roll. Cotton falls on


conveyor belt and is carried to next process. Lint cotton falls

on apron and passes in between feeder rolls to beater cylinder.


The rapidly whirling beater blades take off small tufts of

cotton, knock out trash, and loosen up the mass. The two screen

rolls are made of screen materia!, and air is sucked out of

them by fan. This draws the cotton from beater, and condenses
it on the surface of the screen rolls from which it is taken

12
TABLE t 2.1 : TABULAR PRESENTATION OF OBJECTIVES 0'

1 _.~ .-
Ml~in~ of !lale "I
lUI
INDIVIDUAL SECTION OF RING SPINNING

•• Cottoo
1.1"".,~ 4Hlo"",,' ."ple
2.T" .,nl ••l.e Co.,.
O~JEC"I'IYBS

(,lo•••• prope.ly.

,~,
-~
Mlxe4 lUI
Cott".
••

.~
IlawCotton

.
~. To pr04.lco bette. q"".ll ty of yarn a' ".J'
(••I".).

U"" looo" "lx.4 ••••• ,. To opon ~ (lb.e ••


Oott"" ~.To .-",e 'M " •• h.
J ."'0 .1" the fib< •••
4. To ••••.••
e ""H" •• Lap-Sheet.

c...dl""
'". ,.~
loTe ,,,",,,y, fino '<>Ah.
~-,
..
gb<l« f,b.".
3. To •• anye na". pr'."'"
4.To p."duCO "" ul •• • liyer.
-..
"
f".",•• _t.dal
' '.01' .
••
sUy""

n•.••• Fr-.o
(BoeaUr)
Slly.r

_. .~
I.To p.rolle' ,
fib< •••
~.T" blon4 •••4 1111tbe fibree.
3.To •••toe••• ei.M
4.1"0
_u I"'oth.
""if""," ellv •••
I1..~I
••
Sliv.r

Fo.Oooo"""- •••plll< I.To •eaove abo.t fibre •• Unif""",


Yarn only Sliye. 2. Te "".,yo fino •• "",h .n4 di ••t. .1lve,
'M nbce •.
'". F"..-r
Co.min.
3. To
•• To
p••• lI.l and .tonl.ht
-,<e ••••lfe ••• allY.c .

-'"
","awl•• ie""l., I.To •••• "ell ••• the flb< ••. u.it"•.••
FInI.he.

01"1>1."
.Ii,e.

n.Ho ••••
.llv ••
l.n.o.i't tho _'""i.l.
2. 'ns •• t e._il -_.
J.T" -..l<e u.lfo ••••• Ii'or.

-'
t".i.t. ,_.
.liver

Revi""

.~
3.To -.1<. bolobi. ".lIh •"vi •• of co.leel

Rln. Rovl., I . n•• ftI"lI

.~".••
(.tt.n"""
2.1••• «10. "f •••iet
ion).
•t,en.th"" V~n .
Va,n.,

--
thO dll,J tube/b<>bbln.
~.To".inO
~""
Che•• ~ ,~ I.To tran.f •• the yarn fr"", rin. cop to A I•••.•
~ r •••• on
,,1.41•• ...""-ll •. con.'
~

T'O'iot!n.1
1l<>nbll. '-
O~.

..
'..,
~
1.T" I•••• t
3.1"0fo'o the
'"i."
'".
Folded
,.m
._, ""
• ~,.
"iodino
Vor.
"
~ Copo
..
, •.•••e ,,",cb.e ('" ,.ht ,
,
J.Tn r<m<>V~ f.ulto pro""'"
).To .t bette, ".ll,
,., M'
., '"
YArn.'"
..
1.70 tr •.•• fo•• the , •••• r",,, dOlI copl tub.
'b.).
yarn. , "
, r •••

R.nil.~

BunolI""
r •••.n on
~,.
Hoob
LTo 01 ••.•
~.To _u
-'M

1.70 Mote bunol••


oI.be.
(IUU yd.o) ench,
Hank.

au."J •
•• lb ••

BAleof
"

llaill.J Bu.dle I.To •••b • "'le fo•••• rketi ••.••
••• lb••

13
RAW COTTON
Type-l, Type-2, .•.

1 Mixing

Blow Room
of Raw Cotton Mixed Cotton

Carding Sliver

Draw Frame Sliver


Breaker

Lap Former Lop


co c
o
a ~ Comber Sliver
a ;
Drawing Sliver

D:ra'W Frll.llIt! Uniform


FInIsher Sliver

Simple:>( Roving

Ring Yarn

Ctlelll?t! on Cone
WIndIng

Twisting Folded Yarn

Cone Winding Yarn on Cone

Reeling flank Packing

BUDd 1 ing Bundle

Baling Press Bail'

FIGURE # 2.la: FLOW CHART OF A RING SPINNING MILL

14
COTTONYARN

Carded Combed

Blow Room Blow Room

I Carding
I Carding

Drawing Pre-drawing
(1st Passage)

cap Former
Drawing
( 2nd Passage)
Comber I
Drawing-l

Simplex Drawing-ll

I Ring Frame Simple", I


Cone Winding Ring Frame

I Ree ling Cone Winding I



Bundling Reeling

I Bal ing Bundling I


Bal ing

FIGURE # 2.1b FLOW CHART FOR


PRODUCTION OF COTTON
YARN

15
POLYESTER

Blow Room

Carding

I Drawing-I

Drawing-II

I
Drawing-III

Simplex

Ring Frame

I Cone Winding

Cone Packet

FIGURE # 2.1c FLOW CHART FOR PRODUCTION


OF POLYESTER YARN

16

POLY-COTTON YARN

POLYESTER COTTO'

Blow Room Blow Room

Carding Carding

Drawing-I Pre-Drawing

Lap ormer

Comber

Drawing-I I

Drawing-III

SilDplex

Ring I

L Cone Winding

I
Cone Packet

FIGURE # 2.1d FI.OW CHART FOR PRODUCTION


OF POLY-COTTON YARN

17
and passed on by the small rolls. Air suction through cotton

_\ takes out dirt and trash. Conveyor belt passes cotton to

another type of bell.ter. From beater, the cotton passes to a

conveyor and is carried to picker. Cotton in a loose mass

enters picker, which is a series of beaters and screen rolls.

At the final output of beater and screen system, cotton has

again been formed into a sheet or lap. At this point, the

"evener" operates to feed more or less cotton to make Isp

perfectly uniform as it is either wound up into a lap roll on

winding rolls and then taken to the carding process, or

conveyed as a lap by a chute feeder directly to the card.

2.2.2 CARDING

Carding (Figure' 2.2) is called the key or heart of spinning.

Here the fibres are opened mostly to a single hair state. The

short broken immature fibres, naps, remaining dust and trashes

after blowing process are removed here to the maximum extent.

Fibres are also straightened, paralleled, individualized and

blended to SOme extent here and take the shape of rope

(sliver). If these functions are not done, it will not be

possible to arrange the fibres in proper order during spinning

to produce a clean and regular yarn. The above functions are

only done in carding machine.

The scutcher lap rests on the driven lap roll and the sheet of

18
,-- J __52

~
•••
1 3
11
1 - Lap Ta.ble
2 - Lap Roller
J - Mote Knife
4 - Tll.ker~in/ Licker-in
5 - Cylinder
6 - Top Flat
1 - Doffer
8 Cross Roll/Ply comb
9 - calender Roller
10 - Trumpet
11 - Ca.ne

FIGURE # 2.2 : MECHANISM OF CARDING


I fibres mOVeS forward to pass between the feed roll and the feed
-i

, plate. The wire covered licker-in detaches tufts from the sheet

held by the feed fall and feect plate. The trash is ejected with

the help of mote knives as the fibre tufts are carried by the

1, teeth of licker-in toward", the cylinde:r. The cylinder is

covered with flexible wire clothing on the olper card and

metallic wire clothing on the newer high production card. The

faster running cylinder strips the fibres off the licker-in,

carrying them towards the revolving flats.

The flats are also covered with flexible, semi-rigid, or rigid

metallic wire; and since the points of the flats are facing the

points of the cylinder, carding action takes place between the

two surfaces. The fibres in the small tufts are separated

(openings), and the faster moving cylinder carries the fibres

forward. The flats accumulate fibres and trash particles and

these so called strips are combed off the flats as they leave

the cylinder.

The smaller doffer is again covered with flexible wire (on

older card) and with rigid metallic wire (on the high

production card). It revolves much slower and since the points

of the clothing are opposed to those of the cylinder, the

fibres are transferred to the doffer.

The web from the doffet is laken off by the oscillating doffer

20
-', comb on the low production card of by different l'oller type
• doffing arrangements on high production card. The web is then

drown through II trumpet by the calender rolls, and the

resulting sliver passes through the coiler head and is

., deposited in to II can .

2.2.3 DRAWING •
The combination of several slivers from cards or comber is

performed by draw frame (Figure. 2.3). It 18 the process of

straightening and paralleling the fibres in the direction of


the strand. It also performs the function of blending by

combining several slivers. called doubling, and reducing the

mass of fibres in the strand without breaking the continuity.


This reduction is achieved by processing slivers through

several pairs of rollers running at different surface speeds.

It is customary to employ two drawing operations after carding

and two after combing.

More than three pair of cans that were filled at cards feed

each drawing from card delivery. The spoons are connected so

that if anyone of the six slivers from a can should break, the

mllchine automatically stops. This prevents making uneven yarn

lllter. Each of four sets of rolls runs successively faster than

preceding set. The last set runs approximately six times as

fast as the first set; consequently, sliver coming out is the


21
1 _ Drafting Rollers

,
\
- _&
881;:" (:)
'0
- ~

;-- •
•••••
;-- -1 Sliver
0",
V,
V, V,>Vz>VI
V,

a. Drawing by 3-over-3 drafting system

1 - Drafting Rollers

"

8 Slivers
;0
"- -
I sliver
00'

V, V,
V,

b. Drawing by 3-over-4 drafting System

FIGURE # 2.3 : DRAFTING MECHANISM OF DRAW FRAME

22
same size as each one of six going in, but is attenuated to six

times the length per minute. The sliver is neatly coiled agair.

in roving can by coUer head. The sliver is now much more

uniform and fibres are much more nearly parallel. The sliver is

now ready for roving frames. In actual practice, drawing is

usually repeated.

The fibres in card sliver are oriented in all directions. They

are invariably crimped and some are also bent back on

themselves. For processing at subsequent stages, the fibres

must bl! straightened and made to lie parallel to their

neighbours and to the axis of the sliver. Successive passages

through the draw frame do this very effectively.

The practice of feeding several slivers side by side through

the machine and recombining them at the front allows of a very

thorough blending of fibres in the individual slivera, and thus

makes the final sliver more uniform than card sliver in fibre

constitution along its length.

This same doubling improves the regularity of the final sliver

by averaging out weight variations existing in slivers fed to

the drawing.

23

2.2.4 COMBING
The introduction of the drawing process "enabled spinners to

produce finer yarns because of the parallelism of the fibres

and also because of the greater regularity resulting from the

doubling that occurred at the draw frame. Yet there were still

limitations to the finest count to be spun because the cottons

in their carded form contain trashy material, naps, and other

fibre entanglements, which limited the fineness attainable, and

moreover, were regarded as yarn, defects. To overcome this

detriment, means were sought to get rid of the cotton yarn of

these defects by improvements in the processing called combing.

In combing operation, fine toothed combs continue straightening

the fibres until they are arranged with such a high degree of

parallelism that the short fibres, called noil, are combed out

and comparatively separated from the longer fibres.

2.2.5 SPEED FRAME/SIMPLEX

The objectives of speed frame (Figure' 2.4) are to draft,

twist and successive doubling to reduce variation in weight per

unit length. Sufficient twist is given to enable the material

to pass from the creel to the drafting system without

stretching.

Sliver cans from draw frames are fed between three sets of

drafting rolls. Each following set of rolls runs faster than

24
J

o
o
!~ 2

,, ',,

I Sliver cane
2 Photo cell
) Draft ing rollers
••. Flyer
5 Bobbin
6 Spindle
7 Roving

(o'IGURE # 2.4 : MECHANISM OF SPEED FRAME/SIMPLEX

25
preceding set. This pulls sliver and thins it down, making

fibres nearly parallel. The spindle turns flyer and is driven

at a constant speed. The front rolls (nearest flyer) are set at

a speed that gives strand coming out of the rolls a

predetermined number of turns of twist per inch as it moves

along between rolls and flyer. The bobbin is driven by a source

separate from gear that drives spindle and flyer. The bobbin is

regulated to turn automatically at a speed sufficiently faster


,
than flyer, which causes roving to wind on bobbin at same rate

it is delivered by front roll.

