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APPENDIX

[Clause DESIGN BLOCK 5.6.2.2 (b)]

OF A WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN THE\ BUILDING OF TWIN APARTMENTS WITH


WATER SUPPLY
TANK (SUPPLY TO EACH ON THE TO BUILDING BE METERED FLOOR

OF A FOUR STOREYED FROM AN OVERHEAD


SEPARATELY)

D-l.

GENERAL
LOWEf7NWAk;R 1154 m i!i 112.0 m i 3m + 3m 106GOm TERRACE LEVEL
WATER TANK

For two apartments Total number of units

in one floor = 2 X 13 = 26 the effective fixture units

For 26 fixture units, (From Table 32).

= 2.0 + & x (3.3 - 2.0)


Ith STOREY

109.0m

= 2.0 + s
3rd STOREY

= 2.0 + 0.39 or 2.4 = 28.32 litres/min = 2.4 X 28.32 = 67.968


1 /min

+
3m

One unit rate of flow


2nd STOREY

Water supply demand

103,Om ELEVATION FLOOR LEVEL ,OO.Om

t 3m c 1st STOREY

or 68 l/min or 98 kld.

or 68 X 60 X 24 1000 or 68 X 60 l/h
kld = 97.92

The sanitary fixtures of the following: a) I sink and I tap

in each apartment in the kitchen;

consist

= 4080 l/h

b) 1 overhead flushing tank and an ablution tap in room; c) 1


shower, d) 1 mini The fixture Fixtures Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen
Water-closet sink tap Room a tap and

for water-closet the water-closet basin; and

From Fig. 5, for a discharge of 4080 litres per hour in an


inferential type of domestic meter, the loss in a 25 mm size
meter is 4.5 m.

1 wash

D-2. SUPPLY TO FIRST (GROUND FLOOR) Elevation of L.W.L. in


overhead tank Elevation of first storey floor level Elevation of
the highest fixture, namely, supply to overhead flushing tank for
water-closet in first storey Difference 1 in elevation

STOREY

geyser units

in the bath

room.

are as follows: Fixture Units

= 115.0 m = 100.0 m

2 2

Ablution tap Supply to overhead tank, Bath Row11

flushing 1.o

Loss in 25 mm meter Available

= = = = =

100 + 101.95 115 13.05 4.5 m


1.95 m 101.95 m

head = 8.55 m

Shower Tap Wash basin Supply to mini Total


HANDBOOK

; geyser : 13 units

Maximum developed length of water pipe from the overhead tank to


the common distribution pipeline laid near the ceiling level of:
first storey = 12 m + 2 m for loss in fittings = 14 m
159

ON WATER

SUPPLY

AND

DRAINAGE
SP : 3S(S&T)-1987 The available 14 m or head of 8.55 m is to be
lost in Flush Third Difference tank for the W.C. in = 106 + 1.95
= 107.95 m = 115 - 107.95 = 7.05 m = 4.5 m head = 2.55 mm

storey in elevation

8.55 or 0.61 m/metre 14 or 61 m/100 metre

The size of pipe with a slope of 61 m/ 100 m for a discharge of


98 kld is found from Fig. 3 to be less than 25 mm. A size of 25
mm will be adopted. The actual loss in this size is found to be
48 m/ 100 m and the velocity to be 2.4 m/s. subsidiary
distribution, pipeline For the supplying to each of the
apartments in the first storey, the minimum size of 20 mm will be
adopted. The branches taking off from this subsidiary
distribution main to the several sanitary fixtures will be 15 mm,
the minimum size to be adopted. D-3. SUPPLY TO SECOND STOREY
115.0 m 103.0 m

Loss in 25 mm meter Available

Maximum developed length of water pipe from the over-head tank to


the common distribution pipeline laid near the ceiling level of
the third storey = 6 + 1 (for loss in fittings) The available of
pipeline = 7 m.

head of 2.55 m is to be lost in 7 m

2.55 or or 0.37 m/metre 7 or 37 m/ 100 m.

Elevation Elevation

of LWL in O.H. tank= of second storey floor=

Elevation of the highest fixture (namely) supply to the O.H.


flush tank for W.C. in second = 103.0 storey + 1.95 m = 104.95 m
Difference in elevation = 115 - 104.95 = 10.05 m = 4.5 m head =
5.55 m

The size of pipe with a slope of 37 m/ 100 m for a discharge of


98 kld is found from Fig. 3 to be greater than 25 mm but less
tha~n 33 mm,Adopt a 33 mm size. Actual velocity in 33 mm tor 98
kld discharge = 1.45 m/s Loss/100 m = 14 m

Loss in 7 m of pipe = 7 X 0.14 = 0.98 m against 2.55 m available.


