0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

2 (de) vizualizări12 paginid

Feb 23, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

d

© All Rights Reserved

2 (de) vizualizări

d

© All Rights Reserved

- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- Micro: A Novel
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The 6th Extinction
- The Black Swan
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The Last Battle
- Prince Caspian
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Theory of Death: A Decker/Lazarus Novel

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 12

IN HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

Peter PERSSON1; Per-Erik AUSTRELL2; Poul Henning KIRKEGAARD3;

Lars Vabbersgaard ANDERSEN4; Fredrik STEFFEN5

1, 2, 5

Department of Construction Sciences, Lund University, Sweden

3

Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark

4

Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark

ABSTRACT

Buildings are getting taller due to increased urbanisation and densification of cities. More

advanced construction methods and the desire to construct impressive buildings is also supporting the

trend. Due to their inherent slenderness resulting in low eigenfrequencies, these buildings are

susceptible to wind-induced vibrations which can be highly disturbing for occupants. Already barely

perceivable acceleration levels within the low-frequency range relevant to whole-body vibrations can

cause nausea and discomfort, while high acceleration levels can cause alarm and fea r amongst the

occupants. The paper summarises acceptable acceleration levels in high -rise buildings (here referred

to as buildings over 200 m in height) stated in different building codes and previous work on the

subject. Accelerations of a high-rise building subjected to wind-loads are evaluated using a full

numerical model and one reduced with Ritz-vectors and the results are compared. The paper focusses

on wind-load dynamics in early stages of the design process, with an intent to give an indication of

the dynamic properties of a building.

I-INCE Classification of Subjects Numbers: 22.3, 42, 49.1, 49.3.1, 75.3, 76.9.

1. INTRODUCTION

With advancement in material and construction sciences, buildings have been getting taller and

taller during the last century. High-strength steel, lighter cladding and modern construction techniques

have resulted in tall buildings, thus also giving more slender buildings with lower and lower natural

frequencies. Structures exposed to stochastic loading such as earthquake or wind load have a tendency

to vibrate in the first natural frequency, i.e. the fundamental frequency. For high-rise buildings, here

assumed to be around or over 200 m in height, the fundamental frequency can easily be below 1 Hz

due to the slender shape of these buildings. A rule of thumb to estimate the fundamental frequency of

a building of height H (in m) is f = 46/H, where the frequency f is given in Hz. The estimate is given

in the Eurocode (1) and is applicable to buildings with a height large r than 50 meters (1).

In designing buildings, serviceability criteria are often harder to fulfil than the survivability ones.

High acceleration levels may cause nausea and even alarm among residents. The acceptable

acceleration levels in terms of comfort for the residents have been studied by several researchers, as

described below, showing that these accelerations vary with frequency. As an example, at 0.1 Hz the

allowable acceleration is around 15 mg (15·10 -3 ڄ9.81m/s 2) giving a peak-to-peak range of the

displacement of 0.7 m if assuming a sinusoidal motion. For a building resonating at 1 Hz, the

1

peter.persson@construction.lth.se

2

per-erik.austrell@construction.lth.se

3

phk@eng.au.dk

4

la@civil.aau.dk

5

fredrik.steffen@gmail.com

7650

INTER-NOISE 2016

Accelerations of a high-rise building subjected to wind loads are evaluated in this work using a

numerical model. A high-rise building is modelled with beam elements using the finite-element (FE)

method to construct a model with large number of degrees of freedom (dofs). The full system is then

compared to a greatly reduced model using Ritz-vectors formed from static deflections. The two

models are compared in terms of natural frequencies and obtained accelerations.

The work is focused on wind-load dynamics in early stages of the design process in order to give

an indication of the dynamic properties of the modelled building.

Since tall buildings with low natural frequencies can vibrate significantly due to wind excitation,

it is important to understand how this effects the tenants. Here, human response to low-frequency

accelerations and acceptable accelerations in high-rise buildings are described.

Throughout the years, several studies have been conducted on the human perception of vibrations

in buildings. The studies usually fall within one of three types of studies: field experiments and

surveys of occupants in tall building; motion simulator and shaker table experiments; and field

experiments in artificially excited buildings. The results of several studies have been summ arised by

Kwok et al. (2) and some of those, which fall within the first two categories mentioned above, are

discussed below. Few, if any, field experiments in artificially excited building s with natural

frequencies below 1 Hz (which is usually associated with very tall buildings) have been done and will

therefore not be reviewed.