,
The mechanism of driving the bobbin is so arranged that at the

end of each layer the traverse changes direction and so lays

the next layer on top of the proceeding layer. Each layer is

shortened in traverse so that the bobbins have tapered ends,

which provide stability.

2.2.6 RING FRAME


I
The ring spinning frame completes the manufacture of yarn by
,
drawing out the roving, inserting twist and winding the yarn on

bobbins - all in one operation. Ring frame is faster process

used for yarn manufacturing.

The roving on bobbins is placed in the ring frame (Figure II

2.5) where it passes through several sets of rollers running at

successively higher speed and is finally drawn out and then

26

!"'\
4
,
6.o '(

- ~C) \.
-....c;;:
5

/
.., 1 - Cree 1
2 - Roving Bobbin
/"" \--6
•••• 3 - Roving Guide
I
4 - Drafting Rollers
5 -
6 - Yarn
Yarn Guide I
7 - Ring
8 - Traveller
I
9 - Ring Bobbin \
10 - Spindle ,
1
\
11 - Bolster

,
10

_._.. --F-'IGURE-#-2:5-:- MECHANISM-OF-RING--SPINNINO- 1t~_

)
I
I
I
simultaneously inse~ts the required amount of twist and win~s
,
the spun yarn onto bobbin. The principle for spinning is the

same as that used for roving except that the operation is mo~e
I
refined and a ring and traveller are used instead of the flyer.
I
From bobbin roving is red between 5ets of draft iog rolls
I
to

draw strand down to its final desired size. The spindle turJs
I
bobbin at a constant speed. The front set of rolls is adjusted
I
to deliver yarn at a speed sufficient to insert desired amount
I
of twist as strand moves along. The traveller glides ,
freel,y

around the ring. The tension caused by drag of traveller ,


cause"s

yarn to wind on bobbin at same rate of speed as it is delivereo ,


by front rollers.

The operations connected with the function of a ring frame ar~

mainly:

CREELING: The main component parts of different creelings arJ

creel and roving guide.


I
I
Creel: First of all roving bobbins are mounted on the creel of

the ring frame. The function of the creel is to hold the rovinJ
I
bobbins over the roller beam within a convenient height (about.
I
6 feet) i.e within reach of tenter so that he can easily handle
l
the roving. The creel must permit free running of the rovingl

bobbin with slight tension on it. Many types of creel arel


,
available. Among them "Umbrella creel" is probably the best'

28
I
I
I
type. I
Roving Guide: The guides are mounted at right angle to a fllt
I
bar called traverse bat. The object of the guides is to help
I
the feed of the roving correct ly at the hi te of the back rolls
I
and the traverse motion moves the strand almost over the entire
I
length of the bite and thus prevents the drafting rolls from ,
being grooved at a particular place. I
I
DRAFTING ZONE: The drafting zone mainly consists of bottdm

rolls, top roils, roller stands, top arm, apron etc.


,
Bottom rolls: The bottom rolls are similar to that of a fl~

frame, only that they ate slightly smaller in diameter. Thle

rolls are made of high class steel and are case hardened. Th~

flutes are cut with highest possible accuracy. The depth of thl
I
flutes must be very accurate and uniform.
I
Roller stands: Roller stands carry the bottom rolls. The rolls
I
are recessed in bearings of the Roll-stands, which are apart
I
every four, six, or eight spindles. The roll bearings
"" ,
housed on the roll stands.

THREADGOlDE: The component part next to the drafting zone i~


,
the tread guide, whose function is to guide the strand
l
delivered by the front rolls down to the tiny little element in
I
the shape of capi tal letter "c" termed as traveller mounted

loosely on the ring.


I

29
Thread guides in use are of various designs, the main objectlof

which Is to ensure security of the thread in the loop andlto

prevent from coming out of it during operation and at the same


I
time to offer an easy access to the plecer in getting the
I
thread through the loop while piecing up the ends. The end ,of
I
the thread guide needle project ing down wards is cal led snai I.
I
RING: The ring are made of low carbon steel, that is, sJft

steel in the form of a bar which is moulded into a ring sh~pe

either by bending and welding or by piercing and rolling or IbY

pressing by means of dies and then the stock is given t!he

desired ring size approximately by specially designed ,


lath'es
,
and tools which turn out the projection as ring flange. The ,
ring has very hard surface coating and soft core. This soift

core is necessary to avoid brittleness. Finally the rings are


I
given high polishing and finishing to become ready for the
I
traveller and to let it work smoothly without much strain due
I
to undue frictional resistance.
I
SPINDLE: Spindle is an assembly of spindle blade, bolster Lr

insert and bolster case. The insert is housed in th" bolstlr


I
case and the spindle blade is recessed in the insert. The most
very
,
important of the three is the bolster or insert. It pays a

important part for efficient running of the spindle at hilh


I
spced ranging from 9000 rpm to 25000 rpm without a~y
I
perceptible vibration. It also holds the bobbin some what

30
loosely but tight enough to prevent from any slippage so that
I
I
the bobbin can be lifted out of the spindle with little

exertion. With the help of ring traveller the'spindle inse+s

twist in the yarn, being delivered by the front rollers. lIt


also carry out another important function of winding the
I
twisted thread on the bobbin with help of ring and traveller.
I
I
2.3 CAUSES OF YARN BREAKS IN RING SPINNINP
I
The counting of end breaks is probably the best known and most
spinning performance once
I
widely used method of measuring
I
phy~lcal testing of yarn to meet Ii specification is completed.
I
The counting of end breaks may be divided into:
I
I
(s) Breakages classified according to cause, nature

position, to establish a possible trend and rectify

fault.

I
(b) All breakages irrespective of cause during a given

expressed as breaks per hour of 100 hours per


I
period

quoted number of spindles.


I
I
I
faults due to poor or insufficient blending, too much re-worked

waste, insufficient cleaning and opening of cotton, inadeqUat!

control of blow room and card processes will be apparent bJ

consistent high end breaks and miss-shaped bobbins. This will

31
I
I
vary as material passes through in batches but unfortunately
!
nothing can be done about faults once the material has reached
I
the ring frame. I
I
Causes of end breakage at the Tiog frame fall into tto
categories

(a) Technological
I
(b) Machine defect !
I
(" ) Technological Causes :- Most of the technological

of end breaks life liS follows I


1. Incorrect Twist: The use of a low Twist Multiplier
I
(TM) may ClIlise excessive end breakage. Recommende~
.,
fanges of TM for warp aod weft yarn are 4.0 - 4',5

lIod 3.0 - 4.0 respectively.


I
Slubbing through: This is caused because of
I
excessive high roving twist, bad piecing at previoul
I
processes "., improper configuration of drafting

zone. I
,. Stretched Roving' Results from faulty winding at the
I
speed frame,

roving in the creel.


or too low twist and stretching
°1
I

32
I
I
4. Incorrect Roller Settings: This may be caused as a
I
result of large variation in length of staPl~

(mixing raw material of widely different


I
,material

staple length) or faulty roller re-settings.


I
I
I

5• Incorrect Break Draft: This is caused possibly duJ


I
to variation in bulk of material in break draft'

zone, and thus changes in total draft. I


,
6. Travellers Flying off: Excessive speed, incorrect]
I
geometry or weight of travellers can bring about.

travellers fly-off. [
I
I
7. Traveller Flutter: This happens in operating Withj

the travellers those are very light or of faulty


I
sizes.
I, •

I
8. Excess ive Yarn Tension: Heavy trave llers, high 1
spindle speed, faulty geometry of travellers etc.

may produce excessive high tension of yarn at the I


zone of balloon.
I
9. Bobbin Jumping: It results from ,incorrect taper of

tube. loosely fitted damaged tubes on spindles.

10. Incorrect Robbin Diameter: The relation between the

33
tube, bobbin diameter, ring dj~'lI)eter i,

important. The tangential lead angle should! be

approximately 30". Large variation from this fig6re

will trouble o.t the beginning of the set.

11. Bobbin Rubbing by the inner side Ring: This

caused due to count variation, slack winding


,
oed

wrong replacement of travellers.

Incorrect Atmospheric Conditions: Any deviation

the ,ange of temperature and humidi ty recommenced

for ring section may cause end breakages.

13. Low Yarn Tension: Very light travellers, mix~d

travellers or slack tape etc. result low ya~n

tension and i1 to hit the separators causlng


.,
1"

ends down.

14. Careless Working Methods: The end breakages at the

ring frame will reflect the quality of material

into the ring frame creel. If operatives in blow

room, on cards, draw f,ame Or speed frames are

careless and produce defective material, the end

breakages at the ring frame will be increased and

efficiency and quality be deteriorated. Each process

takes the material from the previous process and

34
I'
I
converts it into what the next process needs. Thus

any defect once produced clln not be eradicated dt

the finishing stage. Therefore care and attenticin

should be paid at stage or section of defect')s

origin. Material irregularities that are produced ~t

the earlier stage may also cause to ends-down at ttie

ring frame.

(b) Machine Defects: Machine defects which may be the causes ,

of end breakage in ring frame are as follows -

Stretched Roving This happens due to sticking ,

bobbin holders, fly in the bearing Or around the

cree 1 pug.
I
I
slubs: It Is resulted from the faulty back guides
2.
I
which collect fly and periodically allow it to be
,
carried through in a lump. Dirty or fly-covered

these cause
I
rollers have the same effect, and all
I
end breakage.
I

3. Grooved (Worn) Rollers: Roller groovlng due to


,
inadequate roller changing schedule, defective

traverse mechanism or intermittent roller movement

may clluse roller lapping resulting ends-down of

yaTn.

3S
4. Roller Lapping: Defective roiler covering, incorrect

front roller off-set, ineffective roller clearers,

worn Out rollers, improper roller weighting, blocked

pneuma fill clearers etc. may cause roller lapping

which bring about end-downs.

5. Worn Rings Worn out rings which is generally

caused as a result of using burnt travellers and

improper cleaning may also be responsible for end

breakages.

6. Dirty Rings: Accumulation of fly, wax, etc. on the

underside of flange restricting t rave II er

movement may also cause the breakage of end in the

ring frame.

7. Worn out Travellers: Worn out travellers frequently

fly off causing ends-down.

8. Incorrect lappet setting causes irregular spinning

tension that allows the balloon to catch tube or

bobbin, which ultimately results in end breakage. I


o. Improper setting of rings in the ring rail (such as
I
inclined rings) will cause irregular tension and I
lravell"r fluttering and thus end breakl:\ge. I

36
>D. Incorrect spindle setting (not in the centre of

ring) will cause tension variation and the bobbin


I
may touch the ring.
I
11. Fly accumulation inside or out beneath the sPindll

wharve will cause spindle speed


...
variation, Irreguiar
I
twist and slack winding resuiting end breakage.

l'. Dry Spindle: Inadequate lubrication increases the ,,


viscosity causing spindle drag, spindle wearing and
I
increase power consumption. All such "piodle defects

are in favour of end breakages.


I
I
ll. Damaged Bobbin: Tubes or bobbins which are damaged\

can give rise' to spindle height and wobble thel

bobbins which should be taken off /lod discarded tOl


reduce the ends <lown.

14. Spindle Tape Slipping: The spindle tape slipping

may occur due to contamination with flyer, oil or

loss of tension. Spindle tape sl ippage may caUSe end

breakages.
I,

In general, only two causes of yarn breakage in ring spinning, I


either (i) the strength of yarn is too low to enable it to

withstand the normal tension; or (ii) the tension is too great

37
•••

for the normal strength of the yarn, whatever the phenomena

responsible to create these two causes.