The subsidiary distribution pipeline to each of the two
apartments in the third storey will be of 20 mm size, the minimum
which gives a velocity of 1.9 m/s. The branches taking off from
this distribution pipe to each of the sanitary fixtLr_s will be
of 15 mm, the minimum size to be adopted. D-S. SUPPLY TO THE
FOURTH STOREY
Loss in 25 mm meter Available

Maximum developed length of water pipe from the O.H. tank to the
common distribution pipeline laid near the ceiling level of
second storey = 9 + I.5 m (loss in tittings) = 10.5 m The
available

Elevation

of LWL in O.H. tank=

115.0 m

Elevation of the fourth head of 5.55 m is to be lost in storey


floor = 109 m 5.33 10.5 m or or 0.526 m/m or 52.6 m/ 100 m lo 5
Elevation of the highest fixture (namely) the supply The size of
pipe with a slope of 52.6 m/ 100 m point to the O.H. flush tank
for a discharge of 98 kld is found from Fig. 3 to of W.C. in
fourth storey = 109 + 1.95 be slightly less than 25 mm. This size
will be = 110.95 m adopted. -The other details will be as for
first storey pipe system. Difference in elevation = 115 - 110.95
m ZZ 4.05 m D-4. SUPPLY TO THIRD STOREY Loss in a 25 mm meter =
4.5 Elevation Elevation of LWL in O.H. Tank= of Third storey
floor= 115.0 m 106.0 m the supply As this loss in the meter is
greater than the difference in elevation, there will be no
satisfactory supply in the fourth storey if a meter was to be
installed. Either the installation of a meter is to be avoided or
the elevation of the 0.H
HANDBOOK ON WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE

Elevtion of the highest fixture (namely) point to O.H.


160
SP : 3S(S&T)-1987 tank has to bc raised. whtch is not desirable.
So the metering of the supply to the fourth storey will be
avoided. .Ihe charges for this supply may' be based on similar
supply to the other floors. In that case the available lead =
4.05 m to Assuming that the pattern 10 am and 2 to 6 pm Let a be
the average
a=

Assuming 8 hours pumping into the overhead storage tank, rate of


pumping 5400 =-_= 8 675 litres/ h. of pumping demand is from 6

Maximum developed length of water pipe from the 0 H tank to the


common distribution pipeline laid near the ceiling level of
fourth storey = 3 + 0.5 m (for loss in fittings) = 3.5 m 4.05 m
is to be lost in 3.5 m of pipeline 4.05 3.5 or 1.14 m/m or 114
m/100 m. or

hourly

Total daily demand 24

5400 = 24Wh = 225 11h.

The total that

daily

supply

is pumped

in 8 hours.

The si7e of pipe with a slope of 114 m 100 m for a discharge of


98 kld is found from Fig. 3 to be about 20 mm. However. a si7e of
25 mm will be adopted. The subsidiary distribution pipeline to
each of the two apartments will be minimum of 20 mm sire.
The branches taking off from this distribution pipe to each of
the sanitary fixture will be I5 mm, the minimum si/e to be
adopted.

is, rate of pumping rate of pumping

5400 = 675 l/h = 7 675 = ~225 = 3 a.

hourly

Based only on these two rates, a and 3a and the pattern of


pumping, that is, for 4 hours from 6 to IO am and for 4 hours
from 2 to 6 pm, the capacity of the ground level storage tank is
calculated as given in Table 60. The storage needed for ground
level storage + Maximum Maximum tank = deficit = 12 a = 12 times
average supply or halfa-day's supply. The tank will be full at 6
am, that is? when the pumping starts for the day. The tank ~111
become empty at 6 pm that is, when the pumping stops at 6 pm for
the day. Storage 5400 = 2700 needed in ground level reservoir = 2
litres. The minimum storage in a ground level reservoir is also
50 percent of the storage in an overhead reservoir. The actual
storage to be

D-6.

DESIGN

OF THE STORAGE

TANKS

D-6.1 Ground Level Tank Receiving the Supply from the Corporation
or Municipal Total daily supply for the population in Main in the
4 storeys at 5 the X apartments persons family in an apartment at
the rate of 135 litres/ day. I c d = 8 X 5 X 135 = 5400 Assuming
that water supply is available in the street main all through 24
hours, average rate of supply = 5400 litresiday, that is, inflow
into the I:round level storage tank = 5400 litresjday.

