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The Bible is a communication from God revealing what he wants people to

know about themselves, the earth they live on, and himself as their creator
and as their almighty God. Volume II. considers answers to the many of the
most important questions people have in connection with the Bible. It deals
with those fundamental questions we had going as far back as our childhood.
While many of these got answered early on and we accepted those answers,
we often found out later something was missing, or they just didn‘t make sense.
Volume II. explores scriptural answers to most of those important questions
which still linger in our minds and hearts, some even tracing from as far back
as our early childhood.

While there have already been hundreds of millions of Bibles read and
countless numbers of books published on the Bible. There is still confusion
over what it actually teaches. Today, we may be facing the greatest time of
crisis in all of human history with the very survival of this planet earth in
question. While scientists speculate and authors write books about what the
future will bring, only one ancient book, lays out both past, present and future
history for men and women on this earth. From its earliest beginnings it
explains the reasons for our present condition, and tells us what the future
holds for our planet as well as for ourselves as its human inhabitants.

That ancient book is uniquely and exclusively, God‘s inspired word, his own
message to humans, the Holy Bible. While people, in many religions claim to
accept the Bible as an inspired revelation from their creator, the fact that there
are so many different religions, with literally thousands of variations among
their beliefs is an indication that something is amiss.

Religious institutions have claimed the Bible as a foundation for their beliefs
yet deny its truth by over-laying it with their own man made doctrines when
teaching from it. Scholars argue against its veracity when it conflicts with their
own thinking and continue to either ignore or discredit those portions which
expose flaws in their own thinking.

To such extent that men have substituted and translated their own thoughts
for God‘s thoughts, they have adulterated the purity of the original word as
inspired of God. In doing this they have diminished its meaning and affected


the impact it was intended to have on the human family. Over the years more
than just a few translators and commentators have been guilty of violating the
Bible‘s innate clarity. In this they have contributed to the confusion in people‘s
minds today concerning God‘s word.

Does this mean the Bible has lost its credibility? Not at all, for God Almighty
has seen to it that the essence of his original thinking still is preserved. We can
be assured that every man or woman who reads the Bible still may know what
God wants them to know and what their responsibility is in connection with
that information. Therefore, while it may be evident to a serious Bible Student
that in some Bible versions there are some verses translated in ways that add
confusion, it affords no excuse for anyone to ignore God‘s word in its entirety.

While its true that God‘s originally inspired message still shines through every
version of the Bible, a careful study of multiple versions is a strong device for
neutralizing those elements of bias individual translations may contain. Also
this allows for a consensus approach helping to establish true Bible teachings
with more clarity for better understanding. By considering multiple versions,
this allows God‘s overall word to prevail above individual variants produced by
denominations, institutions or by any single translator‘s personal bias in the
translating process.

Therefore, this book will compare more than 36 Bible versions towards
presenting a clearer and more harmonious understanding as it addresses
individual passages of scripture. Examples used will be those which present
as accurately as possible, God‘s own view point based on overall internal Bible

(See index for codes identifying translations used in ―It Is Written‖)

The Bible itself is internally ―self revealing‖ and ―self preserving.‖ Within the
pages of any Bible are found, two important principles which assure us we are
getting God‘s own view point. These principals are pre-requisites for any
reader to understand if they wants to achieve an accurate understanding of
God‘s written message for humans. The author will apply these principals
throughout his discussions in this book.

The first principal is; Trust in God Almighty himself, not in man. When it
comes to spiritual understanding, God himself, has the ability to reveal his
truth through his word and through his spirit. He alone is uniquely and super-
bly able to provide rightly inclined individuals with the ability to discern what
he intends for them to know. Also, he is able to communicate his thoughts and
intentions much more effectively than any human or committee of humans
can. We can be confident that both his competence and his ability to commun-
icate his own thinking exceeds any human‘s ability.

God‘s inspired word makes a point along this line in the following verses;


Psalm 146:3 Do not put your trust in princes, in any child of Adam,
who has no power to save. NJB

Jeremiah 17:5 This is what the LORD says: "Cursed are those who put
their trust in mere humans and turn their hearts away from the

Proverbs 3:5 Trust wholeheartedly in Yahweh, put no faith in your

own perception; NJB

2 Corinthians 1:9 1indeed, we had the sentence of death within ourselves so

that we would not trust in ourselves, but in God who raises the dead;

A second equally important principal is: Add nothing to what God has
given as his own thoughts, nor subtract from what he says, and what his
thinking is as he reveals it through the bible.

Proverbs 30:6 Do not add to His words Or He will reprove you, and you
will be proved a liar. NAU

1 Corinthians 4:6 Now, brothers, I have applied these things to myself and
Apollos for your benefit, so that you may learn from us the meaning of
the saying, "Do not go beyond what is written." Then you will not take
pride in one man over against another. NIV

Revelation 22:18,19 "I am bearing witness to everyone that hears the words
of the prophecy of this scroll: If anyone makes an addition to these
things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this
scroll; and if anyone takes anything away from the words of the
scroll of this prophecy, God will take his portion away from the
trees of life and out of the holy city, things which are written about in this
scroll.; NWT

These two principals, employed with a sincere desire to know truth along with
an ongoing request for guidance or direction by the creator when combined
with genuine effort will lead sincere individuals to a greater and more accurate
knowledge of God‘s word. They will learn what it says, from his viewpoint,
thereby allowing God‘s thinking, rather than man‘s thoughts to be the determ-
ining factors in helping us understand the true message as it is conveyed by

In using a wide variety of the Bible versions available today, this book also
allows verse to be presented in language as clear as possible for our arriving at
the original thoughts God intended for us. This is a great help for individual
readers in forming their own solid conclusions, apart from doctrinal influences


and organizational bias found in many religious institutions. The Bible says
God encourages soundness of mind and that we should employ our own
thinking abilities. These are shown as God – given gifts to be used humbly
and with an open mind to help us learn about the creator and his ways.

Titus 2:12 instructing us to repudiate ungodliness and worldly desires and

to live with soundness of mind and righteousness and godly devotion
amid this present system of things, NWT

Romans 12:2 And quit being fashioned after this system of things, but be
transformed by making YOUR mind over, that YOU may prove to
yourselves the good and accept- able and perfect will of God NWT

Proverbs 2:11 thinking ability itself will keep guard over you,
discernment itself will safeguard you, NWT

Or, as another version puts it;

Proverbs 2:11 Thoughtfulness doth watch over thee, Understanding doth keep
thee, YLT

―It is written‖ explores three avenues of investigation. First, it addresses what

the Bible really says, by applying information and principals found throughout
the Bible to determine the validity of understandings arrived at. Applying these
principals enables the Bible to speak for itself to determine both what it says as
well as what it means.

The first important God given Bible principal to help us filter out wrong
understanding is found in a Bible principal that states; for any matter to be
established there must be a minimum of two or three witnesses. Interestingly,
we also find the very verses stating this principal in at least three places by
three different writers in the Bible.

Matthew 18:16 and if he may not hear, take with thee yet one or two, that by
themouth of two witnesses or three every word may stand. - YLT

Deuteronomy 19:15 One witness shall not rise up against a man for any
iniquity, or
for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or
at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.-

2 Corinthians 13:1 This is the third time I am coming to YOU. "At the mouth
of two witnesses or of three every matter must be established."- NWT

The principal of having at least two places of scriptural corroboration, when

properly applied, is a tool which helps expose erroneous doctrine and acts as a


god-given aid in helping us separate true bible teachings from those which may
be inaccurate. Any important true teaching will have this principal behind it,
attesting to its validity. When an individual‘s understanding violates this prin-
cipal, he should raise a question for himself as to whether his own under stand -
ing is correct or not. God‘s word is not inconsistent nor does it contradict itself.
It means exactly what it says when it requires a minimum of two witness- ses to
attest to something being factual. When one encounters a reputed Bible teaching
that can‘t meet this principal, it can safely be seen as a warning flag that the
teacher may be in error, and not in harmony with God and his word. Such an
understanding should be sub ject to further deeper scrutiny and further
investigation before acceptance.

Secondly, ―It is written‖ addresses the Biblical meanings of those important

words and phrases which are basic keys in understanding God‘s word. Relying
solely on modern day dictionary definitions is not enough for accurate Bible
understanding. It is not what a modern dictionary might say a word means, but
what that word meant in the original language, the language in which the
writer set things down in. Therefore, a wide variety of ―Bible Dictionaries‖ are
employed to help the reader understand what words or phrases mean in Bible
terms. (See appendix- Bible dictionary sources used)

Thirdly, it gives attention to context. Context cannot be ignored or overridden

if accurate understanding is the goal. This means not only attention to the im-
mediate context con cerning a passage of scripture, but also consideration of
context relative to the Bible as a whole. Care in establishing the context for any
passage of scripture being read is of vital importance. Who is speaking? Who
are they speaking to? How do these events fit in with the overall plan and
purpose of God? Is there a particular issue or problem which is here being
addressed? What are the particular circumstances prevailing at the time? Are
the customs, culture, values and practices relevant to our understanding of
what is going on?

Use the questions what? when? where? and why? as often as possible when
reading God‘s word. Be mindful, context is the first step toward any accurate
understanding. Remember the Bible is essentially a book about the Jews and it
is deeply concerned with spiritual Israel's hope and aspirations which center on
(1) the Land promised for everlasting inheritance and (2) The Messiah or
promised seed. This is illustrated by Philip the evangelist "who preached the
things concerning (1) the kingdom of God and (2) the Name of Jesus Christ"
see Acts of the Apostles 8:12.

This book is not an attempt to modify, change or alter the inspired message
contained in God‘s word the Bible in any way or manner. Through a close
examination of what was actually written, and a filtering out of man-made
doctrinal influence, the light of God‘s word will shine brightly for anyone who
is sincerely interested in knowing God‘s viewpoint.


The author does not claim or possess impressive sounding worldly academic
credentials. However, neither did the original Bible writers, or even Jesus
Christ himself, have degrees, diplomas, certificates or any other recognizable
credentials men might have seen as impressive in his day. In fact, those with
recognizable credentials in that day, the Scribes and Pharisees, were shown to
be in error and exposed as being hypocrites by Jesus.

Matthew 11:25 At that time Jesus said in reply, 1 "I give praise to you,
Father, Lord of heaven and earth, for although you have hidden these
things from the wise and the learned you have revealed them to the
childlike. NAB

The Bible itself tells of a time when its hidden meanings would be revealed, a
time when men would possess both the tools and the inclination to uncover the
kind of accurate understanding which can be said to constitute true enlighten-

Daniel 12:4 But you, Daniel, close up and seal the words of the scroll until the
time of the end. Many will go here and there to increase knowledge." NIB

Never before in all history has it been possible for an individual to have access
to infor - mation and events anywhere in the world almost in real time, through
his or her own personal computer. Never before have individuals had access
to virtually all the libraries and almost all the books on earth via the touches of
key strokes in their own homes or offices. For the first time in recorded history,
man has been given the ability to process information that would have taken
months and years to explore in only minutes and hours with the aid of modern
day computers.

This virtual explosion in availability of information also affects the study and
analysis of God‘s own book the Holy Bible. Where it was not feasible for one
individual to compare dozens of bible versions with each other every time a
bible verse was considered, it is now not only possible to do so, but to do it
almost instantaneously. Where it was extremely time consuming to explore
a variety of viewpoints given by Bible scholars, if one wants to expend some
effort, this also becomes entirely feasible in minutes instead of days and weeks.
This incredible revolution in access to information also makes it much more
possible to uncover errors attributable to misunderstanding or conflicting

That there would come a time in history when the actual truth of God Almighty
would be revealed in the fullest sense is alluded to in more than one place place
in the Bible.

Daniel 12:4 "But you, Daniel, keep the words secret, and seal the book until
the time of the end. Many will range far and wide and knowledge will
increase." TNK


Other verses elaborate further;

Isaiah 11:9 There shall be no harm or ruin on all my holy mountain; for the
earth shall be filled with knowledge of the LORD, as water covers the
sea. NAB

Joshua 4:24 That all the nations of the earth might know, that the
power of the Lord is mighty, and that ye might worship the Lord our God
in every work. LXE

1 Kings 8:60 so that all the peoples of the earth may come to know
that Yahweh is God indeed and that there is no other NJB

Acts 2:17, 18. 'It will come to pass in the last days,' God says, 'that I will
pour out a portion of my spirit upon all flesh. Your sons and your
daughters shall prophesy, your young men shall see visions, your old men
shall dream dreams. WEB Acts 2:18 And on my servants, and on my hand-
maidens I will, in those days, pour out of my Spirit; and they shall
prophesy: NAB

Bible Scholars everywhere acknowledge these verses as having an application

to a day and time in which we are now living. ―It Is Writtten‖ endeavors to re-
examine the Bible and its teachings in light of wide spread access to both trad-
itional as well as current information. For the reader this will contribute to a
fuller understanding as to what the Bible is, what it actually says and what it
means to us as individuals and to the human family at large.

The author‘s only significant contribution to this book is more than forty years
of open minded, and hopefully, childlike search for truth. All credit, and any
value this book may have, belongs to God Almighty. The author claims no great
insight, other than what God has provided by his spirit and through his written
word. The sentiment, ―It is written‖, when referring to God‘s word, has behind
it the greatest source of authority in all the history of human literature, the
creator himself. We urge the reader to judge the contents of this book in the
light of God‘s word. In some meaningful way, it is hoped this book may open
the way to help truth from God become a permanent resident in the private
chamber of the readers own heart.

Volume I. demonstrated just why we may know the Bible as a book containing
God‘s thoughts. It explored the mental connection between humans and God,
as well as the mental connection between God, humans and The Bible. This
volume also explored how logic and reasoning play a major part in separating
truth from fiction when it comes to how one understands the Bible.

Volume II. Explores what the Bible really discloses about the earth, its origins
and mans role in its history. It also explores what the bible tells us about God‘s


original purposes in connection with humans, their relationships with him,

their fellow beings and his creation of which they are a part. Volume II. also
devotes space to examining what Bible words affecting proper understanding
of important Bible teachings actually meant when they were originally written.

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CHAPTER 9. – THE MESSIAH, (The key figure in God‘s purpose) page 157.

CHAPTER 10. – WORDS – What do Bible words really mean? page 195.





CHAPTER 15. – DEFINITIONS – HEAVEN‖ through ― NAME page 319.





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Before we explore, just who God, (the creator) is, according to the Bible, let
us briefly address a question we should have answered in more detail
earlier in this series. If there is a God who created everything, it stands to
reason that such a being would possess incredible intelligence. It also
stands to reason that such a creator, who had bestowed upon his created
beings intelligence as part of their natural makeup, would also have the
ability to communicate with them. Which would make more sense for
him? To communicate repeatedly with each and every single human
descended from the original pair on a daily basis, every day of their lives
for eons of generations? Or would it be more logical that he would set
down a fundamental communication in a form which all humans could
avail themselves of and which could be passed on from generation to
generation? Obviously the latter seems a more reasonable probability.
What would the nature of such a communication be? It would have to be
reliable, a comm- unication from God himself. It would have to be
presented in a manner which would transcend inevitable changes due to
the passage of time. There would have to be some way to set it apart from
anything else along similar lines and it would have to be in a form which
the least common denominator of his intelligent creation would be able to

If the question is; where can we find a reliable direct communication

between God and man? Then this book, ―IT IS WRITTEN‖ is filled with the
reasons we have, to confidently believe that God provided such a book and
that he preserved it as a communication to his prime earthly creation.
Today, we know that book as none other than the Holy Bible. It alone fits
the requirement of not only having been preserved all through recorded
history, but also of reaching into every corner of the earth where humans
are living.


An easy and perhaps obvious answer to this question might be; The
Creator wanted it to be written. For many people, such an answer, which
is certainly true, will suffice and no more needs to be said. However, we
live in an age of suspicion, cynicism and automatic disbelief, so further
explanation and a reason may be in order. Simply put, the Bible was
written as an expression of God‘s love for us as children he cares for. It

provides us information by which we can benefit our- selves, our families,

our neighbors and all others we may come into contact with. It provides

us with information we can use to live in harmony with the creation

around us and do our share to maintain and sustain the natural blessings
the creator has given us. It gives us a way to achieve real peace and joy.
And perhaps, most importantly it provides us with a clear map to a
meaningful relationship with our creator on terms which are his, rather
than ours.

The Bible is essentially informative and educational in form. It reveals

different aspects of God‘s own nature which give us greater insight into
reasons this book was inspired, written down, and preserved, virtually
intact through history down to our own day. A meaningful statement as to
specific purposes for which the Bible was written, is given us in the Bible
itself. There we find a concise answer from God‘s view point.

The Apostle Paul wrote in a letter to the Christian missionary Timothy;

(Quoted from 3 different Bible versions)

2 Timothy 3:16 Every holy Writing which comes from God is of profit
for teaching, for training, for guiding, for education in righteousness:

2 Timothy 3:16 All scripture is inspired by God and useful for refuting
error, for guiding people's lives and teaching them to be upright. NJB

2 Timothy 3:16 All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for

teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, NIB

This verse tells us the Bible is ―God breathed‖ or inspired for a very
specific purpose. The purpose is that those persons, who desire to do
God‘s will, shall have available to them the necessary means to both learn
and to teach God‘s ways correctly. Also, Paul tells us that scripture is able
to correct errors by those who misunderstand God‘s ways. The Bible is a
guide to right hearted individuals, while refuting wrongly inclined ones.
It trains godly people in God‘s ways. In another letter, the writer, Paul,
adds additional meaning with these words;

Hebrews 4:12 we find recorded, the following expression;

[Quoted from 3 different versions]

Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is alive and exerts power

and is sharper than any two-edged sword and pierces even to the

dividing of soul and spirit, and of joints and [their] marrow, and [is]
able to discern thoughts and intentions of [the] heart. NWT

Or as other versions put it;

Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is full of living power. It is

sharper than the sharpest knife, cutting deep into our innermost
thoughts and desires. It exposes us for what we really are. NLT
Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is living and full of power,
and is sharper than any two-edged sword, cutting through and making
a division even of the soul and the spirit, the bones and the muscles, and
quick to see the thoughts and purposes of the heart. BBE

-End of Chapter-

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The history of mankind is filled with accounts, legends and stories about
God or gods. Many men have claimed and still do, that men have created
their own gods. This may be true in many cases; however it cannot be
denied that since the beginning of recorded history the word god has rep-
resented a very real concept with meaning to millions upon millions, even
billions of mankind. The Bible is God‘s book. It contains his truth and
answers questions people have about God and his purposes for us today

May we begin this chapter by answering the two important questions

raised in the heading of this chapter;


These are important questions because misconceptions and partial

under- standings of what the word god actually means are wide spread.
Much confusion has been fostered by translators who have substituted
the word ―God‖ for the divine name YHWH ,YHWH or Jehovah.

Since the earliest manuscripts did not differentiate between words with
upper and lower case letters, ―god‖ easily became confused with ―God‖ in
many instances. In some people‘s minds, the word has come to have only
a singular meaning. Yet in modern and ancient times, the word God or
god had more than one meaning and could apply to any one of a number
of divine beings.

An everyday Modern English dictionary definition of the word ―god‖

reveals this:

god : (Funk & Wagnall‘s Standard Desk Dictionary)

1. One of various beings, usually male, in mythology, primitive

religion, etc.,
conceived as immortal, as embodying a particular quality or
having special powers over some phase of life.

2. A statue or image, or a symbol of such a being.

3. Any person or thing much loved. In monotheism, the ruler


of life and the universe.



It should also be noted that on occasions, standard modern dictionary

defin- itions vary from Bible Dictionary definitions. Therefore, let us also
look at definitions as rendered in a Bible Dictionary in connection with
the word god.

In Thayer‘s Bible Dictionary of Hebrew word Meanings, we find the word

god has these further meanings, beyond those commonly recognized.
Here it is applied to ―rulers, judges, divine ones, angels, god, goddesses,
godlike ones, works or special possessions of god as well as the true God

Under Thayer‘s definition of Greek Word Meanings, by way of

explanation, we find some more definitions for god or goddess:

―A general name for deities or divinities, whatever can in any

respect be likened unto God‖. Also when God is used, Thayer‘s says it
may apply to God almighty or one of the three persons of the Trinity.

We might also note that when we are referring to or addressing a parti-

cular god, for example, Jupiter or Mars, he would also be referred to as
God. This further complicates the difference between God and god in
places where they have been designated as one or the other. It would be
less ambiguous if we realized there is a distinct difference between God,
god and God Almighty. the Creator, who is the God of the Bible and the
god of Jesus Christ. he is ―God Almighty‖. The very use of the word
almighty indicates uniqueness and exclusivity which may be applied to
only one entity. It is in this God that our interest in knowing who he is
and what he is lies.

To further develop just who God almighty is, let us consider what his own
word reveals about himself and what his qualities are. We start by
mentioning a quality that is obvious. He is invisible. He is not visible to
us humans with our physical eyes, for he is a spirit being.
(See Chapter 17. – DEFINITIONS – SPIRITS)

John 4:24 God is a Spirit and they that worship him must worship
him in spirit and in truth KJV

John 1:18 - No one has ever seen God; it is the only Son, who is
close to the Father's heart, who has made him known. NJB

However, he reveals himself to us through his creation, through things he


has done, and what he continues to do. These are things visible to our


physical eyes. Yet, when humans perceive things through spiritual eyes,
they are able to discern much more than mere physical eyes allow.

Romans 1:20 For his invisible [qualities] are clearly seen from
the world's creation onward, because they are perceived by the
things made, even his eternal power and Godship, so that they are
inexcusable; NWT

Also, he reveals himself through personal qualities and through his word,
the Bible. To begin with, the Bible describes his four primary attributes
as being Power, Wisdom, Justice and Love, all administered in perfect
harmony. This is borne out in symbolism in a vision of God‘s throne in
heaven given to the apostle John and recorded in the Bible at Rev. 4: vs
6-8 and also at Ezekiel 1: 5-11, 22-28

Rev 4: vs 6-8 In front of the throne was a shiny sea of glass, sparkling
like crystal. In the center and around the throne were four living
beings, each covered with eyes, front and back.vs7 The first of these
living beings had the form of a lion [Justice]; the second looked
like an ox [Power]; the third had a human face [Love]; and the
fourth had the form of an eagle [Wisdom] with wings spread out as
though in flight. vs8 Each of these living beings had six wings, and their
wings were covered with eyes, inside and out. Day after day and night
after night they keep on saying, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God
Almighty -- the one who always was, who is, and who is still to come."
NLT [ brackets – authors]

About these four major attributes of God, his Bible offers the following

Deuteronomy 32:4 He is the Rock, His work is perfect; For all His
ways are justice, A God of truth and without injustice;
Righteous and upright is He. NKJ
Psalm 89:14 Righteousness and judgment are the established
place of your throne. . . NWT
Psalm 37:28 for Yahweh loves justice and will not forsake his
faithful. Evil-doers will perish eternally, the descendants of the wicked
be annihilated, NJB


Jeremiah 10:12 He who made the earth by his power, established


the world by his wisdom, and stretched out the heavens by his skill. NAB


Jeremiah 32:17 "O Sovereign LORD! You have made the heavens
and earth by your great power. Nothing is too hard for you! NLT

1 John 4:8 He that does not love has not come to know God, because
God is love. NWT

John 3:16 For God had such love for the world that he gave his
only Son, so that whoever has faith in him may not come to destruction
but have eternal life. BBE

Proverbs 2:6 For Jehovah himself gives wisdom; out of his mouth
there are knowledge and discernment. NWT
Proverbs 3:19 Jehovah by wisdom did found the earth, He
prepared the heavens by understanding. YLT

Additionally, the Bible describes other qualities. While we may view

them as sub-categories under the four major ones, these are no less
important in helping us visualize and appreciate what the Creator is like.

The Bible relates;


Genesis 17:1 When A'bram got to be ninety-nine years old, then

Jehovah appeared to A'bram and said to him: "I am God
Almighty. Walk before me and prove yourself faultless. NWT


He conducts his affairs with purpose, not blind chance. While his plans
may be subject to changes he chooses to make, in response to varying
circumstances, his purpose never changes.

Proverbs 16:4 Yahweh made everything for its own purpose,

yes, even the wicked for the day of disaster. NJB

Ephesians 1:9 He made known to us the mystery of His will, according

to His kind intention which He purposed<4388> in Him [Jesus]

Romans 8:28 We know that all things work for good for those who love
God, who are called according to his purpose. NAB

Proverbs 2:20 The purpose is that you may walk in the way of
good people and that the paths of the righteous ones you may keep.

HE is The God of KNOWLEDGE: as the creator of all things, he

posseses not only all knowledge associated with the creation, but all
knowledge essential to even conceive of the creation.

Romans 11:33 O the depth of God's riches and wisdom and

knowledge! How unsearchable his judgments [are] and past tracing
out his ways [are]! NWT

Proverbs 2:6 For Jehovah himself gives wisdom; out of his

mouth there are knowledge and discernment. NWT

Psalm 139:6 Such amazing knowledge is beyond me, a height to which

I cannot attain. NJB

Psalm 139:6 Such amazing knowledge is beyond me, a height to which I

cannot attain. NJB

GOD is a REVEALER OF SECRETS: Secrets being those things

unknown to men under normal circumstances.

Daniel 2:28 - However, there exists a God in the heavens who is a

Revealer of secrets, and he has made known to King Neb-u-chad-
nez'zar what is to occur in the final part of the days. Your dream and the
visions of your head upon your bed—this it is: NWT

Amos 3:7 Surely the Lord God does nothing Unless He reveals His
secret counsel To His servants the prophets NAS

Ephesians 3:5 God did not reveal it to previous generations, but now he
has revealed it by the Holy Spirit to his holy apostles and
prophets. NLT

HE is a GOD of LIGHT (Enlightenment):

1 John 1:5 And this is the message which we have heard from him and

are announcing to YOU, that God is light and there is no darkness

at all in union with him. NWT


Isaiah 2:5 O house of Jacob, come ye, and let us walk in the light of
Jehovah ASV.


Exodus 15:18 Jehovah shall reign forever and ever! DBY

Psalm 33:11 The Lord's purpose is eternal, the designs of his heart
go on through all the generations of man. BBE

Isaiah 57:15 For this is what the High and Lofty One, who is
residing forever and whose name is holy, has said: "In the height and
in the holy place is where I reside, also with the one crushed and lowly in
spirit, to revive the spirit of the lowly ones and to revive the heart of the
ones being crushed. NWT

In his dealings with humans, and in ways he affects our daily

lives, he is:

A GOD who‘s WORKS surround and benefit us:

Psalm 139:14 I shall laud you because in a fear-inspiring way I am

wonderfully made. Your works are wonderful, As my soul is very
well aware. NWT

Revelation 15:3 and they were singing the hymn of Moses, the servant of
God, and the hymn of the Lamb: How great and wonderful are all
your works, Lord God Almighty; upright and true are all your
ways, King of nations. NJB

Psalm 8:4 What is mortal man that you keep him in mind, And the
son of earthling man that you take care of him? . . .You make him
dominate over the works of your hands; Everything you have put
under his feet: NWT


1 Peter 5:7 Cast all your anxieties on him, for he cares about you.

Ezekiel 34:11 "For the Lord Yahweh says this: Look, I myself shall
take care of my flock and look after it. NJB


Isaiah 40:11 Like a shepherd he will shepherd his own drove.

With his arm he will collect together the lambs; and in his bosom he will
carry [them]. Those giving suck he will conduct [with care]. NWT


Psalm 86:15 But you, O Lord, are a merciful and gracious God,
slow to get angry, full of unfailing love and truth. NLT

Psalm 78:38 But he was merciful; he would cover the error and
not bring ruin. And many times he made his anger turn back,
And he would not rouse up all his rage. NWT

2 Chronicles 30:9 For if you return to Yahweh, your brothers and your
sons will be treated mercifully by their captors and be allowed to return
to this country; for Yahweh your God is gracious and merciful
and will not turn his face away from you, if you return to him.' NJB

A GOD full of GRACE (Un-deserved kindness):

Titus 2:11 For the saving grace of God was manifested to all men, YLT

Ephesians 2:8 By this undeserved kindness (grace), indeed, YOU

have been saved through faith; and this not owing to YOU, it is God's
gift. NWT

Philemon 1:3 Grace to you, and peace, from God our Father, and
the Lord Jesus Christ! YLT


Psalm 135:14 For Yahweh vindicates his people, feels compassion

his servants. NJB

Psalm 78:40 How often they would rebel against him in the
wilderness, They would make him feel hurt in the desert! NWT

Deuteronomy 9:8 At Horeb you so provoked the LORD that the

LORD was angry enough with you to have destroyed you. TNK

2 Chronicles 36:15 Yahweh, God of their ancestors, continuously sent


them word through


his messengers because he felt sorry for his people and his
dwelling, NJB

A HAPPY (Joyful) God:

Zephaniah 3:17 Yahweh your God is there with you, the warrior-
Saviour. He will rejoice over you with happy song, he will renew
you by his love, he will dance with shouts of joy for you, NJB

Nehemiah 8:10 And he went on to say to them: "Go, eat the fatty
things and drink the sweet things, and send portions to the one for
whom nothing has been prepared; for this day is holy to our Lord, and
do not feel hurt, for the joy of Jehovah is YOUR stronghold." NWT

A GOD who wants us to LIVE and ENJOY LIFE:

John 3:16 - For God had such love for the world that he gave his
only Son, so that whoever has faith in him may not come to
destruction but have eternal life. BBE

1 Timothy 6:17- Instruct those who are rich in this present world not
to be conceited or to fix their hope on the uncertainty of riches, but on
God, who richly supplies us with all things to enjoy. NAS

A JEALOUS (Zealous) GOD who demands EXCLUSIVE


Exodus 20:3 "You shall have no other gods before Or besides me.

Ezekiel 5:13 And my anger will certainly come to its finish and I will
appease my rage on them and comfort myself; and they will have to
know that I myself, Jehovah, have spoken in my insistence on
exclusive devotion, when I bring my rage to its finish upon them. NWT

Deuteronomy 5:9 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for
I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children
for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who
hate me, NIV

Nahum 1:2 A God zealous and avenging is Jehovah, An avenger is


Jehovah, and possessing fury. An avenger is Jehovah on His

adversaries, And He is watching for His enemies. YLT


The above verses, supplied from God‘s own word give us a broad range of
reasons why he has chosen to preserve and set aside a written document
describing all the important things necessary for us to know about him.
We can relate to his qualities because having been made in his image
while to a lesser extent, we also have the innate potential to possess them
ourselves. The Bible discloses who he is, what his viewpoint is and what
he wants from us. If we absorb these things and apply them in our lives,
we will be better people, have better lives and be able to live on a planet
which has the potential to become the peaceful paradise God originally
intended it to be.

Another very important fact we need to know about God Almighty is that
he is a very personal God. And he has a name which stands as his personal
identity. He has given this name as a memorial to all the generations.