2.4 INFLUENCE OF END BREAKAGES IN RING


1
SECTION
Yarn manufacturing mi I1s are influenced by end breakage in ring
I
frame in the following contents - I
i) Production :- Yarn production of spindles with broken ~" ~ ..,t
,
is zero, therefore increase of end breakage dccreaSC.5

total ring production.

ii) Waste :- The fibres delivered by the front rollers of rin! ,

frame Rrc sucked by the suet ion tube and collected a~

pneuma fill waste. In most cases, broken ends create


I
roller lapping, and roller lapping produces waste which J
commonly known as "bonda". I
iii) Labour Cost :- A considerable number of labours (known as
I
tenter) is required to eliminate yarn breakage in rinJ
I
frame. High yarn breakage rate naturally calls fori

increased number of workers for breakage elimination, and


I
consequently labour cost is increased.
I
,
iv} Yarn Quality :- With each end breaklJlge a knot is added ad

piecing up of broken ends, thus defects are increased in

terms of irregularity in linear density and visual

38
I,
I
I
I
I
aspects. Again the usable wastes produced in ring section
as a result of end breatages are mixed with raw cotton i~
I
blow room. Excessive waste utilization with raw cotton

deteriorates yarn qual fty. t


I
v) Fibre Processing Cost :- Wastes produced in ring sectial

all the necessary costs involved in blow room to


,
contain
simplex. Though the useable wastes are mixed with Hi~ ,
cotton in blow room, it absorbs all the processing cost! ,
for the second time. Not only this, wastes disturb smooth'
I
and normal processing tempo of fibres in all sections and

reduce overall efficiency of every scction. Therefore end

breakages increase fibre pro~essing cost through


I
increasing labour cnst and wastes recycling.
I
vi} Yarn lmplemcntat ion Rate :- Waste means loss
l
Of

production, thus increasing waste reduces the yarnl

implementation rate.
I
I
2.5 IMPORTANCE OF CONTROL ANDI
ELIMINATION OF YARN BREAKAGE +
upon
. . I
lt s
The productivity of a ring frame depends primarily

spindle speed, linear density of yarn, twist multiplier and

efficiency, which in turn would be decided by end breakage ratel


l
lind side allocation to tenterS. The high end breakage rate

increases the workload of a tenter and his cycle time also. As

39
I
I
I
I
a result higher proportion of spindles remains unattended after
I
every patrol cycle. This may lead to a situation when a large
I
number of spindles will become idle and then the ring frame ,
wi 1I have to be stopped. If the end breakage rate is lower than,
the manageable rate, then either the front roller speed can b~

increased or more sides can be allotted to a tenter. Thu~


I
reduction in end breakage rate through quick breakage
\
elimination or controlling the process can give higher ~achine

and/or labour productivity.

Yarn breakage rate can be controlled by removing the causes of



yarn breakage as described in section 2.3. But it is observed
that in presence of all possible highest measures, end breakag~

is an unavoidable phenomena during spinning by ring frame. ~

number of tenters should be employed to eliminate yarn breakage!


I
and the allocated number of sides per labour depends upon the!

yarn breakage rate and piecing up capacity of the tenters.

The piecing up cost of broken ends in ring frame is significant I


and it should be reflected either in spin plan or in ringl

production table (Chapter-IV) . Another important and I


interesting matter is to determine ",' loss recovery ~

through piecing up of broken ends. This will justify the

employment of workers (tenters~ in the ring section and will

help management in working out labour norm in the ring section.

As a mat tcr of fact, labour cost of tenters wi II then be

40
,
~
I
the ring frame
I
shou~ld
treated as an index to decide whether
I
keep either on production or idle.
t
I
'I
I
I
I
I
<

I
I
I

II
I
I
I
I
I
I
!
I
I,
I

,
I
41
I
I
I
CHAPTER-III!
I

SPIN pLAN
I
I
I
3.1 INTRODUCTION I
.
f tbres
I
As described earlier, manufacturing of yarn from
I
requires a number of processing sections such as blow room,
I
carding, drawi,.ng, combing, simplex, ring and finishing section,s

in successive order. The production capacity of each section

must have close relation with target production of yarn of

different counts. The number of machines required in each


I
section foc di fferent counts determined '0 that optimal
""
utili:r;ation of m." power
."' machine i, establ iShed~
I
Determination

required in
of
different
exact number

sections
of
to
machines

meet target
."' accessories

production of
I

I
yarn is known as SPIN PLAN. It is essential to develop a SPI,,!

PLAN before starting the production of an yarn of specific'



characteristics. In all the spinning mills in Bangladesh, the'
,
necessary outputs of spin plan are calculated with the help of
I
simple arithmetical operations by calculator. It is a time

consuming and laborious job. With the change of an input or

expected output value the whole calculation may need to be

redone. Actually it takes much valuable time of top technical

personnel. In order to get rid of such trouble an attempt has

been taken to develop an improved variant of spin plan

t.
,
personal computer. This computerized
calculation by

calculation
using
will readily provide all essentIal
,.
method of
,
outputs of spin plan soon after the entry of input data. Once

the programme is prepared, a simple computer operator can dlso


l
determine the spin plan provided input data are suPPlied to
I
him.

3.2 PARAMETERS OF SPIN PLAN


Preparation of spin plan involves a number of parameters. These

parameters are of two types; namely, machine parameters and

machine output parameters.

Machine Parallleters : Machines used in processing of fibres ~to

manufacture yarn have limited production capacity. The

production capacity of machines varies from manufacturer ,to

manufacturer. The parameters those directly related ,to

production capacity of different machines involved in different


sections are shown in Table f 3.1.

Machine output parameters: The production capacity of each

machine also depends on quality and condition of the output of

every machine. The output parameters of different machines in

different sections sre shown in Table' 3.2.

43
I

TABLE t 3.1 MACHINEPARAMETERSRELATED


CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUAL TO
MA~~~~~CTI~~
DIFFERENT SECTION
I
SECTION MACHINE PARAMETERSRELATED TO ONn SIGNIFICANT
PRODUCTION CAPACITY VALUE

Blow I. t.,
I.,roller diameter inch 10
Room 2. roller speed
3 • Machine efficiency ,"m 10-12
80
,

Carding I. Doffer diameter inch 27-30


2. Doffer speed "m 45
3. W,b draft
4. Machine efficiency ,
- 1.1-1.5
85
Drawing I. Front roller diameter inch 1.125
2.
3•
Front
No. of
roller
delivery
speed "m
-
2000-2800
2
4. no. of passage
Machine efficiency ,
- 2

I.,
5.
I. Delivery roller diameter inch
"
18
former 2. Delivery roller
efficiency
speed
,"m 90-140

Combing
3. Machine
I. No. of nips per min
"
280
2. Feed length inch 0.25
3• No. of laps feed - 8
4. No. of delivery - 2
5. Machine efficiency % 75
.
Simplex I. Spindle speed "m 1400
2. No. of spindles
3 • Machine efficiency ,
- 12.
75
Ring I. Spindle speed "m 20000 I
2. No . of spindles -
3 • Machine efficiency

432
93-95 I

44
,
TABLE t 3.2 MACHINE OUTPUT PARAMETERS RELATED TO
PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUAL MACHINE
OF DIFFERENT SECTION6 I

SECTION INPUT OUTPUT PARAMETERS SIGNIFICANT


VALUE
NAME UNIT

Blow Textile L eo, ounce/ 12-16


Room fibres yards I
2, Waste % H
I
Carding eo, L Sliver hank 0.14-0.2
2, web draft ~ 1.1-1.5
J . Waste % 2~6 I
Drawing Card L Sliver hank 0.14-0.2 I
Sliver 2. Waste % H

eo, grain/
""
Former
Sliver L

2. Waste
yards
%
'"
1 ,

Combing I", L SI iver hank 0.14-0.2


12-20 I
2. Noi! %

Simplex Sliver L Roving hank 1.6~2.2


2. Twist factor ~ 0.75-1. 3 I
J. m m 0.94-1. 92
,
Roving
•• Waste %

Count
1
12-82
,
Ring L Yarn
2. Twist factor ~ 3.0-4.5
J . Tn m ~
,
•• Waste % 2~J

45
3.3 MACHINE ALLOTMENT
The number of machines required in different sections to meet
the target production of yarn of different counts can be

determined by two methods:

(a) Conventional Method

(b) Computerized Method

(al CONVENTIONAL METHOD In this method, the number of

machines required is determined by manual calculation. Th.


procedures followed in tbis method are:

i) At first, the required or target production of yarn


is calculated or collected from production manager
of the mill.

ii} The production capacity of a single machine I",

determined considering all the parameters of spin

plan.
ii) The number of machines required i. different

sections are calculated dividing target or

required production by the production capacity of II.

si~gle machine i~ respective section.

Illustration of conventional method for Spin Plan is attached

in ANNEXURE-A. This is a laborious and time consuming method


and it requires highly experienced top technical personnel.

46

(b) COMPUTBRIZEDMETHOD: In this method, a computer program
,
has been developed to eliminate the manual calculation required

in conventional method of Spin plan. This method requires the

parameters of spin plan as input variables in the program and


the number of machines required for each section is displayed

as output of the program, and thus eliminates the manual

calculation of conventional method of Spin Plan.

Illustration of computerized method for spin plan is attached

in ANNEXURE-B. In this method, all computational works are done


by personal computer, so it is a very much faster method and

Spin Plan cao be done by any computer literate person.

3.4 REQUIREMENT OF ACCESSORIES


A number of accessories (product containers) such as lap rod,

can, bobbin, cone, trolley etc. (Table' 3.3) are required in

each section to transfer material from one section to

successive section. Inadequate accessories may Keep the

machines idle; on the other hand, excessive accessories may

create bottle necK in production system lind create waste of


,
accessories. Thus determination of exact number of accessories

is essential for smooth operation of each section and

continuous production.

The number of accessories required increases with increasing

the number of machines in respective section. A typical method

47
TABLE t 3.3 REQUIREMEffTJ OF ACCeSSORIES OF
SPINNING MILLS

NAMEOF ACCESSORIES SECTION WHERE REQUIRED

eo, Rod Blow Room, Carding


Coo Carding, Drawing,
Combing, Simplex
Roving Bobbin Simplex, Ring
Ring COR Ring, Finishing
Cone Finishing
Trolley Ring, Finishing

48
model for determinlltion of required number of Ilcces,mries'hils

been illustrated below.

The following mathematiclll formulae may be used to calculat~

the number of accessories required in spinning mill

I. SLIVER CAN Sliver cans are required in the following

sections -

Il.carding to drawing-I (Can Size: At X A2)

Total number of sliver cans required = Number of cards X

2 + Number of draw frames X Number of feeds/draw

frame{n) X 2.

b. Drawing to lap former (Can Size : Bt X B2)

Total number of cans required = Number of draw frames X


,
Number of delivery /draw frame X 2 + Number of lap former
•X Number of feeds/lap former(48) X 1.10.

c. Comber to drawing~I (Can Size: Cl X c21


,
Total cans required = Number of comber X Number of,

delivery/comber(2) X 2 + Number of draw frame X Number

of feed/draw frame(32) X 2.

49
d. Drawing-I to drawing-II (Clln Size: Dl X D2l

Total cans required = Number of draw frames for drawing-I

X Number of delivery/draw frame X 2 + Number of draw

frames for drawing-II X Number of delivery/draw frame(J2)

X ,.

e. Drawing-II to simplex (Can Size: El X E2l

Total cans required = Number of draw frame for drawing -II

X Number of delivery/draw frame X 2 + Number of simplex X

Number of feed/simplex X 1.10.

ROVINGBOBBIN Roving bobbins are required in simplex and

ring frame.
Total number of roving bobbins required = Number of

simplex X Number of spindles/simplex(124) X 2 X 1.10 +


Number of ring frames X Number of spindles/ring frame X

1.10.

3. IU1!9: BOBBIN: Ring bobbins are required in 'ring frame and

cone winder.
Total ring bobbins required = Number of ring frames X

Number of spindles/ ring frame X 3.5.

Cones are required in cone winder and reel ing


••
machine.

Total number of cones required = Number of cone winder

50
machines X Number of cone spindles/machine( 120) X 2 +1
(Number of reeling machines X No. of cone feed/machine(20l."

X 2) X 3.

,

I

51
CHAPTER-IV
,
PREPARATION OF RING
PRODUCTION TABLE (RPT) ,

4.1 INTRODUCTION
Manufacturing of yarn from staple fibres by ring spinning

method is performed by Ring Frame. Thus the production capacity

of yarn manufacturing mill is limited by the production

capacity of ring section. A laborious calculation is required

to determine the production capacity of ring section. A

computer program has been developed to prepare a Ring


Production Table (RPT) so that ring production can be

determined without or least calculation.

4.2 INPUT PARAMETERS OF RING PRODUCTION


TABLE (RPT)
The following parameters have been considered as inpu~

variables of the ring production table (RPT) :

ENtl BRRAKAOE: It is the major of the difficulties those reduce

ring production. Broken end spindles have zero production and

create waste at most cases. A number of labours required to

pIece up the broken ends during ring spinning. End breaks


increase labour cost and waste, and decrease production. The

ring production table has been prepared considering end breaks

rate starting from 0 per hour per 100 spindles to 30 per hour

per 100 spindles.