TABLE 60 CAPACITY
TIME IN A (FWIll To '

OF GROUND (Clause
CUMULATIVE DEMAND

LEVEL STORAGE

TANK
CUMULATIVE DEFICIT OR SURPLUS (+) (-) STORAGE IN RESERVOIR

D-6.1)
C~JMULATIVE PUMPING

HWJKS

HOURLY DEMAND

HOLJRLY PUMPING

24

6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
I
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 24

a a a a a a a a a a a a a

6a la 8a 90 IOU lla 12a 13a 14a 15a 16a 17a 18a 24a

0 3a 3a 3a 3a 0 0 0 0 30 3a 3a 3a

0 3a 6a 9a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 15a 18~ 21a 24a 24a

60

12a
10a 8a 6a 4a 5a 6a la 8a 6a 4a 2a 0 6a

4a
2a 0 -2a -a 0 I, 0 -2a -4a -6a 0

HANDBOOK

ON WATER

SUPPLY

AND

DRAINAGE

161
SP : 35(S&T)-1987 provided in this case will be decided after the
storage capacity of the overhead reservoir is decided. D-6.2
Capacity of the Overhead Reservoir The capacity can be calculated
based on the rates and hours &f pumping into the overhead tank
and the rate of withdrawal from the tank. which is based on the
demand of the sanitary fixtures in the building (,WP Table 61).
As the rate of aithdrawal from the tank or the rate of demand of
the sanitary fixtures depends on the habits of the people of the
building. an hourly pattern oi demand IS assumed to work out the
theoretical capacit!, of the overhead storage tank. Storage =
maximum surplus deficit + maximum Storage needed for the overhead
reservoir (2)

= 40 X 70 = 2800 litres No. of water-closets =4X2X1=8 Storage


needed for flushing = 270 X 8 = 2160 litres. The minimum suPPl1
storage in the building

W.C. as in Table 17. (3)

as in 5.4.2.3 = l/2 day (4)

5400 = 2 litres = 2700 litres

The various figures for the storage, as calculated in (I) to (4),


are 1721.25 litres, 2800 litres, 2 160 litres, and 2700 litres.
The storage needed in this case shall be as in (2), that is, 2800
litres.

= 3.85 u + 3.8~ = 7.65 a Maximum storage in O.H. reservoir


average = 7.65 supply

= 7.65 X 225 litres = 1721.25 litres (1)

The storage needed for the ground level reservoir shall be a


minimum of 50 percent of 2800 litres or 1400 litres which is less
than that was calculated earlier, that is, 2700 litres. However,
a day's supply may be provided in the ground level reservoir,
that is, 5400 litres to be on the safe side. D-6.3 Capacity Size
of the Overhead = 2800 litres Tank

The storage capacity as per the norms given in Table 16 based on


the population in the residential building = No. of population
No. of population twin apartments =4X2X5=40 TABLE 61 CAPACITY
TIME IN HOURS A f From ToHOURLY DEMAND CUMULATIVE DEMAND

X 70 litres block of

Assuming a total depth of 1.0 metre and effective depth = 0.85 m


Area of section = 2800 X 1000 = 32941 85 cm'
in the four storeyed

OF OVERHEAD (Clause D-6.2)


HOURLY PUMPING

RESERVOIR CUMULATIVE PUMPING CUMULATIVE DEFICIT (-) OR SURPLUS


(+) STORAGE IN RESERVOIR

24 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 23

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 23 24

0.20

0.40 0.80 2.250 2.250 2.250 2.250 0 a 0.60 2.250 0.70 0.70 0.70
2.250 0.90 0.70 0.40 0.20

0.80 1.2a 2.00 4.25~ 6.50 8.750 110


120 130

0 0 0 30 30 3a
30 0 0

0 0 0

13.60 15.850 16.550 17.250 17.950 20.200 22.00 23.40 23.80 240

0 0 30 30 30 30 0 0 0 0 HANDBOOK

30 6a 90 120 120 120 120 120 150 180 210 240 240 240 240 240

-0.80 -1.20 -2.00 - 1.250 -0.50 -IO.250


+0

0
-0 -1.60 -3.850 -1.55a +0.750 f3.050 +3.8a +2a +0.60 $0.20 0
SUPPLY

3.050 2.650 I .850 2.60 3.350 4.10 4.850 3.850 2.850 2.250 0
2.30~ 4.600 6.90 7.65a_ 5.850 4.45a 4.050 3.850 AND DRAINAGE

162

ON WATER
SP : 3S(S&T)-1987 Assume a square section Assume a total depth
depth = 1.05 m Area (say) of section = of 1.2 m and effective

b2 = 32941 b=dm

5400 x 1000 105 section

= 51428

cm2

= 181.5 cm or 1.9 metres

Assuming

a square

The size will be 1.9 m X 1.9 m X I .O m D-6.4 Ground Capacity


Level Tank = 5400 litres

6' = 51428 or b = J5 1428 = 226.7 or 230 cm

= 2.3 m The size will be, say 2.3 m X 2.3 m X 1.2 m