Field experiments and surveys can be divided into two categories. The first category is surveys

conducted in buildings during or after a passing storm. The survey results are late r on compared to

data measured from wind-tunnel testing of that particular building. Result that is more useful have

been derived from buildings that are known to have complaints from occupants regarding disturbing

vibrations. This has allowed testers to properly install equipment to be able to register the actual

vibrations, such that these vibrations can be compared to the experience of the occupants.

Denoon et al. (3-5) conducted experiments in three airport towers equipped with accelerometers

and anemometers. With help of the test it was concluded that the average threshold of perception

varied with the natural frequency of the building. It is noteworthy that even though two of the

buildings experienced accelerations that were acceptable according to the ISO 6897:1984 (6) which

applied back then, one of the buildings received more complaints. It is believed that the tower was

exposed to winds during a longer period of time, suggesting that exposure durations effect the

perception of vibration. This is an important consideration, since the characteristics of windstorms

differ greatly across the world. Recently, Lamb et al. (7) conducted surveys in Wellington, New

Zeeland—a notoriously windy city. That, combined with the city’s high earthquake risk that forces

designers to allow more structural flexibility, makes the buildings prone to dynamic response. It was

noted that there is a significant increase among employees experiencing nausea and dizziness when

building motion was possibly or definitely perceivable. The study showed that 60-70% detected

building motion by feeling the sensation of motion. The rest detected it by sound and visual cues.

Symptoms such as nausea and dizziness did not differ significantly when motion was possible or

definite, suggesting the accelerations that are barely perceiver, or not perceived at all, might still affect

occupants.

To circumvent the uncertainties associated with field experiment, a series of controlled-motion

simulators and shaker-table experiments have been performed. The early experiments focused on

subjects exposed to sinusoidal vibrations and on vibration perception without the subject being

distracted by a task. Even though this may not be a realistic comparison to random wind-induced

building vibration, some of the conclusions drawn from the study still hold interest. One of the most

referenced study to date is by Chen and Robertson (8). It concluded that the frequency of oscillation,

body movement and expectancy of vibrations are factors that in large degree effect the vibration

perception threshold. Irwin and Goto (9) continued the study by Irwin (10) and concluded that

frequencies below 1 Hz, which are common for high-rise buildings, resulted in more nausea and

abdominal discomfort, while frequencies above 1 Hz were more disturbing when subjects tried to

perform manual tasks.

7651

INTER-NOISE 2016

Data gathered from some of the studies mentioned above led to the development of ISO 6897:1987

(6). The limits were set at the maximum standard deviation of acceleration from the worst 10 minutes

of windstorms occurring every 5 years. The standard was later modified by Melbourne and Cheung

(11) to specify a peak acceleration instead of the mean deviation as used in ISO 6897:1987 (6). As the

ISO norms, the acceleration criteria depend on frequency and were given for different return periods.

In 1993, Isyumov (12) suggested ranges of accelerations that were incorporated in the National

Building Code of Canada (NBCC) in the 1995 (13). Instead of a frequency-dependent criterion,

intervals were suggested depending on the building’s usage: 5–7 mg for residences, 7–9 mg for hotels

and 9–12 mg for offices (14). The Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) (15) has gone in another

direction. Instead of giving thresholds for human comfort, the accelerations for 10, 30, 50, 70, and

90% probabilities of perception have been suggested. This lets owners decided for themselves what

accelerations at an annual return period can be considered acceptable. ISO 6897:1984 has later been

revised and superseded by ISO 10137:2008 (16), shown in Figure 1. The acceptability curve for

resident buildings lies close to that of AIJ’s 90% probability curve. The criterion for residential

buildings is 2/3 of that acceptable in offices. A number of proposed criteria and perception threshold s

have been summarised by Burton et al. (14) and are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1 – Acceptable accelerations from ISO 10137:2008 (16) in 1: offices, 2: residences. A is in m/s2.

Figure 2 – Proposed criterion and perception curves summarised by Burton et al. (14).