COUNT: Production of lower count of yarn is higher than that of

finer count if the spindle speed, end break5 rate and other

parameters remain same in both cases.

NUMBEROF SPIHDLES PER MACHINE;Total production of ring frame

is thc sum of the production of individual 5pindle. Therefore

the production of a ring frame having more number of spindles

is higher than that of II ring frame having fewer number of

spindles.

HUMBEROF MACHINES; A number of ring frames are employed for

production of yarn of different counts. Increasing the number

of ring frames increa5es the production of ring 5ection.

MACHINE EFFICIENCY: Increasing machine efficiency, the

production of ring section increases.

TWIST MULTIPLIER (TN) ; It is the ratio of twist per inch (TPI)

to square root of yarn count. Increasing nt increases TPI and

decreases ring production.

S3
I
TWIST PER INCH (TPI) Strength of yarn depends on
,
TPI.

Increasing TPI decreases ring production.

WASTE MULTIPLIER: Broken ends create roller lapping and rOllJr


I
lapping is one of the major causes of waste production in ring
,
Waste
section. Increasing end breakage increases ring waste.

multiplier has been introduced here as the ratio of waste


I
produced to the yarn production decrease due to end breakage.

YARN PRICE: Yarn price depends on the yarn count and types
j,
,
yarn i.e. carded, combed, polyester or poly-cotton yarn.

WASTE PRICE Waste price depends on type of waste. Usable

waste is of higher price than unusable waste.

LABOUR PERFORMANCE: The number of labours required per machin~

for a definite end breaks rate depends on the performance or,


individual labour. Actually there are two groups of worker.s

found to be employed in the ring section. The members of the

primary group is known as "Tenter" or MSider" who watch ana

patrol around the ring frame, piece up the broken ends, clean,
I
,
the drafting zones and report to the supervisor/shift-incharge
I
about break downs and other relevant matters. The members of

~econd group are commonly known as doffers who pick up the ful I

ring cops at doffing time, insert empty bobbins on spindles lind

end up the suspended yarn being delivered by the draftin~ zone

54
,
with the empty bobbins. In fact at running time, the workers of'

second category do not have any contribution to the production.

Bul the tenters have concrete tasks at this time. Their all

activities as described above are to ensure the continuity of

the process. And it is obvious that any discontinuation of'

production of yarn at running condition of ring frame is. ,


l
connected with end breakage. So, for reinstallation of process

continuity end breakage elimination is a must. Actually

tenters' all activities are assessed only through judging the


l
piecing up capacity as piecing up of broken ends reinstall

process continuity. Therefore, the performance of individual



tenter is determined by counting piecing up (elimination of

yarn breakage) capacity of that tenter. The average performance

of labours is determined by dividing the summation of total

number of pieced up ends by total number of iabours engaged for

piecing up. Increasing labour performance decreases number of

labours required per machine, thus decreases labour cost in

ring section.

LABOUR COST Labour cost depends on the performance and

availability of labour.

SPINNING POWER: Spinning power is the power required to over

come ring-traveller and yarn-traveller friction, to rotate the

yarn between package and thread-guide against the resistance of

air, and to over come the extra spindle-bearing friction caused

ss
by the winding tension. It is, of course, influenced

considerably by the count of the yarn being spun and the

spindle speed.

POWER COST It is the unit price of electricity consumed.

4.3 PREPARATION OF A RING PRODUCTION


TABLE (RPT)
As mentioned in section 4.2, production capacity of ring frame

. depends on a number of parameters. The variation range of these
!

-
parameters other than spindle speed are closer more or less,

and have little effect on production capacity of a ring frame

for a specified variety of counts. The parameter that has major

effect on production in ring section is spindle speed. With

increasing spindle speed production should increase linearly as

the formula indicates below -

Spindle speed X Number of

'spindles per machine X 8 X 60 X

Efficiency(%}

Product ion/machine/shi ft " Ib'

Count X 36 X tPI X 840 X 100

But in actual practice, with increasing the spindle speed the

end breaks rate increases and machine efficiency decreases.

Increase in end breaks and decrease in machine efficiency

56


reduc," production rate simultaneously. A computer aided table

has been prepared to detel"mine the ring production against

possible spindle speeds under the title "Ring Production Table

(RPT)" and attached in ANNEXURE-C.

4.4 OUTPUT ELEMENTS OF RING PRODUCTION


TABLE (RPT)
Comput~l" pl"ograms have been developed to input parameters those

have important influence on production of ring section and

other information those help determine the profit/losa of any

specified operation period of a spinning mill. The output'

elements of the RPT are discussed as follows:

NUMBEROF SIDES PER LABOUR: The ring frame has two rows of

spindles on both sides. The numbel" of sides allocated pel"

labour depends on end breaks rate, number of spindles per side

of the ring fl"ame and piecing up capacity of that labour.

TOTAL NUMBEROF LABOURS: It depends on the total number of

ring frames and number of sides allocated per labour.

TOTAL LABOURCOST It is the product of total number of

labours required and unit labour cost.

YARN PRODUCTIONRATE It is a function of spindle speed,

count, TPI, number of spindles per machine, machine efficiency

57
and total number of ring frames on production. It has been

expressed as pound per shift per 100 rpm of spindles. The

production trend of ring section of running shift may be

compared to any past shift with this figure and production per

shift can be interpreted with respect to any spindle speed not

available in the RPT.

WASTE RATE It is a function of end breaks rate and other

parameters related to yarn production rate. It reveats the

waste generation rate as like as yarn production rate.

YARN PRODUCTION: Yarn production per shift, per day and yarn

production recovered per shift by piecing up of broken ends are

produced in these c?lumns against different possible spindle

speeds.

PRICE OF YARN PRODUCED It is the product of yarn produced and

yarn price per pound.

WASTE DUE TO END BREAKAGE: End breakage causes roller lapping

and increase pneuma fill waste. It is assumed that increasing

end breaks increases waste. Waste produced and price of waste

have been presented in these columns.

NET LOSS RECOVERED PER SHIFT BY PIECING UP : Yarn production by

broken ends is zero, not only this, broken ends create waste of

58
cotton. End breakages may be eliminated by employing tenters to

piece up the same. Employment of tenters is justified by the

net loss recovered per shift by pieced up ends against the

labour cost of the tenters employed to piece up the broken

ends. ~t Is obvious that, if the net loss recovered by the

brolcen ends pieced .uP by the tenters is found higher than the

piecing up labour costs, the tenter employment would be found

financially viable.

The net loss recovered per shift by pieced up broken ends may

be expressed as follows:

C =' Cl - C2 - C3 - C.

where

c Net loss recovered per shift by pieced up ends.

c, Price of yarn recovered by pieced up ends.

c, piecing up labour cost to eliminate end

breakages. As the major responsibility of a

tenter is to piece up the broken ends, the

labour cost has been considered in RPT as the

piecing up cost.

c, Price of waste produced by broken ends.

C, Cost of spinning power required by the pieced

up ends.

S9
4.5 INTERPRETATION OF RING PRODUCTION
TABLE (RPT)
The contents of the output elements of RPT are the calculated
values against possible spindle speeds which are valid only for

the values of the input elements as mentioned in the top of the

table. Any variation of the input elements will vary the output

ele~ents. The values of the output elements may be interpreted


with respect to any variation in input elements. The methods to

interpret the values of the output elements are as follows

Let, I indicates the interpreted value.


T indicates the value in the table.

(l'o. of .,d •• per I.""orll


__________________________ • (End~r.l'l<
~ ••• to)1 X (U>bou1' -------------+-------
perfo.......,.)T

{No. 0' _!d •• per l.boor)f (Ilnd b•.••ab •• te)T (Labour ""rr~".).

1 X (110. of -.c"in~o)l
(To'o' no. of '~hour.)1 • ---------------------~~-
(No. of 0'''''. P"" '&bou)'

(Tot•.1 I.bo~. c""t)I • {TO'''' ••••• of 1.,"",,'0)1 X (unit I •.bon. co.t)l

-------------------~---
(Y•••• p<odoct1Of1••.to)T
.
------------------
(No. or -.,"jn~.)T

-------------
(Wuten'~)T
.--------------------
('••.•,~ .at~}1 (End bro ••b

(Endbr_
ra'e}!

rate)T

----------------- .
(Y""" ""odocU",,)1 (No. of "'e)'
____________ X (TPIlT X {"ff.1I
~---- X {r".)I

(Y,,<n ",""""cllO<l)T (N~. of &/c)T (TPI)I (Ur.)T (I'fIIl}T

(y...", .~cov~.~d
"T pl~c~ "p)l
________________ • ("nd 1><_. ,at~)I X(No. of &/cll X (TPIIT X("If.)I
----- X (•••
----- )1

(Ya••• "CQV~"''' (E••d 10._ ••• t~}T (No. of _/c)T (TPI)I (Hr.)T (••• ))
"T pi"". ~p)T

----------------------------- .-------------------

60
4.6 APPLlCA TIONS OF RING PRODUCTION TABLE
(RPT)
The Ring Production Table (RPT) may be used 8S ll. techno-

managerial indexes to determine the following important

information on ring section of spinning mills:

1. The optimal number of sides of ring frames to be



allocated per tenter.

2. Total number of tenters required and total labour

cost in ring section.

3. Yarn production rate of dng section (pound per

shift per 100 revolution per minute).

4. Waste production rate of ring section (pound per

shift per 100 revolution per minute).

5. Total yarn production at specified spindle speed.

6. Yarn production recovered by piecing up of broken

ends of yarn.

7. Total waste produced due to end breaks I f the broken

ends are not pieced up.

61
8. Revenue generation per day and per shift.

9. Net loss recovered through piecing up the broken

ends of yarn in ring frame.

62
CHAPTER-V

CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE
WORKS

5.1 CONCLUSION
1. An enthusiastic endeavour has been taken to illustrate the

ring spinning process used '. in purpose of manufacturing high

quality yarn. Causes of end breakage in ring frame have been

studied and its impact on production has been described.

Moreover, a computer aided method has been developed to

determine the number of machines required to attain certain

production target, detel"mine labour cost and instantaneous

production rate of ring section.

2. The computer aided method developed for spin plan is very

helpful to llny body who wishes to prepare a spin pian at the

cost of least labour and minimum time with respect to those

required in conventional method of spin plan.

primary problem that reduces


J. End breakage
production of ring section of spinning mill. Broken ends are

pieced up manually, and 11 number of labours is required to

piece up the broken ends of ring fr/lme. Therefore, the labour


cost of ring section is significant.

The number of sides to be allocated per tenter at any end

breakage rate may. be determined by any of the following

methods

I. Computerized method of spin plan.

II. Interpretation of RPT.

Unfortunately, it is observed that most of the spinning mills

are running their ring section without optimizing the labour

cost in ring sections. They only count the cost of labours in

ring section, but do not count the price of yarn recovered by

piece up. A considerable number of spindles of ring section are

kept unproductive because of high end breakage though labour

cost is low in Bangladesh. Tbe study reveals that, in context

,of present labour cost, every spinning mill in Bangladesh may

keep all the spindles of ring section productive economically

by piecing up of broken ends upto end breaks rate 40 per hour

per 100 spindles.

4. The Ring Production Table (RPT) is the vivid feature of

production of ring section. Any body can forecast the

production of ring section with the help of this table. The

total number of labours required, total labour cost, price of

yarn produced, price of yarn recovered by piecing up and other

techno-managerial indexes are available in this table which are

64
very helpful to justify every day's revenue generation against

cost (if calculated earlier), and thus the management of the

mill can assess profit/ioss of the mill day by day wise.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORKS


The study reveals the following phenomena which have

significant role on increasing waste and decreasing production

of ring section of spinning mill.

1. Increasing end breakage rate increases waste (bonda and

pneuma fi 11). No relationship yet been establ ished between

end breakage rate and waste created due to end breakage.

Waste created due to end breakage may be expressed in

terms of yarn production of the spindles with broken ends.

This study may create effective awareness among workers

and management against end breakage and waste.

2. Excessive roller lapping sometimes creates end breakage to

spindles on both sides of that roiler, thus a lapping

roller may be the cause of end breakage of all the

spindles on that side of the ring frame. A study may be

performed for the purpose of creating a device which can

prevent any lapping roller to be the cause of end breakage

to adjacent spindles.

65
BIBLIOORAPHY

1. Buffa, S., Elwood, "Modern Production/operations

Management", 7/E.

Adam Jr, E., Everett and Ebert, J., Ronald,


2.
"Production and Operations Management Concepts,

Models and Behaviour".