From Six different Bible versions:

Exodus 3:15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say
unto the children of Israel, Jehovah, the God of your fathers, the
God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me
unto you: this is my name forever, and this is my memorial unto
all generations. ASV

Exodus 3:15 Then God said once more to Moses: "This is what you are to
say to the sons of Israel, 'Jehovah the God of YOUR forefathers,
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, has sent me
to YOU.' This is my name to time indefinite, and this is the
memorial of me to generation after generation. NWT

Exodus 3:15 God further said to Moses, 'You are to tell the Israelites,
"Yahweh, the God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, the God
of Isaac and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you." This is my name
for all time, and thus I am to be invoked for all generations to
come. NJB

Exodus 3:15 And God saith again unto Moses, 'Thus dost thou say unto
the sons of Israel, Jehovah, God of your fathers, God of Abraham,
God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My
name -- to the age, and this My memorial, to generation --
generation. YLT

Exodus 3:15 And God said moreover to Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto

the children of Israel: Jehovah, the God of your fathers, the God of
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto

you. This is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto

all generations. DBY

Exodus 3:15 And God said moreover unto Moses Thus shalt thou say
unto the children of Israel The LORD <03068> God of your fathers
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, hath sent
me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my
memorial KJV

<3068> hw"hoy Y Yhovah, Yahweh, {yeh-ho-vaw'} JEHOVAH

1) The proper name of the one true God

1a) unpronounced except with the vowel pointings of 0136

Why this name is of utmost importance will be considered in Chapter

Three next;

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God has a personal name, and he revealed it to his human family in order
for us to know him more fully. While there appears to be a concerted
effort on the part of some schoolars to suppress knowledge of his name,
most serious bible scholars will not deny its existence.

Certainly the Bible itself has much to say about God‘s name. Research
indi- cates that The Divine name appeared around sixty nine hundred
times in most ancient Hebrew writings. While that personal name may
not appear in the most widely used bibles today, there are reasons for this
curiosity, which will be explained more fully as we examine; ―The Divine
Name of God‖


( ) – As it originally appeared in Hebrew

We all go by lots of titles. You have a family title. Maybe you are a father
or mother, a daughter or a son. Maybe you are a brother or a sister. You
also probably have a job or professional title. You may have some titles
related to your hobbies and interests, maybe you are a volunteer fireman,
or an artist, or a poet. Since those titles aren‘t exclusively individual to
you, can they tell the whole story about you? No! So you also have a
specific, personal name that separates you from everyone else.

God has many titles (descriptions) God, Mighty God, Lord, Exalted One,
Father, Holy One, and others. Without question all these terms tell us
something about him, however, they are all titles which could apply to
others as well. They are not unique to him as an indivi -dual. In contrast,
when the term God Almighty is used, it can only be exclusive to a single
entity. Yet this still falls short of a full and complete meaning as conveyed
through an ex- clusively individual name.

On the other hand, which is given as his name, is not only entirely
exclusive is unique to one single individual. Also, it has personal

meaning behind it and is incomparable. It cannot be mistaken for

anyone else in the entire universe. It is a personal name that is his alone

and one which cannot be claimed by anyone else. Names are important
as they give us identity. God's name is important because it allows him to

reveal himself to us in ways we can comprehend as well as revealing

greater understanding about his identity and his purpose. Just as you
have a specific personal name, so does God.

No one knows exactly how to pronounce this Name because the

Hebrews dropped vowels and carried only the consonants in their written
language. Also, in ancient times, the divine name was not uttered, except
by the High Priest on special occasions and in privacy. As a result, there
has not come down to us an exact way to pronounce the name. However,
we do have the written version of his name , which has come down to
us, not only through the Bible but also in a variety of historical examples.


The ‗Crown of Sceptre‘ , now located at Harvard Semitic Museum,

USA, contains the inscription ― Belongs to Miqneyaw, servant of JHWH

The ‗Seal of Migqneyah‘ located in the Israel Museum. dated before

the destruction of Jerusalem in 607 BCE ( Nu. 24:27 contains JHWH 3x.

The ―Silver Scrolls‘ located in the Israel Museum, Letter #4, contains
―May YHWH caution my lord to hear good news‖

The ‗Letters Of Lachisch‘ now at the Israel Museum, discovered in

1965 has the inscription; ―to my lord Eliasib, may JHWH seek uour
peace. Also found inscripyion. . .‖he lives in the House of JHWH‖

The ‗‘Poysherds Of Arad‘ are located at Cambridge University,

contaim the tetragrammaton YHWH 8x in text.

‗Papayrus Nash‘‘now ocated at The louvre in Paris after being

discovered in 1939 has the Tetragrammaton in the book of
Deuteronomey 49x.

A ‗Leviticus Fragment‘ located at Shrine of Book has the Books of

Hosea thru Malachi in Greek with YHWH in ancient Hebrew script.

‗Minor Prophet Scroll‘ now located at the Sackler Library at Oxford is

a Gk Mss known to have been used by the common people after the time
of Christ shows YHWH was in use after Christ.

‗Oxyrhynchus‘, now located in Vienna Austria is a fragment

containing a Greek text with YHWH in ancient Hebrew

‗‘Translation of Symmachus‘ location currently unknown, discovered

in Cairo 1890 in a cache of mss contains YHWH in Old Hebrew

‗Translation of Aquila‘ owned by Cambridge, University contains a

Palimpsest with Hebrew written over the Greek, showing the
Tetragrammaton in archaic Hebrew script underneath,

‗Septuagint Versions‘ circa pre-christ. There are at least 10 versions

containing evidence in which the Teteragrammaton can be shown to
have been in use around the time of christ.

Significance of the Name in Scripture

In the Old Testament, the names of individuals held meaning; for

example, Adam is named after the "earth" (Adam) from which he was
created. (Genesis 2) A change of name indicated a change of status. For
example, the patriarch Abram and his wife Sarai are renamed
"Abraham" and "Sarah" when they are told they would be the father and
mother of many nations (Genesis 17:4, 17:15). In the New Testament
Simon was renamed Peter when he was given the Keys of the Kingdom of
Heaven. (Matthew 16).


God‘s name is (YHWH) in Hebrew, transliterated as Yahweh or

Jehovah, into English.

This name has a very special meaning in Hebrew – It means ―He who
causes to be‖ Despite the importance the Bible attaches to this name, it
has been removed from most Bibles and appears as a mere footnote in
many others. While we can find some Bibles which contain the divine
name, (See Chart No 5.). Why God‘s name is missing from most Bibles
and especially those most popular in the churches still remains an open
question to many thinking persons. We will explore reasons later.

In the Bible there is great significance placed on the Name of God

almighty. When Moses asked what his name was. God revealed a
personal name as well as the meaning he attached to it. He also stated
this was his permanent name, a name he said, which would stand as
memory for all generations to come.

Exodus 3:14 God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM. { Or I WILL BE




This is what you are to say to the Israelites: 'I AM has sent me to you.'NIV
Exodus 3:15 God further said to Moses, 'You are to tell the
Israelites, "Yahweh, the God of your ancestors, the God of
Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, has sent me to
you." This is my name for all time, and thus I am to be invoked
for all generations to come. NJB

Exodus 3:16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say
unto them, Jehovah, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of
Isaac, and of Jacob, hath appeared unto me, saying, I have surely
visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt: ASV

Around the middle of the fourth century BCE, while God‘s name was still
in widespread use among his people, God told David through a
messenger that his, (David's) seed would build a house for God's name;

2 Samuel 7:13 He is the one that will build a house for my name,
and I shall certainly establish the throne of his kingdom firmly to time
indefinite. NWT

2 Samuel 7:13 He will build a temple for my name) and I shall

make his royal throne secure forever. NJB

David‘s son Solomon gave directions for the construction of that house
for God's name described above.

1 Kings 5:5 And here I am thinking of building a house to the name

of Jehovah my God, just as Jehovah promised to David my
father, saying, 'Your son whom I shall put upon your throne in place
of you, he is the one that will build the house to my name.' NWT

After Solomon had finished building the house, God appeared to him and
told Solomon, through an angelic messenger, that his name would be put
upon that house.

1 Kings 9:3 And Jehovah said unto him, I have heard thy prayer
and thy supplication that thou hast made before me: I have hallowed
this house, which thou hast built, to put my name there

forever; and mine eyes and my heart shall be there perpetually. ASV

Solomon‘s temple was a house for God's Name


1 Kings 8:20 Yahweh has kept the promise which he made: I have
succeeded my father David and am seated on the throne of Israel, as
Yahweh promised; I have built the temple for the name of
Yahweh, God of Israel, NJB
2 Kings 21:4 And he built altars in the house of Jehovah, whereof
Jehovah said, In Jerusalem will I put my name. ASV

Therefore we know God's name was on Jerusalem and its temple. What
happened? The Bible tells us forces were at work early in efforts to get
people to forget that name, thereby obscuring the meaning and
significance of the one bearing it. After God had revealed his name to his
people, false prophets caused Israel to forget God's name and use the
name of Baal ("Lord") instead, the Bible relates more than 600 years
before Christ;

Jeremiah 23:27 They think the dreams they tell one another will make
my people forget my name, just as their fathers forgot my name
through Baal worship. NIV

This idea of encouraging people to forget God‘s name is totally foreign to

God‘s will. He expects us to sincerely honor and glorify his name with a
result that our well being will be seriously affected if we do not.

Malachi 2:2 If you will not listen, if you will not sincerely resolve
to glorify my name, says Yahweh Sabaoth, I shall certainly lay a
curse on you and I shall curse your blessing. Indeed I will lay a curse,
for none of you makes this resolve. NJB

This brings us to times we live in. Can we say people generally honor and
glorify God‘s name? The vast majority do not even know what it is? They
call him God. Even among those who profess to be his worshipers there
is a general ignorance in connection with his name. And while still others
know quite well, that he has a personal name, they choose not to use it.
What explains this? A major reason is that the name is largely missing
from the majority of Bibles people read in our day. Why is this so?



There have been many different reasons various authorities have used to

explain this very interesting phenomena. Let us start off by taking an

excerpt from the preface of Todays English Bible. Here we read a

statement which is not uncommon. Similar language may be found in

many of today‘s popular Bible versions. It reads; ‖the distinctive Hebrew
name for God‖ - usually transliterated Jehovah, is in this translation
represented by "LORD." – (Today's English Version, preface)

Of course, this raises another thought provoking question; If translators

knew the Divine name, Jehovah, from the earliest copies of the Holy
writings, why did they represent it as LORD in their own translating
work? Why did they suppress or hide the actual and authentic personal
name of God and substitute for it the title LORD? ―Lord‖ is a word which
may have differ- ent meanings to different people and not at all exclusive
or uniquely represent- ative of the greatest personage in the universe. As
we said, the experts give a wide variety of reasons or, should we say
―excuses‖ for what has happened to the divine name in so many versions
of the Holy Bible.

Let us explore some reasons ―notable‖ Bible Experts have given;

One school of experts would label deleting God‘s name as a mistake or an



"...the suppression of The Name (Jehovah) has entailed upon the

reader, and especially upon the hearer, irreparable loss...its
suppression was a ―MISTAKE" --Rotherham, 1, Ch. IV, 22-29

"...the most common "ERROR" made by most translators in the last

3500 years... is their elimination of heaven's revealed Name of the
Most High, Yahweh (Jehovah)" - A. B. Traina; in the Preface of the
Holy Name Bible; "The substitution of the word "Lord" is most
unhappy; in NO WAY represents the meaning of the sacred
name (Jehovah)"

The 1872 edition of Smith's Bible Dictionary; ―Yes, we can agree, it was a
large MISTAKE to remove God's name from the bible‖.

WHY, or in what way was it not a mistake?

As Author of the Bible, only God himself has the right to change or alter

the Bible. God himself gave mankind a warning in his own Word, the
Bible; to NOT add to – NOR to take away from his Words.


Revelation 22:18,19 "I warn everyone who hears the words of the
prophecy of this book: If anyone adds anything to them, God will add to
him the plagues described in this book. And if anyone takes words
away from this book of prophecy, God will take away from him his
share in the tree of life." NIV

Taking God's name out and replacing it with something else entails both
taking away and adding, thereby violating God‘s warning. However,
simply calling it a mistake or innocent human error leaves us far short
from understanding just what did happen and what effect it had on
sincere Bible readers. Let‘s explore some more reasons experts have
offered, as to why God‘s name was removed from Bibles.



The Jewish God of the Jewish Messiah was hated and despised by the
Greeks and Romans. When Christianity became a State Religion of Rome -
All attempts to blot out the Hebrew origins of Jesus were employed – and
removing God's Name from the Bible was a major attempt to obscure Jesus'
Jewish heritage. "We can be assured that the God that the Jews worship -
is the very same God that Christians worship. Their sacred writings, the
Law and the Prophets, are revered and read aloud in Christian meetings.
And because they worship this God of the Jews, one thing they cannot be
accused of is novelty."— (Glimpses Issue #139) : Why Early Christians
Were So Despised; Ken Curtis PH.D., Beth Jacobson, Diana Severance
Ph.D., Ann T. Snyder and Dan Graves. ©2003 by Christian History
Institute. "The Octavius of Minicius Felix" ;2nd century A.D.


When Rome decided to adopt the Trinity doctrine of the fourth century,
the Name of God - ( ) YHWH in Hebrew (translated Jehovah in
English) – interfered and conflicted with the newly adopted teaching
that Jesus was himself the Almighty God – Jehovah. Rome paid her
translators to remove God's name almost Seven Thousand times from
the Bible. "In the first two centuries nearly all the various readings of the
New Testament came into existence, the majority of them by
‖deliberate alteration of the theinterests of (the
Trinity) dogma..." according to (the Encyclopedia of Religion and

Ethics; The Bible in the Church.) "Codex B (Vaticanus)...was altered by

a later hand in more than two thousand places. Eusebius, therefore,

is not without grounds for accusing the adherents of . . . the newly-


risen doctrine of the trinity of falsifying the Bible..." - (Fraternal

Visitor 1924, p. 148; translated from Christadelphian Monatshefte).

"The removal of the Tetragrammaton (Jehovah) from the New Testament

and its re -placement with the surrogates KYRIOS and THEOS blurred
the original distinction between the Lord God and the Lord
Christ, and in many passages made it im -possible which one was
meant. As time went was often impossible to distinguish between
them. Thus it may be that the removal of the Tetragrammaton
(Jehovah) contributed significantly to the later...Trinity "-
George Howard, Bible Scholar ;The Name of God in the New Testament,
BAR 4.1 (March 1978), pg 15 "It was they who demanded, in effect,
that Christianity be "updated" by blurring or even obliterating
the long-accepted distinction between the Father and the Son.
(When Jesus Became God by Richard E. Rubenstein, p.74)


Because the God of Christ - The Jewish God, Jehovah, was not popular
with the world of mankind, they sought to remove him from their Bibles.
Bible translators knew that for their Bibles to be purchased they would
need to appeal to their readers. They also knew that if they used God's
Divine Name Jehovah, then people would not purchase their version and
thus they would lose money.

God's name Jehovah/Yahowah appears in the original Hebrew text about

7000 times, but the NIV fails to mention it even once. When asked about
this, Edwin H. Palmer,Th.D., Executive Secretary for the NIV's
committee wrote : "Here is why we did not : You are right - that
Jehovah is a distinctive name for God and ideally we should
have used it. But we put 2 1/4 million dollars into this translation and a
sure way of throwing that down the drain is to translate, for example,
Psalm 23 as, 'Yahweh (Jehovah) is my shepherd.‖

Immediately, we would have translated for nothing. Nobody would have

used it (or purchased it). Oh, maybe you and a handful [of] others. But a
Christian has to be also wise and practical. We are the victims of 350
years of the King James tradition. It is far better to get two million
to read it - that is how many have bought it to date- and to follow
the King James, than to have two million not buy it and have the

correct translation of Yahweh (Jehovah). . . It was a hard decision,

and many of our translators agree with you." – (The Reason NIV


removed Jehovah's Name Edwin H. Palmer, Th.D., Executive Secretary

for the NIV's committee.)

"The situation today, where many translations…exists largely

because of the amount of money to be gained..."- (The
Preservation of the Bible By Faithful Churches) --By Charles V. Turner


It was a tradition of the Jews to avoid using God's name altogether. They
stopped all mention of him. In no longer using God's Divine Name, they
no longer used it in their prayers, even making it a sin to say his name out
loud. They considered it "blasphemy" to utter the name of God,
(Jehovah). Many contemporary translators admit to following this
"Jewish Tradition" and have thus removed Jehovah's name and replaced
it with titles such as "LORD" and "GOD" - all in capitals - to show that
they have removed God's name in those places. While this tradition
worked to obscure the divine name, Jesus own words speak to us in a
different and opposite way.

John 17:26 I made known to them your name and I will make it known,
that the love with which you loved me may be in them and I in them."

Furthermore, he condemned traditions such as not uttering Gods name

and others as being responsible for making God‘s word ineffective or

Mark 7:13 In this way you make God's word ineffective for the sake of
your tradition which you have handed down. And you do many other
things like this.' NJB

Today, following the lead of those Jews and their tradition of obscuring
God‘s name is directly contrary to Jesus' teaching, yet this is exactly
where most religious denominations find themselves, as attested by the

"...Yahweh (Jehovah), is the proper personal name of the God of

Israel...the term Adonai, 'My Lord' was later used as a
SUBSTITUTE. The word LORD in the present version represents

the traditional usage." – New American Bible (Catholic) Introduction to

the O. T., Page XI. "In this translation we have followed the orthodox

Jewish TRADITION and substituted 'the Lord' for the name 'Yahweh'


(Jehovah)" -- Preface - 1935 Bible ; J. M. Powis Smith and Edgar J.


Matthew 15:3,6"Jesus replied, "And why do you break the command

of God for the sake of your tradition? ...Thus you nullify the word
of God for the sake of your tradition. " NIV


During the time when Israel was in slavery to Babylon, she absorbed and
adopted many Babylonian customs and ideas. One of these was the
"Super- stition" against using the name of a God - for fear that bad things
would happen to them. As the Babylonians called their Chief God -
Marduk by the title "LORD" so as not to offend him, so too the Jews
adopted this idea in reference to Jehovah God.

"When the Yisraeli (Israelites) came out of Babylonian captivity, they

brought along with them the Babylonian culture, and along with it
Babylonian beliefs and superstitions. One of these Babylonian
practices or beliefs was called "ineffability." This was
the SUPERSTITION against using the name of a deity for fear of
something bad happening to them. The idea was that if you said the name
of a deity he or she would notice you.

The pagan practice of ineffability was further reinforced by Greek

Hellenization." - (b.Pes. 50a) (b.Kidd. 71a). "The avoidance of the
original name of God YHWH (Yehowah), both in speech and to a certain
extent, in the Bible.....first arose..... in Babylonia. According to
Dalman (l.c. pp. 66 et seq.),"-The Jewish Encyclopedia

TETRAGRAMMATON; by Crawford Howell Toy, and Ludwig Blau; "The

idea that only the priest could utter The NAME of The HEAVENLY
FATHER, and that he was to disguise or hide it from the vast
majority of people, came from the idea that the NAME was
"ineffable" or "unutterable". However this was a pagan doctrine that
they adopted from the Egyptians, Babylonians, and the Greeks..."-THE

Marduk was a very important god of Babylon. In the first millennium

BCE, his name was considered so holy, that it was almost never

pronounced; instead, people said and wrote Bêl, 'LORD'. Herodotus

correctly calls the supreme god of Babylon Bêl ("lord"), because his real

name was not pronounced. – {Herodotus, Histories 1.181-2; tr. Aubrey


de Sélincourt] "The ineffability of divine names was on old idea in

Egypt...the name of Osiris himself was said to be ineffable...the name
Marduk of Babylon was also declared ineffable. The Greeks avoided
the names of their deities and preferred to call them by
the titles Kurios and Theos."-The Final Reformation By Dr. Koster;
pp. 54 and 112"...But at least by the third century B.C.E. the
pronunciation of the name YHWH (Jehovah) was avoided, and Adonai,
"the Lord," was substituted for it..."- Encyclopedia Judaica (p. 679).

"The Hebrews considered The Name of God to be 'ineffable' and

substituted in reading Adonai (My Lord)."-Columbia Encyclopedia
Vol. 2 under the subject 'God'



Some Bible Translators claim that they have removed God's name from
the Bible – because ―Jehovah‖ is not the proper way to say God's name in
Hebrew. This reasoning is merely an excuse, and not a reason at all. For
if this reason was valid, then we would also have to remove Jesus name
from the Bible, since the name "Jesus" is not the way that it was written
or spoken in Hebrew either. Many Hebrew names are written in the
Bible - which are not as they were in Hebrew and yet we do not remove
them. Therefore this reasoning is truly invalid. Some examples of
Jewish names in the Bible which are translated into English, much
differently than their original Hebrew counterparts are: Jesus, Jeremiah,
Jonah, Joel, Jerusalem, Joshua, etc.

"... the Committee... is, omitting the name of God (because) the
word 'Jehovah' does not accurately represent any form of the Name ever
used in Hebrew..."- This was an excuse offered in the preface of the
Revised Standard version, while the Hebrew "ye-ru-sha-LA-yim"
became "Jerusalem"; "ye-ri-HO" became Jericho; and "yar –
DEN" become "Jordan". Hebrew personal names such as"yo-NA"
became "Jonah", "yi-SHAI" became "Jesse" and "ye-SHU-a"
became "Jesus". Likewise "YHWH, Yahweh, or Yehowah" logically and
reasonably, became "Jehovah" when translated into in English.



Some translators have made the statement ―God does not need to be

distinguished from other gods‖. . Who are we to say that God


doesn't need a name ? God deemed it necessary to name all the stars in
the heavens, and to place his name upon people that he liked, and upon
places that were important to him. His own word the Bible emp -hasizes
the importance of a name. The translators of the Bible did not remove
Satan's name from the Bible - nor did they remove the names of
numerous false gods from the Bible. Yet, "the use of any proper
name for the one and only God . . .is entirely inappropriate for
the universal faith of the Christian Church." appears in the
preface of the Revised Standard Version; Under reasons (excuses) for
the removal of God's personal name – Jehovah

Yet, the Bible gives us ample evidence that God himself deems names as
important; Psalms 147:4 "He determines the number of the stars and
calls them each by name." NIV

Isaiah 40:26,28"Lift up your eyes on high, and see who hath created
these, that bringeth out their host by number; he calleth them all by
name...The everlasting God, Jehovah, the Creator of the ends of the
earth..." ASV

Proverbs 22:1"A good name is more desirable than great riches; to be

esteemed is better than silver or gold." NIV

Ecclesiastes 7:1"A good name is better than oil of much worth..." NLV

"...The Sacred Name Yahovah was revealed to man by Yahovah

Himself and is not a man-given name" – (see II Apol.,10, 13;
Trypho, 126, 127).

In the Bible, refusing to mention the name of a god means refusing to

worship this god (Ex 23:13) and that is why Satan incited the Israelites,
by means of false prophets, not to use the Name of Jehovah (Jeremiah

Exodus 23:13 Take note of all these things which I have said to you, and
let not the names of other gods come into your minds or from your lips.

Jeremiah 23:27 They are doing their best, by means of the dreams that
they keep telling each other, to make my people forget my name, just as

their ancestors forgot my name in favour of Baal. NJB



"Yahweh (Jehovah) is the name that indicates the God of the

Hebrews. where the Philistines worshipped Dagon, the Egyptians,
Amon, and the Ammonites, Milcom, the Hebrews worshipped YHWH

The title 'god' (elohim) is ALSO applied to false deities in the

scriptures as well as Yahweh (Jehovah), hence it is NOT a term by
which one can be distinguished from the others. When the voice
said, 'I am Yahweh (Jehovah),' there was no doubt in any listener's mind
as to the identity of the speaker. He was the God of the Hebrews. So far
as is known, no other peoples called their god by this name." –
Review and Herald, December 16, 1971

"In the Scriptures there is the closest possible relationship between a

person and his name, the two being practically equivalent, so that to
remove the name is to extinguish the person. (Deut. 7:24; Num. 27:4)

To forget God's name is to depart from Him." –Zondervan

Pictorial Bible Dictionary, p. 571 (1964) We could extend this thought
still further, for to ―depart (forsake) Jehovah constitutes ―apostasy‖ in his

Jeremiah 17:13 O Jehovah, the hope of Israel, all those who are leaving
you will be put to shame. Those apostatizing from me will be written
down even in the earth, because they have left the source of living
water, Jehovah NWT



―Non-superstitious‖ Jewish translators favored using the name

"Jehovah" in their translations of the Bible.


Immanuel Tremellius Latin 1579 Jehova

Baruch Spinoza Latin 1670 Jehova*

Samuel Cahen French 1836 Iehovah

Alexander Harkavy English 1936 Jehovah**


Joseph Magil (see below) English 1910 Jehovah

Rabbi L. Golschmidt (see below) German 1921 Yehovah

While "non-superstitious Jewish translators always favored the name

Jehovah in their translations of the Bible, on the other hand one must
note that there is NO Jewish translation of the Bible with the
nameYahweh." --M. Gérard GERTOUX; a Hebrew scholar, specialist of
the Tetragram; president of the Association Biblique de
Recherche d'Anciens Manuscrits

Many other honest hearted translators favor the use of the Divine Name
in a variety of places within their Bible versions, as attested by the



The King James Version uses Jehovah at Ex.6:3, Ps.83:18, Is.12:2; 26:4
The American Standard Version uses Jehovah thousands of times.
Young's Literal Translation uses Jehovah thousands of times.
The Holy Bible by J.N.Darby uses Jehovah thousands of times.
The Literal Translation/King James 2 Version by Jay P. Green uses
Jehovah thousands of times.
The Emphasized Bible by Rotherham uses Yahweh thousands of times.
The Recovery Version by Livings Dreams Ministry uses Jehovah
thousands of times.
The New English Bible uses Jehovah at Exodus chapters 3 and 6.
The World English Bible uses Yahweh thousands of times.
The Jerusalem Bible uses Yahweh thousands of times.
The New Jerusalem Bible uses Yahweh thousands of times.
The Living Bible/Protestant and Catholic editions uses Jehovah over 300
The English Revised Version uses Jehovah at Ex. 6:2,3,6,7,8, Ps. 83:18,
Is. 12:2;26:4.
The Bible in Living English by Byington uses Jehovah thousands of times.
The Webster Bible uses Jehovah in the same places as the KJV above.
The Modern Language Bible/New Berkeley Version uses Jehovah at
Exodus 3:15; 6:3, Numbers 3:13, 45; 15:41; 21:14; 35:34, Ezra 6:21; Ps.

8:1, 9; 16:2, Is 12:2; 140:7; 141:8; 147:1, Hosea 12:5, Zech. 4:10 etc.
The Complete Bible-Smith & Goodspeed uses Yahweh at Exodus 3:15, 6:3

and the shorter form Yah is used at Ps. 68:4, Is. 12:2; 26:4


The New King James Version uses YAH at Is. 12:2; 26:4.
The New World Translation uses Jehovah thousands of times.
The Emphatic Diaglott uses Jehovah at Matt 21:42; 22:37, 44, 23:39,
Mark 11:9 and Acts 2:34
The Amplified Bible uses Yaweh at Ex. 6:3
Boothroyd's Versions uses Jehovah thousands of times.
S. Sharp's translation uses Jehovah thousands of times.

Foreign Language Bibles with the Divine Name in them

The Reina Valera Bible uses Jehova thousands of times.

The Moderna version uses Jehova thousands of times.
The Bover-Cantera Bible uses Yahveh thousands of times.
The Nacar-Colunga Bible uses Yave thousands of times.
The Evaristo Martin Nieto Bible uses Yave thousands of times.
The Biblia de Jerusalen uses Yahveh thousands of times.
The Cantera-Iglesias Bibles uses Yahveh thousands of times.
The Straubinger Bible uses Yahve thousands of times.
The Almeida Bible uses Jehovah thousands of times.
The Pontificio Instituto Biblico uses Jave thousands of times.


Jesus own words in prayer to his father have been offered as

proof he used the Divine name and also that his apostles were
well acquainted with it.

Example of Jesus own words from 4 different versions;

John 17:6 I have revealed your name to those whom you took
from the world to give me. They were yours and you gave them to me,
and they have kept your word. NJB

John 17:6 " I have manifested Your name to the men whom You
have given Me out of the world. They were Yours, You gave them to Me,
and they have kept Your word . NKJ

John 17:26 And I have made your name known to them and will

make it known, in order that the love with which you loved me may be
in them and I in union with them." NWT


John 17:26 I made known to them your name, and I will

continue to make it known, that the love with which you have loved me
may be in them, and I in them." ESV

As a follower of Christ, Peter used Gods name, Jehovah.

When Peter‘s speech was put on record the Tetragrammaton (YHWH /

Jehovah) was here used, according to the practice during the first
century B.C.E. and the first century C.E."- Paul Kahle; Studia
Evangelica, edited by Kurt Aland, F. L. Cross, Jean Danielou, Harald
Riesenfeld and W. C. van Unnik, Berlin, 1959, p. 614 (See App 1C §1.)

Examples of at least 3 places where Peter used the Divine name in his

Acts 2:20 the sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood
before the great and illustrious day of Jehovah arrives. NWT

Acts 2:25 For David says respecting him, 'I had Jehovah constantly
before my eyes; because he is at my right hand that I may never be
shaken. NWT

Acts 2:34 Actually David did not ascend to the heavens, but he himself
says, 'Jehovah said to my Lord: "Sit at my right hand, until I place
your enemies as a stool for your feet." NWT

"The early Christian scholars therefore easily learnt the true

pronunciation."-The 15th edition of the Encyclopedia
Britannica, volume 12, p. 995, under the heading "Jehovah"

Evidently, many Bible experts accept the use of the Divine Name to be
entirely appropriate in the Christian Greek Scriptures as well as the
Hebrew Scriptures (There is only One God almighty for all of mankind
and his name is Jehovah (YHWH) or Yaweh).