7652

INTER-NOISE 2016

For designers to gain insight into a building’s dynamic behaviour, wind tunnel testing if often

performed. One major step forward in wind engineering was the development of the boundary-layer

wind tunnel. While many different test setups are available, one of the most common is the High-

Frequency-Force-Balance Method. A rigid foam model with a high natural frequency is placed on a

sensitive five-component balance. By performing several tests, an average response spectrum of the

base bending moment is obtained. The response spectrum is only valid for the particular building

shape and environmental exposure tested, while being normalised to be independent of wind velocity

and structural parameters such as stiffness, damping and mass (17). Figure 7 shows the basic setup of

a balance model.

This chapter discusses numerical simulation of a building subjected to excitation by wind. It begins

with some basic theory about wind loading, followed by how the considered building has been

modelled. Results for the full FE model and for a model reduced by Ritz-vectors are compared.

The most common analytical procedure for evaluating the response of a building was developed

by Davenport in 1967 (18). A peak response can be calculated from the mean response using a gust

loading factor giving a dynamic amplification. The method can be used to calculate a number of

responses such as forces, acceleration and displacement.

Vortex shedding is a phenomenon that has a high impact on acceleration levels in tall and slender

buildings. The oncoming wind is shed alternately on each side of the building, resulting in a force

acting perpendicular to the wind direction. Eurocode (1) gives the critical velocity where the vortex

shedding frequency coincides with the natural frequency of a building. The critical velocity can be

described as

ܾ݊ڄ

ݒ௧ ൌ (1)

ܵݐ

where b is the width of the building perpendicular to the oncoming wind, n is the natural frequency

of the building, and St is the Strouhal number, defined by Figure 4.

7653

INTER-NOISE 2016

Figure 4 – Strouhal number for rectangular cross sections with sharp corners [Eurocode].

The numerical method used here employs another approach using spectra from wind-tunnel testing.

The wind load will be applied in two directions: the along-wind and the across-wind directions. A

subroutine creates a target spectrum in the along-wind and across-wind directions for the idealised

building. Then an inverse Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used to generate two time series from the

spectrum. Finally, an FFT on the time-series is performed to confirm that the generated time series

include the same frequencies as the target spectrum. Another subroutine generates the equivalent static

wind load used by the main program to calculate a static deflection which is later used as a Ritz-vector

to reduce the system.

3.2 FE Model

The FE model has a symmetric cross section with centre of mass and moment of inertia coinciding

on each floor. The system will be reduced using the fundamental frequency of the building, higher

modes being neglected. The building is modelled in CALFEM, a finite element toolbox developed at

the Department of Construction Sciences at Lund University using MATLAB.

The code developed consist of a main program and two subroutines. The main program generates

the mass and stiffness matrix for an idealised building. The building mass is equally distributed to the

nodal points applying the concept of lumped mass. The stiffness is adjusted to provide a fundamental

frequency close to that of real high-rise buildings.

The model building with 85 floors and a rectangular cross section of 50u50 m2 is shown in Figure 5.

The building has a floor height of 3.5 m providing a total height of 297.5 m. The density was set to

180 kg/m3 . The lowest natural frequency is 0.1574 Hz and the associated mode can be described as

global bending in the horizontal x-direction. The total system has of 3360 nodes and 8160 dofs. The

buildings is modelled with beam elements fully tied to eachother. Fixed boundary conditions were

applied at height z=0, see Figure 5.

7654

INTER-NOISE 2016

The damping matrix is determined from the mass matrix m and the stiffness matrix k using

Rayleigh damping (19):

ൌ ܽ ܽଵ (2)

where

ʹ߱ଵ ߱ଶ

ܽ ൌ ߞ (3)

߱ଵ ߱ଶ

ʹ

ܽଵ ൌ ߞ (4)

߱ଵ ߱ଶ

With a structural damping ratio of ] = 1% (20) for modes 1 and 2, and first and second natural

frequencies of f1 = 0.1574 Hz and f2 = 0.4777 Hz, respectively, the factors a 0 and a 1 become 0.0024

and 0.0315. The damping ratio includes energy dissipation such as material damping and friction in

joints.