"Business
J. Sanchet i, D.C. ,"d Kapoor, V .K. ,

Mathemat ics".
4. Gupta, P. K., and Man Mohan, "Problems in Operations

Research (Methods &: Solutions}".

Tnha, H.A., "Ope rat ions Research An Introduction",


5.

3rd Edition.

Bernard, "Textiles fibres to


6. Corbman, P.,

fabrics".
7. "The New Encyclopedia Britannica", Ready Reference

and Index, Volume IX, 15th Edition, 1973-1974.

8. "The New Encyclopedia Britannica", Volume 18, 15th

Edit ion, 1973-1974.


9. "Encyclopedia of Science and Technology", McGraw-'-

Hill, Volume 12, 1977.

10. "Cowles Encyclopedia of Science, Industry !lnd

Technology", Cowles Education Corporation, 1967.

"Operation Research Industrial


I\. Singh, J.,

Management", Penguin Book, 1968 .

66
12. Marsh, J. T., "Textile Science An Introductory

Manual", London, Chapman &; Hall, 1953.

13. Heyn, A. N. J., "fibre Microscopy: A Text Book and

Laboratory Manual", New York Interscience

Publishers, 1954.

14. Moncrieff, R. W., "Man Made Fibres", 4th ed., 1966.

15. Barve, V. R., "Complete Textiles Encyclopedia",

Bombay, 1967. •
16. Welford, T., "Textile Student's Manual: An Outline

of all Textiles Processes, from the origin of the

fibre to the finished cloth", 4th ed., London,

Pitman, 1967.

17. singer, C., Holmyard, E. J., Hall, A. R. and Trevor,

1. W., "A history of Technology".

18. Klemn, F., "A History of Western Technology", 1959.

19. Roy, A. and Bagchi, S. K., "Technology in Ancient &

Medieval India", 1986.

20. Barr, A. E. De and Ca1ting, H., "Principles and

Theory of Ring Spinning",

67
ANNEXURE-A

CONVENTIONAL METHOD FOR


SPIN PLAN
ANNEXURE-A

P"",elof3

CONVECTIONAL METHOD FOR SPIN PLAN

YARN TYPE

COUNT

REQUIRED PRODUCTION

SPINDLE SPEED (rpm)

P" = Required production of yarn in ring section.

Ps = Required production of roving in Simplex section.

Po-n = Required production of sliver in Dfaw-II section.

p•••••= Required production of Combing section. 4,

PL = Required production of Lap Former.

PO-I = Required production of pre-drawing section.

Pcar4 = Required production of carding section.

Pa = Required production of Blow Room section.

Pr = Production capacity of individual ring frame.

P. = Production capacity of individual speed frame.

Pa~1I = Production capacity of individual draw frame.

Pe<>.= Production capacity of individual comber.

PI = Production capacity of individual lap former.

Pa-I = Production capacity of individual pre-draw frame.

69
P",,~d" Production capacity of individual card.

Pb" Production capacity of individual scutcher.

p.
Nil " Total numbers of ring frame required" --------
p,

Ns " Total numbers of speed frame required"


P.
P~n
No_n " Total numbers of draw frame required"

N"••• " Total numbers of comber required '"


P~.

NL " Total numbers of lsp former required"


P,

NO_I" Total numbers of draw frame required"

Ne••.•.••
" Total numbers of card required"

p.
NB = Totsl numbers of scutcher required"
p•

70
_-A
Spindle rpm x 8 x 60 x .Eff. (%) x No. of Spindles P"8e3 of J

PI '" ;Machine. Ibs/shift.


TPI x 36 x 840 x Count x 100

Spindle rpm X 8 x 60 x Eff.(%} x No. of Spindles


/Machine.
-------------------------------------------------- Ibs/shift .
TPI x 36 x 840 x Hank x 100

(22(7) x F.R. dia. x F.R. rpm x 8 x 60 x Eff.{%)


x No. of delivery per Machine.
Ibs/shift.
----------------------------------~------------
36 x 840 x Hank x 100

(22/7) x Doffer :rpmx Doffer dia.(inch) x 8 x 60 x


Web Draft x Eff. (%).
Ibs/shift.
-------------------------------------------------
36 x 840 x Hank x 100

Nips/minute x Feed/Nip x 8 x 60 x No. of Laps Feed/Machine


'" x (100 - % Noil) x Lap Weight(in
~ grains} x Eff.(%).Ibsjshift.

36 x 7000 x 100 x 100

(22/7) x Delivery Rol1er rpm x Delivery Roller Dia.(inch)


x 8 x 60 x Lap Weight/Yard(ln grains) x Eff.(%).
I'Jl'" -~---------------------~------~---------------------- lbsjshift.
36 x 7000 x 100

(22/7) x Delivery Roller rpm x Delivery Roller Dia.(inch)


p) '" x 8 x 60 x Lap weight/Yard(in
~ grains)
~ x Eff.(%). lbsjshift.
36 x 7000 x 100

N, '" Total numbers of ring frame required '"


"
71
ANNEXURE-B

COMPUTERIZED METHOD FOR


SPIN PLAN


j

.WWEX!!RE_B
P••• e 1 of a

aJMPUI'ERlZED ME'IlIOD FOR SPIN PLAN

FOR CCMBED YARN


TO RUN THE PROORAM AND INPTJr DATA PRESS<ALT+A>
TO PRINT 0UI'FUf PRESS<ALT+B>
TO PRINT DETAILS OF OIJI'PUT PRESS<ALTtC>
FOR P-C YARN
TO RUN nm PROORAM AND INP1Jr DATA PRESS<ALT+D>
TO PRINT DETAILS OF 0UI'PU1' PRF.SS<ALT+E>
FOR CARDED YARN
TO RUN nm PRffiRAM AND INP!JI' DATA PRESS<A1.T+F>
TO PRIN1' DETAILS OF 0UI'FUf PRESS<ALT+G>

A {GOTO}AQS~
B IPPRAPJ .. AZ79- AO{ESC}{ESC}{ESC}

C IPPRF6, .PIJJ-AG{ESC}{ESC}{ESC}
o {GOTO}V4-
E IPPRU4. ,AKIJrAG{ESC}{ESC}{ESC}

73
., ...

COMPUI'ERlZED METHOD FOR SPIN FLAN


YAID< TYPE
YAID< COUNT
ComiOd ANNmruRE-B

TPI 31.305
REQUIRED FROOUCTION (lbs \ 12000 '
END BREAKS FER H0Ul!I100 SPINDLES 20
LABOURFERFORMANCE(piece-up per hour) 40
INPUT FARAMETERS

~~=~=~~~=~~=~~===~~~~~~~=~==~============~~~==~~==~==~
74
ANREXURo-X
Pa3.JO{!"

DXTAILS 0. NPIN PUN 0. YUN IlANUFAetlJlllt«l "ILLS

YARN ;YPE : COIlIIED :

PIEC" UP/LABOUR/HOUll
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
••
•• • OUTPUTS

:•••••••~=••••••••••=••••••••••••=••••••••:.==••••••••••=••••••••••••••••••••••:=•••:
: .RIHO F""'" : RINO FItAM~ :
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------,
• •
:PHOOUCTION/PRAM./SHIFT (Lb) • 70. j1
\COUHT
IT.N 3.500
17.111
'" • : PROOOCT Y (Lb)
I OH/ fRAME/1IA • l1l.70
:TPI •
:00. OP SPINDLEs/nAM"
:SPIHULE spxBn (~,..l
432 :NO.
ISO~O •
•• R/F nOUIR"D • 5~••S

:EFFICIEHCV ('I)
:HBQUIRED PRODUCTION/DAV(Lb) 0000.00
9' (NO.
• •• "IDES/LABOUR • 1.04

:.A.n ("l I.' :


:ENO ""nAKAG"/HOUR/IOR SPIHULEN, 20 : •
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
SIW'LSX : SIMPLEX
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:

121S0.00 : PRODUetION/FRAIIB/SNI fT (Lbl • .,1.43
:"EQUIREU PRODUCTION/DAY(Lb)
: T. M 0.903 : PRODUCTIOH/UAWl/DAT (Lb) • 1014.03
(.AOR Of ROVINGS 2.20 •

:TP' I. 399 :00. OF SIP REQUIRED • ..05


: .PINDLE SPBm (~"") 1400
,
••

'"", :
:SPFICIENCY ("I
IRO. OF SPINDU"/MACJlINB ••
:USH (~l :
: :: :
t

: DRU pltAlffi 1 ORA" FRAM'. :


:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------: ••
:PROOUCTION/'RAME/smFT (L~l • lUU.M ••
t ~TlOOIRROPRODUCTION/DAY(L~)
:HA~~ op SLIVERS
:F.R. "»II
12301.S~
0.10
2700
:rROOOCTION/FMM~/IIAY (L~)

,
:FIWa lEQUlRID/PASSMR
• 4l6'.80
l.S9 , ••
••
:F.R. D'AWlTER {io,c~l I • 12S
j.n :
",,
:1'OTAL FlWIil RSQUIRED •
:EFPlCIENCY (')
:110. 0' DELIYERY/MACHIOE
:110. 0. PA.SACE • ,
,•
••

.•
("ASTE ('I) .•

:-------~---------------------------------:-----------------------------------~-----:
: OOll"EIl I COl.lllR"

, ;-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
:REOUIR~D PROOOCTION/DAY(1~) I2U4.n : PRODUCTIOO/PRAWl/SRIPT (Lb) • 3",.11
: PIlODUL"lON/PRAI<Il/UAY (Lb) 1097.14
:NIPS/~IHUT! 100
:.EED LENGTH (inch) U.l50 •• • 11.3l
:110. 0. LAP" ff,.D/ •••.CHINS • :TOTAL M,CHINE REQUIRED
tLAP •• j(;~T (Lb/yARD I" ~RAIOSI, 300
:HOIL" ( ') lH
:EFFlCIENfV l'} 75
.•
:N". OF OELlvr.RY I
.
'

:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:

75
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
: L"P 'OIDIER : LAP POR~ER :
:-----------------------------------------1-----------------------------------------.
• •
•:REQU[RSD PROOOCTION/llAY(Lb) 14909.'3

:P"ODUCTION/UAME/RHIOT (Lb) • 3"'.65
IOSLIVERY .OLLEft 010 (lncb) IS IPRODUCT10H/fUllE/OAY (Lb) • 9691.96
10ELlVERY RoLLER IPW SO
:LAP I'SIOHT/YARO IN GIIAINE MD ITOTAL NO. OP L. PORWE. REQIII••
ISPFIC[ENCY (~) n
I.•••STE (~) I


1-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------.
: ORAI'IIiG-[ : o.""NG-I I
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------1
: I I
:REQUIRED PRODUCTION/D"Y(Lb) I~OSS.M :PRODUCTlON/PR••W;/SHIPT (Lb) • IllS.l':
:HAN~ 0.16 :PRCDUCTlON/PRAllE/DAY (Lb) • 1946.1l:
If .•. RPIl 2500 IP"A~E "EQUIRED/PUs ••oE • l." :
IP ••• OIA (lnnb) T.U5 :
IEOFICIENGY (") 1S :TOUL PIWIE noUUED • 3.8l
:RO. of CHEV •.• Y/ ••••CNINE 2
1.0. OF PASSAOE I
:•.••STE (~) I :


••
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------1
: CARDIHO I CAROIHG :
:-------------~---------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
:REQU[RW PROooCTIOR/llAJ (Lb) "209 •• 7 :PRODUCT[OH/P.AIIE/SRIFT (Lb) • 415.03
:ooTF"R sonO (RPW) •• • IPRODUCnON/PIlAIIE/llAY (Lb) • 12.'.01

"
:OOFfER DlA (lnnh) •

:1I'EB DAFT 1..1 :TOTAL NO. Of CAltDS R~QUTRED •


:IWI~ Of SMYE.S 0.16
:EFFICIEIlGY (')
:I'ASTE (") "',
I-----------------------------------------:-----~-----------------------------------:
nOW llOOW : BL01I lIOOW :
1-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------.
: I
:REQUIRBO PRODUctION/OAY (Lb) 15311.'5 I ON/'ftA~E/RB I OT (Lb)
: PROOOCT • '750.00
:LAP WEIGKTjYAROIn oz.
•• •• : PRODUCTION/'RAME/llAY(Lb) • 12S0.00

'"'",
:UP RoLLER OU ( lnnb)
:LAP .DLLOR RPW
:6PflClf.NCY ("
..,
.•1 ••••••••••••••••••
IUSTE " .•
IIEQUT.Ell NO. OP BellTUIE

IRAI' COTTONREOUllf,"

=•••••••••••••••••••• =••••••••••••••••• _.= •••••••••••••••• ==:= •••




I . 9'

1~6""."