List of Occurences of the Divine Name in the New Testament

Compiled from Matteo Pierro's book 'Geova e il Nuovo Testamento'

(Jehovah and New Testament)

Read Matteo's Article in Rivista Biblica


The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ J. Eliot


algonchino 1661 Jehovah sempre

Il Nuovo Testamento Aneityum Ihova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Awabakal Yehoa Lc 3:4
Il Nuovo Testamento Bolia Yawe Lc 3:4
Il Nuovo Testamento Bube Yehovah Mtt 5:8
Il Nuovo Testamento Chacobo Jahue Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Chi Kalanga Yehova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Chi Luimb Yehova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Chi Lunda Yehova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Chi Luvale Yehova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Choctaw Chihowa Mr 1:1
Il Nuovo Testamento dialetto Isola del duca di York Ieova Mr 1:29
Il Nuovo Testamento dialetto Isola Manus Jehova Mr 1:1
Biblia Sacra Eliae Hutteri ebraico 1599 sempre
Die vier Evangelien Franz Delitzsch ebraico 1984 (1877\1890\1902)
Evangelium Secundum Matthaeum J. M. Paulus Bauchet ebraico 1950
Il Nuovo Testamento Salkinson e Ginsburg ebraico Sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento United Bible Society, ed. 1976. ebraico 1976
Il Nuovo Testamento W. Robertson ebraico 1661 sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento United Bible Societies, ed. 1991. ebraico 1991
Il Nuovo Testamento J.C. Reichardt e J.H.R. Biesenthal ebraico 1866
Il Nuovo Testamento A. McCaul, M.S. Alexander, J.C. Reichardt e S.
Hoga ebraico 1838 sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento T. Fry ebraico 1817 sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento J. Bauchet e D. Kinnereth ebraico 1975 sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento J.C. Reichardt ebraico 1846 sempre
Salmi e vangelo di Matteo A. Margaritha ebraico 1533 sempre
The four Gospel translated into Hebrew William Greenfield ebraico 1982
(1831) Sempre
The four Gospel translated into Hebrew London Society for Promoting
Christianity ebraico 1985 (1838+1864) Sempre
Traduction hebraiques des Evangiles G.B.Iona ebraico 1982 (1668)
Traduction hebraiques des Evangiles T.Yeates ebraico 1982 (1805)

Vangeli liturgici F. Petri ebraico 1573 sempre

Vangelo di Luca, Atti, Lettere ai Romani e agli Ebrei J.H.R. Biesenthal

ebraico 1855, 1867, 1853 e 1858. sempre

Vangelo di Matteo Shem-Tob ben Isaac Ibn Shaprut ebraico 1385 sempre

Vangelo di Matteo J. Quinquarboreus ebraico 1551 sempre

Vangelo di Matteo J. du Tillet ebraico 1555 sempre
The New Testament-Peshitta Aramaic Text With a Hebrew Translation
Bible Society ebraico\aramaico 1986 spesso
The New Testament . . . in Hebrew and English R. Caddick
1798-1805 sempre
Vangelo di Matteo e lettera agli Ebrei Sebastian Münster ebraico\latino
1537, 1557. sempre
Vangeli liturgici Johannes Claius ebraico\tedesco\latino\greco 1576
Dwed Abasi - BIBBIA UBS efik (nigeria) 1985 Jehovah Sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento Epi: (dialetto Tesiko) Yehova Mtt 4:10
Il Nuovo Testamento Eromangan Iehova Mr 12:11
Biblia UBS ewe 1995 Yehowa Ebrei 8
Il Nuovo Testamento Fang: Gabon Jehova Mtt 4:10
Il Nuovo Testamento UBS fijiano Jiova sempre
La Bible Andre Chouraqui francese 1989 YHWH sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento Gilbertese Iehova Mr 1:3
The New Testament A. Kneeland greco\inglese 1822 Jehovah Mtt 22:44,
12:36, Lc 20:42, At 2:34
Il Nuovo Testamento Hawaiiano Iehova Mr 1:3
21st Century New Testament aa. vv. inglese 1995 Jehovah spesso
A literal translation of the New Testament E. Hardwood inglese 1768
Jehovah Mtt21:9,22:44,etc.
A new family Bible & improved version B. Boothroyd inglese 1817
Jehovah Lc
20:42, At 2:34
A new translation ..., Epistle to the Romans T.W. Peile inglese 1854
Jehovah Ro 11:34
A paraphrase & version of the New Testament P. Doddridge inglese 1739-
Jehovah Mc 12:29, Lc 1:68, etc.
A revised Translation of the Sacred Scriptures D. Macrae inglese 1798\99
Jehovah Mtt 22:44, Ap 1:8
A Translation of the Bible G. Wakefield inglese 1791 Jehovah Ap 19:1, 3,
4, 6
An ... english Translation of Greek Scriptures W. Newcome inglese 1795

Jehovah Mtt 22:44, Mc 12:36, etc.

An english version of the New Testament H. Heinfetter inglese 1864

Jehovah sempre
Centenary Translation of the New Testament H.B. Montgomery inglese

1924 Jehovah Lc 1:38

Epistle to the Romans W.G. Rutherford inglese 1900 Jehovah sempre
Execeses ready research Bible H. Jahn inglese 1993 Yah Veh sempre
From the Trenches (Corinthians & Ephesians) G.W. Cornish inglese 1981
Jehovah 1Cor 10:9
God's Covenant People T.R. Weiland inglese 1997 YHWH sempre
Memoir of the life & doctrine of Christ by the four evangelist R. Fellowes
inglese 1804 Jehovah Mtt 22:44
New Testament epistles in english prose W.H. Isaacs inglese 1933
Jehovah Ebrei
Studies in Matthew B.W. Bacon inglese 1931 Jehovah Mtt 21:9, 42, 21:44,
23:39, 27:10
The American Bible F.S. Ballentine inglese 1902 Jehovah At 2:25, 34, Ro
14:11, etc.
The Book of Yahweh - The Holy Scriptures Yisrayl Hawkins inglese 1996
Yahweh sempre
The clarified New Testament P.G. Parker inglese 1955 Jehovah Mtt 22:44
The Cristian's Bible, New Testament G.N. LeFevre inglese 1939 Jehovah
The Documents of the New Testament G.W. Wade inglese Jehovah Ap
19:1, 3, 4,6
The epistle to the Hebrews J.B McCaul inglese 1836 Jehovah Eb 7:21
The Epistles of Paul in modern English G.B. Stevens inglese 1980 (1898)
Jehovah sempre
The Gospel of the Hellenists B.W. Bacon inglese 1933 Jehovah Gv 10:12,
The Growth of the Early Church W. A. Carleton inglese 1970 Jehovah At
The Holy Bible J.T. Conquest inglese 1841 Jehovah Mtt 22:44, Mc 12:36,
The Holy Name Bible Revised A. B. Traina inglese 1989 Yahweh sempre
The messages of Jesus according to the Synoptists T.C. Hall inglese 1901
Jehovah Spesso
The messages of the Apostles G.B. Stevens inglese 1900 Jehovah At 2:1,
3:7, 7:6
The New Testament in braid scots W.W. Smith inglese 1901 Jehovah Mtt
22:44, Lc 20:37
The New Testament Letters J.W.C. Wand inglese 1947 Jehovah Ro 9:29,
11:3, 12:19, etc.
The New Testament of our Messiah & Saviour Yahshua A.B. Traina

inglese 1950 Yahweh sempre

The NT, An improved version upon the basis of archbishop Newcome T.

inglese 1808 Jehovah Mtt 22:44, Mc 12:36, etc.

The New World Translation, by Jehovah‘s Witnesses - 237 times,

[added by author]
The restoration of original Sacred Name Bible Missionary Dispensary
Research inglese 1970 Yahvah sempre
The Sacred Scriptures Assemblies of Yahweh inglese Yahweh sempre
The Sacred Scriptures J.G. Meyer inglese 1981 Yahweh sempre
Two nineteenth century versions of the New Testament W. Kelly inglese
1995 Jehovah spesso
The Emphatic Diaglott Benjamin Wilson inglese\greco 1942 Jehovah
Il Nuovo Testamento Isi Xhosa Yehova Mr 1:3
??Unknown Title?? italiano >1750 Ièhovah Lc 4:18
Traduzione del Nuovo Mondo delle Sacre Scritture WatchTower Society
1986 Geova sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento Ke Senegle Yawe Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Kerewo Iehova Mr 1:1
Il Nuovo Testamento Ki Luba Yehova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Ki Songe Yehowa Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Ki Sukuma Jakwe Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Kikongo (San Salvador) Yave Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Kipsigis Jehoba Mr 1:1
Il Nuovo Testamento Kiwai: Goaribari Iehova Gv 3:16
Il Nuovo Testamento Lanu Yaw Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Lingala Yawe Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Lo Bodangi Yawe Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Lo Mongo Yawe Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Lo Nguandu Yawe Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Lo Ntsumba Yawe Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Mabuiag: Saibai Iehovan Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Malekula: Kuliviu Iova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Malekula: Pangkumu Iova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Malekula: Uripiv Iova Mr 1:3
Ny Baiboly - BIBBIA malgascio 1992 Jehovah sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento Mentawi Jehoba Gv 3:6
Il Nuovo Testamento Mohowk Yehovah Gv 1:12
Il Nuovo Testamento Mortlock Jioua Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Naga: Angami Jihova Mr 1:1

Il Nuovo Testamento Naga: Konyak Jihova Mr 1:1

Il Nuovo Testamento Naga: Lhoto Jihova Mr 1:1

Il Nuovo Testamento Naga: Mao Jihova Mr 1:1

Il Nuovo Testamento Naga: Ntenyi Jihova Mtt 4:10

Il Nuovo Testamento Naga: Sangtam Jihova Mr 1:1

Il Nuovo Testamento Nandi Jehova Mr 1:1
Il Nuovo Testamento Nguna: Efate Yehovah Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Nguna: Tongoa Yehovah Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Nukuoro Jehova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Ojibwa Jehovah Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Panaieti Iehova Mr 1:1
Il Nuovo Testamento Rotuma Jihova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Sesuto Yehofa Gv 1:12, 13
Il Nuovo Testamento UBS tahitiano 1975 Iehova sempre
Die heilige Schrift des neuen Testaments D. von Brentano tedesco 1796
Jehovahs spesso
Die neusten Offenbarungen Gottes Carl Friedrich Bahrdt tedesco 1773
Jehovah spesso
Neuen Testaments Johann Babor tedesco 1805 Jhova spesso
Samtliche Schriften des Neuen Testaments J.J. Stolz tedesco 1781-82
Jehovahs sempre
Il Nuovo Testamento Toaripi Iehova Mtt 1:25
Il Nuovo Testamento Togan Sihova Mr 1:3
Il Nuovo Testamento Tsimihety (dialetto malgascio) Jehova Lc 3:4
The New Simplified Bible – James Madsen 2004 ?

List of LXX (Septuagint) Manuscript versions containing the

Tetragrammaton ( ):

1) LXX P. Fouad Inv. 266, have the Tetragrammaton as; YHWH

2) LXX VTS 10a, have the Tetragrammaton as: YHWH

3) LXX IEJ 12, have the Tetragrammaton as: YHWH

4) LXX VTS 10b, have the Tetragrammaton as: 0/

5) 4Q LXX Levb, have the Tetragrammaton as: 1

6) LXX P. Oxy. VII.1007, have the Tetragrammaton as: 23


7) Aq Burkitt, have the Tetragrammaton as: 45


8) Aq Taylor, have the Tetragrammaton as: 67


9) Sym. P. Vindob. G. 39777, have the Tetragrammaton as: 89 o ;:

10) Ambrosiano O 39 sup., have the Tetragrammaton as: ==

List of Hebrew Manuscript versions of the NT that have the

( ) Tetragrammaton;

1) Gospel of Matthew, a cura di J. du Tillet, Parigi, 1555

2) Gospel of Matthew, di Shem-Tob ben Isaac Ibn Shaprut, 1385

3) Matthew and Hebrews, di S. Munster, Basilea, 1537 e 1557

4) Gospel of Matthew, di J. Quinquarboreus, Parigi, 1551

5) Gospels, di F. Petri, Wittemberg, 1537

6) Gospels, di J. Claius, Lipsia, 1576

7) NT, di E. Hutter, Norimberga, 1599

8) NT, di W. Robertson, Londra, 1661

9) Gospels, di G. B. Jona, Roma, 1668

10) NT, di R. Caddick, Londra, 1798-1805

11) NT, di T. Fry, Londra, 1817

12) NT, di W. Greenfield, Londra, 1831

13) NT, di A. McCaul e altri, Londra, 1838

14) NT, di J. C. Reichardt, Londra, 1846

15) Luke, Acts, Romans and Hebrews, di J. H. R. Biesenthal, Berlino,


16) NT, di J. C. Reichardt e J. H. R. Biesenthal, Londra, 1866


17) NT, di F. Delitzsch, Londra, ed.1981

18) NT, di I. Salkinson e C. D. Ginsburg, Londra, 1891

19) Gospel of John, di M. I. Ben Maeir, Denver, 1957

20) A Concordance to the Greek New Testament, di Moulton e Geden,


21) NT, United Bibles Societies, Gerusalemme, 1979

22) NT, di J. Bauchet e D. Kinnereth, Roma, 1975

23) NT, di H. Heinfetter, Londra, 1863

24) Romans, di W. G. Rutherford, Londra, 1900

25) Psalms and Matthew, di A. Margaritha, Lipsia, 1533

26) NT, di Dominik von Brentano, Vienna e Praga, 1796

27) NT, Bible Society, Gerusalemme, 1986

Information based on an article was published on the catholic magazine

"Rivista Biblica", year XLV, n. 2, April-June 1997, p. 183-186. See more
from the Author Matteo at



"The ASV‖ (American Standard Version) has "Jehovah" in it about

6,823 times, but the NASB (New American Standard Version)
removed it every time. This makes for some awkward situations like
Psalms 110:1;

Just what is a verse like this intended to mean? "The LORD


to my lord." (Jason Beduhn Northern Arizona University, Department


of Humanities Arts and Religion)



Jesus' name appears only some 500 times in the Bible; whereas
Jehovah's Name appears almost 7,000 times. Obviously Jehovah is
proud of his name. How does HE feel about men removing HIS Name
from the Bible?


First, let‘s consider the deeper significance in this discussion. Before we

try to determine that all ignorance of and disregard for the divine name
constitutes a sin of omission, let us explore the issue from another
standpoint. That is that there is a deeper level of meaning to the Name
than merely serving as a unique and personal ‗symbol‘ for one who is the
almighty God. The deeper signif-icance goes beyond the name being seen
as exclusive which it is, and goes beyond all the verses which elude to the
necessity for recognizing the individuality of the bearer.

The deeper level of meaning alludes to the power and authority

that the name stands for. There should be no argument that this
particular aspect is certainly as important if not more important than any
other reasons for recog- nizing and respecting God‘s name.

When one claims to either speak in ―his name‖, ―come in his name‖ or for
that matter be ―a people for his name‖, scripturally speaking we cannot
view those phrases to merely mean recognizing that he has a personal
name and using it in the vernacular of our every day conversation.
Instead, we must realize there is far more importance to the full range of
meanings the name represents which go far beyond the name being
merely a symbol.

Since meanings behind the name are being highlighted in other parts of
this book, a sampling of the biographical traits of God which follows will
illustrate the point;

1. Personal characteristics

a. Love - 1 John 4:8 He who does not love does not know God,
for God is love

b. Righteousness – . Psalm 11:7 For the Lord is righteous, He

loves righteousness;. .


c. Holiness - 1 Peter 1:15-16 But as He who called you is holy, you

also be holy in all your conduct, because it is written, "Be holy, for I
am holy."

d. Wisdom and Power - 1 Corinthians 1:25 For the foolishness of

God is wiser than man's wisdom, and the weakness of God is
stronger than man's strength. NIV

e. Truth - Romans 3:4a. Out of the question! God will always be

true even if no human being can be relied on . . . NJB

2. Accomplishment, past present and future;

a. Originator and Creator of all things - Genesis 1:1 In the

beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

b. Originating Creator of humankind - Genesis 1:27 So

God created man in His own image; in the image of God
He created him; male and female He created them.

c. The continuing creative source for all life forms of life - Psalm
104:30―You send forth Your Spirit, they are created; and
you renew the face of the earth."

3. Only ‗source‘ of salvation:

1 Timothy 2:3-4 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of

God our Savior, who desires all men to be saved and to come to the
knowledge of the truth.

Note here: While Jesus Christ is God‘s ‗means‘ of salvation, it is Jehovah

God, the father, who is the source (originator) of such salvation.

4. The only one in the entire universe that the words at Exodus
3:14 apply to;

From 4 different Bible versions;

Exodus 3:14 And God said to Moses, I AM THAT I AM. And he

said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent

me unto you. DBY



Exodus 3:14 God replied, "I AM THE ONE WHO ALWAYS IS. Just
tell them, 'I AM has sent me to you.' " NLT

Exodus 3:14 God said to Moses, 'I am he who is.' And he said,
'This is what you are to say to the Israelites, "I am has sent me to
you." NJB

Exodus 3:14 At this God said to Moses: "I SHALL PROVE TO BE

WHAT I SHALL PROVE TO BE." And he added: "This is what you
are to say to the sons of Israel, 'I SHALL PROVE TO BE has sent me to

In connection with how one bible version renders Exodus 3:14 ―I will
prove to be‖ a Bible encyclopedia, (Insight on the Scriptures, Vol.2, page
12) gives this explan- ation: ―This reveals Jehovah as the One who, with
progressive action, causes himself to become the fulfiller of his promises.
Thus he always brings his purposes to realization. Only the true God
could rightly and authentically bear such a name.‖

It is the full combination of these and his other qualities which must be
seen as a composite body in considering the full meaning of his name and
what authority stands behind it.

All this indicates a far deeper meaning to his name than mere symbolism
for identify- cation. All of these and many other characteristics stand as a
unified body of meaning inseparably connected to the divine name. It is
this entire body of meaning that one must visualize when considering the
deeper meaning of verses such as;

Matthew 28:19 having gone, then, disciple all the nations, (baptizing
them -- to the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Spirit YLT

Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations,

baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the
Holy Spirit: ASV

Psalm 22:22 I will give the knowledge of your name to my brothers: I

will give you praise among the people. BBE

Matthew 6:9 "This, then, is how you should pray: "'Our Father in
heaven, hallowed be your name, NIV


Jeremiah 16:21 "Therefore here I am causing them to know; at this one

time I shall cause them to know my hand and my mightiness, and they
will have to know that my name is Jehovah." NWT

Ezekiel 20:44 You will know that I am the LORD, when I deal with you
for my name's sake and not according to your evil ways and your
corrupt practices, O house of Israel, declares the Sovereign LORD.'" NIV
These verses carry with them the full implication of knowing his hand
and his might in connection with his name.

Ezekiel 11:12 and you will know that I am Yahweh, whose laws you have
not obeyed and whose judgements you have not kept; instead, you have
adopted the customs of the nations round you." ' NJB

Ezekiel 16:62 I shall renew my covenant with you; and you will know
that I am Yahweh, NJB

It is obvious that by the time of history in which Ezekiel wrote, people

were quite familiar with the Tetragrammaton. So it was not mere
familiarity with his name that Jehovah addressed in this verse. It was
their knowing what his name stood for that was the reason for his

Exodus 6:3 and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob,
as God Almighty; but by my name Jehovah I was not known to them.

Abraham is described as a ―friend‖ of God at Isaiah 41:8 and James 2:23.

It is highly unlikely that Abraham was unacquainted with a personal
name for his friend since there were at that time many other Gods who
were being worshipped.

Isaiah 52:6 But I will reveal my name to my people, and they will come
to know its power. Then at last they will recognize that it is I who speaks
to them." NLT

Or, as another version states;

Isaiah 52:6 Because of this my people will know my name, because of

this they will know when the day comes, that it is I saying, Here I am!'


By Isaiah‘s time, there can be no argument that the people did not know
Gods personal name. It is obvious from this verse, that what he would

reveal to them at that time was not about a personal identifier but had to
do with the power and meaning behind his name. This is what would
convince them it was indeed him who had acted.

Isaiah 43:7 Every one who is called by My name, Even for My honour I
have created him, I have formed him, yea, I have made him YLT

Or as other versions puts it;

Isaiah 43:7 All who are linked to My name, Whom I have created,
Formed, and made for My glory – TNK

Isaiah 43:7 And every one that calleth upon my name, I have created
him for my glory. I have formed him, and made him. DRA

.The context for this verse was set at;

Isaiah 43:4,5. Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been
honourable, and I have loved thee; and I will give men for thee, and
peoples for thy life. :5 Fear not, for I am with thee: I will bring thy seed
from the east, and gather thee from the west; DBY

What Isaiah is saying speaks to everyone who is known for the things
his name stands for. It has to do with the power and meaning behind
the name more than any surface symbolism connected with that name.

Psalm 83:18 That men may know that thou, whose name alone is
JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth. KJV

The intrinsic meaning to the verse is; that all men might know that the
one who possesses what that name represents is most high in power over
all the earth.

People who merely see the name in the light of its symbolic value are
the greatest part of the meaning Jehovah attaches to it. This being said,
the real reward to a Bible reader‘s knowing the name is not the name
itself but it is the comprehensive under -standing of everything that the
name stands for. The fact that the name also forms a symbolic identifier
that is totally unique in all the universe is in itself of great value in

avoiding confusion in interpretation of scripture. The name, in the view

of a broad range of scripture connected to it can neither be abused nor

misrepresented. On the other hand, it is in itself not a protective charm

or talisman as claimed by some. The real importance is not the name

itself, but what it stands for and the authority behind it of the one it

In summary, to answer the question; What does Jehovah feel about the
use of his name ? The following verses are presented for the reader to
meditate on and reach their own conclusion in answering the question.

Exodus 3:15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say
unto the children of Israel, Jehovah, the God of your fathers, the
God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath
sent me unto you: this is my name forever, and this is my
memorial unto all generations. ASV

Isaiah 42:8 I am Yahweh, that is my name! I shall not yield my

glory to another, nor my honour to idols. NJB

Psalm 83:18 That men may know that thou, whose name alone
is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth KJV

Isaiah 52:6 Therefore my people will know my name; therefore in

that day they will know that it is I who foretold it. Yes, it is I." NIV

Jeremiah 16:21 "Therefore here I am causing them to know; at this one

time I shall cause them to know my hand and my mightiness, and they
will have to know that my name is Jehovah." NWT

Then there is also the connection between the Divine name of the Father,
YHWH, Jehovah, Yahweh, or any other symbolic description attached to
him and the ―Name‖ of his son Jesus Christ.

Verse explains that all who believe (believing meaning exercising faith) in
his (Jesus) name would have their sins forgiven through it.

Acts 10:43 He is the one all the prophets testified about, saying that
everyone who believes in him will have their sins forgiven through his
name." NLT

Does this or any similar verse imply that we can ignore the name of the
father if we honor the son instead? Those who accept the Trinity
Doctrine maintain the father and the son are one and the same

personage so it shouldn‘t matter. The problem with this position is that

the Bible (God‘s own word) rejects the idea that they are one and the


same person. (See Volume III. Chapter 9. under sub-heading ‗Trinity


There is nothing written in the Bible which condones ignoring,

disregarding, minimizing or avoiding the use of God‘s name in any way.
On the other hand, there is much written which not only encourages its
use but can be construed as making its use mandatory.

From this we may conclude the name is worthy of respect and honor on
more than a few levels. After knowing all these things in connection with
the divine name, an individuals use or for that matter mis-use is a matter
for their conscience and between them and Jehovah himself. As so many
other of the Bible truths, it becomes a matter of a persons heart condition
in the eyes of their creator.

Does the Bible give us any insight into just how God almighty views his
own name and how he feels about it being ignored or dishonored?

Consider the following verses which help you answer this question;

Psalm 83:16 Utterly disgrace them until they submit to your

name, O LORD. NLT

Psa 83:18 That men may know that thou, whose name alone is
JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth. KJV

Exodus 3:15 Then God said once more to Moses:"This is what you are to
say to the sons of Israel, 'Jehovah the God of YOUR forefathers, the
God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, has sent me
to YOU.' This is my name to time indefinite, and this is the
memorial of me to generation after generation. NWT
[Or as other versions put it]

Exodus 3:15 And God said moreover to Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto
the children of Israel: Jehovah, the God of your fathers, the God of
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto
you. This is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all
generations. DBY

Jeremiah 10:6 Yahweh, there is no one like you, so great you are, so
great your mighty name. NJB


Isaiah 42:8 I am Jehovah, that is my name; and my glory will I

not give to another, neither my praise untograven images. ASV

Deuteronomy 5:11 "'You must not take up the name of Jehovah

your God in a worthless way, for Jehovah will not leave anyone
unpunished who takes up his name in a worthless way. NWT

Isaiah 74:18 "Remember this, that the enemy hath reproached, O

Jehovah, And that a foolish people hath blasphemed thy name." ASV

Psalm 74:10 "How long, O God, will you allow our enemies to
mock you? Will you let them dishonor your name forever?" NLT

Malachi 2:1 "And now this admonition is for you, O priests. If you
do not listen, and if you do not set your heart to honor my
name,"says Jehovah Almighty,"I will send a curse upon
you,and I will curse your blessings." ASV

Ezekiel 36:23"And I will sanctify my great name, which hath

been profaned among the nations, which ye have profaned in the midst
of them; and the nations shall know that I am Jehovah." ASV

Jeremiah 16:21 "Therefore, behold, I will cause them to know, this

once will I cause them to know my hand and my might; and they shall
know that my name is Jehovah." ASV

Isaiah 52:5,6 Therefore my people will know my name; . . . they

will know that it is I who foretold it. "NIV

Joel 2:32 "And it shall come to pass,that whosoever shall call on

the name of Jehovah shall be delivered..." ASV

Acts 2:16, 17, 32"...this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel:
'In the 'last days'.....everyone who calls on the name of the Lord
(Jehovah) will be saved.'" NIV



Christ set many examples for his followers. It was his will that all true
Christians follow those examples. The Bible indicates he not only used


his father‘s name and taught his followers to use it as well. This stands as
a guiding example to his true followers.

So rather than follow the Jewish Traditions, superstitions, or religionists

with questionable motives promoting their own ideas and practices – We,
as ones who claim to be his followers, should follow Christ's example in
making his Father's name known;

Matthew 6:9 "Our Father in the heavens, let your name be

sanctified." NWT

Matthew 6:9 So you should pray like this: Our Father in heaven, may
your name be held holy, NJB

Jesus used his father's name - and expects us to do the same. In prayer to
his father, Jesus said:

John 17:25,26,6 "O righteous Father, even though the world does not
know you, I know you, and these know that you have sent me. I made
known to them YOUR NAME and I will continue to make it known..."I
have manifested Your name to the men whom You gave Me out of the
world." ESV

These were Jesus own words. He may very well have had the same
thoughts in mind as the Psalmist had centuries earlier when he wrote
them down as recorded at Ps. 145:2,3;

Psalm 145:2,3 "I will praise thy name forever and ever.. Great
is Jehovah, and greatly to be praised; And his greatness is
unsearchable." ASV

If these be our own thoughts we can be sure Jehovah would find pleasure
in this and we could be doing our share in the fulfillment of David‘s
words at Psalm 83:18

Psalm 83:18 "That men may know that thou, whose name alone is
JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth." KJV
In view of the vast quantity of solid evidence in favor of using the ―divine
name‖, there should be no excuse for leaving it out of a followers life,

much less out of a Bible he chooses to use. The absence of God‘s true
name from a Bible may very well be a major warning to us about its

publishers and their motives. If a pub- lisher feels that they possess the


authority to exclude it from their version, in spite of the evidence to the

contrary and while the Bible itself clearly demonstrates legitimacy for its
use, what else may they have decided to exclude, or change, without the
divine authority to do so?

End of Chapter
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(Gen 1:1 WTT


Gen 1:1 ―In the beginning God (Elohim) created the heavens and the
earth.‖ NIV (Parenthesis – Authors)

(Scroll down)


[Return to Beginning]


How did we get here? . . . . . . . . Why are we here?

What does God expect from us? – (Genesis Unraveled)
The Bible was written, and preserved so that children of children for all
their generations might have God‘s answer to these, and other important
questions. It is deeply concerned with our existence on the planet God
created for us and gave to us for our earthly home. This book is dedicated
to helping us clarify God‘s view point from the Bible, so we can discern
his thinking on these questions and how each of us can have a truly
rewarding relationship with God.

This book is dedicated to ―What is written in the Bible, therefore we will

continue to examine answers to these questions from that perspective.
We believe, the Bible contains all the essentially important things we
humans need to know about living with one another on this earth. It also
discloses the purpose for our existence on the earth. And even further,
beyond that, by means of inspired prophecy it reveals earth‘s future as
well as our own prospects in relation to it.

Initial answers for many curiosities we humans have along these lines,
are found in the very first book of the Bible where it describes the
creation of the earth. There, It also discloses what man is and where he
came from, in clear, concise and candidly direct language. Lastly, It deals
with important and fundamental issues concerning our existence here on


We can start with the assertion that the Bible book of Genesis and
particularly the first two chapters constitutes an historical document.

Five reasons for taking this position are:

Reason #1.

The literary framework or structure of the book of Genesis indicates that

the book as a whole is intended to be understood as history. Note by
example the recurring phrase : ―These are the generations‖ or ―This is the

account‖ Gen. 2:4, 5:1, 6:9, 10:1, 11:10, 11:27, 25:12, 36:1, 36:9 and 37:2.

Reason #2.

The New Testament writers as well as the other writers of the Old
Testament all clearly understood Genesis, including Chapters 1 and 2 as
true history.
(Some examples of verses in Genesis confirmed by later writings as
being historical).

Gen 1:1 / Heb. 11:3 and Joh 1:1 – Creation by God‘s word.
Gen 1:1 – 2:3 / Exo.20:8-11 – Creation in six days, rest on 7th day.
Gen 1:1 / Psa. 8:3 – Heavens made by God.
Gen 1: 6,7 / Psa. 19:1b – God made sky.
Gen 1: 6,9 / 2 Pet.3:5 - Earth formed out of water.
Gen 1: 14-18 / Psa. 104:19 – Purpose of the moon God made, Psa.136:7-9
– purpose of the sun moon and stars God made, Isa. 40:26 –Stars created
by God, Jer. 31:24,25. – purpose of sun, moon and stars.
Gen 1:20-22 / Psa. 104:24,25. – Seas filled with life from God.
Gen 1:26, 27. / Psa. 8:6-8 – Man granted dominion over creation,
Mat.19:4 – God created them male and female, 1Cor.11:7 – Man is the
image and glory of God, Jam.3:9- Man was made in the likeness of God.
Gen 1:31 / 1Tim.4:4 – Everything created by God is good.
Gen 2:2 / Heb. 4: 4,10. - God rests on 7th day.
Gen 2:7 / 1Cor.15:45,47. – Man made of earth as a ―living soul‖, 1 Tim
2:13 – man was created before woman.
Gen 2:17 / Rom. 5:12 – Death came through sin.
Gen 2:18. – 1Cor. 11:9 – Woman was created for man‘s sake.
Gen 2:21-23 / 1Cor. 11:8 – Woman originated from man.
Gen 2:24 / Matt. 19:5 – verse spoken by ―the creator.

Reason #3.

The later chapters of Genesis are plainly intended to be taken as

historical — and no distinct boundary line exists before which the
author obviously means earlier chapters to be considered as non-
historical. A tight genealogical continuity is given from Adam through his
sons and the succeeding generations right up to Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob. No point can be specified where "myth" would end and "history"
would begin. (Interestingly, Charles Darwin himself accepted the
historical validity of at least one aspect of Genesis 30, as evidenced in his
discussion of selective breeding in the first chapter of Origin of Species.
Darwin states: "From passages in Genesis, it is clear that the colour of

domestic animals was at that early period attended to.")



Reason #4.

Within the disputed first eleven chapters of Genesis, mention is made of

64 geographical terms, 88 personal names, and some 20 identifiable
cultural items (e.g., gold, onyx, brass, iron, mortar, musical instruments,
cities). ). In the first two chapters, such "real world" categories are found
notably in Genesis 2:8-14. Such specificity is not expected in a "myth."

Reason #5.

There is no substantial literary indication in genesis 1-2 that these early

chapters are intended to be taken as allegory, legend, parable, poetry or
any other sort of non-historical material. Despite the exalted tone of this
section, the genre is plainly narrative prose, as indicated by (a) a lack of
parallelism, (b) use of the direct object marker, and (c) use of the waw
consecutive with verbs to describe sequential acts.

As a historical narrative it supplies us with an important perspective on

how we arrived at the place and condition we are in today. This narrative
is of primary importance in finding truthful answers to questions such as
How did we get here?, Why are we here? and What does God expect from

By analyzing information found in Genesis and other places in the Bible,

we are able to get a clear and accurate picture of what the Bible, as God‘
inspired word has to say about these subjects.