3.3 Ritz-vectors

This section gives a brief overview of model reduction using Ritz-vectors. The theory is thoroughly

described by Chopra (19). The equation of motion for a system with N dofs can be described as

ሷ ሶ ൌ ሺݐሻ (5)

system can be reduced and solved, saving computational time:

ୀଵ

Here શ is a matrix storing the Ritz-vectors as columns, and ࢠሺݐሻ contains the coordinates ݖ ሺݐሻ, i = 1,

2, …, J, of the Ritz-vector basis. Substituting this into the original equations of motion (5), the

equations of motion can be rewritten as

શࢠሷ શࢠሶ શࢠ ൌ ሺݐሻ (7)

܂

Furthermore, pre-multiplying with શ yields the formulation

෩ࢠ ൌ

ࢠሷ ࢠሶ ሺݐሻ (8)

giving a reduced system where

ൌ શ શǡ

෩ ൌ શ શǡ

ൌ શ શǡ ൌ શ (9)

After solving the smaller system, detailed information about the full system can be back calculated

with Eq. (6).

The accuracy depends on the choice of Ritz-vectors. A good way of determining the Ritz-vectors

is by applying an equivalent static wind load and using the calculated deflection as a Ritz-vector. The

shape corresponds well with the first mode of vibration, thus making it a suitable approximation. In

this work, only two Ritz-vectors were needed to adequately reproduce the response of the model

building. It was found that one deflected shape in the along-wind direction together with a deflected

shape in the across-wind direction was enough to represent the building’s response to wind load.

To determine the Ritz-vectors, a static deflection was calculated by applying a static wind-load.

Eurocode (1) does not provide a method of determining the Equivalent Static Wind Load (ESWL) on

a building. However, a method for the ESWL in the along-wind direction has been developed by Zhou

et al. (21). It is based on the principle of a Gust Loading Factor (GLF) originally developed by

Davenport and is more suitable for tall and slender buildings. Combining the two methods provides

the total equivalent static wind load on each floor according to Figure 6.

7655

INTER-NOISE 2016

Also for the across-wind direction, Eurocode provides no means for calculation of the EWSL.

While AIJ may be suitable for common high-rise buildings, it is not suitable for very slender buildings

where vortex shedding has a significant impact on the building response. Instead, a method developed

by Quan et al. (22) is used. The peak ESWL for each floor can be calculated according to Figure 6.

From wind-tunnel testing, the spectral representation of the base bending moment is given. In

certain building codes and articles, simplified expressions for the spectrum are available. In this paper,

the spectrum described in the Japanese building code (AIJ) (23) and by Qu et al. (24) is utilized to

calculate the spectral density of the base bending moment in the along-wind and across-wind

directions, respectively.

7656

INTER-NOISE 2016

Figure 7 – Time series and frequency spectrum of along-wind base bending moment.

Figure 8 – Time series and frequency spectrum of across-wind base bending moment.

Using these spectra, an Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation (IFFT) procedure with some added

noise and random phase angles can be performed, creating time series of the wind load. By performing

an FFT on the generated time series, a spectral representation closely matching that of closed-form

expressions has been found. The IFFT was manually scaled. Figure 7 and 8 show the generated time

series and their spectral density compared to the target spectrum, for base bending moment.

7657

INTER-NOISE 2016

By applying the static wind load calculated using the methods presented above and illustrated in

Figure 6, a deflection was determined. Figure 6 shows EWSL in the along-wind and across-wind

directions. By applying the static load to the structure and calculate the deflection, two Ritz-vectors

were defined. By reducing the system and solving the eigenvalue problem, the frequencies were

determined to be 0.1574 Hz and 0.1574 Hz in the along-wind and across-wind directions, respectively..

Table 1 shows a comparison of the natural frequencies between the full and the reduced systems.

Frequency along, Hz Frequency across, Hz

Full system 0.1574 0.1574

Reduced system 0.1574 0.1547

Difference 0.0% 0.0%

This shows that the Ritz-vector are accurate and can be used in further dynamic simulations, given

the proximity of the natural frequencies in the full and reduced systems. During a 600 seconds long

time-series simulation, two degrees of freedom at the top of the building were observed: one in the

along-wind direction and one in the across-wind direction. Table 2 shows the time necessary to

complete the analysis for the full and reduced systems.