SUWERV Of OlITPlITS

••••••••••• _.===.= •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• =••••••••••••••• _:••=•••••••• :


:ACCES.O.'ES REQUIRED :W.CHINE6 ALLOCATHO I
: 'LTVER CAS : •
il. C•• O,nl to d •••• lnl • In' I'. "[NO PRAllE • .' •. 68.
:2. O••.• lnl to I." fn""". • 90 :l .•
[~PLf)l 6.05 '
:3. C"""". to d •••• lnl-I • 230 :3. DRAP PRAME" • 9.'9
: •. O"~~inl-l to dr~l',n.-' • 196 I'. COWBEI • Il.~l
IS, O".~in~-' to .lmpln~ • S~. IS. LAP FOR,,"O • I.S.
: : •. C".DIMG • ".n
:OOOINr. "OBDIN • 2SSS, :7. SCHATURE • 1,92
I RING DOR"IM • 8570' I
ICON" • 3~M IRAI' coTTOM Of.QIIIRED 1660 •• 7A
:OAR. IWPLEMENTATION RATE <,,). n,21
I" !DES/LAWUR 1.04
••••••••••••••••• =••••••••••••••••• == ••••••••••••••••• =••••••••••• _••:••••••••••••••

76
DETAIL< OF sPIN PLAN of YARNIIA~UFACTU"lNGM[LLS

Y.R. TYPE : CAJlOBD :

pl"CE UP/tAMIlS/HOUR
,,
INPur VA.IABLES oUTPur& ,,
,
:•••••••••• =•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• :••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• :
: .,"" FRAIIE : RIND PRAII1l :
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
: E"D R.uno'/Ho/IDII spHlIlr.E" )0 : :
:COUHT •• :"ROnUCTIOR/FllAME/SHIFT (Lb)' IO~.Dl:
:r.M J.501 :PROIlllCTJOH/F"'IfB/nAV (l,b) • 324,04:
iTP] 22.14" :
:110. of SP'NOLM/fR'M' .n :.0. 0' R/F REQUIHED •
:SP1"DLE sPEEn ( •••• > ISODD
:RfflelE"CY ('l')
:.EQUl.W rROIlUCTIOH/DAY (Lbl 'S37.9&
,,
93 : SlVtsjUIIOUR • 0.83

:USTE('I) 1 ,,
:ERD RREUAGE/HOU"/IOO .P(NOUS: 2S
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
: SIMPLEX : S'IIPLIlX :
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
, ' ''
, '
:S'QUIRED PROD\lCUONjDAY (Lb) 4U'.14 :PR<JDUOTIVN/U,MEjSHIPT (I,b). 6.1.6S'
:T.ll O.SOO :PROOUOTION/PR""'EjDAY (Lb) • 2063.04,
:HANI Of ROVINGS 1.'0 : :
:tPI 1.013 :80. OF 8/P JIlQUIIUlD • 2,24 :
:SPI"O'E SPEED (~ ••• ) 900: :
:'FfICIENC~ (~) 7\ : :
:8G. D' SP'NDLM/ ••••CNIN. '24 : '
:.~STE (~) I :
,, '' '
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
: DItA. fU"E : OIL\. n""'E :
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------'
, '
, '
:"EQUIRBO P"OIlUOTION/U~~ (Lbl 467\.0;1 :PRDOUCTIONjFIWlB/SR'PT (Lb) • 920.02
:OANK OF 8LIVERS 0.20 : PRDlIUCT'DJI/PftAMSjllAY(Lb) • l778.00
2200 :'RAYS RBQUIREUjPASS~GE 1.08
:'.R.
:P.~.
"'"'
OIAN.no (;nch) , . 125 ,
:EFFIC'.~CV (~)
", :TOTAL FRAYS "EQUUED •

,.,,
:~O. OF DEL1VtRVjllACHINE
,,
:80. OF FASSAGE
:UStE (~) ,
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
: C~RU'MG : C~RDING :
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------'
, '
:REQDI.EO PRGUUOTIGN/U~Y(Lb) f14S.ll :'RODUC'lIOMjFIL\/lE/SRIFT (Lb) • 19J.'.
:OOffER RPN 30 :PftOOUC'lIOMjFUIlE/DAY (Lb) • S.I.U
:OO'FER D1A (,nch) 17
:'"U D~FT 1.2 :roT~L NO. or C~RDS RBQUIRED •
:~""K OP sLtVFJlS 0.2 :
:E'F10lEHCY ('\) M :
:_AST'. (~) I '
,, '
' '
:---------------------~-------------------:-----------------------------------------:

77
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
: "1.0'0" ROOOI : "WR RooM :

.
:-----------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------:
• •
.

:RCQU1~CD PRODUCTION/DAY (Lb) 4'91.60 :PRDDUCTIOM/FRAW6/"HIfT (Lb) • 21"0.11:
:L~P ""IOHTIY~RD in oz. 11 :PRDDUCTIOH/FR •••••••
/DAY (tb) • ~U2.14'
:UP RDI.LER OIA Onch) 10 '
:LAP ROLLCR UN 10 :nQOIREO 00. Of RCUTUJl" • 0.1. :
:EfFln6~CY (~) 15 •
:nsn (~) I :1lA" COTTON UQUlnO 4UO.~3•
•• ••
: :
• •
•• S]JJilll!RY of OUTP(J,," ••
•• •

.,.,
: ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• <= •••••••• :

:ACO"".ORI~S RBQUIRCD : ••.•CHINf •• ALLOCATED


:.LIV~ft CAN ••
:1. O.,din& d •••"in& • m :1. RING FRAWE • 1•• 0G
:2. D.a.i"" .i.plex • ". :~. :1. GlMPL"X
DRAW U.urn"


~.24
~.O~


: ,.
:ROVING oDn"'H 1261 :4. NRDIHO A. "
:RI~O ""ORIN • 111'1' • OHATURR • 0.1 •

:RA1I' COTl'(lW REQUIlBD


:YAR~ IIIP1R!1RIfTATIO~ RAn
:.IOCR/U"OUft
.

(~)

U40.~3
93."S
D.B3
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• <~<•••••••• =••

78
mAllS Gf 3m PL!~ Gf vm MA~UfACl'UmG
KILLS
m~ me :H : potmm [11' 30
C1lTro~(II ' 10
cnNE
mDU I mm6 ~/c tl
mCE Uf/LAiGUiIHGOI : 41 SPlNum/CGIE llG cm FUn/1m l~
"'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''',,''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''"",,,,,,,,,,,,,
, ' ' '
I IKPOTVAIIARLES I outPUTI : I
: "" '"' "" """ """,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, """'' : ,,,,,,,,,,,,, "'",,'' """"",,,, """ I"" ""'" :
I mo 111M, I IIKOFwe
1'---- .• --- ..••.. -- •• --- .•. __•..•• --_••• _-_.----_••• \.__••. --_.•••.. __•.. -••. __•..•• -- _•••...•..
I
1---.'----"
I
I

ICOUit 41 ' ILlI'


IPROOUctIOMlmME/S~1I1' nl6 I I
in J.m :flODUCT[ONlm~EID!1
I!. I ' nUl: :
fPI 1l.l0l
iiO. Of ,PINDLES/m~E III illO. Of sl! SEQUIR,D 11,4G::
lflNOU lPEiD (Tpl] 1\500
:,fFICIENCY 111 '3 :KO, O' SW&SILJBOUR Ul : :
,"IUlRW
WAtEll)
Pl.iJOilcrIONIO!Y
IL~I : muo
1
I I I
:!jfD mmGO/~OURmfr !f1~DU,: 2\ : : i
i:::::::::::::::~~~~~~~:::::::::::::::::
1:::::::::::::i~~~~~~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1:::::::::::1
:mumD P!ODUCfIO~IDAI
1).11 : ml,!1 :PRODUCTlo~mAMElsmf
[til ' tnl.ti: :
ITJ t.m Ill)
ImDUCfIO~lmMEIUAl , llil,1I I 1
I~A~K
01'iOmQ; "l.lD I I I
1m t,ID) I~O, Of IIF RRQUlm I.ll I 1
I;Pl~DLE mED ITPII Il~O I I 1
Imlm~C! I~I Jj I I I
INO. GF 5PINDLEsji!CHm 1H I I I
lIUTEI:!) I 1 I I
I ••••••••••• •••••••••• •••••••••• __•••••••••• __1••••••••••• __•••••••• ••••••••• _•••••••• 1. ••••••• I
: OUfFlm : ommME : :
1.-.•••..••. ---- .•••..•••••• -•...•••.• -•.••••.•••. -- I-..••..••• ---••.••••.•• --•••••.•••• --- •..• '1."---' ••'. 1

jR!IUlIED nODUCTlONIDAlI,b]
IU (GF SLliERI
,lHUl
O.1S
lnODUCTlGi/FUI!ISWT ILb)
IP~ODUCTIOi/fRAN!IDAlIL I
, 1131.11
mUi I
i :
I
IF.!.
11',1,D mm
rl'. I,ncb)
,'.',',', lum
I
IiQUllED/fImG 1.14I
I
I
I
IEF!lClONC! 111 11 ITOm IIIME iEQUliED l.i! I I
I~G,OF ~~LIV! YIWICil~t 1 I I I
I~G.Ol'mmE1 , I I 1
"mEI~I I I I
I ••••••••• _. __ ••••••••• •••••••••• __ •••••••••••• _.1 •••••••• __ ••••••••••• _•••••••••• •••••••• 1• ••••••• 1
:
I
--.--_
wun
--_ ---"_ ---- :
'conn'
---- ---_ ~----_ :.--_
I
:
I

:i!QGll~D pmUCTWA/UA! ILb] : 16DUi InoDUCTIOA/FRmIUIFT ILb) , JiU~ : :


1~IP!I~I~ItT! : lOD IrRooucTWA/l'm!IOIY(L I ' tllU~ I I
Il'fED mm lincb) : o,m , I 1
I~G,01'lm RRD/~ICBm :! 110m mmE lEQ~lltD , U~ 1 I
ILA~ Il!IGHT I.DIIUD I~ GRAliSI: iO~ I , I
1~01l,sI11
IEFFICI wet
llin. Of DRWIRI
I~l :
:
:
10
15
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
!_ --- -_ -_ ---! ---_ ---- --_ -!_ --!

79
---.. ----.--L""FOiiEi------ .. --------- .. --.-- i.--------.----.--LAp.ioi.ii--- ..... ----. --- i.._-_
..._.-i
,. .• _._ •••. ----.--.-- .. _-_.__••--_•. _-_.-----.,.-----_.---------------------------- •••• -_.,-- --_•. ----1

iiEQUIRlD PRGOUCTlOmU ILbl : lHUl iPRGDUCTlO1lmWEIsmr ILbl ' 1lll.fi5: :


I~itmnl~tmDl~.(i!C) U ImDUCT1D1Im~"ElDIY (L) , mU6 I I
iw '~IGil/YAl.D n OUIWS iD~ i11lTAL10, OF mi lEQUIlED' US j :
ImiC1ENCY III 1l I I I
I,m,Iii I I I I
,__••.. __..•• _.__•••. .. ••• • .__1. ._•.• .. .•• . . •__. ----------1
: Dl!fIWO-1 : DumO-1 :
1----------- .---.--_.---_ •. ---- i_~::~~._~_~~::~~:~~
1--.• __.. __..• --- •• --.---.----- i__
.:~~~~
__I~~::~:~~.
__I
jl!QUII!~ PiODUCTlG~!D!l[L~) : SHU! I
Il1J.U jPlODUCTIGlimmllBIFT Ill) ~ 1~~U'-: 101,15 :
IUH1 ; 0.15 I UI 1?IODUCTIO~!fRmIDAlIL~) , ml.l! I HOU5 I
If.!, !PM : 1510 1 1000 ImM~ I!QUIlEDlfASSiO ' I.li I O.il I
If.!. 011 li.en) t.1ll I 1.115 1 1 I
1!IPlCIENCY til 15, 11 l!DiAL 'liKE REQUIRED ' UO I 0.11 I
I~O, OF Dmi! VlmmE 11 11 1 I
I~O. OF P!SIA~! 1 I I , , I
I'AITE (~I I 1 U 1 1 I
' •••• __•• _. ••• •••• ••• 1__•• __• _.I ."_ ••• __•• " ••• •• __."_._ •• ••• .1 •••••••• .1