Toward this end, God‘s word says:

2 Timothy 3:16 All scripture is inspired by God and is useful

for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in
righteousness, NRS

Therefore, let us look at verses in the Book of Genesis, and other places in
the Bible which relate to information about the origin of the earth and
God‘s purpose for it, and to our role on it. We will use a number of
different Bible dictionaries and provide definitions for difficult Bible
words in order toward a clearer and more accurate understanding of the
verses. Also, we will use a variety of Bible versions in citing verses. While
all bibles contain God‘s message, they all remain in some regards a

product of human translators. Therefore, some versions may use clearer

language in addressing specific verses than others do. Using multiple

versions allows us to select the clearest nuances in language from among


a variety of translations, Also this allows us to arrive at consensus in

translational understanding and helps in overcoming any translator‘s
bias which may exist in a given version.

In the book of Genesis we find roots and the reason for Gods purpose in
connection with the earth. This opening account holds keys to
understanding much of what is revealed in the entire Bible. It also helps
us to see how what is taking place in our lives today relates to God‘s
original purpose according to his will. Sadly, even among avid Bible
readers, much of their understanding is based on indoctrination and
stories they have heard since childhood. In many instances, they are
under misconceptions as to what the Genesis account actually says.
Unfortunately, this has led to all kinds consequences affecting people‘s
lives. For example, there is a great chasm between the religious and
scientific communities causing some people to lose faith in religion and
others in science. This chasm has developed largely due to ignorance by
both parties about what the Bible and especially what the Genesis
account actually say. Meanwhile, an accurate understanding of this
historical account is essential to anyone who is interested in real answers
to the three questions we opened this chapter with.

Toward the goal of obtaining a clearer picture of what the account really
does say, we invite you to share in a journey through history as the Bible
reveals it from the beginning of time until humans were fully established
on this, our planet earth.


The Genesis account has generated a great deal of controversy between

the scientific community and those who claim to hold the bible as their
source for ultimate truth. Strangely when we dig for the roots in this
controversy, what reveals itself as the biggest cause for differences
between these two comm- unities distills down to an ignorance about the
bible on the parts of both sides. Many Bible supporters are mired in a
mindset which is not based on what the Bible actually says. In these
instances they have accepted traditions and doctrines formed by religious
leaders which while being entrenched deeply through the passage of time,
have little to do with what the bible actually teaches. On the other hand,
within the scientific community we also find a ready acceptance for

deeply entrenched unproven theories which are held to be proven truths

instead of theories which are still open to investigation. When we

examine the facts from both sides in view of what the bible actually says,
the the best word we can use to describe what has happened to both sides

is ―mis- conception‖. Both sides have their share of closed minds in this
controversy and there are mis-conceptions dominating the thinking on
both sides. The material we present from Genesis in this book may prove
to be an ―eye opener‖ in this controversy. When Genesis is read
independently from preconceptions and biases people on both sides
hold, many of the causes for misunderstanding melt away.

In reading further, you may find some surprises, even some shocks when
commonly held mis-conceptions are exposed, so we urge the reader to
keep an open mind allowing what the Bible itself really says, to shine
through. Then, we invite readers to reassess their understanding by
considering newly found information rather than holding on to pre-
conceptions based on existing traditions or doctrines founded on hearsay
or superstition.
One small example of a commonly held misconception is illustrated in
when most people are asked how many animals of each kind Noah took
into the ark, their immediate answer is two. If asked for proof, those who
are sharp enough with their bible will offer Genesis 6:19 where it states;
―You are to bring into the ark two of all living creatures, male and
female, to keep them alive with you.‖ NIV

Unfortunately, they may mean well but they have answered on the basis
of having only partial knowledge, for in Genesis 7:2, 3 it says; ―Take with
you seven of every kind of clean animal, a male and its mate, and two
of every kind of unclean animal, a male and its mate,3 and also seven
of every kind of bird, male and female, to keep their various kinds alive
throughout the earth.‖ NIV

Another example is that often when people raise a question which they
deem will discredit the bible such as; If Adam only had two sons and
Cain killed Abel, where did Cain‘s wife come from? They may cite a
passage like Gen 4:1, 2. as a valid reason for the question.: Genesis 4:1,
2. The man had intercourse with his wife Eve, and she conceived and
gave birth to Cain. 'I have acquired a man with the help of Yahweh,' she
said.: 2 Later she gave birth to his brother Abel. . . . Genesis 4:17
Afterward Cain had intercourse with his wife and she became pregnant
and gave birth to E'noch. . . . .NWT

If the questioner had read further in Genesis, he or she would have had
their question answered. For in addition to another son named Seth who

replaced Abel mentioned in verse 25, in the fifth chapter it tells us Adam
and Eve had an undisclosed number of other sons and daughters during

the 930 years Adam is reported to have lived.


Genesis 5:4,5. After the birth of Seth, Adam lived another 800 years,
and he had other sons and daughters. NLT 5 Altogether, Adam lived 930
years, and then he died. NIV:

This meant that Cain and Abel had sisters, and possibly other brothers
not listed by name. These grew up together as earth‘s original family. At
that time, the genetic risks as we know them today, did not exist, because
they were close enough to perfection not to be effected by in breeding as
later generations would be. In breeding or what we refer to as incest
today was not a problem until later in history. By the time of Moses,
some 1500 years after Adam, God implemented a restriction against in
breeding at Leviticus 18:6. After 1500 years, there were plenty of people
on the Earth, and this practice did not need to continue. How- ever, it is
also quite likely that the main reason that God ordered it stopped was
because of potential genetic problems that could occur with later

Leviticus 18:6-17 "'No one is to approach any close relative to have sexual
relations. . . .NIV

―In the beginning‖

The Genesis account opens with the following statement;

Genesis 1:1 ―In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.―

To start with, before we consider the account in more detail, it is

appropriate for us to examine closely a word which is often understood
by many people to have but a single meaning. To most Bible readers,
the word ―God‖ has but one meaning. People say if it is spelled ―God‖
with a capital G, it pertains to God almighty, where- as if it is spelled with
all small letters ―god,‖ it indicates someone or something other than God
almighty. There is a bit of naivety in this. This may be our first surprise
concerning the book of Genesis;

In the original Hebrew manuscripts, there were no capital letters, and in

the original Greek manuscripts there were no lower case letters. Thus, in
its earliest written forms we have only the letters ―g o d‖ or ―G O D‖,

without the benefits of capitalization or non - capitalization. The

alphabets of the original writings made no distinction between greater or

lesser gods. That was left up to the reader to determine by the context in
which the word was used.

Therefore, Bible dictionaries which deal with Greek and Hebrew word
root meanings indicate a much broader range of meanings for the word
God than we normally apply to it. In considering these dictionary
definitions, it should be noted that those given meanings, which define
God as a Trinity did not exist until more than three hundred years after
original Bible writings were comp- leted. In terms of ―what was originally
written‖; they represent doctrine formed centuries later and then
introduced into the early church. In many cases, these doctrines have
become so widely accepted that they have found their way into dictionary
definitions. Also, when definitions constitute circular reasoning they
have no valid basis for being considered as definitive. Defin itions
founded on circular reasoning should not be considered crucial to any
true or real understanding of scripture. This is especially so when they
are based on a pre acceptance of an unproven doctrine. (See chapter 23
on Teachings and doctrines, under heading; Trinity). Thus, while they
appear in some Bible dictionaries under the pre-supposition of a God
being a ―Triune Godhead‖, those definitions need to be considered as
unproven source material and left out of ―scripturally based‖

Bible Dictionary definitions;

God [1], god [2]

(Excerpts are from Thayers, Vines, Strongs, Zophiates and other Word Study
dictionaries, showing a variety of meanings for the word ―God‖)

God - definitions

G2316 qeo, theos {theh'-os}

1) [2] a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities

2) the Godhead, trinity [See Chapter 13. – Teachings and doctrines -
2a) [1] God the Father,
2a1 The first person in the trinity [See Chapter 13. – Teachings and
doctrines- Trinity]
2b) Christ, the second person of the trinity [See Chapter 13 – Teachings

and doctrines- Trinity]

2c) Holy Spirit, the third person in the trinity [See Chapter 13 –

Teachings and doctrines- Trinity]

3) [1] spoken of the only and true God

3a) refers to the things of God

3b) his counsels, interests, things due to him
4) whatever can in any respect be likened unto God, or
resemble him in any way
4a) [2] God's representative or vice regent
4a1) of magistrates and judges

It is not until the second chapter of Genesis that YHWH (Jehovah) is

introduced into the account.
Note: (Elohim) and YHWH (Jehovah) are not one and the same. It
is YHWH (Jehovah) who Jesus refers to as; his father in heaven at Matthew
12:50 . . . ―my Father in heaven‖ . . . NIV and as ―our father in the
heavens‖ at Mtt6:9 .

Therefore, when the verse says at Genesis 1:1; ―In the beginning God
created the heavens and the earth.― We need to realize the original
writings did not say ―God‖ created. . . . .
When originally written they said; (Elohim),―created the heavens
and the earth‖ While this word has been rendered God in most Bibles.
there would appear to be inaccuracy in this which changes our
understanding of the opening verse in the Bible.

For us to obtain a truly scriptural basis for understanding this verse, we

need to have a fully accurate meaning for the word Elohim, a meaning as
the original writers would have applied to it. The meaning of ―Elohim‖ is
possibly among the earliest of many misconceptions people have
concerning the Genesis account.

Hebrew language Bible versions bring our attention to the phrase

―Elohim‖ at Gen 1:1 and ―Jehovah Elohim‖ at Gen. 2:4. The difference
between these phrases, while ignored in most Bibles, are important to a
true and correct understanding of the Genesis account. Therefore, it
merits a closer examination of the word; ‖ELOHIM‖.

Bible scholars have differing opinions on an exact meaning of

this word. We will explore explanations for this phrase in order to
determine a meaning which most closely fits with what the bible itself

Two traditionally held meanings;



The first explains thusly; At Genesis 1:1 the title ―God‖ is translated from
‘Elo·him′, which is plural in Hebrew. Trinitarians construe this to be an
indication of the Trinity. They also explain Deuteronomy 6:4 to prove the
unity of members of the Trinity when it says, ―The LORD our God [from
‘Elo·him′] is one LORD.‖ Thus, they claim there were two elements of a
single God present at the beginning. While this might be a possibility, the
presence of two entities present on the same occasion does not logically
prove they are one and the same indivifual and certainly not that they
constitute two parts of a three part person. There are other explanations
to be considered.

The second explanation2 is that the phrase ―Elohim‖ is not to be accepted

in plurality. It claims in this case, there is an exception from Hebrew
grammatical rules and indicates it implies ―majesty in a grand sense‖.

As an explanation for thiswe find the following; ―The plural form of the
noun here in Hebrew is the plural of majesty or excellence. (See NAB,
St. Joseph Edition, Bible Dictionary, p. 330; also, New Catholic
Encyclopedia, 1967, Vol. V, p. 287.) It conveys no thought of plurality of
persons within a godhead. In similar fashion, at Judges 16:23 when
reference is made to the false god Dagon, a form of the title ‘elo·him′ is
used; the accompanying verb is singular, showing that reference is to just
the one god. At Genesis 42:30, Joseph is spoken of as the ―lord‖
(‘adho·neh′, the plural of excellence of Egypt. The Greek language does
not have a ‗plural of majesty or excellence.‘

So, at Genesis 1:1 the translators of LXX used ho The·os′ (God, singular)
as the equivalent of ‘Elo·him′.
At Mark 12:29, where a reply of Jesus is reproduced in which he quoted
Deuteronomy 6:4, the Greek singular ho The·os′ is similarly used. This is
basically the reasoning for understanding the meaning of Elohim as being
singular and primarily that of majesty.
Since false gods are also referred to as Elohim in the bible, this
understanding raises questions; Is God in his written word calling the
false Gods majesties? Is the bible indicating a majestic sense to the false
A second understanding of the word Elohim, runs counter to this and is
as follows;

In the Bible the word for ―God‖ in the Hebrew that is most often used is
Elohim. It is a plural noun. Today it is popular to say it means the plural

of majesty. However the form of the word, Eloh-im, is plural, in that

Hebrew ―Eloah‖ is used to describe a singular God, not Elohim. When

Elohim is used of the true God it is used in the sense it presents as a

composite unity, indicating at least two separate elements. When it is
used of false gods it also is used in the plural. (example; you shall have no
other Gods (Elohim) before me."

In Genesis it would rather support an understanding of plurality. When

looking at its usage elsewhere in the Bible, it always refers to persons in
the plural. There is no familiar passage that it is used as is claimed, for
the sense of majesty.

For example in Gen 1:24-31 "Let us make man in OUR image‖ is this an
appeal to self? In the Hebrew language the preface ―im‖ (masculine in
gender) at the end of a word makes the word into a plural form. For
example the angels are called seraph or cherub in the singular but when
they are Seraphim or Cherubim it means more than one. The word for
heavens is shamayim Gen.1:2. Again in the plural. Could we ever
interpret these as a plural of majesty.

We find from the scriptures all the attributes of God belong to Elohim.
They also belong to his son and co-creator who together are Elohim.
(gods in plural) The same rule would be for the word God theos, in the
N.T. Such as in Jn.1:1 the word was with God and was a god, as sharing in
divine nature, not the same personage.

Even the ancient Rabbis recognized this word as related to more than
one. In the Midrash Rabbah on Genesis, Rabbi Samuel bar Nahman in
the name of Rabbi Jonathan said, that at the time when Moses wrote the
Torah, writing a portion of it daily, when he came to this verse which says
"And Elohim said, let us make man in our image after our likeness,"
Moses said, Master of the Universe why do you herewith an excuse to the
sectarians, God answered Moses, You write and whoever wants to err let
him err."In other words God had Moses write down what is correct, and
we are to study to understand it. Selah Elohim can be used as a general
term for a god in the O.T.. For example Samuel was called an Elohim
when he came up from the dead

(1 Sam.28:13-14) In Ex. 7:1 Moses was made an Elohim to Pharaoh.

Jesus called the rulers in Israel Elohim,"Gods" ? (Jn. 10:34) After the
Jews accuse Jesus of blasphemy because he being a man some claimed to
be God, he answers "Is it not written in your law I said 'You are Gods"

citing Ps.82:6: " This was addressed to the judges of Israel. They were

called Gods not because they were divine but because they represented
God when they judged the people even when they were misrepresenting

God. Jesus‘ point," is intended to show that the idea of assigning the
divine majesty to human nature was by no means foreign to the
revelations of the O.T." ( New Commentary on the whole Bible,
Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown)

So, while this title can be bestowed on those who are not by nature God.,
they were never called Yahweh or I Am.

1 Cor. 8:5-6 states "For even if there are so-called Gods, whether in
heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords) yet for us
there is one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we for Him;
and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and through
whom we live.

The apostle Paul clarifies the subject in vs 6;

1 Corinthians 8:6 yet for us there is only one God, the Father from
whom all things come and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus
Christ, through whom all things come and through whom we exist. NJB

How then are we to view Deut.6:4, doesn‘t it say there Jehovah our
God is one Jehovah? As a matter of fact, yes it does. However it must be
noted that this verse applies to YHWH and not Elohim. It says Jehovah is
one Jehovah and not Elohim is one Elohim. To those who cannot
recognize a difference between Jehovah and Elohim, the verse takes on
dis -torted meaning.

Deuteronomy 6:4 'Hear, O Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah; YLT

In what way then could two (Elohim) possibly be viewed as one?

Simply stated, the father and Son (Jesus) are so closely linked that they
be viewed as ―one‖. Scriptural examples demonstrating this linkage help
to understand the unique nature of this relationship;

Colossians 1:15 He [Jesus] is the image of the invisible God, the

firstborn of all creation; NWT [brackets by author]

1 John 1:2 This one (Jesus) who is life from God was shown to us, and

we have seen him. And now we testify and announce to you that he is


the one who is eternal life. He (Jesus) was with the Father, and then he
was shown
to us. NLT

John 14:9 Jesus said to him: "Have I been with YOU men so long a
time, and yet, Philip, you have not come to know me? He that has
seen me has seen the Father [also]. How is it you say, 'Show us the
Father'? NWT

John 10:30 I [Jesus] and the Father are one." NIV [In the sense of
total unity in thought and purpose.]

John 5:43 For I have come to you representing my Father, and you
to welcome me, even though you readily accept others who represent
only themselves. NLT

Phil. 2:5 Keep this mental attitude in YOU that was also in Christ
Jesus, 6 who, although he was existing in God’s form, gave no
consider- ation to a seizure, namely, that he should be equal to
God. 7 No, but he emptied himself and took a slave‘s form and came to
be in the likeness of men. 8 More than that, when he found himself in
fashion as a man, he humbled himself and became obedient as far as
death, yes, death on a torture stake. 9 For this very reason also God
exalted him to a superior position and kindly gave him the name
that is above every [other] name, 10 so that in the name of Jesus
every knee should bend of those in heaven and those on earth and
those under the ground, 11 and every tongue should openly
acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the
Father. NWT

Hebrews 1:2 But now in these final days, he has spoken to us

through his Son. God promised everything to the Son as an
inheritance, and through the Son he made the universe and
everything in it. NLT

Jesus himself clearly demonstrated that his being one with the father did
not make him the same person as the father when he said his followers
could also be one with the father in the same manner that he was.

John 17:21 My prayer for all of them is that they will be one,
just as you and I are one, Father -- that just as you are in me and I

am in you, so they will be in us, and the world will believe you sent me.


Therefore, these scriptures reveal that when the Bible speaks of us at

Genesis 1:26 or when it uses the phrase Elohim, it speaks of Jehovah
in tandem with Jesus, his designated spokesman and deputy creator.
What impact a proper understanding of this one word has will become
evident as we proceed. Also, in connection with this, we need to explore
another matter. That is who the ―Word‖ was, since that one is referred to
at John 1:1,2. as also being present in ―the beginning‖. See John 1:1 as
cross - referencing where it says in Genesis ―In the beginning God
(Elohim) created the heavens and the earth.―

John 1:1,2. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was
with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was with God in the
beginning. NIV

Having already considered Bible dictionary meanings for the word God /
god, how are we to take John 1:1 where we have the statement; ―the Word
was with God‖. Is that statement actually to mean the Word was with
God, and also at the same time that the Word was God, as the translators
of KJV, NJB and others have implied? Or is the work of other translators
who say the word was a god more correct? Immediately, an alarm bell
should go off in our minds signaled by a context conflict in the former
version. One who is with (alongside of) someone else cannot be that
someone himself.

But for a moment, let‘s go back to identifying ―The Word‖ in John 1:1, for
everyone can agree it does say he was ―with God‖ in the beginning.

―The Word‖

While KJV, NJB, RSV, NIV, ASV, NAU and a number of other versions translate
the verse this way;

John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word: the Word was with God
and the Word was God. NJB ,

Other translations imply a greatly different meaning by putting the same

verse in somewhat different words;

John 1:1 In [the] beginning the Word was, and the Word was with
God, and the Word was a god.[2] NWT


John 1:1 ― and the word was divine‖- AAT

John 1:1 ― and the word was a god‖- NTN
John 1:1,2. In the beginning the word intrinsic to God, identifying
God, was active. 2. This word, expressed in the beginning, belonged
to God. MIT

A key question this raises is; Was the ―Word‖ actually GOD (Jehovah)
himself or a separate entity who was with God and who himself was a god
or godlike? (See earlier definitions for God, god.)

That ―Word‖ mentioned at John 1: 1 is further identified, in the Bible

book of Revelations;

Revelation 19:13 and he [Jesus] is arrayed with an outer garment

sprinkled with blood, and the name he is called is The Word of
God. NJB [brackets, authors]

Revelation 19:16 On his cloak and on his thigh a name was written:
King of kings and Lord of lords. NWT ( Referring to Jesus)

In these verses, the ―Word of God‖ is seen as a separate individual from

Jehovah God, himself. Also by virtue of other references identifying
Jesus Christ as both the Lamb of God (in his sacrificial capacity) and
later as the King of God‘s Kingdom (in his heavenly ruler ship capacity),
he is shown to
be apart from or separate from God almighty.

John 1:36 And looking at Jesus while he was walking he said, See,
there is the Lamb of God! BBE

Revelation 17:14 they will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will
conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those
with him are called and chosen and faithful." NRS

―king of kings‖ in the following respect;

Revelation 20:4 Then I saw thrones, where they took their seats, and on
them was conferred the power to give judgment. I saw the souls of all
who had been beheaded for having witnessed for Jesus and for having
preached God's word, and those who refused to worship the beast or his

statue and would not accept the brand-mark on their fore- heads or
hands; they came to life, and reigned with Christ for a thousand

years. NJB


The one called ‗The Word‘, later referred to as King of Kings or the Lord
of Lords is none other than Jesus Christ in his heavenly position. In the
Bible he is also referred to as the ―first born‖ spirit son of God (Jehovah),
as well as ―the lamb of God‖, who takes away the sin of the world.

We can conclude this same one, Jesus Christ, is the one referred to as a
second party), in the creation account. Therefore, he and his father
together constitute ―Elohim‖, according to Genesis 1:1,2 beingcombined
with John 1;1 and Colossians 1:15,16.

Genesis 1:1 In the beginning, when God [Elohim] created the

heavens and the earth, NAB

John 1:1 ― and the word was a god‖- NTN: John 1: 2 He was with God in
the beginning. NIV

Colossians 1:15, 16 Christ is the visible image of the invisible God. He

existed before God made anything at all and is supreme over
all creation.16 Christ is the one through whom God created
everything in heaven and earth. He made the things we can see
and the things we can't see-- kings, kingdoms, rulers, and authorities.
Everything has been created through him and for him.. NLT
Another translation reads:
Colossians 1:15,16 15 He is the image of the invisible God, the
firstborn of all creation.16 For by him all things were created, in heaven
and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or
rulers or authorities- all things were created through him and for him.

The duality of Elohim is further confirmed in Genesis 1:26;

Genesis 1:26 Then God said, "Let us (plural) make man in our
(plural) image, after our (plural) likeness. And let them have
dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and
over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing
that creeps on the earth." ESV (parenthesis by author)

See also Prov. 830, 31. Where Jesus is seen as Wisdom personified;

Proverbs 8:30, 31. then I was beside him, like a master worker; and I
was daily his delight, rejoicing before him always, NRS 31 Rejoicing in

the world, His earth, And having my delight in the sons of men. NAU

These verses establish that Jesus in a heavenly (spirit) form was present
with his Father, (Jehovah) from the beginning of creation and was deeply
involved as the chief agent through whom the rest of the creation was
accomplished. Knowing this helps us to understand such verses as found
at Joh. 12:18 where it helps establish that Jesus was a distinctly different
entity from God the father (God almighty, YHWH Jehovah).

JOH 12:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son,
which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. KJV

The fact that Jehovah God, (God almighty) had someone other than
himself present as a co-worker during the creation process relevant to the
earth, is a surprise even to many lifetime Bible readers.

The identity of Elohim was further obscured by early bible translators

who were deeply entrenched in the Jewish traditions before Christ
appeared on the earthly scene. According to their mind set; that is the
way they understood Deut. 6:4, there could be only one entity present at
the beginning.

Deuteronomy 6:4 Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one.

or as another version puts it;

Deuteronomy 6:4 Hear, Israel: Jehovah our God is one Jehovah; DBY

Without the benefit of Christ‘s teachings and enlightenment which we

have today as found in verses such as John 1:1 and Colossians 1:15,1,
they remained mired in superstition and error based on the way they
perceived Deuteronomy 6:4 and applied it to Genesis 1:1. They could not
comprehend that the meaning of being one could have any other
application than the one they held.

In Jo. 10:30 and Jo.17:21 Jesus Christ threw light on this when he said he
was one with his father in the same sense that his followers could be one
with him and his father as well.

John 10:30 I and the Father are one." NIV



John 17:21 "that they all may be one, as You, Father, are in Me, and I in
You; that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that You
sent Me. NKJ

This clearly shows that being one with someone else does not mean that
they are the same person. What it means is being so closely united that in
what they say and do it is as if they are one. In the case of Jesus, this
oneness was des- cribed in a number of instances and in different ways.
That he and his father were so closely united that his thoughts and
actions were the same as if he were his fathers.

The early Hebrew scholars had none of this information available. They were
clearly guided by manmade thinking and conclusions. Despite scripture to
the contrary, they not only confused the difference between YHWH and
Elohim but legislated the use of God‘s personal name out of existence based
on the man-made conviction that it was too holy to utter or that the danger
of misusing it could be avoided by not using it at all. Unfortunately that
confusion was further exagerated when the erroneous Trinity doctrine was
adapted into the church almost 300 years after Christ‘s earthly ministry.
Then ―Christendom‖ came to view God almighty as a three headed
personage which consisted of three dist- inctly different individual parts.
The idea that Jesus, the son of God, was a separate creation by the father
who was there with the father when he began the creative days on the earth
was lost entirely. That together they could represent gods (plural) and act as
one was so to say, lost in the translation.

Another surprise which accurate understanding reveals in the Genesis

account is found in the fact that In contrast with what many people have
been led to believe to the contrary, the ‗creation‖ account in Genesis
starts with the Earth and the Heavens already existing, (without form,
unsightly, unfurnished, and void), when the Spirit of God (Elohim)
moved over the water. The account does not concern itself with a
description of initial creation as most people believe, but rather only with
those things which follow original creation and
are of concern from an earthly standpoint.

Genesis 1:1,2. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2
The earth was empty, a formless mass cloaked in darkness. And the
Spirit of God was hovering over its surface. NLT

Now let us consider a verse by verse examination of the account in

Genesis and see what else we can gain as to deeper understanding of the

events that we view as pre-history and later as history on the earth.


Genesis 1:1: In the beginning God created the heavens and the
earth. NSB

―At the first God made the heaven and the earth‖ BBE

―In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.‖ NAU

‖ Bürë´šît Bärä ´élöhîm ´ ët haššämaºyim wü´ët hä´äºrec‖ BHT

Genesis 1:2 The earth was without form and empty. Darkness
covered the deep water. The Spirit of God hovered over the
waters. NSB

―And the earth was waste and without form; and it was dark on the face of the
deep: and the Spirit of God was moving on the face of the waters‖. BBE

―Genesis 1:2 The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the
surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the
waters.‖ NAU

―wühä´äºrec häytâ töºhû wäböºhû wüHöºšek `al-Pünê tühôm würûªH

´élöhîm müraHeºpet `al-Pünê hammäºyim‖ BHT

The first two verses in Genesis stand out in clear contrast to the
details which follow from verse three onward, verses contributing to our
understanding of the first six Days of the Creative Week incidental to the

Here are some of the differences:

Verses 1 and/or 2 Do not have numerical tags attached:

Each of the creative/making Days HAVE absolute numerical tabs; ‗Day 1,

2…4‘ etc

Verses 1-2 Do not contain direct Commands or Directives:

Each of the creative/making Days do contain explicit Commands and
Directives issued by God.

Verses 1-2 Do not contain Dialogue/Consultation vocalisations:

Creative Week verses do so at 22, 26, 28-30 where God speaks.
Verses 1-2 Are not designated in interchanging creative/making

Each of the six Day Creative periods ARE thus designated.

Verses 1-2 Are not specific to Biological habitat and organism


Each of the Creative Days anticipate and produce these.

Verses 1-2 Are unrelated to time – open ended, without

Each Creative Day is time referenced, evening/morning = 1 Day

Verses 1-2 Do not have ‗bookends‘ ‗And God

Each Creative Day starts and ends with a bookend.

Verse 2 Depicts God‘s spirit as passive, brooding, poised:

The Creative Days show God highly pro-active, dynamic, specific.

Verses 1-2 Are not Developmental in relation to earth and man,

are instead presequential. The whole of the six Day Creating
sequence is Developmental, culminating in man and the Design of his

Verses 1-2 Contain pluperfect (Perfect tense) verbs and a

Merism wherein totality is expressed through a combination
of parts

Also, present on the scene described, in verses 1-2, was the ―Word‖, the
one ‗through‘ whom Jehovah God created all things according to Col.1:16.
Colossians 1:16 Christ is the one through whom God created everything
in heaven and earth. He made the things we can see and the things we
can't see-- kings, kingdoms, rulers, and authorities. Everything has
been created through him and for him. NLT

This one, (The Word / Christ), as revealed in Genesis and also at John 1:1,
was ‗with God during the creation.

Genesis 1:1,2 IN THE beginning God [lohiym: ] created the heaven

and the earth. :2 Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness
was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the
face of the waters. JPS
Genesis 1:26 And God [lohiym: ] went on to say: "Let us make man
in our image, according to our likeness, NWT [parenthesis authors]

John 1:1 In [the] beginning the Word was, and the Word was with God,

and the Word was a god. NWT


The condition described in the first two verses of Genesis was already
existing for an un- disclosed duration of time when God made the

Genesis 1:3 ― Then God said: »Let there be light!« And there
was light.‖

―And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. ―BBE

‖ And God said, Let there be light: and there was light‖. ASV

―wayyöº´mer ´élöhîm yühî ´ôr wa|yühî-´ôr ― BHT‖‖‖

Genesis 1‖4 ―God saw that the light was good. God separated
the light from the darkness.‖

―After that God saw that the light was good, and God brought about a division
between the light and the darkness.‖ NWT

―And God, looking on the light, saw that it was good: and God made a division
between the light and the dark,‖ BBE

‖ wayyaºr´ ´élöhîm ´et-hä´ôr Kî-ýôb wayyabDël ´élöhîm Bên hä´ôr ûbên

haHöºšek ― BHT

Again, an unstated period of time passes between when he implements

the light and when he determines that the light is good and there is
another unstated period of time till he brings about a division between
light and darkness.

WHY an EARTH as we know it?

At this point, before we proceed with the account; Let us digress for a
moment from the historical side to explore an important fundamental
question. WHY? Why or for what reason did God create the
earth? The bible reveals God's thinking on this with a simple direct
answer found in the book of Isaiah:

Isaiah 45:18 For this is what Jehovah has said, the Creator of the
heavens, He the [true] God, the Former of the earth and the Maker of it,

He the One who firmly estab -lished it, who did not create it simply

for nothing, who formed it even to be inhabited. NWT.


The earth along with its environmental system was created (brought into
existence) for the purpose of habitation. That man was to be the
inhabitant of primary importance is borne out by a statement found at Ps

Psalm 115:16 - As regards the heavens, to Jehovah the heavens belong,

But the earth he has given to the sons of men. – NWT

As we continue, Another surprise in the book of Genesis;

A ‗DAY‘ as we normally perceive it is not always the same as a

‗DAY‘ as God understands it.

Before we return to the account describing the creation, which takes us

through six days (or divisions) during a creative process, we should pause
a moment to explore the biblical meaning of the word ―day‖. Exactly
what the word ―Day‖ is intended to mean in Genesis is essential to
accurately understanding what the account tells us about creation.

How long is a day in the Genesis account? If it is a literal 24 hour day, as

many Bible readers have been led to believe, it leaves us with un-
reconcilable differ- ences with the scientific community who claim they
can prove differently. This in itself should ring a warning for us that
something is out of sync or not being understood correctly. While the
Bible is not a scientific textbook, it has always shown itself to be
consistent with true science. To many this seems to present somewhat of
a dilemma concerning the time element in Genesis.

This is an area where a serious misunderstanding comes in. Many

fundamen- talists take the word ―day‖ in the Genesis account as being a
literal 24 hours however, this is not correct. While there are times when a
day does literally mean 24 hours in the Bible, this is not true in most of
Genesis and especially not true in most of the creation portion. The day in
Genesis cannot be auto- matically viewed in the conventional sense of a
24 hour day. By attaching a correct meaning to the word day as it occurs
in each instance in Genesis, the dilemma of time passage resolves itself.