Time, s

Full system 3690

Reduced system 0.23

Figures 9 and 10 show the acceleration response of the full and the reduced system in along- and

across-wind directions respectively. Furthermore, RMS values were calculated to show the similarity

between the two systems. The results are shown in Table 3.

Along-wind Across-wind

Full system 0.5599 0.1092

Reduced system 0.5570 0.1099

Difference 0.52% -0.60%

7658

INTER-NOISE 2016

5. CONCLUDING REMARKS

Designers and building owners should be aware of the complexity associated with structural design

of high-rise building exposed to significant wind loads. Not only are there uncertainties in the

approximation of the load and of the dynamic response itself, but also people react very differently to

accelerations. Careful consideration has to be taken regarding: the building properties in terms of

stiffness, mass and damping; type of storms likely to occur at its location; and whether it is to be an

office building, residential building or a mix of both. Since removing all noticeable vibrations is

uneconomical from a building-owner point-of-view, the owner will have to decide how much vibration

can be tolerated without effecting the rental or sale plans.

In this paper, a time-efficient and accurate numerical procedure for determining accelerations in

high-rise buildings was developed. The simulation of a system reduced with Ritz-vectors showed a

7659

INTER-NOISE 2016

high correlation with the whole system, while saving substantial computational time. However, one

should be aware that with even taller and more slender buildings than the one used here, higher modes

become more influential. Neglecting them may result in an underestimation of the true response.

Further studies could try to determine under which prerequisites using only the first mode of

vibration is satisfactory. Using the static deflection from an equivalent static wind load works

sufficiently for estimating the first mode, but estimating higher modes may become challenging and

would also be suitable for further study.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to show their gratitude to the European Union for financial support via the

Interreg V project “Urban Tranquillity”.

REFERENCES

1. Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 1-4: General actions - wind actions, SS-EN 1991-1-4:2005

2. Kwok KC, Hitchcock PA, Burton MD. Perception of vibration and occupant comfort in wind-excited tall

buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 2009 Oct 31;97(7):368-80.

3. Denoon RO, Letchford CW, KCS K, Morrison DL. Field measurements of human reaction to wind-

induced building motion. In Wind Engineering Into the 21st Century, Vol 1-3 1999 (Vol. 1, pp. 637-644).

AA Balkema.

4. Denoon RO, Roberts RD, Letchford CW, Kwok KC. Field experiments to investigate occupant perception

and tolerance of wind-induced building motion. Research report. University of Sydney. Department of

Civil Engineering. 2000.

5. Denoon R.O. Designing for wind-induced serviceability in buildings. PhD Thesis. The University of

Queensland. 2001.

6. International Standards Organization. Guidelines for the evaluation of the response of occupants of fixed

structures, especially buildings and offshore structures, to low-frequency horizontal motion (0.063 to 1.0

Hz) ISO6897:1984. Geneva, Switzerland. 1984.

7. Lamb S, Kwok KC, Walton D. A longitudinal field study of the effects of wind-induced building motion

on occupant wellbeing and work performance. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics.

2014 Oct 31;133:39-51.

8. Chen, P. W., Robertson, L. E. Human perception thresholds of horizontal motion. Journal of the structural

division 1972;92(8):1681-1695.

9. Irwin AW, Goto T. Human perception, task performance and simulator sickness in single and multi-axis

low-frequency horizontal linear and rotational vibration. In Journal of sound and vibration.

1984;97(4):677-677.

10. Irwin AW. Perception, comfort and performance criteria for human beings exposed to whole body pure

yaw vibration and vibration containing yaw and translational components. Journal of Sound and Vibration.

1981 Jun 22;76(4):481-97.

11. Melbourne WH, Cheung JC. Designing for serviceable accelerations in tall buildings. In Proceedings of

the 4th International Conference on Tall Buildings, Hong Kong and Shanghai 1988:148-155.

12. Isyumov N. Criteria for acceptable wind-induced motions of tall buildings. In International Conference

on Tall Buildings 1993 May 17 (pp. 401-411).

13. National Buildings Code of Canada. Structural Commentaries (Part 4). National Research Council of

Canada. Ottawa, Canada. 1995.