:..
I C!lDl~~
--- --_ ...__ ..... -- --_ .... _--: ...---_ ..;--_. __ ...-: -- ._ ....__ ...---". __ .._--_.--_ .._--_._ ....-: ------_ .._-:1
I I CUDl~O I

ilElutm ?1@UCTIO~IOAl(LII
1M m IPf .
: lW,lI
,~~
11~Ol.lOl :pmUcrIO~lmM~I!BIn
1
ILb)
)0 ,PIODUCTIO~lmME/DnIt )
, HUI
Il1Ui,
I 11UI:
m,ll I
IDOfm OIA l.men) : 11 211 I I
1m DAFT ' 1.41 1I 1,1 ,Tom HO. OF CAiDI!EQUIiEO 4.U 1 l.ll I
I~m OF !LIVElS D.ll1 0.111 1 I
ImlCIEiCY (ll 1\ I i5 ! I I
ImlE(~1 II \1 1 1
1•• --_.- •__•• __• __•• _•• • • .1 1 •••• •••• ••••• ••• __•• • ._1_ "••••• _.1
1 !WI 100M 1 1 IWI I.OOH 1 I
)..---... ------_..----.... ---.... ----.---1 1--..------..-----.. ---.. -... ----... -----_.. I---..----.-:
:R~GUmO PI.OOUCTlO~IDAi
ILAI'mmliUD il Ot.
[Lb) : 5601.11 )1Oll.11l1 lPiODocrlOmI.I~EIIRIFT ILb)
: 14 I 11 IPiOnU~TlO~mmID!Y (L I
, 215UG
mUG 1
I 1111.t4:
1011.0 I
iw
LAPIOLLU Dl! {incll
lOLL!! m
: 10
10
\D
I
10 jlEQUllEDWO,OFlClITUl.R ' Ul : 0,11 I
IEfflCI!~CI I')
,flSTE {~I
15
l :
1l
j CO'1TO~
lEOUliED 1m ,m~,l! I lijlJ.41 I
i"",,,,"" "'" ",,"""'''''' ,,,,,,,i,,,,,,,,,,;,,,,, "" ""''','' '''''''''''''''''''''''': ..---..----1
I lUl'Un OF OllTPUT! I 1
1 """,,,,,,,,
AC~ES!OR1E5
",,""""",,",,"'"'
uQU[l.En
'"' ' ,' ' ' ' ' ' '"' ' ' ' ' ' ,' ,,,'' ' ' ' ' ' ' \
- •••••• -- ••
i
IlllVEI ~Ai :, ; if!CMtiES AlLOCATED, I 1
t, ~!fdln1 tQ dnll';
11. DrlJing 10 I,~ 101m
11. ro.bor 10 dnll'I-!
'
ii
II
111,
I 11. IliO flm
11, SlNPl!X
'
,1.19
ll.l~
I
I ",WI.
uo : ' .••
0.00 I
14. Dfllin&.l to BlIIil!"l ' lJO 1 I)' Dill FlAm ,1,4a I Ul1
II, Oral;II'll~ si.,I" m I ,4, CG~m U~ 1 UO I
I 1 II.wmUEI. 'O.lll U~I
IIOVliG iG!Bli 1\111 I Ii. Cml~G 4.IG I ).11 1
I~m !OBm , lim I 11,ICHITUI.E ,Ul 1 U9 I
:
I
II lRAI COrtOHI!IB!II!QUmD It~I'
,vm Im!KE~TATiO~Uti (tl '
511U!:
101.1',
lW,41:
. I
, ,,!IDBI/LA80UR' 0,1) , ,

80
ANNEXURE-C

RING PRODUCTION TABLE (RPT)

APPLICATIONS
Number of Sides per Labour(Tenter)

Total Labour Cost

Ring Production Rate

Ring Production per Shift

Net Loss Recovered Through Piece up

Revenue Generation per Shift

GUIDES FOR USER


c p-
o
E••••
_'''",.r/IDO .piodl".
U

" , ,.
T " " " •• u " " " •• " " "
" •• " "". " •• ",., '"". " " •• •• "". "". "
" ....!.!l.
" "
-"~ ~ '" '" '" '"
'" '"'
'" '" '" ".
'"
'" '" '"
'" '" '"
".
".
'"
'" ".
'" '" '"
'" '" '"
"
".
'"
'"
'"
.
I~~UURE-C
TO RUMTHEPlOGRIWm F'g' 1 ~f51
INPUt om mss '1It+!>
fD PRliT OUtpUT mil (IIttP>
TO ¥11~t THEfIOGR!1 pml (.ltl~>

TO ,USE GllTPun mss <lllIl>

RINGPlODOC'l'10ifEAtUIE

""""''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''""""
I liPOT Y!RImEI i
I""''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''"""I
ENDums/HmllGi Spindle: Ji ' ImE IlULTlfLlER , LSO
INtlNm Of !PliDLESIN!t~liE
iU~m Of mmE,
:
:
III
l~
I YAl! pmE ITIlI/L'1
wmE PIIC, ITIlI/L 1
. lDD.H
11.15
I
ImmE Emmm III : l5 : LAiGURPEm lANCE[pit'l U'i1ml ~i:
ICGUNT : 80 LARGUICGST1n.1 Labonr/,nl tl 55.Jl I
1"1St iULTlfLlER IT.NI : J.m : SPINNINGpol1l! IU/lDB smm I 1,DB I
ITlm Pf.1 1m (T Ii : lUOI , COSTGf PGm I 1,lml 1.0\ I
I"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''"""I
I OUtPUTl 1
I"""""""'"'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''1
INuml Of SIDES FERUMUI ' i ym PRGoucm~ RITE ILb/sn;fl/WO rp.I' I
IfDTALNUlm, ~p LASGU!!' I lAm RATEILb/Shi!tl 00 rp.1 ' I

,I'"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''"""'1
ITOm L!1GUI COST/,SIPT{TI.1 '
'
I
, I

1 i
,PINOLE ••• __••••
YAU PRGOUCT10~
•••
i
PRICEOf m~ PiODDCED i WAm DUETO
••• __•__•• -------_ •• --- •• -----.--.---- E~Dmm6E mOVEm
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liUllR!l OFmi. m moul : I L" lAU PlonuetlO. UTE IL!/Siift/lDO Ip.1 : ,1.05 I
ITDTALNUMRm Of LAIOIlU ' 1& I 'UT! lITE ILblSiifll 00 Ip.) , US I
rlOTAL1J50Ul COSrISBIP1'(Tk.1 ' Il6Go10 I I
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I~~O 1711.41 m,ll il.ll lOJUUJ mil.11 ml.1l 91.11 141UO lm.14
5000 llli.ll lIll.l1 7Ul 114111.1. Wll.1l 1146.1' I1MJ 1111.14 mUI
,000 4011.14 I)lUl lUI milD.l! 10ll4HI 11lU4 14Ul 1116,0 4llUJ
1000 41l1.J1 lJ1l.1! 111.01 1lii01.ll l1nll.04 1ll1.J1 IIUI ml.l4 11ll.11
iOOO 14lUI Im.lJ 11Ui l0111U. UlllU1 lm.ll !lUI 1101.!! U11.1l

1~0~ .!IUl lUUl !l1.11 4lI14J.19 Illm.lI 10101.0' 111.01 Jli4.14 lUl.10
IOO~O m6.11 1111.41 IlUI lI91l1.11 169'01.11 1I1ll.40 131.11 lill.O mUl
11m Wl.il WI.9S 114.44 mm.Ol mlll.ll 110ll.H 111.61 lllUl 1011.41
11000 1111.41 llIi.41 IlUl fiI16fiO.1& 10J!lUl 14l1l.0I m.lI 4Jll.ll !!II.OI
1)000 Iill.l0 ml.Dl 10Ul mill,11 110117.10 lJUI.4J 10Ul 4111.11 IOHUI

14000 !114.11 1111.11 m.ol 111l0Ul ll1iU.OI lfiilO.11 lll.~l 1011.41 11111.1fi
11000 101'U1 JJlI.ll lll.ll lUll! .1I llllll.6! 11140.11 llUO lHl.ll 1ll!7.31
I!DOO101l).!J ],11.6fi m.l1 1Il141.1l 11l14U4 110ll,1l lIU! llDUI 1l114.l4
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llOOG Il~lU4 mua lGl.lO !fiIm,11 lllilU1 11117.41 4ll.!l 6all.l1


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11000 14lJU! 4111.l6 lll.Ol 101m6.Jl lliaol.l1 lm •. l1 m.ll 1611.11 11ll1.10
22000 WI1.lI m1.90 m.ll 11llJ1i.lij l1ll11.10 1611U! llJ.ll llIUl 11111.91
llGOI lm1.l1 1110.44 lfiUI l1llJ4Ul HOm.l! 11HU1 541.1G 1l4J.ll 19010.11

140M lUIUl HlU! 110.51 1ll111Ul lO111l.lfi 11541.11 m.1! I1OU1 ml1.U
11m 1fillO.ll 56,l.ll 1".45 Il1ml.JO 414164.41 Hlll,11 llUl 106i.11 10lfil,11
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filI.4fi 14J1.41
mol4 mUl
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l1D0~ liHUl 6110.61 m.ll lllfilli.16 41114l.l1
moo llDll.41 iJ41.11 44Ul 1411m.ll m1Jfi.li Jll~l.ll ifi!.Ol IDIIfi.ll llHU4

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!~DIUmIHou(tOD Spilil. 11 ' mn MULTIPLlU : UD I
iiUIBUOfImu !!/mmE III ~ mil f1IC1(UIA/Lbl : 1UO I
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m !HI1T II:IGBt ' PIICR PItCH-UPBY:
:(tnl :ILb/Dlrl iILb/;hilIi(Lb/thilt:1 Tlla I :( fala I 11 Tila) ~IL,/Umll hb I :1 Tab I :
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lOll.11
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1000 4011.14 lllUI 101.94 !OllJUI IDlm.lli 164l.16 Ill.91 llll.l. Im.11
1000 4m,l! I115,1l IIUl 1161Dl.ll limUI Im.DI m.40 l1lUl 61!I,J4
!ODD lOU! IIIl.Jl !lUl lOlJ1l,1i llmUl 101!Ul lOUl 1I09.l1 J011.11

mo,!lUI l~lUJ Ill.!l mm.ll


lO!111.l1
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110DO mUI 111Ul lOl,n illm.a 10JliUl Im1.l1 lOUl ml,lI 10U6.51
!l000 81ll.10 llll.O! 110.11 mm.JI IlOnJ .51 lb16Ul lJI.J1 50ll.11 ll111.ti

!l000 1514.11 )111.\1 lJl.ll 1lJ60UI ll1UI.OI 11140.11 JlUO lUl.ll 1ll11.18
15000 101H.Jl ml,ll lJ4.l6 1ml!.!1 mill .• 6 1!lI4.IO !IU! lll!.!! lllil.41
10000 ID11).91 mU6 111.il 111lll.l1 lllill.l1 10m .• ! m.ll ill!.ll 11161.01
1100D 1111l.ll muo m,1I mm.44 limUI 11•• U~ 111.16 i601,11 llOlU!
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moo l111J.ll 4011.14 lD5.1l mOl,ll JOlilO.l~ ll!Jl.lR 151.11 m1.!1

11000 1H1l,1I ml.ll llUl lU461.!l !1lI1Ul 14111,lJ 111,11 ml.ll 1UlUl
10000 Illn." mO.n 1!,.11 1111414.01 lJllll.l1 ll4iUl m.ll 111],11 lJ11l.l!
moo 14l1U! m1.li J 6.10 1000IOi.Jl ll6IDl.ll mOO.1i HUO 11il.l1 lill1.ll
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moo IIlll.l1 mUD
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14000 liJlo.ll lIlUI m,ll mmUl 4DmU6 I051U1 611.6. !!ll.n 11l5Ul
moo 16m.!1 1•• Ul IlU6 Il1ml.lO 1lI16Ul llIS1,ll 0;1.11 lll.,1l 11Il',11
lMOO 11.10.10 mO.Ol IH.l. lll!l6I,OJ H1155.01 lllJl.6l fi6Ul 11101.11 1101U!
11000 11l1!.!l 6116.61 m.ll 1l161Ji.l. 151145.11 J410Ul m.ll 10493.11 mlU1
moo
1901Ul IlIl,ll m.14 14mOl.1! I1lllfi, 16 JlUo.ll llUO 10m,16 1mU!
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89 •