When the Hebrew word ―day ―occurs in the Bible, frequently it does not
repre- sent a literal day. It often represents a time element longer than 24

hours and it can represent a much longer duration, even to the extent of
representing what we would understand as an era.


Showing that Bible Dictionary definitions for the Hebrew word ―DAY‖
include a number of others aside from the meaning of a literal 24 hour

An excerpt from a Bible dictionary-

‗Day‘ -H3117 ~Hebrew - day - Ay yowm {yome}

day, time, year

1a) day (as opposed to night)

1b) day (24 hour period)
1b1) as defined by evening and morning in Genesis
1 1b2) as a division of time
1b2a) a working day, a day's journey
1c) days, lifetime (pl.)
1d) time, period (general)
1e) year
1f) temporal references
1f1) today
1f2) yesterday
1f3) tomorrow

That Bible writers understood that the word ―day‖ could take on differing
meanings is proven by many examples found in the Bible;

2 Peter 3:8 But there is one thing, my dear friends, that you must never
forget: that with the Lord, a day is like a thousand years, and a
thousand years are like a day. NJB [1b2, 1d - a much longer
than 24 hours]

2 Peter 3:18 No, but go on growing in the undeserved kindness and

knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him [be] the glory
both now and to the day of eternity. NWT - [1d – Eternity is obviously
longer than one 24 hour day]

Deuteronomy 9:24 YOU have proved yourselves rebellious in behavior

with Jehovah from the day of my knowing YOU. NWT - [1d - a time
period , God knows a man during his entire life, not merely a single 24

hour day]


Matthew 24:37 "When the Son of Man returns, it will be like it was in
Noah's day. NLT - [1c. – the time or duration during which Noah lived ]

Revelation 1:10 By inspiration I came to be in the Lord's day, and I

heard behind me a strong voice like that of a trumpet, NWT [1d. - time
period of the Lord]

Genesis 2:4 This is a history of the heavens and the earth in the time of
their being created, in the day that Jehovah God made earth and
heaven. NWT [day = time period or duration of time in which God
created. Obvious by virtue of the fact that six days are viewed as one
single day, therefore, ―day‖ could not be understood as only 24 hours.]

From this information, we may conclude when the expression DAY

occurs, describing the six creative days in the creation account it indicates
six separate eras or durations, during which a number of different events
had sufficient time to commence, transpire and conclude. The use of the
24 hour day in Genesis primarily serves the purpose of separating those
eras or durations from one another. (See Chart on page 14.)

Another important question for us in correctly understanding the account

In Genesis is; Just when, did the first day begin? The answer to this
establishes a reference point for all of our recorded history upon this
earth. Did it begin at Gen 1:1 or did it actually begin at Gen 1:5 when a
method for measuring time by the 24 hour day was established? A careful
examination of the account on a verse by verse basis will reveal widely
held current under -standing is not always consistent with what the bible
really teaches.

Let us continue our examination with vs.3 in the 1st Chapter of Genesis.

Here we are told that the earth, already fixed in position at this point in
the account, is in a form more akin to other planets in our solar system,
and not in the form as we know it today. As we resume with Genesis, we
note God has just determined that a light source will be the mechanism
by which to measure time in relation to the earth. He then inaugurates
this new means of time measure-
ment, with the declaration of a first night / morning, 24 hour segment
based on celestial phenomena, which will be visible continuously from
the earth.

With the institution of this means by which time can be described and

measured, a number of questions are brought into sharper focus.


When does a day begin? What does it constitute? and what separates one
day from another? In Genesis another even more significant question
arises, one which is extremely important in determining whether
described events occur before or after the day which is used to separate
one day from another.


This last questions raises some controversy over the meaning of a single
little word which lends meaning to just what is included in each ―creative
day‖ in Genesis. That little three letter word is ―and.‖ In Hebrew the
reputed language of the original writings, it is referred to as a waw or
vaw. This ―waw‖ takes on enormous significance as to how the days in
Genesis may be understood. It turns out that when Genesis was written,
there were no established rules of Hebrew Grammar. They didn‘t come
until the middle ages, around 1200 CE, long after the Bible Cannon was
already established. Originally, it was left to the individual reader to
determine whether events described came before or after a waw when it
was used. Then, when Hebrew grammatical rules were introduced the
waw was seen as either ―Conjunctive‖ or ―consecutive‖.

When the ―waw‖ was seen as conjunctive, events described

after the waw belonged to a time tense occurring later, after
the use of the waw.

Here is an example:

5 God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night." And there
was evening, and there was morning-- the first day. 6 And God said, "Let
there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water." 7
So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from
the water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the expanse "sky." And
there was evening, and there was morning-- the second day. 9
And God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one
place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so.10 God called
the dry ground "land," and the gathered waters he called
"seas." And God saw that it was good.11 Then God said, "Let the
land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the
land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various

kinds." And it was so.12 The land produced vegetation: plants

bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit

with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was
good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning-- the third day.

In this instance the events highlighted described from vs 9. forward

belong to the waw as a part of the second day.

When the ―waw is seen as consecutive, events described before

the waw belong to a time tense occurring earlier, before the
use of the waw.

Same example with Waw consecutive:

5 God called the light "day," and the darkness he called

"night." And there was evening, and there was morning-- the
first day. 6 And God said, "Let there be an expanse between
the waters to separate water from water."7 So God made the
expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the
water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the expanse "sky."
And there was evening, and there was morning-- the second
day. 9 And God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one
place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so.10 God called the dry
ground "land," and the gathered waters he called "seas." And God saw
that it was good.11 Then God said, "Let the land produce vegetation:
seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it,
according to their various kinds." And it was so.12 The land produced
vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees
bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that
it was good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning-- the
third day.

In this instance the events described from vs 9 backward belong to the

waw as a part of the second day.

This makes significant a difference in which day the events of creation are
understood to have occurred. This is not an unimportant issue as it affects
the way the entire creation account is understood. The general community
of Bible scholars has accepted the ‗waws‘ in the creation account of
Genesis to be ―con- secutive‖ in nature. A minority of Bible scholars raise
issue with this and assert that the ―waw‖ may be seen either way. They
claim that context must be the key indicator rather than a questionable
Hebrew grammatical rule which did not exist at a time when the bible was

The author makes no assertion as to which group of scholars is right or


wrong. The fact that there is a seemingly overwhelming opinion favoring

the use of the waw as a consecutive should not sway our thinking. When

it comes to the bible, there are countless examples when the majority of
men on the earth were found to be wrong and few if any were found to be

Since the waw consecutive side of scholarship is so well accepted on the

basis of a single questionable Hebrew grammatical rule, nothing more
needs to be written in defense of it. Therefore, the author will take the
minority position and explore how an understanding of the Genesis
account would be impacted if waw Conjunctive and waw consecutive
were to be determined by context alone.

[Scroll down to Chart]



The following chart demonstrates results of such a path in graphic form:

End of Chapter

Scroll down to ext chapter or


[Return to Table of Contents]




(Scroll down)


[Return to Beginning]


After describing what was existing before time could be measured in
earthly terms by the introduction of a light source on earth, the bible
makes this statement;

Genesis 1:5 God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night.
And there was evening and there was morning, a first day. TNK

With the existence of a means of measuring time passage, the Bible, with a
supposition that light now already exists, says. . . . And there was evening
and there was morning , a first day, thus launching a system by which all
future earthlings could determine time passage in relation to a natural
dependable cycle of night and day separated from one another. It was a
system for measuring the passage of time which they could relate to their
own experiences. While this system was put in effect as of that moment, it
does not mean it was significant (or even visible) to humans on the earth.
Visibility would not be neces - sary until later, because there were not yet
any living creatures on earth with any kind of need to measure time.

At this point In the Genesis account the meaning of the word ―And‖
(Hebrew ―waw‖) becomes crucial. If it relates backwards as a
conjunction, from his calling light day and night evening, and includes
the events described prior to that, then the 1st day begins at Gen 1:1 as a
beginning of the creation account. This is the belief many scholars hold
along with a belief that the creative days were 24 hour days. While
fundamentalists and others insist that the days in Genesis must literally
be 24 hour days, the Bible itself does not support this position since the
Hebrew word for ‗day‘ has other meanings than 24 hours.

The 24 hour day concept, popular with most Bible readers, leaves us in a
quandary as to how we can equate Bible time with scientific time. Since
the Bible and true science are from the same source, true science should
never be out of harmony with the Bible, and the Bible should not be out
of harmony with true science either.

If, however the word And implies something which is to follow, as if it

were ―then‖, and the length of a Bible day is not necessarily 24 hours, the

meanings change entirely and there is no conflict with the eons of years

scientists ascribe to the physical earth. Careful reading of the account

discloses that instead of starting the first day with the description at Gen
1:1, events starting the first day actually are shown to commence with
those which follow the announcement of the first day at Gen 1:5 , leaving
an infinite amount of time for the universe to have been in existence
before that ― evening and morning‖ of the so called ―first day‖.

(―And there was evening and there was morning, a first day.‖)


If the first day follows the expression ―and there was evening and
morning‖; then what follows after Gen 1:5 would describe events during
that first day,
and not those before the announcement of the first day. What precedes
Gen 1:5 would constitute things already in existence, with no start or time
duration attributable to them. Therefore, the meaning derived from the
word ―And‖, becomes extremely important to accurately understanding
the Bible. A correct understanding of this word will influence our
thinking on the entire process of creation. If the description which
follows ―And‖ proceeds rather than precedes, it means everything before
Gen 1:5 falls into a time period which pre exists the first day, a time
period already existing for an undetermined length of time, and with no
indication of duration what - soever. On the other hand, if the word ―and‖
is taken to include all things which precede it, then the first day begins at
Genesis 1:1. Holding this understanding may be seen to demon -strate
why there is such a diverse opinion of time relevancy between those who
hold it and the scientific community at large. While what is held
scientifically is often denigrated by so called Bible believers, sound Bible
teaching will not be found to be out of harmony with true science.

When we actually read in the Bible where the first day begins, we are told,
the heavens exist and light exists. If light exists, therefore, the sun, as the
source of light for earth must also pre- exist the light. Additionally,
already in orbit is the earth a physical planet which is des- cribed as a
formless waste. Of course, we can assume Elohim (God), who is
described as the creator of all things, also exists. Also noteworthy, is
John 1:1, where it discloses the ―Word‖ or Logos, also already exists.

Whether the word ―heavens‖ represents a solar system, a galaxy, universe


or cosmos is not disclosed and apparently not considered important for


humans to know. The simple sum- mation describes an earth

uninhabited and unpre- pared for habitation. The duration of time

already elapsed cannot be inferred or measured from the phrase ―in the

From the 6th verse forward in Genesis, when we are able to measure time,
what follows is a historical perspective. The material is directly related to
the prep- aration of the earth for habitation by man. It discloses to us
information about mans origin, his existence and his purpose for being
put on the earth, along with information concerning his relationship with
his creator.

Vss. 5b. through 8 – describe those creative events relating to the

earth, during the FIRST DAY (duration, time segment). They are all in
connection with a pre-existing earth.

This is where a point of confusion which has been perpetuated through

history has its roots. It is in how we apply the meaning of ‗and‘ (waw in
Hebrew) and what we under - stand a ‗day‖ (yom in Hebrew) to be. In
this case, as in many others when it comes to true Bible knowledge, it is
not what our understanding may be but rather what God‘s word indicates
as to what his own understanding was when the Bible was inspired and

This will be clarified as we explore the Genesis account further:

An unstated period of time passes between when he implements the light

and when he determines that the light is good. Another unstated period
of time passes when he brings about a division between light and
darkness. [Highlighted verses following are excerpted from the NSB translation of the

Genesis 1:5 ―God called the light day. He called the darkness
night. There was evening and there was morning, one day‖.

―Naming the light, Day, and the dark, Night. And there was evening and there
was morning, the first day‖. BBE

And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was
evening and there was morning, one day. JPS

‖ wayyiqrä´ ´élöhîm lä´ôr yôm wülaHöºšek qäºrä´ läºylâ wa|yühî-`eºreb

wa|yühî-böºqer yôm ´eHäd P―BHT

After establishing a means of separating light from darkness in a


continuous natural cycle relating to the earth, Elohim names the two


differing conditions night and day. These now become a measurement

tool for representing a twenty four hour cycle.

Sequentially, it is reasonable to assume that when the first 24 hour cycle

(night and day), is announced it constitutes the beginning of the first
creative day (duration) relating to physical events on the earth itself.

Day One: (Creative duration One)

Genesis 1:6 Then God said: »Let there be an expanse in the
middle of the waters. Let it separate the waters from the
waters.« [Clearly, the mandate is announced, after the event of naming
night and day]

Genesis 1:6 And God said, Let there be a solid arch stretching over the waters,
parting the waters from the waters. BBE

Genesis 1:6 Then God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the
waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters." NKJ

Genesis 1:6 And God said, "Let there be space between the waters, to
separate water from water." NLT

‖ wayyöº´mer ´élöhîm yühî räqîª` Bütôk hammäºyim wîhî mabDîl Bên

maºyim lämäºyim ―BHT

Genesis 1:7 God made the expanse. He separated the waters

that were below the expanse from the waters that were above
the expanse. It was so.

NWT Genesis 1:7 Then God proceeded to make the expanse and to make a
division between the waters that should be beneath the expanse and the waters
that should be above the expanse. And it came to be so.
JPSGenesis 1:7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which
were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament;
and it was so.

Thus, the concept of a separation between waters on the earth and waters
above the earth is implemented.

Genesis 1:8 God called the expanse heaven. There was evening
and there was morning, a second day.


“And God called the firmament Heaven, and God saw that it was good, and there was
evening and there was morning, the second day.” LXE

“And God called the firmament Heaven” [in another version,“sky”NLT]

“And God gave the arch the name of Heaven. And there was evening and there was
morning, the second day.” BBE

”wayyiqrä´ ´élöhîm lä|räqîª` šämäºyim wa|yühî-`eºreb wa|yühî-böºqer yôm šënî P“BHT

Here again, if the expression ―And‖ is understood to follow the making of

the firmament, the first day has ended and a second day begins.

Day Two (Creative duration Two)

Vs 8b. – 12 – describes those events connected with the earth, during the
SECOND DAY (duration, time segment) which describe creation upon
the Earth.

Genesis 1:8b. And there was evening and there was morning,
a second day. JPS
Genesis 1:9 Then God said: Let the waters below the
atmosphere be gathered into one place. Let the dry land
appear. It was so. NSB

And God said, Let the waters under the heaven come together in one place, and let the
dry land be seen: and it was so. BBE

And God said: 'Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place,
and let the dry land appear.' And it was so. JPS

”wayyöº´mer ´élöhîm yiqqäwû hammaºyim miTTaºHat haššämaºyim ´el-mäqôm ´eHäd

wütërä´è “ BHT “„hayyaBBäšâ wa|yühî-kën

Again, we see no specified time period is given between gathering or

collecting the waters to expose dry land and giving names to the two
distinctly separate bodies, nor is there a duration attached to the

Genesis 1:10 God called the dry land earth. The gathering of

the waters He called seas. God saw that it was good.



―And God gave the dry land the name of Earth; and the waters together
in their place were named Seas: and God saw that it was good.‖ BBE

” wayyiqrä´ ´élöhîm layyaBBäšâ ´eºrec ûlümiqwË hammaºyim qärä´ yammîm wayyaºr´

´élöhîm Kî-ýôb “BHT

There is no time designation indicated between when the earth was

configured into oceans, (bodies of water) and dry land and when the
decision to have vegetation sprout was made. What we can ascertain
accurately from this is that the decision to have vegetation sprout came
after the organization of land and sea into distinct regions on the earth.

Genesis 1:11 Then God said: »Let the earth sprout vegetation,
plants yielding seed, and fruit trees on the earth bearing fruit
after their kind with seed in them.« It was so.

And God said, Let grass come up on the earth, and plants producing seed, and
fruit-trees giving fruit, in which is their seed, after their sort: and it was so. BBE

And God said: 'Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree
bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.' And it
was so. JPS

wayyöº´mer ´élöhîm Ta|dšë´ hä´äºrec Deºše´ `ëºSeb mazrîª` zeºra` `ëc Pürî
`öºSè Pürî lümînô ´ášer zar`ô-bô `al-hä´äºrec wa|yühî-kën BHT

Upon God‘s determining to do so, vegetation comes into existence, and

the second day ends.

Genesis 1:12 And the earth began to put forth grass,

vegetation bearing seed according to its kind and trees
yielding fruit, the seed of which is in it according to its kind.
Then God saw that [it was] good. NWT

Summing up the second day; a separation between land and sea occurred
and veg- etation was introduced on the earth, along with a system for
reproduction of the vegetation. Again, no specific period of time is given
as to duration for this process, a process which continued until the
announcement of a Third Day as the beginning of another set of creative

Day Three: (Creative duration Three)



Genesis 1:13 And there was evening and there was morning, the third
day. BBE

And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a third day. NWT

wa|yühî-`eºreb wa|yühî-böºqer yôm šülîšî P BHT

Events during Day three;

Genesis 1:14 Then God said: »Let there be lights in the expanse
of the heavens to separate the day from the night. Let them be
for signs and for seasons and for days and years.NSB

―And God said, "Let bright lights appear in the sky to separate the day
from the night. They will be signs to mark off the seasons, the days, and the
years. ― NLT

―And God said, Let there be lights in the arch of heaven, for a division between
the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for marking the changes
of the year, and for days and for years:‖ BBE

―Then God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate
the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days
and years;‖ NAU
‖ wayyöº´mer ´élöhîm yühî mü´öröt Birqîª` haššämaºyim lühabDîl Bên
hayyôm ûbên halläºylâ wühäyû lü´ötöt ûlümôº`ádîm ûlüyämîm wüšänîm ―

When the NLT states"Let bright lights appear‖; it allows their earlier
existence, and merely indicates a situation wherein they would become
visible on earth.

Genesis 1:15 »Let them be for lights in the expanse of the

heavens to give light on the earth.« It was so. NSB

―And let them be for lights in the arch of heaven to give light on the earth: and
it was so.TNK

―and they shall serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to shine upon
the earth." And it was so.‖ BBE‖

‖wühäyû lim´ôröt Birqîª` haššämaºyim lühä´îr `al-hä´äºrec wa|yühî-kën―




Genesis 1:16 ―God made the two great lights. The sun was to
govern the day. The moon was to govern the night. He made the stars

‖And God made the two great lights: the greater light to be the ruler of the day,
and the smaller light to be the ruler of the night: and he made the stars.´ BBE

―And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the
lesser light to rule the night; and the stars.‖ JPS

‖ wayyaº`aS ´élöhîm ´et-šünê hammü´öröt haGGüdölîm ´et-hammä´ôr

haGGädöl lümemšeºlet hayyôm wü´et-hammä´ôr haqqäýön lümemšeºlet
hallaºylâ wü´ët haKKôkäbîm ― BHT

Genesis 1:17 ―He placed the lights in the sky to shine on the
―and God giveth them in the expanse of the heavens to give light
upon the earth,‖ YLT

―And God put them in the arch of heaven, to give light on the earth;‖ BBE

‖ wayyiTTën ´ötäm ´élöhîm Birqîª` haššämäºyim lühä´îr `al-hä´äºrec― BHT

Genesis 1:18 ―The lights were to govern the day and the night,
and to separate light from darkness. God saw that it was
good‖ NSB

―and to regulate day and night, and to divide between the light and
the darkness. And God saw that it was good.‖ LXE
――To have rule over the day and the night, and for a division between the light
and the dark: and God saw that it was good.´ BBE
‖ wülimšöl Bayyôm ûballaºylâ û|láhabDîl Bên hä´ôr ûbên haHöºšek
wayyaºr´ ´élöhîm Kî-ýôb ― BHT

Here, we note God is not creating new sources of light, rather he is

making existing sources visible from the earth and instituting a means by
which time can be measured upon the earth.

Genesis 1:16 And God maketh the two great luminaries, the
great luminary for the rule [dominion] of the day and the
small luminary for rule of the night and the stars. YLT


Genesis 1:16 And God proceeded to make the two great luminaries,
the greater luminary for dominating the day and the lesser luminary
for dominating the night, and also the stars. NWT

Also we might add, in allowing light to penetrate to the earth, he is

providing for natural functions such as photosynthesis to become

―Let bright lights appear‖, ―to give light on the earth."

Note: There are some subtle differences in definition between ‗making‘
and ‗creating‘;

to make - H6213 hf'[' `asah {aw-saw'}

1) to do, fashion, accomplish, make

1a) (Qal) 1a1) to do, work, make, produce
1a1a) to do 1a1b) to work
1a1c) to deal (with) 1a1d) to act, act with effect, effect
1a2) to make
1a2a) to make
1a2b) to produce
1a2c) to prepare
1a2d) to make (an offering)
1a2e) to attend to, put in order
1a2f) to observe, celebrate
1a2g) to acquire (property)
1a2h) to appoint, ordain, institute
1a2i) to bring about
1a2j) to use
1a2k) to spend, pass
1b) (Niphal) 1b1) to be done
1b2) to be made
1b3) to be produced
1b4) to be offered
1b5) to be observed
1b6) to be used
1c) (Pual) to be made
2) (Piel) to press, squeeze

While ―make‖ is similar to ―create‖ in some dictionary definitions, this

does not explain why Jehovah God would use different terms on different

occasions to describe particular activities. If we assume he intended no


difference between the two terms, we would be underestimating his

linguistic skills.

Upon carefully examining the Hebrew meaning of the two words, we do

find there is a nuance of difference which is quite remarkable. ―create‖
carries an extra meaning in that it describes something completely new
and is not based on using existing substances or rearranging elements
which are already in existance. This difference may not be important to
most persons, but will be especially noteworthy to the scientific

to create H1254 arB bara' {baw-raw'}

1) to create, shape, form

1a) (Qal) to shape, fashion, create (always with God as subject)
1a1) of heaven and earth
1a2) of individual man
1a3) of new conditions and circumstances
1a4) of transformations
1b) (Niphal) to be created
1b1) of heaven and earth
1b2) of birth
1b3) of something new
1b4) of miracles
1c) (Piel)
1c1) to cut down
1c2) to cut out
2) to be fat
2a) (Hiphil) to make yourselves fat

So, to sum up; While ‖make‖ describes something formed from existing
elements, ―create‖ implies a newness or originality.

Genesis 1:17 And God placed them in the expanse of the

heavens to give light on the earth NAS
Likewise with the word ―placed‖. We should not attribute a meaning of
original creation to this word, rather the meaning of assigning or

Placed H5414 !t;n" nathan {naw-than'}


1) to give, put, set 1a) (Qal)


1a1) to give, bestow, grant, permit, ascribe, employ, devote, consecrate,

dedicate, pay wages, sell, exchange, lend, commit, entrust, give over,
deliver up, yield produce, occasion, produce, requite to, report, mention,
utter, stretch out, extend
1a2) to put, set, put on, put upon, set, appoint, assign, designate
1a3) to make, constitute
1b) (Niphal)
1b1) to be given, be bestowed, be provided, be entrusted to, be
granted to, be permitted, be issued, be published,
be uttered, be assigned
1b2) to be set, be put, be made, be inflicted
1c) (Hophal)
1c1) to be given, be bestowed, be given up, be delivered up
1c2) to be put upon
18 The lights were to govern the day and the night, and to separate light

from darkness. God saw that it was good.

Genesis 1:18 and to regulate day and night, and to divide

between the light and the darkness. And God saw that it was
good. LXE

―To have rule over the day and the night, and for a division between the light
and the dark: and God saw that it was good.‖ BBE

‖ wülimšöl Bayyôm ûballaºylâ û|láhabDîl Bên hä´ôr ûbên haHöºšek wayyaºr

´élöhîm Kî-ýôb ― BHT

During the third day, when light sources became visible from the earth, a
system for meas - uring time, based on cycles of the two major orbs,
became the means by which earth bound living creatures would be able
relate to passing time.

At this point we have an earth with separations between sea and land,
seed planted for the generation of vegetation and a distinct source of light
penetrating to earth on a uniformly cyclical basis when another fixed
duration (evening and morning) is inserted. Upon inser -tion of this fixed
duration, there comes to be a fourth day (era).

Day Four: (Creative duration Four)

Vss. 19 – 22 – describe events transpiring on the earth, during the


FOURTH DAY (duration, era or time segment)



Genesis 1:19 Evening came, and morning followed-- the fourth

day. NAB

Or as another version states;

Genesis 1:19 And there was evening, and there was morning -- a fourth
day. DBY

At the commencement of this fourth day, the events starting with Vs. 20
God‘s (Elohim) declaration;

Genesis 1:20 ―God said: »Let the waters be filled with many
kinds of living beings, and let birds fly above the earth in the
open expanse of the sky.« NSB

―And God said, Let the waters be full of living things, and let birds be in
flight over the earth under the arch of heaven.‖ BBE

‖ wayyöº´mer ´élöhîm yišrücû hammaºyim šeºrec neºpeš Hayyâ

wü`ôp yü`ôpëp `al-hä´äºrec `al-Pünê rüqîª` haššämäºyim― BHT
The declaration is then fulfilled in vs 21;

Genesis 1:20 ―God created the great sea monsters and every
living creature that moves in the waters after their kind, and
every winged bird after its kind. God saw that it was good.‖

Then, God (Elohim) institutes a means by which they might multiply

their numbers and procreate their various species and states a
determination for sea creatures and flying creatures to do so.

Genesis 1:22 God blessed them and said: »Be fruitful and
multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply
on the earth.« NSB

Living creatures are introduced into the sea and flying creatures appear
in the skies. Also, the means by which they will multiply is established.
Again, as is the case of earlier periods of time designated as a day, no

specific indication of duration is given for these events either. However,

an interval between days (eras, durations) is given as a fixed time element

which has been put into effect by the regular rhythm of the light and
darkness (day / night) upon the earth. It is this author‘s contention that

the separation between the days are indeed given as measurable time
events, whereas the elapsed time during of the days (eras) during which
the creation takes place are non specific.

While some scholars have attributed an equality to the days based on (2

Peter 3:8; ―But there is one thing, my dear friends, that you must never
forget: that with the Lord, a day is like a thousand years, and a
thousand years are like a day.NJB), this is an assumption based on
figurative language taken literally. It does not mecessarily indicate sound
logic. The Bible itself contains no explicit statement as to the duration of
the eras, nor is there any clear reference that indicates their durations
were of equal length.

Day Five: (another duration or era in the controlled sequence of events)

Genesis 1:23 ―Evening came and morning came: the fifth day.‖

Or as another version put it;

Genesis 1:23 And there came to be evening and there came to be

morning, a fifth day. NWT

Vss 23 – 29 – describes events connected with the earth, which occurred

during the FIFTH DAY (duration, era of creation on Earth).

The events during the fifth day;

Genesis 1:23 ‖God said: »Let the land produce living creatures
according to their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along
the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind.« It
was so‖ NSB.

Once again, God (Elohim) issues a declaration to be carried out, and that
declaration is fulfilled with the expression; ―It was so.‖

Genesis 1:24 “And God said, "Let the earth bring forth every
kind of animal-- livestock, small animals, and wildlife." And
so it was‖. NLT

―And God said, Let the earth give birth to all sorts of living things, cattle and
all things moving on the earth, and beasts of the earth after their sort: and it

was so‖ BBE.


―God said, "Let the earth bring forth every kind of living creature: cattle,
things, and wild beasts of every kind." And it was so.‖ TNK

‖ wayyöº´mer ´élöhîm Tôcë´ hä´äºrec neºpeš Hayyâ lümînäh Bühëmâ

wäreºmeS wüHa|ytô-´eºrec lümînäh wa|yühî-kën ― BHT

Then the account continues;

Genesis 1:25 God made wild animals in their own species, and
cattle in theirs, and every creature that crawls along the
earth in its own species. God saw that it was good.NJB

Genesis 1:25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock
according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground
according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. NIV

Again, no actual time duration is given for this process, nor is any time
duration indicated between God‘s announcement at Gen1:24 and the next
declaration, the phrase ―And God saw that It was Good‖ in verse 25. What
can we take away from this passage? Is this a phrase which would
normally be used at the beginning, middle or end of a creative event?
Context would dictate such expression be used after an event, not prior to
or during it. However, when we read on, if we are not careful in our
reading, the creation of man might appear to us to be combined into the
same time era as that of the beasts (animals), without any elapsed time
passage. This appears to be an assumption for which concrete evidence
supported by scripture fails to exist. If anything, one might more readily
assume there might have been a time separation between between the
words ―And God said, Let us make man in our image‖ and ―And God saw
that it was good. NIV´ Remember, there were no chapter and verse
designations in the original writings which in most part are thought to
have existed in a form of rambling continuous accounts with uncertainty
as to separators we recognize as paragraphs today. The reality is; in some
instances, separations appear apparent due to changes in subject matter
or determined by context, while in others they are not.

We continue with vs 26;

Gen 1:26 ―And God said, Let us make man in our image, after
our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the

sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over
all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth

upon the earth‖. NSB


―And God said, Let us make man according to our image and likeness, and let
them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the flying creatures of
heaven, and over the cattle and all the earth, and over all the reptiles that
creep on the earth.‖ LXE

―And God said, Let us make man in our image, like us: and let him have rule
over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over the cattle and over
all the earth and over every living thing which goes flat on the earth.´ BBE
―wayyöº´mer ´élöhîm na|`áSè ´ädäm Bücalmëºnû Kidmûtëºnû wüyirDû
bidgat hayyäm ûbü`ôp haššämaºyim ûbaBBühëmâ ûbükol-hä´äºrec ûbükol-
häreºmeS hä|römëS `al-hä´äºrec ―BHT

What we may realistically conclude at this juncture is that hereby, God

declared his purpose to make man in his image and to give him dominion
over all living things on the earth. This in itself is not the same as the act
of making. It is merely declaring his intent to make man in the future and
give him dominion over the earth. Although we may think the event
should immediately follow the declaration, this is again, omly an
assumption on our parts. From what scripture itself reveals, no time
inference may be taken between declaring the purpose and its
completion. ―Make‖ in vs. 26 is entirely appropriate as a description of
what God was about to do, for he was going to use existing elements of
the earth to form the first man.

In verse 27, what we find is a statement of completed fact for what was
previously only stated in Vs. 26 as an intention.

Gen 1:27 ‖God created man in his own image. In the image of
God he created him. He created male and female. ―NSB

―So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created
them; male and female he created them.‖ NRS

―And God made man in his image, in the image of God he made him: male and
female he made them.‖ BBE

‖ wayyibrä´ ´élöhîm ´et-hä|´ädäm Bücalmô Büceºlem ´élöhîm Bärä´ ´ötô

zäkär ûnüqëbâ Bärä´ ´ötäm― BHT

As far as timing verse 27. and its placement into a creative era goes, here
we are given a ‗past tense‘ statement indicating something which has
already occurred, using the word ‗create‘ instead of ‗make‘. If create was

the originally intended word, and there is a nuance of diff -erence

between it and make, does this present us with a contradiction? Not

really, because in the final sense of completing the first human being, we


see a two part process involved. The first consists of conceptualizing, or

planning. This part is the creative function and is illustrated in the
declaration in vs. 26, which presents the creative thinking behind the act.
The second part (vs. 27) describes the completed result. It is the
―making‖ of the first man from the elements of the earth. By combining
the intent to do so from (vs. 26) with the actual act of making which vs 27
describes as ―created‖ (in past tense). Together they represent a created
act. While vs. 27 speaks of man as a completed act, to assume it followed
vs 26. Immediately in time, must remain an assumption pending further

Therefore, a question rises here about the actual time setting. The exact
placement of Adam as a first living human being into the fifth creative
day appears somewhat ambiguous. It raises the question of a waw
consecutive being present in this instance based on an assumption on the
implied waw consecutive in the following verse (31 ) This may be a main
reason scholars have chosen to view the other previous Genesis Creative
days as ―waw consecutives‖.