14. Melissa Burton BM. Wind-Induced Motion of Tall Buildings: Designing for Occupant Comfort. In

International Journal of High-Rise Buildings. 2015 Mar:4(1).

15. Architectural Institute of Japan Recommendations. Guidelines for the evaluation of habitability to

building vibration, AIJES-V001-2004. 2004. Tokyo, Japan.

16. International Standards Organization. Bases for design of structures: Serviceability of buildings and

walkways against vibrations, ISO10137:2007. Geneva, Switzerland. 2007.

17. Tschanz T. The Base Balance Measurement Technique And Applications To Dynamic Wind Loading To

Structures.

18. Davenport AG. Gust loading factors. Journal of the Structural Division. 1967 Jun;93(3):11-34.

19. Chopra AK. Dynamics of structures. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 1995 Jan.

20. The 21st Century Center of Excellent Program. Wind Effects on Buildings and Urban Environment:

7660

INTER-NOISE 2016

Lecture of damping in buildings. Tokyo Polytech University. (Cited May 2016). Available from

http://www.wind.arch.t-kougei.ac.jp/info_center/ITcontent/tamura/10.pdf

21. Zhou Y, Kareem A. Gust loading factor: new model. Journal of Structural Engineering. 2001

Feb;127(2):168-75.

22. Quan Y, Gu M. Across-wind equivalent static wind loads and responses of super-high-rise buildings.

Advances in Structural Engineering. 2012 Dec 1;15(12):2145-56.

23. Architectural Institute of Japan Recommendations. Recommendations for loads on buildings. 2004.

Tokyo, Japan.

24. Gu M, Quan Y. Across-wind loads of typical tall buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial

Aerodynamics. 2004 Nov 30;92(13):1147-65.

7661

- Modal Analysis of Shear BuildingsÎncărcat deconsultor9010
- Seismic Requirement of Power TransformerÎncărcat dePrashant Puri
- staad pro design.docxÎncărcat deAkhlaq Hussain
- Previews 1994461 PreÎncărcat deahm2011
- 267-778-1-PBÎncărcat deyayan setiawan
- Bai bao Tap chi Scopus Nguyen_2018_IOP_Conf._Ser.__Earth_Environ._Sci._143_012023.pdfÎncărcat dePhay gaen CH - K24
- High Rise and EQÎncărcat deMaiwand Khan
- RHMÎncărcat deLei Zhou
- 1.4937743Încărcat deteju1996cool
- Elliptic vibration-assisted cutting of fibre-reinforced polymer composites: Understanding the material removal mechanismsÎncărcat deXu Weixing
- Martin Gear ManualÎncărcat deEpi Vargas Alcaraz
- 01 Tip n TricksÎncărcat devkrm_krishna
- Problem Dinamca 1Încărcat deandrei_robert29
- Earthquake engineeringÎncărcat deMontoya Luis
- Indrajit Et Al -IACMAG-12Încărcat deabhisk04gmailcom
- Paper 1Încărcat deRainCorn
- Vehicle DynamicsÎncărcat dehodvmkvecauto
- Vibrating Measuring InstrumentÎncărcat deVishnu Upadyaya
- Noise and Vibrations on Board-cursÎncărcat deCeban Eugeniu
- Field Assessment of Overall RMS Vibration GuidelinesÎncărcat deAgustin Alija
- 102M-(BQ)- 2009Încărcat demustafa osman
- MST (1)Încărcat dearjun
- Dynamic Testing and Monitoring of Bridges_paperÎncărcat deBogdan Bumbacea
- 70811_toc.pdfÎncărcat dePamela Garrido Cardenas
- Http Www.diracdelta.coÎncărcat dearun.nemo
- Lecture 2Încărcat deMorena Moremoholo
- Vibration Analysis Trouble Shooting Case HistoryÎncărcat deJose Luis Rattia
- Dynimac Behavior of Vertical Cylinde Rdue the Wave ForceÎncărcat dedujeveic
- Sine vs RandomÎncărcat dekumarmkishore
- 2-ART-2.pdfÎncărcat deAurica Daniel