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liNG HGDIlCTI01FUTUU fI~. , of II
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, mllT VAlIARLES I
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BiD RlRmlRmm~ Sljl~I.: 10 ' IUT! IUUlFLIHI : 1.50
:mm Of !PIIDLRS{M! mE : ~l : 1111PilCH ITAUIL~I : JU~:
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INurm Of SID!! PHI LARllIJi ,1.10 i YAU pJ.nDucrJO~ utE [LI/!hilt/lOO rV11 ' lUI I
IIOTAL~umRl OF LUOUIS ' Jl I WAIn UTE ILbl.hlft/ 00 rpil '1.11 I
ITOTALLAlOUIcnST/UIFTITI.] , l14UO 1 I
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!::::~::::l::::~::::l::::~::::l::::~::::!:::::~:::::!:::::i:::::!::::~::::!::::~::::!::::~::::!:::~~:::
m~ 2111.0 101.1. lUI l~mU1 mil.ll HlUI 101.14 161l.li
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m6 4m.H 115!.l5 101.H l~mUl 10Im,t. illUI 161,II lUl.n 56.1.19
1000 4151,). IlIl,ll 116.1. 116!Dl,11 t1mUl 9514.11 IIUl 21~U9 •• IU.
m~ \4lU! liIl.ll !lUI mlll.1i 1J5l14.61 1011l.l1 m,lI 1JIU, 15l'.24

1000 ,110.61 lOlUl 1.1,11 45i1iUl 1119ll.10 IlllJ.ll 114.06 1111.11 i50Ul
10000 m'.ll ml.41 !a1.B I011l1,Jl 1il961.11 1ll1U, lJI.iJ 4141.1~ 1141.19
11000 1415.11 14l1.l1 !lUi 1.6Ul.61 IIm,.15 11951.11 119.0) 4500.21 10M .11
11000 1151.41 l1li.41 111.n .11660,11 lOlUO.9l lOllUl lli.ll 191Ul 113JU5
!lOOO IIlLIO 114Ul BUO mOll.ll !lO811.50 11.10.10 llJ.I~ 11!!.41 Illl!.!l

14m llH.ll JI11.l1 253.Jl Jtl,Ol.ll illSU.Oi 11021.45 m.ll II0U! IJllUO
11m 10114.Jl lH!.ll 11l.il 16451U! mill". mil,"' 4~1,71 ,11!.l1 III.l.ll
1,000 IU1Ul J.1U, m.ll 115517,11 mUl.14 21HUI IJU. .m.ll III lUI
11m llm.ll llll.1O m,IO li05tl.U lUUUI 111~1.1' 401' 14 m1.1' liB5!,1l
11m Illl]' 11 4011,14 m.ll mm.l1 301m." W,Ul m.ll 14.1.2. 1100l.00

11000 IllIl,1I m4.l! J4l ,14 ml,UI llm~.l1 lllll,!! 110.11 1111i.!J 11lIl,6i
10000 IJm.I, mO.1l l.U1 101j4JU4 mill.ll 111iUl llUD 1l91.4~ Iml.Jl
moo H21UI ml.l, m.ll 1010161.11 1561Ol.11 m",l1 11UI 1105.1J 11Il1,01
moo Iml.1l ml.lO m.ll 1I11l11.U J1ml,10 llm,41 IlI.OJ lllU4 lml,JI
111lli.Ji
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moo I,JIUl 5l)UI 4JU. Iilllll.\l 4D111l.1i Jml,91 m.ll "'1.61
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moo IIHUl .116.61 4!Ul 1116llUi mHl.51 lm"'l m.ll lllIJ.!! lllOl.Ol
mOD Ilm.45 il4J.15 501.15 1411201.49 m1Ji.I, liOl!.!! JiLl! 11601,l, lU4U,

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lrom NUM!US0' LA!IllJU ' 14 I 'ISTE lATE {Lb/Sbirt/ OG 1,1) , Ul I
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1D~1 mua m,ll 51, H 15!1lUl 86llUl 5119,10 lUl IIU,ll l?9J,ll
!m 1159.11 91UI 59. 19 19591U6 m5~.61 mu~ 11.19 IlSUi 4\O~,1!

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IIOOG lOjl.U Il]J. IJ lU9 mm,9l IlJJIJ.ll mUG Ilua 1.9).ii mUI
11m m9.J~ 1)5<.41 at ,n mm.l5 IllOU,,5 SIll.6S 1ll,01 li61,1l 6116.01
11000 401.n IOU! au? 4Om,j4 liH1UI 1S11.l. I] l. IS 1~3Ul 6m,il
IlOOG m9,1l I!Gl.Ol lO, Ii m91l.!i I6OJG1,JI %11,44 11I,n mU1 J411,J~

I~08~ 1119.10 illo.J? IGUS lt191U, 111m,61 IOl51.Jl t55.)1 1J.9.i1 1911,II
1500D IW,I~ 180, JO IIU! 114109.9] IBml,9S IIDlB,10 I•• ,i 1 lIJR.11 IliUI
161~0 19IU~ 1913.01 118.Ji Iltl~U] 19m1.JI lIi38.01 11U1 l1D1.96 911U.
11000 61BB,98 10~U) ]lUS OlRl9Ul 119m,64 I1m,96 liUJ 28JUI liH.Al
11100 6.5l.91 11IU~ IlLli 6.5i91.91 1119.3.9J IJJi1.i4 m,ll )046,46 1~1JD.51

IlOOD JD1U, 1J4UI ]lUI JDlBlUI 1]m5.)0 14011,11 llUJ ]11l.10 1~841.14
moo 1)98.10 14O"lJ 1~1,9S lHilUI W61U~ liHUO 111,96 m~,9l 11411,11
11100 mB,Ji 1liUI IILlJ 1J6S1U~ 15mUl I III U8 1J).66 muo 1l931.~0
lMO mu! )111.89 161,11 i1JBIU~ 1111!UO 16111.)6 14U. J1ll.l 5 11llU~
moo !IOUl 11JUI m.tl IIOR.U9 113.1UJ 11011.1i 11U. )191.09 IJI11.01

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Im,OI 11UI 191!Ol,!l l!ml,)1 ImUl 1!l.J1 HlUl mUI
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11000 mi,98 1m.)) lJU6 m891.91 H',H
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103
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I i inN nODUCTIOi I rmB O' YAn nODUCHD I liSTS DUBTO 1m UJIl
Irl~DL! •••• _••••• _••••••••• 0•• ._-_ ••• __•••• _•••• _•••••••••• -.-0
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m~,l6
15600 liDU! tl01.11 lUI UllGl.I~ HtIOUl 101ll,J4 1ll.li lOil.l1
lim 1111.11 128t.l1 lUI mm.I5 t5m!.11 IIIll.jl 11•. 11 mUl muo
11000 mUI 1161.O0 101.11 HOm.'1 l.ml.41 11111.41 IIUI muD lllUI
II0iO mUI 1441,10 lOR.IJ l19611.Ji l1JOOl.H 1H15.11 101.I~ 241l.41 10100,11
11~OO H61.11 Illl.l1 II4.lJ mW.15 1BlII1,12 lJi'IIi,lJ 111.20 lllUJ tlO!1.l1
lMO mu, 16DU! Il~, II mm.ll rnllO.44 lUlU! 161.11 lJIl. H
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ITOTALiU~3BlS OF ,AiDUiS ' II I lAm lATE ILb/llif!/ BOr,.] '1.11\ I
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1 I vm PiODOCTION PlIC~OFIAn PIODUCED
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:(!PM) :ilblii;;niLbiiiiii:!lb)lmiii-r;i;T.ii't;k;T.:n::IV:lmmft:I
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400D 1Ol.IJ llG.J! lUl Illlll.16 JIW.!! l4fi0.Di 41.l1 m.11 1199,11
100D IlDl,n m.ll lU4 lHl6UJ lIm,1I 4llJ.OI lU! 111.11 mUI
mD 1441,10 m,ll 4UI IllOOJ.11 l1m.ll mO.11 .US m.ll iIlUJ
1000 161UI m.•• IU6 101BJ1.1O .1l1UI IOlS,ll IS,n 1114.16 mUi
BOOD Im,16 m.ll 11.11 llml.1J linUS mO.11 IUD IllUI mUI

lm 116l.S1 llU1 lUI mS01.i1 i6lDUO 1185.11 lUI lm.OJ


1141.94
mUI
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11DOij 16il.lt nU4 JUI JIJI1Ul IOSllUi 1\15.11 !lUi tllUi mU6
Ilm liIJ,40 16LlJ IUO mm.IJ lllllU6 lom,n IlU\ Im,1J !lOUI
Imo lll1.>1 lOil.ll 1l.11 ll41lt,1. IWi1.19 1114\.21 14Ul 114UJ llOUl

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'\lm J6~Ul 110l.41 1~!.1l mm,il 14WUJ llm,lI I!l.ll WJ.t1 IOm.s!
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t100~ 4~IUI IJOUij l1UI 1l~111,41 l.lll1.41 14101.J1 11l.11 liOl.l~ IlIOO.!1
11m mUI 1I41.1~ !lUI 119011.l1 11l003.1' lllJUl IIUJ 1!6!.1~ llOOD,9J

IlOOij il.1 ,lR Ill!, H IlU. 511145.1I Imll.ll Imu. 101.14 ltlUl 1ll01.0.
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mOD l\l6.l1 Im,IJ IOUO 6.1111.11 llIBIi~.U Illll.lI 141.0' J111.\1 1.IOU1

m~o m•.n InU6 111.0ij mOlS,1!


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lSOOO ,001.01 lOOl.l! IIUI
l.m 6li1,li lm,lI 111,ll 149m.l1 WUUl lm~.il 111.1l ml,lI Iml.lJ
m~o .411.61 lt6U5 IlUJ 1JISIUl 151l0Ul lJJSUI m,ll Hll.14 IIm,OI
moo 6111,IJ lliU4 10I,II 101lSl.ij4 1.1111.01 lil1o.lJ Hl.1i I6l1.Oi Iml,11
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120

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iiUM!EiOf smOmmCmE: III r ym me! ITilAlLbl 12600 :
~ulm OfIAcmEl 10 IIITE me! ImAIL I : lUI
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.000 1441.10 m,ll 4Ul ImOJ.l! ll!!l,!l 1411.41 ". II 1044.1J Hll,H
1600 1!1J,!! m.u IU' 10Im.l. .1l1UI ml,lJ 1Ul 11lU' llJI.1I
1000 Illl.li 140.11 .0.11 lHliJI.l1 linO.IS JlOU~ ll.ll Im.44 lllUI
mB 1Iil.l1 m,11 .1 ,IS mm.fil m~u~
1111.11 1~1.11 Il.UD 6i1UB
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IlOO~ liiJ.'~ lfil.lJ lUI lilDB1.H IIll1l.B6 UllUl lJUo l~iU. ShU.
lJOO~ lllUS Ull.lJ IUl Jl414l.l! 124141.11 lIi,ua HI.l1 21fil.ll !O~l.IB
lmo ll,U. Illl.ll IOUJ mOll.12 IHllUl 1ll1l.~, llUl Wi.ll UlIU~
Im~ 3!OUl 110l.'1 Iii. 11 Illm,H l'IliU1 llm.!l IJI.1O 1,ID.aJ IlOiUl
Imo Jl4Ul 11il.ll Ill. H li1J4J.'S lsm]'ll 14m,11 181.61 mUI 111ll.H
11m 10lUI lJ,LfiO nUl 490111.'1 IOml.i1 IUlUI lll.O1 lll!.!i llliLl!
11m mUI 1441,10 IlUi m~!1.l1 l1JODl.H I,IJU. m.44 JlJUl 11m,!1
moo mS,ll Il21.1! 144.11 l41W.ll 1!l61S,12 llHU4 21o.!i )Hl,OI l40lUO
20000
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mao lil\U, 10ll.'S 111.13 mm,1I lmlUl Il1lUl 116.11 'llUl IlllJ.ll
1100~ 6411.14 llOl.ll 1~5,44 11Illl ,01 lm~UJ 24051.01 l~i .Ii m!,,, IllSl.ll
lBOO~ i1lU3 llll.i4 111.01 Ul11Ui Mlll.01 mU.ll lll.la 4i1l.l' IDOl1.11
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121
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mo 110l.H m.ll iO.OJ IWo!.!l UOlUI ml.U !D.Ol lIi.OI llU.l1
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