From this point on, events appear to accelerate rapidly and in succession,
for we know from both the context and the described nature of these
events that very little time can transpire between them.

GEN 1:28 God blessed them and said to them: »Be fruitful and
increase in number. Fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the
fish of the sea and dominate the birds of the air. Have
dominion over every living creature that moves on the
ground.« NSB

GEN 1:29 Then God said: »I give you every plant that bears
seed on the face of the entire earth. I also give you every tree
that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. NSB

GEN 1:30 »Also every beast of the earth and all the birds of the
air and all the creatures that move on the ground; everything
that has the breath of life in it, I give every green plant for
food.« It was so. NSB

Day Six: (another duration or era in the controlled sequence of events)


Genesis 1:31 ―God saw all that he had made. It was very good.

There was evening, and there was morning, the sixth day.‖ NSB


The fifth day (duration) has passed and the sixth day dawns. At this
point, based on the “waw” being treated conjunctive, a curiosity
appears. While nothing is said as to what specific creating or making
occurrences followed the announcement of the sixth day, according
to waw conjunct- ive reasoning, a statement of seeming finality is
made with” ―God saw all that he had made‖. However, while the
phrase “all that he made” may seem to be all inclusive, it is not
necessarily so. It can apply to all that was complete at the time the
statement was made.
31 God saw all that he had made. It was very good. There was
evening, and there was morning, the sixth day.
―And God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. And
there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. ―NAS

―And God saw everything which he had made and it was very good.
And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.‖ BBE

―And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very
good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. ―KJV

―wayyaºr´ ´élöhîm ´et-Kol-´ášer `äSâ wühinnË-ýôb mü´öd wa|yühî-

`eºreb wa|yühî-böºqer yôm haššiššî P ― BHT

This statement fits nicely into the ongoing dialog; At this stage, the earth
was now ready for its crowning creation and God observed everything as
being ―very good‖ in his eyes. It was ready for the capstone of the entire
process that is the creation of ―humans‖

However, according to a ―waw‖ conjunctive path, there are no newly made

or newly created elements described at that point which can be uniquely
attrib- uted to a sixth creative era (day). Therefore, we are left with the
impression at this stage of the account that humans were created during
the newly transpired (5th day) according to our use of the ‗waw‖ as a
conjunctive. Yet, it would appear the statement ―God saw all that he had
made. It was very good. There was evening, and there was morning, the
sixth day.‖ occurred somewhere towards the end of a sixth day takes a
―waw consecutive‖ path.

This is where an element of confusion enters in. The question is raised as


to whether the first five creative days can be described under waw
conjunctive and then switch to a waw consecutive for the sixth day? If we

lean on the most important indicator, which is context, this clearly seems
to be the case.

While bibles begin Gen 2:1 with the statement ―The heavens and the
earth and their immense arrangement were completed,‖ these verses
likely belong in the first chapter of Genesis, along with vs. 2 and 3. Only
when we arrive at Genesis 2:4 does it appear to serve as the opening
statement for a summation describe- ing past events and a new
disclosure. The information following Gen 2:4 discloses how those events
relate to the nature of man and his relationship with his creator.

While the inclination is to presumptively view Chapter Two. as being

separate and distinct from Chapter One, this is not really a valid
assumption . Chapter and verse designations as we know them today
were nonexistent when the account was first penned. Chapter
designations were first introduced in 1205 CE by a man named Stephon
Langton. A later bible scholar named Von Soden comments, "There is no
doubt that the chapter divisions which we have inherited from Langton
leave much to be desired. These divisions do not rest upon a
comprehension of the literary structure of the Biblical books..." (H. von
Soden, Die Schriften des Neuen Testamentes (Goettingen: Vandenhoeck,
1912), I, page 482.) Another noted Bible Scholar A.T. Robertson has said,
"The first step in interpretation is to ignore the modern chapters and
verses." An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament
(Nashville: Broadman Press, 1925), p. 101.]

A more realistic approach would be to view the opening verses of Genesis

2 as a continuation belonging to chapter one.

Here again we see what appears to be the end of another day (time
period). However at the end of this one, we find a summary phrase which
does not appear at the conclusion of earlier time periods.

At vs 31 we saw the declaration at the end of the Fifth day,

And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it

was very <03966> good <02896a>. KJV

H3966 – VERY- me'od (BDB Definition)


1) exceedingly, much (adverb)


2) might, force, abundance (substantive)

3) muchness, force, abundance, exceedingly (noun masculine)

3a) force, might

3b) exceedingly, greatly, very (idioms showing magnitude or degree)
3b1) exceedingly
3b2) up to abundance, to a great degree, exceedingly
3b3) with muchness, muchness

Good - H2896 - ob – (BDB Definition)

1) good, pleasant, agreeable (adjective)

1a) pleasant, agreeable (to the senses)
1b) pleasant (to the higher nature)
1c) good, excellent (of its kind)
1d) good, rich, valuable in estimation
1e) good, appropriate, becoming
1f) better (comparative)
1g) glad, happy, prosperous (of man‘s sensuous nature)
1h) good understanding (of man‘s intellectual nature)
1i) good, kind, benign
1j) good, right (ethical)
2) a good thing, benefit, welfare (noun masculine)
2a) welfare, prosperity, happiness
2b) good things (collective)
2c) good, benefit
2d) moral good
3) welfare, benefit, good things (noun feminine)
3a) welfare, prosperity, happiness
3b) good things (collective)
3c) bounty.

Thus, at the end of Verse 31 of Genesis One, we may conclude the

creation has been concluded, therefore, it would appear that in this
instance context indicates, the ―waw‖ applies backwards as a waw

However, when we read Gen 2: 4,5 we see what appears to be some


overlap between the creation of man and beasts, which, if this is a correct


under- standing, it would tend to place the creation of man in the same
day as the animals (fifth day)

Gen 2: 4 appears as a general re-hash combining events described in Gen

1:1 thru Gen 1:25 . However, In verses 26 – 31, it specifically addresses
the creation in regard to humans. This part of the creation is elaborated
upon in Vs 7- 16 of the Second chapter of Genesis where it begins to
describe the process in detail, giving further information about events
specifically connected with humans and their environment.

4 This is a history of the heavens and the earth in the time of their being
created, in the day that Jehovah God made earth and heaven. 5 Now
there was as yet no bush of the field found in the earth and no vegetation
of the field was as yet sprouting, because Jehovah God had not made it
rain upon the earth and there was no man to cultivate the ground. 6 But
a mist would go up from the earth and it watered the entire surface of
the ground.Gen 2;7 And Jehovah God proceeded to form the man out of
dust from the ground and to blow into his nostrils the breath of life, and
the man came to be a living soul.

Due to what seems a combining events from the 6th day (man) with
events from the 5th day (animals) in the verses at Gen 2:4-7. There is
some confusion among scholars as to when this day began, and what it

However, the description at Gen 2: 4-7 must be seen as a comprehensive

synopsis, and cannot be uniquely confined to one single day or even to
any time sequence of measurable duration.

If the creation of animals occurred during the 5th day, and creative work
for that day ended with the declaration; ―God saw that it was good‖,
then the forming of humans occurs during the 6th creative day, with
animals already present, where we continue the account;

Genesis 1:26 Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in
our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of
the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, {26 Hebrew; Syriac all the
wild animals} and over all the creatures that move along the ground."

In identifying the ―us‖ in this passage, we refer back to John 1:1, where it
iden- tifies one referred to as the Word, as co-existing with God almighty,

Jehovah. Therefore, the ―us‖ comprises Jehovah God and the Word

(Jesus Christ in his pre-human existence) in tandem with each other.

Does this prove them a ―Trinity‖? No, it merely places them together in
the performance of a task. In
this case, the task is one of creation as described in the Genesis account.

Let us continue in Genesis;

Genesis 1:27 And God (Elohim) made man, according to the image of
God <1> he made him, male and female he made them. {1) Mt 19:4} LXE

Genesis 1:28 God blessed them, saying to them, 'Be fruitful, multiply,
fill the earth and subdue it. Be masters of the fish of the sea, the birds of
heaven and all the living creatures that move on earth.' NJB

Genesis 1:29 God also said, 'Look, to you I give all the seed-bearing
plants everywhere on the surface of the earth, and all the trees with
seed-bearing fruit; this will be your food. NJB

Genesis 1:30 And to all the animals on land, to all the birds of the sky,
and to everything that creeps on earth,in which there is the breath of
life, I give all the green plants for food." And it was so. TNK (past tense)

At Gen. 1:30, When it stated ―And it was so‖ in the past tense, it shifted
the next words into either present or future tense, and not in past tense.
So when Gen 1:31 takes place including evening and morning, it describes
a new sixth day.

Genesis 1:31 God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very
good And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. NAU
Once more, as in all previous instances, is the ―waw‖ consecutive?

This is followed by Genesis 2:1 ―Thus the heavens and the earth were
completed in all their vast array‖. NIV

What may we draw from this if it is? If we assume the ‗waw‘ was
conjunctive here then there are no specific accomplishments in the 6th
day, leaving us a gap until the 7th day mentioned at Gen 2:2. Where we
are told his work is ―complete‖ and that he rested on that day.

Recall earlier we drew a distinction between the meanings of words; good


/ very good.


In Gen. 1:18,21 and 25 God describes his work as ―good‖ then when the
work is ―complete‖ (Gen 2:1) he uses the expression ―very good‖ (Gen
1:31). This draws our attention to two more words with similar
meanings. They are ―complete‖ and ―perfect‖.

―Complete‖ , fnished

H3615 hl'K' kalah {kaw-law'}

1) to accomplish, cease, consume, determine, end, fail, finish, be

complete, be accomplished,
be ended, be at an end, be finished, be spent
1a) (Qal) 1a1) to be complete, be at an end
1a2) to be completed, be finished
1a3) to be accomplished, be fulfilled
1a4) to be determined, be plotted (bad sense)
1a5) to be spent, be used up
1a6) to waste away, be exhausted, fail
1a7) to come to an end, vanish, perish, be destroyed
1b) (Piel) 1b1) to complete, bring to an end, finish
1b2) to complete (a period of time)
1b3) to finish (doing a thing)

Perfect - (frequently found in the Bible as interchangeable with

H8549 ~ymiT' tamiym {taw-meem'}
1) complete, whole, entire, sound
1a) complete, whole, entire
1b) whole, sound, healthful
1c) complete, entire (of time)
1d) sound, wholesome, unimpaired, innocent, having integrity
1e) what is complete or entirely in accord with truth and fact (neuter

Thus we find that the term perfect is interchangeable with the tewrm
complete in Hebrew.

It is noteworthy the Hebrew word for ―complete‖ (tamiym) was not

applied at the end of any of the first five creative days. It only occurs

when the seventh day has begun. Therefore, in delegating the sixth day as
a time of the creation of humans and for preparation of their garden
home, the possibility opens up for some activity previously attached to

prior days, occurring during the sixth day. If every minute detail


attached to an event during each earlier day was not termed complete
(perfect) at the time, could some activities have overlapped into
succeeding eras?

If so, we must then acknowledge the possibility that the sixth creative day
could have included some activities continuing from previous days and or
possibly even some final adjustments or fine tuning of previous activities?
One example hinting at this as a real possibility is the fact that ―thorns
and thistles‖ (weeds) were not on the scene at the end of day two when
we are told vegetation bearing seed was introduced on earth.

Gen. 1: 11; And God said: 'Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding
seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed
thereof, upon the earth.' And it was so. JPS

Since these weeds came into existence after Adam and Eve were both
already formed and had sinned, the logical inference is that these were
introduced long after trees and vegetation had already been in existence
from an earlier day, before the sixth day when Adam and Eve were made.
The ―thorns and thistles‖ are set late in the sixth day (see Gen 3: 17,18.)

This one example explains why the Hebrew term tamiym (complete,
whole, and entire) occurs only on the seventh day. This term is not
applied in con- nection with the work of any one of the previous days. The
term ―complete‖ or perfect (kaw lah or tawyim) is not used in the
description until it occurs at Gen 2:1 which is set in the seventh day and
where it begins a summary review of the earlier material while at the
same time providing further details for already completed work.

Genesis 2:1 And the heavens and the earth were finished, and the
whole world of them. LXE

―And the heavens and the earth and all things in them were complete‖. BBE

―Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array‖. NIV

Was the word ―Earth‖ understood to be the planet (globe), known as

earth, or was there a narrower, simpler meaning implied in Genesis, such
as the ground or a surface component of the earth. Those who believe the
latter is the proper app- lication for the word earth contend that when

Moses wrote, no humans had viewed or could have known the earth was
a planet or a globe. For that reason they conclude, such description

would have no meaning to any one on the planet at that time. Therefore,
they claim the more appropriate meaning of the word earth is simply

―ground‖ or earth surface. Dictionary meanings for the Hebrew word

―earth‖ certainly do indicate such as a possibility. However this
explanation does not take into consideration the possibility of early men,
having been provided divine information beyond their own natural innate
ability. There is reference to an example of such phenomena occurring
even centuries later when a man named Hiram had skills transmitted to
him directly by God in connection with the building of the temple during
Solomon‘s day. Also, there is Job, another example of a man who
possessed information about the natural creation unknown by human
science until centuries after he had died. The book of Psalms also
includes information unknown to men at the time of its writing.
Therefore there remains the possibility that there may have been more
knowledge of earth science present than what men could have observed
with their own eyes.

H776 #r,a, 'erets {eh'-rets}

1) land, earth
1a) earth
1a1) whole earth (as opposed to a part)
1a2) earth (as opposed to heaven)
1a3) earth (inhabitants)
1b) land
1b1) country, territory
1b2) district, region
1b3) tribal territory
1b4) piece of ground
1b5) land of Canaan, Israel
1b6) inhabitants of land
1b7) Sheol, land without return, (under) world
1b8) city (-state)
1c) ground, surface of the earth
1c1) ground 1c2) soil
1d) (in phrases)
1d1) people of the land
1d2) space or distance of country (in measurements of distance)
1d3) level or plain country
1d4) land of the living

1d5) end(s) of the earth

1e) (almost wholly late in usage) 1e1) lands, countries
1e1a) often in contrast to Canaan


Genesis 2:1 (based on modern day chapter and verse

designations)―The heavens and the earth and their immense
arrangement were completed.‖ NSB

Genesis 2:2 Since on the seventh day God was finished with the work
he had been doing, he rested on the seventh day from all the work he
had undertaken NAB

Genesis 2:2 And by the seventh day God came to the completion of his
work that he had made, and he proceeded to rest on the seventh day
from all his work that he had made. NWT

Genesis 2:3 And God gave his blessing to the seventh day and made it
holy: because on that day he took his rest from all the work which he
had made and done. BBE

Genesis 2:4 This is a history of the heavens and the earth in the time of
their being created, in the day that Jehovah God made earth and
heaven. NWT

Genesis 2:4 These are the histories of the heavens and the earth, when
they were created, in the day that Jehovah Elohim made earth and
heavens, DBY

In all likelihood this statement belongs towards the end of the sixth day
and may well include activities by God which tuned, adjusted or tweaked
things which he accomplished during all the previous eras. The account
does not go into detail, other than to say, by the seventh day everything
was complete and he rested from his work. This statement infers that
there was ongoing work during the sixth day which was not considered
complete until the seventh day.

Genesis 2:2 ― By the seventh day God had finished his work. He
rested from all his work on the seventh day. 3 God blessed the seventh
day and made it holy. This is because he rested from all the work of
creation he had done.‖

The narration uses the word ―created‖ at this point. We have already
noted that there is a subtle difference between ―make‖ and

―create.‖(`asah aw-saw') Make means to form or produce something

from pre-existing materials, whereas,‖create‖ bara'{baw-raw'} implies
producing something which is entirely original, and not from pre-existing

elements. It is notable that Jehovah (YHWH) is given credit in this verse,


not (Elohim) as in previous verses where things are described as being

―made‖ and not as being ―created‖.

Genesis 2:4 Such was the story of heaven and earth as they were
created. At the time when Yahweh God made earth and heaven NJB

―These are the histories of the heavens and the earth, when they were created,
in the day that Jehovah Elohim made earth and heavens,‖ DBY

―These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were
created, in the day that the LORD God (Jehovah) made the earth and the
heavens‖, KJV [ parenthesis by author]

´ëºllè tôldôt haššämaºyim wühä´äºrec BühiBBä|r´äm Büyôm `áSôt

yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm ´eºrec wüšämäºyim BHT

Thus, with those words, the end of the first part of the narration
concerning the creation of the universe, the galaxy and the earth is
summed up, and a new narration, reviewing, filling in and adding further
detail to the previous narration begins.

Genesis 2:5 before any plant of the field was in the earth and before any
herb of the field had grown. For the LORD God had not caused it to rain
on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground; NKJ

Genesis 2:5 ―No shrub of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field
had yet sprung up; for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth,
and there was not a man to till the ground;‖ JPS

wüköl SîªH haSSädè ýeºrem yi|hyè bä´äºrec wükol-`ëºSeb haSSädè ýeºrem

yicmäH Kî lö´ himýîr yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm `al-hä´äºrec wü´ädäm
´aºyin la|`áböd ´et-hä|´ádämâ BHT

This verse takes the narration back to a time concurrent with Genesis
1:10. and commences to sum up events concerning humans on the earth
from that time forward, adding details not mentioned earlier.

Genesis 2:6 Mist came up from the earth and watered the whole surface
of the ground. ―But a mist went up from the earth, watering all the face
of the land.‖ BBE

―But a mist used to rise from the earth and water the whole surface of the
ground.‖ NAS

wü´ëd ya|`álè min-hä´äºrec wühišqâ ´e|t-Kol-Pünê|-hä|´ádämâ BHT


Genesis 2:7 Jehovah God formed the man from the dust of the ground
and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. The man became a living
being. NSB

―And the LORD God formed a man's body from the dust of the ground
and breathed into it the breath of life. And the man became a living
person‖. NLT

―And the Lord God made man from the dust of the earth, breathing into
him the breath of life: and man became a living soul‖. BBE

wayyîcer yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm ´et-hä|´ädäm `äpär min-

h亴ádämâ wayyiPPaH Bü´aPPäyw nišmat Hayyîm wa|yühî
hä|´ädäm lüneºpeš Hayyâ BHT

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Man is introduced into a newly formed environment which we may

presume is substantially ready in every sense for his continual habitation.
While vs. 8 states the fact of mans placement, vss. 9 -14 fill us in on some
local environmental details. When it says God planted a garden, there is the
implication that this locale was afforded a somewhat special status from the
rest of the earth. It is also apparent from this part of the account that there
must be some passage of time implied by virtue of the fact that nature
demands time passage between planting and achieving full maturity. Thus
we are told in effect that God zeros in on a particular locale and readies it
for human habitation in a special way. We are also given some geographical
data about water sources available to the garden.

Genesis 2:8 Now Jehovah God planted a garden in the east, in Eden. He
put the man he had formed there. NSB

―Yahweh God planted a garden in Eden, which is in the east, and there he put
the man he had fashioned‖ NJB
―And the Lord God made a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the
man whom he had made‖ BBE

―wayyiýýa` yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm Gan-Bü`ëºden miqqeºdem

wayyäºSem šäm ´et-hä|´ädäm ´ášer yäcär‖ BHT

Genesis 2:9 and Jehovah God causeth to sprout from the ground every
tree desirable for appearance, and good for food, and the tree of life in
the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. YLT

And out of the earth the Lord made every tree to come, delighting the eye and
good for food; and in the middle of the garden, the tree of life and the tree of
the know- ledge of good and evil. BBE

wayyacmaH yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm min-h亴ádämâ Kol-`ëc neHmäd

´è wüýôb lüma´ákäl wü`ëc ha|Hayyîm Bütôk haGGän wü`ëc haDDaº`at ýôb
wärä` BHT

Genesis 2:10 A river rises in Eden to water the garden; beyond there it
divides and becomes four branches. NAB

And a river went out of Eden giving water to the garden; and from there it
was parted and became four streams. BBE

Genesis 2:10 And a river is going out from Eden to water the garden, and from
thence it is parted, and hath become four chief rivers; YLT
wünähär yöcë´ më`ëºden lühašqôt ´et-haGGän ûmiššäm yiPPärëd wühäyâ
lü´arBä`â rä´šîm BHT

Genesis 2:11 The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the
entire land of Havilah, where there is gold. NIV

‖The name of the first is Pishon, which goes round about all the land of
Havilah where there is gold.‖ BBE

“šëm hä|´eHäd Pîšôn hû´ hassöbëb ´ët Kol-´eºrec ha|Háwîlâ ´ášer-šäm hazzähäb

Genesis 2:12 The gold of that land is exceptionally pure; aromatic resin
and onyx stone are also found there. NLT

Genesis 2:13 The second river is named the Gihon, and this winds all
through the land of Cush. NJB

Genesis 2:14 And the name of the third river is Tigris, which goes to the
east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. BBE

After relating those geographic background details, the account

transfers to the human aspect;

Genesis 2:15 And the Lord God took the man whom he had formed, and
placed him in the garden of Delight, to cultivate and keep it. LXE

‖And the Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to do work
in it and take care of it.‖ BBE

―wayyiqqaH yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm ´et-hä|´ädäm wayyannìHëºhû

bügan-`ëºden lü`obdäh ûlüšomräh ― BHT

At this point in the narration a single clear cut restriction is laid upon the

Genesis 2:16 Then Yahweh God gave the man this command, 'You are

free to eat of all the trees in the garden. NJB


‖And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the
garden you may eat freely;‖ NAS

―And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden
thou mayest freely eat:‖ KJV

―wayücaw yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm `al-hä|´ädäm lë´mör miKKöl `ë|c-

haGGän ´äköl Tö´kël ―BHT
Genesis 2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you are
not to eat; for, the day you eat of that, you are doomed to die.' NJB

except the tree of knowledge of good and bad. From that tree you shall not eat;
the moment you eat from it you are surely doomed to die." NAB

But of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not take;
for on the day when you take of it, death will certainly come to you. BBE

ûmë`ëc haDDaº`at ýôb wärä` lö´ tö´kal mimmeºnnû Kî Büyôm ´ákolkä

mimmeºnnû môt Tämût BHT

Thus stated is the only restriction Jehovah God imposes on the

human family. In a figurative sense, the tree of the knowledge of
good and evil represents much more than merely knowing about
good and evil. In its ancient Hebrew meaning, to know also implies
experiencing and practicing what is known. The Important point for
us here is that this restricttion entailed a multifaceted test of how
much humans trusted God and how much they appreciated him and
what he provided for them on a continuing basis. It also tested their
loyalty and obedience to him as their sovereign.

Genesis 2:18 And the LORD God said, "It is not good that man should be
alone; I will make him a helper comparable to him." NKJ

‖And the Lord God said, It is not good for the man to be by himself: I will make
one like himself as a help to him BBE

―The LORD God said, "It is not good for man to be alone; I will make a fitting
helper for him." TNK

―wayyöº´mer yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm lö´-ýôb héyôt hä|´ädäm lübaDDô

´e|`éSeh-llô `ëºzer KünegDô BHT ―

With this verse we find YHWH makes a declaration of future intent. The
culmination of that declaration is to occur later. We do not know how

much later from what is said, but we can assume that the man‘s
familiarization and orientation with his surroundings would take some

time. Also, with God bringing all the animals to Adam and allowing
sufficient time for him to ob- serve them and ultimately name them likely
could not have occurred instantly either. It implies the passage of time
which is undisclosed as to duration in the Bible.

According to the entirety of the next verse it cannot be construed as being

set in the sixth day. While seeming to allude that the beasts of the field
and the birds of the air were formed after man, this is not the case. It
merely mentions how and from what he had ―made‖ other creatures, as a
side note. The relevant point is that he brought them to the man Adam
for observation and for him to have a sense of dominion over them by
naming them according to what he learned from his own observations.
This refers to the portion of the verse which occurs during the sixth day.
Whether the man was able to communicate in any way or to what extent
he may have been able to do so with the animal community is unknown.
We do know that for a period of time, the animal world and its
inhabitants were Adam‘s only earthly companions. Also, it appears later
when Eve had her conversation with the Serpent, it was not something
that was foreign or strange in any way for her. Later, in Genesis we are
told that this friendly relationship with the animal world was changed
when a fear of man was imbedded in the nature of animals. (Gen. 9:2)

Genesis 2:19 Now the LORD God had formed out of the ground all the
beasts of the field and all the birds of the air. He brought them to the
man to see what he would name them; and whatever the man called
each living creature, that was its name. NIV

―So from the soil Yahweh God fashioned all the wild animals and all the birds of
heaven. These he brought to the man to see what he would call them; each one
was to bear the name the man would give it.‖ NJB

―And from the earth the Lord God made every beast of the field and every bird
of the air, and took them to the man to see what names he would give them:
and whatever name he gave to any living thing, that was its name. BBE

Genesis 2:19 ―And out of the ground Jehovah God formed every beast of the
field, and every bird of the heavens; and brought them unto the man to see
what he would call them: and whatsoever the man called every living
creature, that was the name thereof.‖ ASV

wayyìcer yhwh (´ädönäy) ´élöhîm min-hä|´ádämâ Kol-Hayyat haSSädè

wü´ët Kol-`ôp haššämaºyim wayyäbë´ ´el-h亴ädäm lir´ôt mà-yyiqrä´-lô
wüköl ´ášer yiqrä´-lô hä|´ädäm neºpeš Hayyâ hû´ šümô BHT


Genesis 2:20 The man gave names to all livestock and to the birds of the
heavens and to every beast of the field. But for Adam there was not
found a helper fit for him. ESV

He gave names to all the livestock, birds, and wild animals. But still there was
no companion suitable for him. NLT

And the man gave names to all cattle and to the birds of the air and to every
beast of the field; but Adam had no one like himself as a help. BBE

wayyiqrä´ hä|´ädäm šëmôt lükol-haBBühëmâ ûlü`ôp haššämaºyim ûlüköl

Hayyat haSSädè ûlü´ädäm lö|´-mäcä´ `ëºzer KünegDô BHT

At this juncture, something amazing happened to Adam, which man had

no scientific explanation for until very recent times.

Genesis 2:21 Then, Yahweh God made the man fall into a deep sleep.
And, while he was asleep, he took one of his ribs and closed the flesh up
again forthwith. NJB

―And the Lord God sent a deep sleep on the man, and took one of the bones
from his side while he was sleeping, joining up the flesh again in its place: ― BBE

‖wayyaPPël yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm TarDëmâ `al-hä´ädäm wayyîšän

wayyiqqaH ´aHat miccal`ötäyw wayyisGör BäSär TaHTeºnnâ‖ BHT

If we were to describe what happened there in the scientific terms of our

day, much more could be added to our description. Again, the account
reveals no indication as to amount of time expired in what is described.
We do not know how long Adam was without a wife, or how long it took
to perform what seemed to be a miracle in its own right when Jehovah
furnished him with one.

Genesis 2:22 Yahweh God fashioned the rib he had taken from the man
into a woman, and brought her to the man. NJB

From this we understand that she was a fully grown adult female human
being, perfect in every sense Jehovah had designed for her. This extra-
ordinary event became much more understandable in the 1950s and 60s
when humans first began to learn about DNA and the possibilities of

23The man said: »This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh.

She shall be called ‗Woman.‘ This is because she was taken out of Man.«


―And Adam said, This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall
be called woman, because she was taken out of her husband. LXE

―And the man said, This is now bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh: let her
name be Woman because she was taken out of Man. BBE

―wayyö´mer hä|´ädäm zö´t haPPaº`am `eºcem më|`ácämay ûbäSär

miBBüSärî lüzö´t yiqqärë´ ´iššâ Kî më´îš lù|qóHâ-zzö´t BHT

The man (Adam) recognized this creature was different in that she was
actually like himself, not like any other creature he had familiarity with. It
is also clear that he understood that she had been taken from his own
body. How this information was imparted to him, we have no scriptural
indication other than implicit evidence that he had some form of direct
communication with his creator.

Genesis 2:24 For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and
be united to his wife, and they will become one flesh. NIV

―Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto
his wife: and they shall be one flesh.‖ KJV

―For this cause will a man go away from his father and his mother and
be joined to his wife; and they will be one flesh.‖ BBE

”`al-Kën ya|`ázob-´îš ´et-´äbîw wü´et-´immô wüdäbaq Bü´išTô wühäyû lübäSär

´eHäd BHT

With those words, Jehovah God instituted the underlying principal of


Genesis 2:25 The two of them were naked, the man and his wife, yet
they felt no shame. TNK

The man and his wife were both naked, and they felt no shame. NIV

And the man and his wife were without clothing, and they had no sense of
shame. BBE

Nakedness in the Hebrew language has a primary meaning of being

without clothes, however in this verse it appears to have an implication
beyond its primary application. Here it may imply innocence, unguarded

exposure or unquestioning acceptance of their situation and that in this

condition; they were neither ill at ease nor uncomfortable.

Genesis Three:

Genesis 3 introduces another being into their lives. While one might find
it strange that the woman seemed so much at ease in communicating
with a wild creature, we must remember what their relationship was with
the animal world at that time. In this passage we may find a veiled
implication that other animals also had the ability to communicate with
Adam and Eve at the time.

Genesis 3:1 Now the serpent was craftier than any of the wild animals
Jehovah God had made. He said to the woman: »Did God really say, you
must not eat from any tree in the garden?« NSB

And the serpent was more crafty than any animal of the field which Jehovah
Elohim had made. And it said to the woman, Is it even so, that God has said, Ye
shall not eat of every tree of the garden? DBY

Now the serpent was more cunning than any beast of the field which the LORD
God had made. And he said to the woman, "Has God indeed said, 'You shall not
eat of every tree of the garden'?" NKJ

wühannäHäš häyâ `ärûm miKKöl Hayyat haSSädè ´ášer `äSâ

yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm wayyöº´mer ´el-h亴iššâ ´ap Kî|-´ämar
´élöhîm lö´ tö|´külû miKKöl `ëc haGGän BHT

Genesis 3:2,3. The woman said to the serpent: »We may eat fruit from the trees
in the garden. 3 „However, God did say: „You must not eat fruit from the tree that
is in the middle of the garden. You must not touch it, or you will die.‟« NSB

2 And the woman said, We may take of the fruit of the trees in the
garden::3 But of the fruit of the tree in the middle of the garden, God
has said, If you take of it or put your hands on it, death will come to you.

2 The woman replied to the serpent, "We may eat of the fruit of the other
trees of the garden. 3 It is only about fruit of the tree in the middle of the
garden that God said: 'You shall not eat of it or touch it, lest you die.'"