- Flr Vib Test_2019Încărcat deRobert Coelho
- Flange_Paper_Final (1).pdfÎncărcat deRutik
- Los Angeles Tall Building Structural Design Comitee 2017.pdfÎncărcat deNick Bester
- nistgcr10-917-4Încărcat dePicollus
- 2005_3.pdfÎncărcat deNick Bester
- Plan MatrixÎncărcat deNick Bester
- Seismic Load AnalysisÎncărcat deMANDARAW
- ClassHandoutBLD225836TheBestRebarDetailingToolsforRevitAlanJohnson.pdfÎncărcat deAdriano Etcheverry
- 503-Rashid_Revit-Strecture-Rebar_2016-MU-Handout-.pdfÎncărcat deCong Tho Hoang
- SadikOmairey MSc 12055514Încărcat deNick Bester
- up.pdfÎncărcat deNick Bester
- 10KM_Map_2019Încărcat deNick Bester
- IJESIT201301_54.pdfÎncărcat deNick Bester
- Exporting Schedules From RevitÎncărcat deNick Bester
- Fees_DPSA_2013.pdfÎncărcat deNick Bester
- GUIDE_CONSULTANT_FEES_JAN_2Încărcat deLanga Kambi-Shamba
- Strand7 Documentation Order FormÎncărcat deNick Bester
- 2017 Maxi Spec-sheetÎncărcat deNick Bester
- Why Healthy Work Places MatterÎncărcat deNick Bester
- Effects of Column Creep and Shrinkage in Tall StructuresÎncărcat deMagellan Chiritescu
- PDS_RAM_Concept_LTR_0716_LR.pdfÎncărcat deNick Bester
- VSL_Broschuere_GC_AnchorageÎncărcat deJose Quijano
- 500Plus.pdfÎncărcat deNick Bester
- Keybox Reinforcement Continuity System May 14 Update LRÎncărcat deNick Bester
- ABSA Gap Cover InformationÎncărcat deNick Bester
- User_Manual_Jabra_SPEAK-410_EN.pdfÎncărcat deNick Bester

- 08-Unit8Încărcat deKamal Kant
- Class A, B, AB, C AmplifiersÎncărcat detikira
- Elastic WaveÎncărcat deRizka
- Mhr Ml7 FinalExam Option1 Multiple.docÎncărcat dehedomstad
- Pipe NetÎncărcat deSARFRAZ ALI
- Phase Balancing and Power Factor CorrectionÎncărcat deswapna44
- Linear Optimal Control SystÎncărcat deHeru Herjuna
- De-Mystifying OBIEE Oracle BI AppÎncărcat decrystal_rhoades
- Overview and SetupÎncărcat deAnita Poma
- Electro Van AÎncărcat deEugenNica
- Xir2 Deski Access Analyze Data EnÎncărcat deapi-3867338
- SAS130-2014Încărcat deEnrique Caballé
- AC-Machines-Lab-Manual.pdfÎncărcat deറിജിൽ വി ആർ
- g 1907012Încărcat deamin
- Ccnav6.Com-CCNA 1 Pretest Exam Answers 2018 v51 v60 Full 100Încărcat deZumoariku Rinkutokuarikuari
- Beckett (2).pptÎncărcat deKhushnood Ali
- PL/SQL Developer Plug-In interface DocumentationÎncărcat deGSly
- Industrial ChillersÎncărcat deanon-921068
- DVP-7000 (E6D20ED) Service ManualÎncărcat deapi-3711045
- EE3009 Lab3Încărcat deLawrenceLam
- S4-User's Guide 2.1Încărcat deadriano_falavinha9186
- Monitoring Solutions Brochure ENUÎncărcat depdrich8
- Matrix OLS NYU NotesÎncărcat deAnonymous 2g4jKo5a7v
- Design LED Backlight FreescaleÎncărcat deWelington Garcia
- Datasheet 7 - Absorption CoolingÎncărcat deMustafa Vatansever
- Cad Cam NikiÎncărcat deNik Nikss
- DNV OS-H102 Marine Operations Design and Fabrication 2012-01Încărcat deMarios Dias
- Chemical KineticsÎncărcat deMeisy Radhista
- jQuery FundamentalsÎncărcat deSri Shilpa
- Saipem Piping Design BasisÎncărcat deMk Wahid

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.