The Serpent who is later identified as Satan the Devil (Rev. 12:9) entered

into a conversation with the woman, later known as Eve. He raised a

question for which he already knew the answer. She responded to him in
clear terms, showing that she fully understood what God had said

previously. He then comes back with what turns out to be an untrue

statement, the first recorded lie in the Bible.

Gen. 3: 4,5. »You will not die,« the serpent said to the woman. 5 »God
knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened. Then you will be
like God, knowing good and evil.« NSB
Genesis 3:5 For God sees that on the day when you take of its fruit, your eyes
will be open, and you will be as gods, having knowledge of good and evil. BBE

Genesis 3:5 Kî yödëª` ´élöhîm Kî Büyôm ´ákolkem mimmeºnnû wünipqüHû

`ê|nêkem wihyîtem Kë|´löhîm yöd`ê †ôb wärä` BHT

[A side note of interest; In referring to the one who originally had laid the
command on Adam and Eve, the serpent (Devil) describes him as
and not ―YHWH Elohim‖, as the writer does in much of the narrative in
the 2nd and 3rd chapter of Genesis. This indicates that the writer was not
just using a different form of wording to describe God in the 2nd and 3rd
chapters, rather it implies one must attach a difference in nuance of
meaning between the words― Elohim‖ and ―YHWH Elohim‖]

Continuing with the account;

Genesis 3:4 "You will not surely die," the serpent said to the woman. NIV

Genesis 3:4 And the serpent said to the woman, "You are not going to
die, TNK

Genesis 3:4 And the snake said, Death will not certainly come to you:

With this reply, Satan accuses God of being a liar, and then immediately
dangles an appeal to Eve‘s vanity. He tells her if she eats it, she will be
like God, able to determine for herself what is good and what is evil. This
raises the issue of whether man can really be like God and decide what is
best for himself. However, within this accusation lies an even larger

The accusation was made before the entire universe of spirit beings
(angels, cherubs, seraphs) and triggered a host of issues. The
implications of the accusation made in their presence concerning men on

earth raised the following issues;


1. Did Jehovah lie?

2. Can men determine what is best for them, aside from Jehovah?

3. Will men will be better off leaving Jehovah‘s provisions and following
Satan‘s advice?
4. Would men be obedient and loyal to their creator?
5. If not, would this betray a distrust in their creator?
6. Could men be obedient and loyal to their creator?
7. Would men follow Satan in resisting the will of their creator?

For Spirit beings, it raised another massive question concerning God‘s

ruler ship; Was Jehovah‘s sovereignty (his right to rule) justified? Or
could another godlike one‘s rule be justifiable?

The account continues;

Genesis 3:6 When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for
food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she
took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with
her, and he ate it. NIV

The woman saw that the tree was good for food, pleasing to the eyes, and
desirable for gaining wisdom. So she took some of its fruit and ate it; and she
also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it. NAB

And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and a delight to the
eyes, and to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit, and gave it to her
husband. BBE

And the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a pleasure
for the eyes, and the tree was to be desired to give intelligence; and she took of
its fruit, and ate, and gave also to her husband with her, and he ate. DBY

waTTëºre´ hä|´iššâ Kî ýôb hä`ëc lüma´ákäl wükî ta|´áwâ-hû´ lä`ênaºyim

wüneHmäd hä`ëc lühaSKîl waTTiqqaH miPPiryô waTTö´kal waTTiTTën
Gam-lü´îšäh `immäh wayyö´kal BHT

Both of them ate of the fruit deliberately. In thisthey knowingly disobeyed

the one restriction which their creator had placed on them. With that
single act they violated their innocence, revealing distrust in their creator
and in effect they left Jehovah God and his benevolent fatherly provisions
and chose to follow someone other than Jehovah.

The account continues;

Genesis 3:7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened. They realized

they were naked. They sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for
themselves. NSB

And the eyes of both were opened, and they perceived that they were naked,
and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons to go round
them. LXE

And their eyes were open and they were conscious that they had no
clothing and they made themselves coats of leaves stitched together. BBE

waTTiPPäqaºHnâ `ênê šünêhem wayyëºd`û Kî `ê|rummìm hëm wa|yyitPürû

`álË tü´ënâ wayya`áSû lähem Hágöröt BHT

This verse presents a curiosity; since clothing was not an observable

concept in the animal world which they were familiar with, could there be
another meaning behind their recognition of their own nakedness?
Scholars contend that within this newly found perception of their
nakedness lays a meaning far greater than a mere lack of clothing. It
figuratively reveals
or exposes recognition to one another that they are no longer innocent
with nothing to hide. In their covering of themselves, they betray an
effort to con- ceal this recognition at least from one another, and possibly
also from God.
Genesis 3:8 The man and his wife heard the sound of Yahweh God
walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid from Yahweh
God among the trees of the garden. NJB

And they heard the voice of Jehovah Elohim, walking in the garden in
the cool of the day. And Man and his wife hid themselves from the
presence of Jehovah Elohim, in the midst of the trees of the garden. DBY

And there came to them the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the
evening wind: and the man and his wife went to a secret place among the trees
of the garden, away from the eyes of the Lord God. BBE

And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of
the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD
God amongst the trees of the garden. KJV

wa|yyišmü`û ´et-qôl yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm mithallëk BaGGän lürûªH hayyôm

wayyitHaBBë´ hä|´ädäm wü´išTô miPPünê yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm Bütôk `ëc haGGän BHT

We know they did not literally see God for the Bible later says; No man
has ever seen God. What they discerned was his close presence; ( John

1:18 No one has ever seen God; it is the only Son, who is close to the
Father's heart, who has made him known. NJB)

Genesis 3:9 But Jehovah God called to the man: »Where are you?« NSB

And the voice of the Lord God came to the man, saying, Where are you? BBE

wayyiqrä´ yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm ´el-hä|´ädäm wayyöº´mer lô

´ayyeºKKâ BHT

It is impossible that Jehovah did not know where they were. So we may
surmise this question was addressed to the couple to let them know he
knew they were trying to hide something from him.

Adam responds thusly;

Genesis 3:10 He (Adam) answered: »I heard you in the garden, and I

was afraid because I was naked; so I hid.« NSB

In this, Adam revealed he no longer viewed himself or his wife (by virtue
of his headship), as being innocent. In his mind, there was now
something to hide. Jehovah apparently recognizes this in Adams attitude
and addresses the implication of this for Adam‘s benefit.

Genesis 3:11 And he said: »Who told you that you were naked? Have
you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from? NSB

Genesis 3:11 And he said, Who gave you the knowledge that you were without
clothing? Have you taken of the fruit of the tree which I said you were not to
take? BBE

There is much more to this question than what is immediately apparent.

It bears on their determining for themselves what was right or wrong.
And this was what is at the root of his restricttion in the first place.

At this point, Adam can admit his error and show repentance to God over
his lack of trust in him and for his succumbing to the temptation by the
serpent. However, this is not what he chooses to do. Instead, he places
blame on the woman who led him to disobedience and distrust, and he
blames God himself for giving him the woman.

Gen 3:12 Adam said: »The woman you put here with me gave me some

fruit from the tree, and I ate it.« NSB


"Yes," Adam admitted, "but it was the woman you gave me who brought me
the fruit, and I ate it." NLT

And the man said, The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me the
fruit of the tree and I took it. BBE

wayyöº´mer hä|´ädäm hä|´iššâ ´ášer nätaºTTâ `immädî hiw´ nä|tnâ-llî

min-hä`ëc wä´ökël BHT

Jehovah now has obtained an indication from Adam himself as to what

Adam‘s heart condition is. Next, he addresses a question to Eve, which
would appear, to be designed to get her to voice what is in her heart as

Genesis 3:13 Then Jehovah God said to the Eve: »What is this you have
done? The woman answered: »The serpent deceived me, and I ate.« NSB

Then Yahweh God said to the woman, 'Why did you do that?' The woman
replied, 'The snake tempted me and I ate.' NJB

And the Lord God said to the woman, What have you done? And the woman
said, I was tricked by the deceit of the snake and I took it. BBE

wayyöº´mer yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm lä´iššâ mà-zzö´t `äSît waTTöº´mer

hä|´iššâ hannäHäš hiššî´aºnî wä´ökël BHT

The woman, Eve blames the serpent without any acknowledgement or

remorse over her own wrongdoing. She has revealed her own heart
condition by her own words.
After hearing Eve‘s reply, Jehovah God pronounces judgment on the
situation. He had already told the couple that in the day they disobeyed
him, they would bring death into their lives. This part is a foregone
conclusion, for God cannot lie (Tit 1:2). He starts with a judgment against
the serpent, who according to Rev. 12:9 is actually Satan the devil in

Genesis 3:14 So Jehovah God said to the serpent: »Because you have
done this you are cursed above all the livestock and all the wild animals!
You will crawl on your belly and you will eat dust all the days of your
life. NSB

And Jehovah Elohim said to the serpent, Because thou hast done this, be thou
cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field. On thy belly shalt

thou go, and eat dust all the days of thy life. DBY

And the Lord God said to the snake, Because you have done this you are cursed

more than all cattle and every beast of the field; you will go flat on the earth,
and dust will be your food all the days of your life: BBE

wayyö´mer yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm ´e|l-hannäHäš Kî `äSîºtä zzö´t ´ärûr

´aTTâ miKKol-haBBühëmâ ûmiKKöl Hayyat haSSädè `al-GüHönkä tëlëk
wü`äpär Tö´kal Kol-yümê Hayyʺkä BHT

At this point in the Genesis account, Jehovah utters a deeply significant

prophetic statement. The depth and great significance is that it relates to
what he is going to do in response to the momentous universal issue the
devil has raised in the sight of all living intelligent creatures in God‘s
creation. In his reply, God prophetically reveals a partial glimpse of how
he will deal with the issues raised by Satan the Devil.

In fewer than thirty words he unleashes a statement of purpose which

will reverberate through the entire Bible and have a profound impact on
the future prospects of all future generations of men on the earth .

Gen. 3 :15 »And I will put enmity (hostility) (hatred) between you and
the woman, and between your offspring (seed) and hers. He will bruise
(overwhelm) (crush) you in the head, and you will bruise (overwhelm)
(crush) him in the heel.« NSB

In addressing Satan, God mentions a seed, (a ‗He‘) in a singular sense not

in the plural as seeds. He predicts this seed would crush him (Satan) in
the head while he, Satan would crush that seed in the heel. He also
reveals that the woman‘s seed would produce offspring and that there
would be enmity between her offspring and Satan‘s own offspring.

What we have at this point appears as a somewhat mysterious prophecy

which does not reveal very much about the subjects involved. We are
able to gather a few clues which will help us later in deciphering the full
impact of this prophecy. We are told that the seed emanating from the
woman, would crush him (Satan) in the head, (a death dealing blow) and
that he , Satan would crush that seed in the heel (a non lethal blow).

Progressive revelation of details concerning these characters would more

clearly identify who the primary seed of the woman was and who her
offspring as a secondary seed were. (See Cross Ref.- Romans 9:8, 16:20,
Galations 3:19,29. and Revelations 12:17). Later scripture would also
identify who the offspring of Satan the devil would consist of down

through history. (See Cross Ref. John 8:44, 1 John 3:10, 1 John 5:2,
Romans 8:17 and Romans 9:8.)


The development of those seeds and what the seed of God‘s woman
would accomplish through her offspring, would become a main theme
echoing through the entire Bible

Then he (Jehovah) turns his attention to the Woman on the spot, later
known as Eve;

Gen 3:16 He said to the woman: »I will greatly increase your pains in
childbirth; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be
for your husband, and he will rule over you.« NSB

And then to Adam;

Gen 3:17-19 He said to Adam: »Because you listened to your wife and
ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ‗You must not eat of it,‘
cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of
it all the days of your life. 18 »It will produce thorns and thistles for you.
You will eat the plants of the field. 19 »You will eat your food by the
sweat of your brow until you return to the ground. You came from the
ground. For dust you are and to dust you will return.« NSB

At this juncture, the narration departs from God conversing with Adam
and makes several observations;

Gen. 3:20,21. Adam named his wife Eve, because she would become the
mother of all the living. 21 Jehovah God made garments of skin for Adam
and his wife and clothed them. NSB

As their covering themselves was symbolic of the recognition of their loss

of innocence, Jehovah confirms this loss by making their temporary
coverings a permanent fixture in their lives.

Gen. 3:22 Jehovah said: »The man has now become like one of us,
knowing good and evil. He must not be allowed to reach out his hand
and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever.« NSB

In this statement there is an implication of Jehovah speaking to others

than himself, and more than just one other individual. We sense here he
is speaking to a gathering of some sort. It may have been a gathering or

an occasion similar to one mentioned at Job 1:6―Now it came to pass on

the day when the sons of God came to present themselves before
Jehovah. . . . ASV

To the audience at Genesis;


Genesis 3:22 And the Lord God said, Now the man has become like one
of us, having knowledge of good and evil; and now if he puts out his
hand and takes of the fruit of the tree of life, he will go on living for ever.

Then Yahweh God said, 'Now that the man has become like one of us in
knowing good from evil, he must not be allowed to reach out his hand and pick
from the tree of life too, and eat and live for ever!' NJB

wayyöº´mer yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm hën hä|´ädäm häyâ Kü´aHad

mimmeºnnû lädaº`at ýôb wärä` wü`aTTâ Pen-yišlaH yädô wüläqaH Gam
më`ëc ha|Hayyîm wü´äkal wäHay lü`öläm BHT

Genesis 3:23 Therefore Jehovah God banished him from the Garden of
Eden to work the ground from which he had been taken.

With that Jehovah God put him out of the garden of E'den to cultivate the
ground from which he had been taken. NWT

So the Lord God sent him out of the garden of Eden to be a worker on the earth
from which he was taken. BBE

wa|yüšallüHëºhû yhwh(´ädönäy) ´élöhîm miGGan-`ëºden la|`áböd ´et-

h亴ádämâ ´ášer luqqaH miššäm BHT

When Jehovah put Adam and his wife Eve out of the Garden of Eden,
they were precluded from further access to the fruit from the tree of life,
which fruit rep- resented the provision for them to enjoy everlasting life.
What form this provision took, we are not able to determine from the
bible account. Whether
it was a substance by which they could benefit themselves by or some
special information by which they could prolong their lives indefinitely,
no infor- mation was given at that time. Later on in the Bible an allusion
is made to everlasting life being tied to their relationship with their
creator and his purposes. (See John 17:3). Whether it is this relationship
or the knowledge granted as a result of this relations ship which would
hold the key to everlasting life, is open to speculation.

Genesis 3:24 After he drove the man out, he placed on the east side of the
Garden of Eden cherubim and a flaming sword flashing back and forth

to guard the way to the tree of life. NIV

From this verse we may conclude there was placed in effect a divine

means by which they would be prevented from re- entering the Garden of


Eden. This would prevent them from having access to its full provisions
for their life and well being, which God had originally started them off
with in the Garden

With Genesis 4:1 the account proceeds in documenting the historical

account which occurs after their banishment from the Garden of Eden
and the course of events proceeding thereafter.

Genesis 4:1 The man had intercourse with his wife Eve, and she
conceived and gave birth to Cain. 'I have acquired a man with the help
of Yahweh,' she said. NJB

Genesis 4:1 The man had relations with his wife Eve, and she conceived
and bore Cain, saying, "I have produced a man with the help of the

Genesis 4:1 And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and
bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man with the help of Jehovah. ASV

Genesis 4:1 wüh亴ädäm yäda` ´et-Hawwâ ´išTô waTTaºhar

waTTëºled ´et-qaºyin waTTöº´mer qänîºtî ´îš ´et-yhwh(´ädönäy)

Seven things you may not have realized before about Genesis;

What are some of the unorthodox conclusions (not generally accepted or

taught), that a careful reading of the Genesis creation account reveals
when evidence from other parts of the bible is brought to bear on the

1. The account starts with something already in existence, Other

than God himself, we are told that ―in the beginning‖ he created the
heavens and the earth. The account from Genesis 1:2 forward is all about
what was done from that point forward, particularly in reference to the
planet earth.

2. ―In the beginning‖ there was another entity present with God
Almighty, the creator. That one can be identified as Jesus Christ in his
pre human form; [Gen. 1:1 identifies God as Elohim, (plural for God).

John 1:1 says the Logos (word) was present in the beginning with God.
Rev. 19:13 identifies Jesus in his post human form as ―The word‖. This
leaves us with a conclusion that Jesus in his pre-human / post-human

form was alongside Jehovah God during the creation of the earth and the

things we associate with it. Possibly, there were other spirit beings
present, at least ―in the beginning‖ of earth‘s creation.

3. A ―Day‖ in most instances in Genesis represents an era, and

not just 24 hours. The only fixed time duration occurs at the end of
each day with the passage of night and the beginning of light (morning).
Durations of all other periods are non specific. From what the account
itself reveals, we cannot attach a duration of 24 hours to a creative day. It
is not indicated scripturally and there also is no proof in Genesis that the
―creative days‖ are equal in length.

4. An accurate understanding of what the Genesis account

actually says does not conflict, either with reason or with proven scientific

5. The Hebrew ―waw‖ plays a critical part in the understanding

of the sequence of events in the Genesis account. Whether it is seen as
―waw‖ consecutive or ―waw‖ conjunctive determines which day a given
set of events falls within.

6. Adam and Eve represent original life forms for the human
species. They were so to say, the mold from which all successive humans
were produced. In modern scientific terms, they were the source for DNA
for all subsequent generations.

7. There is a difference between ―make‖ and ―create‖. While

these two terms are frequently interchanged by human translators, a
careful exam- ination of the Hebrew etymology roots for the word
discloses that ―to make‖ includes producing a new form by combining
pre-existing elements. On the other hand, ―to create‖ implies producing
some thing from that which has never existed before. In some cases the
two words can be found applicable to the same entity. This may occur
when an idea for the new form is totally original (thus a creation) and is
then carried out with the process of making (using existing elements to
produce the new idea. Thus concerning ―man‖ it can be said he was both
―created‖, that is the idea behind him was entirely original and yet he was
―made‖, or ―formed‖ by using the existing elements of the earth. (dust)

Thus we end an overview or synopsis of the creation account through six


creative days and conclude with a seventh day where it tells us God had
finished with creation, and was resting. . What follows in the Genesis
account and the rest of the Bible helps us to know why we are in the

condition we are in today and what God, in his infinite wisdom and love
has decided to do in response to our first parents‘ disobedience.

What God expected of Humans

When, we left the first human couple in a garden like paradise, they were
given a mandate to multiply, and to work at cultivating the earth into an
earth wide paradise like the garden of Eden. They were given stewardship
over all the rest of God‘s earthly creation. They were designed to live,
without limits on their life expectancy, unless they violated the one great
rule God laid down for them.

Unfortunately they did violate that rule and could only pass on their own
imperfection and its consequences to their future human progeny.

As the creation account draws toward a close in Genesis we begin a new

phase concerning mans relationship with his creator. Here we are
confronted with the issue which was first raised in the Garden of Eden
and described briefly earlier. The fact is that this issue was not only of
monumental importance to Jehovah God then, but is equally important
to him today. It is a ―universal Issue‖ affecting all of God‘s creation, both
heavenly and earthly.

The importance of this issue calls for us to explore it in greater depth and
detail for it will determine ultimately the future outcome for the earth
and our continued existence as a species on it. What follows in Genesis
and the rest of the Bible helps us to know why we are in the condition we
are in today and what God, in his infinite wisdom and love has decided to
do in response to our first parents‘ disobedience. It also explains how we
will be affected by the outcome of what he does to resolve the universal

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Genesis 2:16,17 Then Yahweh God gave the man this command, 'You
are free to eat of all the trees in the garden except the tree of
knowledge 1
of good and bad. From that tree you shall not eat; NJB

Those words come from the earliest pages of history as recorded in God‘s
own book, the Holy Bible. They represent the earliest restriction
verbalized by Jehovah, the Almighty God to his human family, at a time
when it was in its early infancy. A casual reading might tend to minimize
the importance this simple requirement had on the course of human
history. Yet the reaction to it by our first human parents affected all
humans from that time forward. The issue raised upon that occasion
more than six thousand years ago is still very much alive and with us

The restriction stated by God was about the ―knowledge of good and bad‖
(evil). However, is that all there is to it? Is it that simple? Not really.
Upon examination of just what it means in Bible terms to know or get
knowledge, we see much more. In the Bible, knowledge of good and
bad goes beyond a mere familiarity with it. It has to do with experience
connected with good and bad. As example in Gen 4:1,17 and 25, knowing
(yada) clearly involves putting that knowledge into practice.

Among the definitions one Bible dictionary gives for ―knowing‖ is;

Being acquainted with, to distinguish, or to have knowledge by

experience. In this and other applications, ―yada‖ takes us beyond
―intellectual‖ impli- cations of good and bad. It includes having actual
experience with the thing which is known.

Some Bible examples for this principle include;

Genesis 4:1 And the man knew Eve his wife, and she conceiveth and
beareth Cain, and saith, 'I have gotten a man by Jehovah;' YLT [knew =
experienced his wife, had intercourse with her]

Genesis 4:17 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bore
Enoch; and he builded a city, and called the name of the city after the
name of his son Enoch. JPS


Genesis 4:25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and
called his name Seth. For, said she, God hath appointed me another seed
instead of Abel; for Cain slew him. ASV

2 Corinthians 5:21 The one who did not know sin he made to be sin
for us, that we might become God's righteousness by means of him. NWT
[did not know sin = did not have sin, did not experience personal sin]

Psalm 9:10 They trust in Thee who do know Thy name, For Thou hast
not forsaken Those seeking Thee, O Jehovah. YLT [know = discern the
meaning behind the name and what that name stands for]

Mark 12:24 Jesus replied, "Your problem is that you don't know1 the
Scriptures, and you don't know2 the power of God. NLT [know =
comprehend the meaning behind the scriptures, know2 = discern the
implication of God‘s power]

John 8:32 And you will know the truth, and the truth will set you
free." NLT [know = experience truth]

John 14:9 Jesus said to him: "Have I been with YOU men so long a
time, and yet, Philip, you have not come to know me? He that has seen
me has seen the Father [also]. How is it you say, 'Show us the Father'?
NWT [know means compre- hending the full meaning and purpose Jesus


Psalm 25:4 Make me to know thy ways, O Jehovah; teach me thy

paths. DBY [know thy ways = acknowledge his laws, discern his thinking,
give heed to his directions]

Psalm 101:4 A crooked heart departs from me; Nothing bad do I

know. NWT [know = practice or perform]

Jonah 4:11 And should not I pity Nineveh, that great city, in which
there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know their right
hand from their left, and also much cattle?" ESV [to not to know
represents ignorance]

Revelation 2:2 "I know all the things you do. I have seen your hard

work and your patient endurance. I know you don't tolerate evil people.
You have examined the claims of those who say they are apostles but are
not. You have discovered they are liars. NLT [know = discern the

complete picture in fullest detail]


One Bible dictionary provides the following definitions;

―KNOW‖ knowledge H3045 [dy yada` {yaw-dah'}

1) to know
1a) (Qal)
1a1) to know 1a1a) to know, learn to know
1a1b) to perceive
1a1c) to perceive and see, find out and discern
1a1d) to discriminate, distinguish
1a1e) to know by experience
1a1f) to recognise, admit, acknowledge, confess
1a1g) to consider
1a2) to know, be acquainted with
1a3) to know (a person carnally)
1a4) to know how, be skilful in
1a5) to have knowledge, be wise
1b) (Niphal) 1b1) to be made known, be or become known, be revealed
1b2) to make oneself known
1b3) to be perceived
1b4) to be instructed
1c) (Piel) to cause to know
1d) (Poal) to cause to know
1e) (Pual)
1e1) to be known
1e2) known, one known, acquaintance (participle)
1f) (Hiphil) to make known, declare
1g) (Hophal) to be made known
1h) (Hithpael) to make oneself known, reveal oneself

We can conclude in the case of Adam and Eve, knowledge of good and
bad con- stituted far more than merely an awareness of what was right or
wrong. It en- tailed either experiencing it personally, or determining for
themselves what was right or what was wrong. Either way, they were over
riding God‘s restrict- ion. He had not granted them the latitude to do so.

While stated as a single restriction, Genesis 2:16, 17 addressed several

crucial issues con - cerning the human family and their relationship to

their creator. Some points it raised are as follow;

Does God have the right to restrict humans and impose his will

upon them?


Do humans have the ability to determine what is right or wrong,

good or bad for themselves without God‘s guidance?

Does any other god or human have a right to displace Jehovah

God‘s sovereignty?

God‘s word answers ―No‖ to all three of these questions. While Jehovah
God, as the creator of all things, does not have to justify his position by
giving reasons, he none the less does. Reasons behind his rules and his
thinking may be found in numerous places in the Bible. Here are some
verses which give us reasons which explainin his thinking regarding a
need for the restriction he gave to Adam and Eve.

Reason No 1. - As the creator of all things, he owns the earth and

everything on it. This makes it his right to determine how it will be used.

Psalm 89:11 The heavens are yours, and the earth is yours; everything
in the world is yours -- you created it all. NLT

Psalm 24:1 Psalm Of David; To Yahweh belong the earth and all it
contains, the world and all who live there; NJB

Therefore, he has ―the right of ownership as well as the right by


Reason No 2. - He did not create man with a mental or physical

capacity even closely equal to his own. Therefore, man does not have and
never will have Jehovah‘s ability to determine what is best for himself, his
fellow man,
or for the earth, all of which are Jehovah‘s creation.

Isaiah 55:8 For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are
your ways my ways, saith Jehovah. ASV

Jeremiah 10:23 I well know, O Jehovah, that to earthling man his

way does not belong. It does not belong to man who is walking
even to direct his step. NWT
Isaiah 40:28 Have you not come to know or have you not heard?
Jehovah, the Creator of the extremities of the earth, is a God to time

indefinite. He does not tire out or grow weary. There is no searching

out of his understanding. NWT


Superior knowledge and ability endow Jehovah God with the right to
determine what is best for his entire creation.

Reason No 3. We do not have a single thing which sustains our life that
is not traceable to him. Every breath we take, every morsel we eat, every
motion we make, all depend upon provisions through his natural creation
and the physical laws he has instituted.

Isaiah 42:5 This is what the [true] God, Jehovah, has said, the
Creator of the heavens and the Grand One stretching them out; the
One laying out the earth and its produce, the One giving breath
to the people on it, and spirit to those walking in it: NWT

Our lives are completely dependent on him. We cannot sustain one single
human life inde -pendently of his created provisions.

Reason # 4. Jehovah is God almighty without any true equal. He has

ulti- mate authority over any, and all other gods, or anyone else who
would try to conduct themselves as gods. He has the right to demand and
expect exclusive devotion as evidenced by worship.

Isaiah 45:18 For this is what Jehovah has said, the Creator of the
heavens, He the [true] God, the Former of the earth and the
Maker of it, He the One who firmly established it, who did not create it
simply for nothing, who formed it even to be inhabited: "I am
Jehovah, and there is no one else. NWT
Exodus 20:5 You must not bow down to them nor be induced to serve
them, because I Jehovah your God am a God exacting exclusive
devotion, NWT

While acknowledging there are other gods than Jehovah (intelligent life
forms superior to us), none of these have a valid claim to being our
creator and therefore are not entitled to devotion or worship in any form.
Any worship afforded them is depriving Jehovah of what is rightfully his,
exclusive devotion.

Reason # 5. He has granted humans stewardship over the earth, which

while having given it to humans as their home, it still remains his
personal belonging in the sense that it is dependent on all natural

systems being maintained in place by him. As such Jehovah has the right
to invoke rules under which man may occupy and use the earth and he

also has the right to enforce these rules in any way he may determine to
do so.

Deuteronomy 12:28 Faithfully keep and obey all these orders

which I am giving you, so that you and your children after you may
prosper forever, doing what is good and right in the eyes of
Yahweh your God. NJB

He has control of the circumstances which bring us joy and prosperity

and knows our needs as a species better than any of us individually can.
He also knows the earth, its natural cycles and systems intimately. We are
actually dependent on him through those systems for our well being,
longevity and
our happiness here on earth.

Reason # 6. He has the right to disclose or not disclose to humans

reasons for his actions. However, his personal qualities or attributes,
which he has imposed upon himself, will de- termine, what and how
much he discloses.

Acts 1:7 He said to them: "It does not belong to YOU to get
knowledge of the times or seasons which the Father has placed in his
own jurisdiction; NWT

Amos 4:13 For, look! the Former of [the] mountains and the Creator
of [the] wind, and the One telling to earthling man what his
mental concern is, the One making dawn into obscurity, and the One
on earth's high places, Jehovah the God of armies is his name." NWT

Titus 1:2 upon the basis of a hope of the everlasting life which God,
who cannot lie, promised before times long lasting, NWT

Hebrews 6:18 So God has given us both his promise and his oath.
These two things are unchangeable because it is impossible for God
to lie. NLT

Proverbs 6:16 – 19. There are six things that Jehovah does
hate; yes, seven are things detestable to his soul:17 lofty eyes, a false
tongue, and hands that are shedding innocent blood, 18 a heart
fabricating hurtful schemes, feet that are in a hurry to run to

badness,19 a false witness that launches forth lies, and anyone

sending forth contentions among brothers. NWT

Isaiah 40:28 Have you not come to know or have you not heard?
Jehovah, the Creator of the extremities of the earth, is a God to time

indefinite. He does not tire out or grow weary. There is no searching

out of his understanding. NWT


H8394 ! tabuwn {taw-boon'} and (fem.) hn". t@buwnah {teb-oo-naw'} or

towbunah {to-boo-naw'}

1) understanding, intelligence
1a) the act of understanding
1a1) skill 1b) the faculty of understanding
1b1) intelligence, understanding, insight
1c) the object of knowledge
1d) teacher (personification)

In summary; Not only does Jehovah God have every right to determine
just how we should live and treat his earth, but it is entirely logical that he
should be the one who guides us. It is in our own best interests for him to
do so, as well as being in the best interests of the earth itself and all other
living things on it. Therefore, the issue raised in the Garden of Eden is an
issue of; Who shall determine what is right or wrong for the human
family? It is an issue of sovereignty, a question of who shall rule and who
shall obey.

However, the issue is further intensified, by the fact it also extends to a

realm beyond the earth. For this reason, the issue takes on a greater
universal dimension. The issue raised in the Garden of Eden between
man and God also involved a particular spirit being personally and all
other spirit beings within the entire universe, thus encompassing
Jehovah God's entire intelligent creation.

Genesis 3:1 Now the serpent proved to be the most cautious [subtle,
shrewd or crafty] of all the wild beasts of the field that Jehovah God had
made. So it began to say to the woman: "Is it really so that God said
YOU must not eat from every tree of the garden?"NWT

At this juncture, it is necessary for us to identify the one described as a

serpent. While we may get the impression this was just another creature
of the field, this is not the case. We are given information as to the true

identity of this ―serpent‖ elsewhere in the Bible.

Revelation 12:9 So down the great dragon was hurled, the original

serpent, the one called Devil and Satan, who is misleading the


entire inhabited earth; he was hurled down to the earth, and his angels
were hurled down with him. NWT

Revelation 20:2 And he seized the dragon, the original serpent,

who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years. NWT

Isaiah 14:12 How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer son of
the morning how art thou cut down to the ground which didst weaken
the nations ! {O Lucifer: or, O day star} KJV

John 8:44 YOU are from YOUR father the Devil, and YOU wish to
do the desires of YOUR father. That one was a manslayer when he
began, and he did not stand fast in the truth, because truth is not in
him. When he speaks the lie, he speaks according to his own
disposition, because he is a liar and the father of [the lie]. NWT
2 Corinthians 4:4 among whom the god of this system of things
has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, that the illumination of the
glorious good news about the Christ, who is the image of God, might
not shine through. NWT

This original serpent is identified as a spirit being who came to be known

to us as Satan the Devil. The name (description) ―Satan‖ means
―adversary‖ and ―Devil‖ means ―slanderer, false accuser.

Now, back to Genesis where this serpent is speaking with ―the woman‖,
(later identified as ―Eve‖). In her conversation with the serpent (Satan),
Eve acknow- ledged that she understood herself to be bound by the same
restriction God had given to Adam.

Genesis 3:2,3 And the woman said, We may take of the fruit of the
trees in the garden: But of the fruit of the tree in the middle of the
garden, God has said, If you take of it or put your hands on it, death will
come to you. BBE

Then the Serpent (who we have identified as Satan the Devil)

contradicted what Jehovah God had told Adam with his reply effectively
calling God a liar.

Genesis 3:4 At this the serpent said to the woman: "YOU positively will

not die. NWT


Genesis 3:5 God knows in fact that the day you eat it your eyes will be
opened and you will be like gods, knowing good from evil.' NJB

Satan tells Eve God has misinformed her and that she will actually benefit
greatly by disobeying his warning. Here, in less than forty words, the
Serpent raises the greatest issue of all time, an accusation against
Jehovah God before the eyes of the entire universe. The issue, raised on
that occasion, continues down through all history all the way down to our
own day. This issue affects the entire human family here on earth, as well
as all other beings in all of God‘s creation.

Satan tells Eve, that not only will she not die, if she eats (partakes) from
the source God has forbidden, but she will be like the gods, she will
acquire the ability for determining herself what is good and bad, right
and wrong, beneficial and un-beneficial. Thus, Satan the Devil
establishes himself as a resistor, opposer and adversary of God Almighty.
At the same time, by accusing Jehovah God of lying before all intelligent
beings in the universe, he also brings into question God‘s right to rule.
This is indeed ―a great universal issue‖.


1. Concerning Man – Would Adam and Eve, along with all their
human offspring be better off following Jehovah God‘s guidance
or Satan‘s guidance. Of course, Satan disguised his guidance as being
Eves own self determination. Yet, the reality was that if she would follow
his suggestion to
rebel against God‘s authority, she would be defacto, following him

2. Also, concerning Man – Would he loyally obey and follow his

creator, despite pressures by Satan, not to?

3. Concerning Man and all the angels - Was God a liar? Had he
lied to Eve? Would she actually die as God said she would if she
disobeyed him?

4. Also, concerning Man and all the Angels - Would any or all
created beings indeed be better off with some form of rule,
other than Jehovah God‘s? If so, did Jehovah have the right to the

sovereignty he claimed exclusively as his own?

5. Concerning the Angels – Was there among their lot anyone


who could do God‘s job as well or better than Jehovah could do

it himself?

We can readily see, this issue affects the entire universe and all its
intelligent beings. This includes all spirit beings, angels and men created
by Jehovah God. It also affects the survival of all other created life forms
on the earth as well as the survival of the earth itself. Indeed this is a very
great issue, raised and stated in less than forty words in the first chapter
of the first book of the bible. The rest of the Bible, with roughly 750,000
words, is related to the consequences and outcome of this issue.

At this point, it must be mentioned, Adam and Eve possessed free moral
agency, as do all the angels created by Jehovah. They are not robots,
program- med to behave in only one way. They have been given freedom
of choice. They can individually choose to obey or disobey. Only, with
such free choice, can their expressions of appreciation, love, loyalty and
devotion have any satis- factory meaning for Jehovah God. Humans have
been designed to think. They have an ability to choose options, to take
different paths. Their making the right choices can afford great satis-
faction to God and bring them the blessings his creation was designed to
confer on them. On the other hand, their making the wrong choices not
only brings displeasure to God, but brings about consequences which
ultimately upsets the natural order. Wide spread or collective wrong
choices can affect his entire creation and change something which was
created perfect into something flawed and potentially even harmful to all
living creatures.

Returning to the book of Genesis we find Eve confronted with a fork in

her road. Which path will she take? Will the woman reject Satan‘s
proposition and loyally support Jehovah‘s sovereignty, thereby contin-
uing on the road with him, or will she reject Jehovah‘s way and accept
Satan‘s overture to follow him and his advice, on his road to wherever it
might lead them? And how would this affect her husband Adam?

Genesis 3:6 When the woman saw that the tree was good for eating
and a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable as a source of
wisdom, she took of its fruit and ate. She also gave some to her husband,
and he ate. TNK

It is worthy of noting here that Adam, was created as a perfect human

being and he received the command directly from Jehovah. No excuse

could be
made due to imperfection or second hand information. Under those
circum- stances, his action was entirely intentional and with no excuse

aside from his own deliberate desire and willingness to follow his wife
and Satan, as opposed to Jehovah. His act of disobedience would cause

an end to the perfect state in which he had been created. It would affect
him spiritually by altering his relationship with his creator and genetic-
ally by altering his reproductive future. After that, according to the way
he had been designed he would only reproduce what he himself was.

It is important for us to realize Adam‘s and Eve‘s actions were open to

the scrutiny not only by Jehovah God himself, but also by all of Jehovah‘s
intelligent beings. The Bible shows us all the heavenly beings had been
watching the things and events on earth connected with the creation
account with great concern.

Job 38:4,7. Where did you happen to be when I founded the earth . . . .
. And all the sons of God began shouting in applause? NWT

The account in Genesis continues and speaks of Adam and Eve;

Genesis 3:8- 10. And they heard the voice of Jehovah God walking in
the garden in the cool of the day: and the man and his wife hid
themselves from
the presence of Jehovah God amongst the trees of the garden. ASV 9 But
Yahweh God called to the man. 'Where are you?' he asked. NJB 10 He
replied, "I heard you, so I hid. I was afraid because I was naked." NLT

Bible scholar, John Gill writing in the1800s, made this comment ―And
the eyes
of them both were opened, not of their bodies, but of their minds; not so
as to have an advanced knowledge of things pleasant, profitable, and use-
ful, as was promised and expected, but of things very disagreeable and
distressing. Their eyes were opened to see that they had been deceived by
the serpent, that they had broken the commandment of God, and incur-
red the displeasure of their Creator and kind benefactor, and had brought
ruin and destruction upon themselves; they saw what blessings and priv-
ileges they had lost, communion with God, the dominion of the creatures,
the purity and holiness of their nature, and what miseries they had invol -
ved themselves and their posterity in; how exposed they were to the wrath
of God, the curse of the law, and eternal death‖

Genesis 3:11 Then He asked, "Who told you that you were naked? Did
you eat of the tree from which I had forbidden you to eat?" TNK

Genesis 3:12 The man replied, 'It was the woman you put with me;
she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate it.' NJB


Genesis 3:13 With that Jehovah God said to the woman: "What is this
you have done?" To this the woman replied: "The serpent—it deceived
me and so I ate." NWT

Genesis 3:14 And Jehovah [Elohim] said to the serpent, Because thou
hast done this, be thou cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of
the field. On thy belly shalt thou go, and eat dust all the days of thy

Genesis 3:15 And I shall put enmity between you and the woman and
between your seed and her seed. He will bruise you in the head and you
will bruise him in the heel." NWT

Genesis 3:15 And there will be war between you and the woman and
between your seed and her seed: by him will your head be crushed and
you his foot will be wounded. BBE

Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and
between your offspring {Or seed} and hers; he will crush {Or strike}
your head, and you will strike his heel." NIB

Thus, Jehovah God pronounced judgments, first on the Serpent (later,

identified as the Devil, See Rev.12:9), and also Adam and Eve and their
genetic successors. (see Gen 3:19)

Genesis 3:19 By the sweat of your face will you earn your food, until
you return to the ground, as you were taken from it. For dust you are
and to dust you shall return.' NJB

While judgment was pronounced, the issue over sovereignty on earth

could not be resolved at that time. It had to be fully tested by being given
a chance to run its course and prove beyond a doubt whose sovereignty
was best for the entire creation.

Since the universal issue was raised in connection with the earth and
humans, ultimately, the matter would have to be concluded on the earth
where it had its original impact.

Revelation 12:9 So down the great dragon was hurled, the original
serpent, the one called Devil and Satan, who is misleading the
entire inhabited earth; he was hurled down to the earth, and his angels

were hurled down with him.NWT


While pronouncing his prophetic punishment on mankind, it is also at

this time that God institutes a future provision for the redemption of
mankind from his sentence.

This provision for mankind‘s ―redemption‖ from the death sentence

brought about due to Adam and Eve‘s disobedience and disloyalty to
their creator will be explained in the following chapter.

Genesis 3:15 From now on, you and the woman will be enemies, and
your offspring and her offspring will be enemies. He will crush your
head, and you will strike his heel." NLT

The ―He‖spoken of in this verse would prove to be the means by which

Jehovah God would provide redemption for mankind.

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The ―official‖ sin of man in the Garden of Eden, at the very beginning of
his existence as a species on this earth was ―Disobedience‖. Sin is defined
as; ―deliberate disobedience to the known will of God‖. It is also defined
as ―missing the mark‖, that is the mark of perfection (completeness). The
pre - announced punishment for disobedience was ―Death‖. While the
reasons behind the restriction were not quite as simple, the command to
obey was clear, simple and straightforward. If they would not obey
Jehovah, the sentence was death. For an in depth understanding of the
greater issues and more details behind this simple restriction, see Chap-
ter 8. : A Universal Issue‖

The only restriction placed on original humans:

Genesis 2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you are
not to eat; for, the day you eat of that, you are doomed to die.' NJB

Adam and Eve disobeyed God and ate from that forbidden tree. As a
conse- quence they left their creator, Jehovah, a God of truth and justice
no other option. He had to carry out the sentence in harmony with his
own version of truth and justice. Since Adam and Eve were the proto -
types for all humans, they would pass on their flaws as well as their own
attributes to their offspring perpetually.

If truth and justice were the only basis for God‘s will and thinking, that
would have been the end of the matter. Fortunately for us today, truth
and justice are not his only virtues. (See Chapter 2. – Who is God, What
is God?)

Other attributes of his include love, mercy, wisdom, and power. These are
always administered in perfect harmony with one another. For this and
other reasons Jehovah God sought to abrogate the long term effects of the
sentence of death upon mankind. At the same time, he would persevere
in fulfilling his original purpose for creating humans in the first place and
prove to the entire intelligent universe that his way was the best way.

In reacting lovingly to Adam and Eve‘s sin he would provide a means by

which he would ―redeem‖ mankind from the death sentence sin had

brought upon Adam and his progeny. To ―redeem‖ carries with it the
meaning of; to recover possession of, to buy back at a price. The price of
redemption for the life Adam had lost for himself and his progeny con-


sisted of the life of another perfect human who would not succumb to the
sin of disobedience, a form of imperf- ection. (Sin is literally, missing the
mark of perfection)

When we examine the means by which Jehovah would ―redeem‖ or buy

back mankind from the condition brought about by the penalty of death,
we find that Jehovah would provide a solution in total harmony with all
of his own qualities and attributes.

Redemption is all about Love, Mercy, Justice and Righteousness.

is the means by which Jehovah God guarantees to redeem (buy back, or
rescue), human kind from a seemingly hopeless state of being under con-
demnation of death, and at the same time, comply with his own perfect
sense of justice, mercy and love. It is what his provision to restore them
to the state which he originally intended them to be encompasses, alive
and at peace with his entire creation.

To fully understand Jehovah's response to the enormous universal issue

raised by Satan the Devil, we need to regress back a few chapters to
where we considered Jehovah God's qualities or rather his character-
istics. In chapter Four under What is God / Who is God?, it was shown
that four dominant qualities, Love, Justice, Power and Wisdom are
always evident in perfect harmony as he accomplishes his will. These
qualities in tandem application, (as in a total package), will weigh heavily
in the way he chooses to deal with the problematical situation described
fully in chapter 7. under the heading ‖The great universal issue sum-

A manmade solution to such a complex situation which combines all

of these four qualities is difficult if not impossible for us to even fathom.
We, as humans are endowed with these qualities only in the limited sense
of being merely in the image of the true God. We are far from being cap-
able of their full reality. Our own concepts of Love, Justice, Power and
Wisdom are imperfect and the way we use these individual qualities in
our relationships with one another is also far from perfect. A complete
reality belongs only to Jehovah. Only Jehovah possesses these qualities,
perfectly, and has power to apply them in a fully harmonious way. He has
the ability to solve any problem we as humans may either conceive or

even imagine.

What would you do?


To get some idea of just how this is so, lets indulge in an imaginary
exercise and try to imagine what kind of a solution we might
come up with in response to the following problem.

You are a brilliant scientist alone in outer space, and It can be very lonely
out there all by yourself. You have the power and knowledge to create a
sub-species similar to yourself. So you decide to do this. This sub-species
will be created with characteristics you yourself possess. It will have
intelligence, and be capable of many of the things you yourself are cap-
able of. However, you will not create it to possess all of your abilities,
neither will you impart to it all of your knowledge, nor will you endow it
with the ability to ever acquire all of your powers or knowledge. What you
have in mind is that this species would provide a form of companionship,
in a respectful and appreciative way. After all, you are giving it life and it
will owe its very existence to you.

As a first step, you determine there would be a relational order to this sub
species, sort, of what we might envision in human terms as a family. So
you start off with a primary created being as the beginning of your sub
species. A first ―son‖in effect. Now this one is very special to you. He is
the first, and you are really very happy with the result of your work. You
have created him with the ability to think, and freedom to make many
decisions for himself. You have made him a ―free moral agent‖ with the
ability to either love, respect and appreciate what you have given him or
not to. After all, it is only in this way that you can derive any real satis-
faction from the work you have accomplished. Love and respect from a
robot would be meaningless. Love and respect lose meaning with you if
they aren't voluntary. Well, this first son really brings you great joy and
satisfaction. He appears to respect you and also appreciates the gift you
have given him, life itself. However, your purpose is not to create just one
companion for yourself, but an entire species as your celestial family.
These will be companions to you and to him as well.

So you decide that this son, this firstborn of your creative work will be
allowed to work along with you and in harmony with you as a co-worker
or helper in creating the rest of the species. Of course, you remain the
master-mind behind the work that is done, but you teach him many skills
and you even show him to a great extent your way of thinking and how
you see things. He himself achieves master- worker status, alongside you

and under your tutoring. Together, you create a sub species of spirit
beings similar to yourselves, and with a great many of the characteristics
you yourselves possess. There are a great many of these additional sons,

in numbers, almost too great to count. Things go really well, you have
exactly what you envisioned, a great universal family of beings who really

seem to love and appreciate you for what you are and what you have done
for them.

Now time goes by, a lot of time, lets say, millions of years, maybe even
billions. You are busy tweaking the universe you have created, making
adjustments in a galaxy here and a star there and so on. Everybody in
your universal family is busy and happy. In all this time, your first son
and all your other sons remain appreciative of the love you have shown
them, and continue to show them. They are so appreciative, they even
worship you. Of course, this is quite proper because, they owe everything
they are and literally everything they have, to you.

Now, as a loving and creative parent, you decide to bestow a gift on your
universal family. Whether that first born son of yours had anything to do
with this idea, let‘s just suppose we don't know. Maybe he did, maybe he
didn't. However, we do know he likes the idea and gets really involved
with it. The idea is to create another sub- species, under the first one,
similar in some ways, yet different in others. This one will be created on
a level lower than the first. It will not be an exact duplicate nor will it
have all the qualities of the first one. However, this one also will, to a
relative extent be like yourself and the earlier sub-species. You can go so
far as to say, it will be made in your image. It also will have the freedom
of choice and enjoy many other freedoms, however in harmony with the
rest of your created universe. This sub species will be installed on a
planet which up to this time is an empty void, a wasteland without any
life forms.

So first, you decide to get that planet ready for your new sub-species. You
de- termine it will be self sustaining with all the systems and devices to
maintain life for eons of time, even without an end in sight. You decide to
incorporate into it a means to make life entirely enjoyable for the forth-
ncoming sub- species, even providing meaningful activity and countless
ways to enjoy endless time on that planet. This is quite an endeavor and it
takes a long time, perhaps millions more years, however, what difference
does it make, as time for you is infinite, it has no beginning , it has no end.

So now, the planet, which we will call earth, is ready and you and your
favorite son, the first one born of your creation decide to put a primary
living being on the planet. This one is going to be the centerpiece of life

on the planet. His species is the one which will have stewardship over all
the other living things on the planet. You refer to this first human being
as man. You say to your son, Let us make man in our image. And so you

do this. You make him with the ability to think and you endow him with
power to carry out his thoughts. You give him the ability to use his

thoughts in a way that will bring benefits to himself and others of his
species, those who are to follow. You call this unique ability wisdom
and you provide him with a sense of what is just, (fair and equitable to
all). Also, you give him the ability to demonstrate love in all its manifest-
tations, both toward you and to his fellow beings. You determine he and
his progeny will all have those qualities, which are similar to what you
and your son have.

And finally, you endow him with the ability to reproduce other members
of his species, so he too will experience the joy of a whole family of com-
panions who can share their love with each other, and with yourself as
their creator. You give him a helper, a work mate, something along the
lines of what you have in your first born son, yet different. You clone
some material from his body and make for him a woman. This one, you
say, will be a complement to him. She will add to the qualities you gave
him, in ways in which he may fulfill his own potential. He will be husband
to her and she will be a wife to him. She will be the means by which the
two of them, together will reproduce similar beings, who will in turn
bring joy and happiness to you, themselves and to their fellow human
beings, just as your other created beings bring joy to you and to each

These two prototype human beings will be called Adam and Eve. They
will enjoy a closeness as if they are one being, somewhat like you yourself
have with your own beloved son. They, when taken together will cons-
titute the full potential of humanity. The children they will produce will
also be able to reproduce their own kind to an extent where the entire
planet will become inhabited with perfect humans who live happily, can
enjoy their environment and bring joy and delight to all other created
beings as well as to you, their creator.

Now, to preserve the sanctity of your overall creation, you place some
stipulations upon them. One is; that they recognize that you are the
creator, and that everything still remains within your right, a right of
sovereignty. A second is; that only you have the right to determine what
is appropriate and what is best for your creation, that only you are God to
them. Third, that you not only have this right, but are entirely deserving
of appreciation and honor for all you have done and will continue to do
for them.. So you invoke a simple demand on them; Obedience. Their

obedience will be evidence they recognize your sovereign rights and that
they appreciate their relationship to you. It is a simple restriction, not
burdensome, yet one which will be indicative of their appreciation for all

you have done for them, one which will indicate their willingness to live


by your rules and at the same time demonstrate their love and loyalty to

Everything seems to be in order and absolutely in perfect harmony. All

this constitutes a truly amazing accomplishment. The earthly creation is
so impressive, even to your previously created heavenly beings, ―that all
your heavenly sons shout in applause‖

Then, something happens up there in outer space, in a realm we will call

heaven, where you live. An individual from among your first created sub-
species begins to yearn for the honor, respect, admiration and authority
that belong only to you as the original creator. He desires what is not right-
fully his and he takes steps to achieve his yearnings. He wants this new
sub-species to follow his own style of authority, which revolves around him,
and not your authority as you have established it. He becomes rebellious
against your authority and in setting himself up against you; he raises
questions as to your ability and your right to be the sovereign over all your
creation. He raises these questions before all of your other created beings
and he takes his case to your newly created species on the earth to prove
his point.

There, in disguise, he approaches the woman you have created and entices
her with an offer which he thinks may appeal to her. This offer appears to
be some-thing which would be of benefit to her and her husband Adam.
However, it really constitutes a device to gain her loyalty and confidence
away from you and make her follow him instead. He tells her she can be
like you and she can determine for herself what is right or wrong, what is
good or bad for her, that she doesn't need your guidance, and on top of that,
that you have lied to her. She is deceived by him, she is enticed by his offer
and she in turn extends the same offer to her husband, the one called

Together they, accept your rebellious son's suggestion, thereby trans-

ferring their allegiance and loyalty away from you, to the rebellious one
himself. You know immediately, this direct and willful disobedience to
your stipulation will bring disaster to your earthly creation if it is allowed
to proceed to its ultimate end. For you have always known, that your
human species is not designed with the ability to know or provide what
is best for themselves in the long term.

Furthermore, a serious question as to your right and your ability to

govern your creation has been raised, a question which extends far

beyond your earthly realm. Then there is also that matter of your being


accused of being a liar, a characteristic you have never allowed in your

self, or in anyone in all your creation.

How would you deal with this situation? What action would you take?
How would you prevent this occurrence from derailing your original
purpose in connection with all these created beings, both heavenly and
earthly? How would you deal with this rebellious son of yours and also
with those who have taken sides with him against you?

So now, let‘s explore some of the possibile ways we as humans might deal
with the situation so as to get things restored to where they were before
the insurrection took place, back to where you intended them to be.

1. You could immediately terminate the rebellious ones forever. You have
the power to do this. By taking such action, the culprits would be off the
scene, but would that terminate the issue which was raised? Would this
prove beyond any doubt that your way is the best way and no other way
can compare with it? Or would there remain lingering questions or
doubts in the minds of some of your other created beings, that possibly
the accuser had some validity with his accusations?. Most likely, there
would remain doubts? While this solution would show you have the
power, and your action might be entirely justifiable, it would not show
you as one who used your power in a wise and loving way. Therefore, this
solution would not work in harmony with the total package of your attri-
butes which entail love, justice, power and wisdom, all in harmony with
one another. So you reject it since it does not meet all aspects of the
principals you stand for.

2. You could just write the whole thing off, and just go forward and create
another set of circumstances, somewhere else, to replace the one that
didn't work out. Another sub-species, another habitable environmental
system and another lower sub- species to live on it. You did it before, and
you could do it again. The defect in this solution revolves around the fact
that you really didn't make a mistake with the first set of circumstances
connected with your creation. Your very first creation, the one you created
before all others did not rebel. Also, most of the others you created in his
subspecies did not rebel either.

It was a single, being who figuratively set the woods on fire. As far as the

earthly part of the picture goes, you know in the depth of your heart that
humans could have maintained their loyalty and integrity to you. They
just never got the chance to do it, because they messed up, ―right out of

the box‖. Since the design of their species included the ability to
perpetuate itself in all its details, even mental functions and

characteristics, once the first pair took on imperfection, that was all all
they could produce in subsequent generations. The defects would be
carried by all succeeding generations. The challenges raised could not be
met by merely starting over again elsewhere. All that would prove is that
you had the ability to recreate what you had done before, and not that it
was right in the first place. It would demonstrate; ―might over right‖, and
not might in harmony with what was right.

3. You could find a way to solve the problem by applying all facets of your
limitless ability including the use of your Love, Justice, Wisdom and
Power in harmony with each other, which you had done initially in your
creation and which is really your unique own way of doing things.

This is what you decide to do. And these are the prerequisites you
recognize as necessary to accomplish this solution;

Justice must be complied with. Everything you said to your created

beings was spoken in truth. They must see that your yes means yes, and
your no means no. After all, this is what you expect of them. Justice must
be an integral part of any solution to the problem. Any discipline or
punishment you promised must be carried out. You had ordained that
the penalty for disobed- ience would be death. Therefore, it must be
carried out.

Love is a primary motivating quality in your make up and that means

mercy must be a prime player in any solution you finally come up with.
The love you have for all your loyal created beings demands that this
problem be solved in a way that manifests that love for them and in ways
that provide all the benefits and blessings you had in mind for them when
you created them.

c. Wisdom will be required to fit together all the pieces in what portends
to be quite a complex solution. Complex, because it must satisfy every
single aspect, even the most minute details of the situation. Enough time
and circumstances must be allowed to run a natural course for all to see
that that your way is truly the best way, and the only way for the whole
creation to realize its full potential. This means allowing enough time for
the claims of the rebel to be tested com- pletely. Then all may see his
accusations and his guidance are not only false but inferior and entirely

dangerous to the rest of creation.

d. Power and its application in a variety of ways will be required to


control events in such ways as to allow the issue to be completely and

fairly resolved. It must be applied in a way that satisfies all the other

characteristics employed in the solution. Then, also, power will be

required to undo the damage created by the rebellious ones who share
the inclination of the original rebel to do things their way rather than
your way. And, finally power must be applied so that once the issue has
been resolved, it will never surface again. Also, it must be employed in
such a way so as to completely restore the earth to a condition fulfilling
your original intention.

Now, there are probably a number of other possible solution scenarios

we could either imagine or try to imagine. Based on our own reasoning
abilities we might even think some could solve the problem. However,
the hardcore truth is we really don't have the ability it takes within our
created data base (brain) to come up with the absolutely best one. No,
not even a single one, which could realistically be considered comparable
with anything our creator can supply.

By this time, you probably realize our imaginary exercise may be only
somewhat imaginary, for it bears more than a slight resemblance to what
is actually described in the Bible account. What our imaginary exercise is
intended to demonstrate is that the real problem is not a simple one with
a quick and simple solution. Precisely how our creator deals with the
problem and the exact means by which he accomplishes the solution is
contained within the pages of his inspired word, the Bible. There, you
will see his description, with your own eyes, in full detail, but, only if you
really make an effort by applying yourself truthfully and asking him for

The solution Jehovah God chooses bears an approximate resemblance to

#3. above. There we explored a simplistic version, one we could easily
relate to. The reality which Jehovah chose to implement is far more com-
plex in its details than that which we described.

However, just for information sake, here is an abbreviated outline of

some of the elements contained in the solution our creator has included
in an action, which is even now in the process of fulfillment. Keep in
mind, there was no shortcoming in his plan for the universe or in his
purpose toward the earth. What it is all about is restoring things that
went wrong back to being in har- mony with his will, his purpose and
his creation as a whole. And in a way that proves conclusively that his

way is really best for all concerned. This is the essence of what ―redemp-
tion‖ means, both for mankind and for the physical earth in a dramatic
rescue from the ravages of sin and death.

A Blueprint for Redemption:


The Bible teaches what solution Jehovah God provided, and continues to
reveal what he will accomplish as his master plan is fully implemented.

1. Provision of A ―savior or deliverer‖, as a means by which justice

will be served and a new beginning possible. This would be an entity who
would deliver men from the condemnation of inherited sin and its cohort,
death as well.

1 John 4:14 Furthermore, we have seen with our own eyes and
now testify that the Father sent his Son to be the Savior of the
world. NLT

2. An answer to his accuser in the form of showing that a created human

being such as Adam could indeed have remained faithful to God. This is evi-
denced by the Bible citing examples of men approved by Jehovah throughout
its pages. (a few examples of which follow)

Genesis 5:24 And Enoch walked with God . . . .. DBY

Genesis 6:9 This is the history of Noah. Noah was a righteous

man. He proved himself faultless among his contemporaries.
Noah walked with the [true] God. NWT

James 2:23 In this way the scripture was fulfilled: Abraham

put his faith in God, and this was considered as making him
upright; and he received the name 'friend of God'. NJB

3. Clear direction as to what his expectations are for his created

human family, and also foregleams of what his intended paradise for
them will be like and how they can realize it.

Mtt. 22:37 He said to him: "'You must love Jehovah your God
with your whole heart and with your whole soul and with your
ike it, is this, 'You must love your neighbor as yourself.' On these
two commandments the whole Law hangs, and the Prophets."

Rev. 21:3 3 Then I heard a loud voice call from the throne,

'Look, here God lives among human beings. He will make his
home among them; they will be his people, and he will be their
God, God-with-them. 4 He will wipe away all tears from their

eyes; there will be no more death, and no more mourning or

sadness or pain. The world of the past has gone.' 5 Then the One

sitting on the throne spoke. 'Look, I am making the whole of

creation new. Write this, "What I am saying is trustworthy and
will come true." NJB

4. A living source of information to help rightly disposed individuals

to avail themselves of God's provisions, presently and for their everlasting

Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is full of living power. It is

sharper than the sharpest knife, cutting deep into our innermost
thoughts and desires. It exposes us for what we really are. NLT

2 Timothy 3:16 All Scripture is inspired by God and is useful to

teach us what is true and tomake us realize what is wrong in our
lives. It straightens us out and eaches us to do what is right. NLT

5. A provision whereby all human ancestors of Adam and Eve are

given an opportunity to demonstrate their respect for the creator's
sovereignty and their personal love and loyalty to him without
supernatural external influences by Satan the devil.

John 6:40 For this is the will of my Father, that everyone that
beholds the Son and exercises faith in him should have
everlasting life, and I will resurrect him at the last day." NWT

6. An arrangement for our redemption from the death sentence

imposed on our original parents, which complies with his own standards
of justice.

Romans 5:19 For just as through the disobedience of the one

man many were constituted sinners, likewise also through the
obedience of the one [person] many will be constituted righteous.

Hosea 13:14 "I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I
will redeem them from death. Where, O death, are your plagues?
Where, O grave, is your destruction? NIV

7. A real hope for individuals to realize the promise he has given them

and an understanding of how they might achieve this hope, all

guaranteed by him.


Acts 24:15 I have the same hope in God as they themselves have
that there will be a resurrection of the righteous and the
unrighteous. NAB

John 17:3 And this is the way to have eternal life-- to know you,
the only true God, and Jesus Christ, the one you sent to earth NLT


Jehovah God‘s provision for man‘s redemption includes all four of his
major qualities. How he would use them in tandem and in a harmonious
way is described below:


He would provide the ransom price for man‘s redemption from sin and
death on ―an equal for an equal‖ basis. This principal is well illustrated in
a law he gave to Moses in a body of laws he provided for his people to
follow in the case of law breakers;

Deuteronomy 19:21 You must never show pity! Your rule should be
life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for

Adam had started out as a perfect human. When he succumbed to sin and
became imperfect, he brought the death sentence on himself and his
descen- dants. Since Jehovah does not change, the principal given above
in the Law of Moses provides insight into Jehovah‘s thinking in terms of
divine justice as part of the solution he implemented. In dealing with
Adam‘s sin, Jehovah would have to provide another perfect human, an
equal of Adam as an ―eye for an eye‖ to satisfy his own sense of justice.

Jehovah would provide such a perfect human who would himself be

tested as to his loyalty and obedience to God under the same influences
and conditions that Adam was subjected to. If this one would prove
faithful and not fall prey to sin, he would not only satisfy justice on
several counts, but he would also give a response to the ―Universal Issue‖
raised by Satan the Devil in the Garden of Eden.

His loyalty under test conditions would clarify the following:



1. That the original model had not been created defectively and
that he could have remained faithful, despite the influence of other
forces, particularly the efforts of Satan the Devil.

2. That if given fair opportunity, there would be humans who would

fulfill God‘s expectations for them as occupants of the earthly home
he had gifted them with.

3. That a human in the condition of Adam could have proven

faithful despite the machinations of the devil, even in the face of

Thus, on the basis of divine justice, Jehovah would provide an equivalent

to Adam who would serve as a means by which he would comply with his
own code of justice. That equal is provided in Jesus Christ, whose life
course would compensate for the life course Adam had failed to follow.
In this, Jesus would redeem mankind from the penalty of death and
restore the prospects of everlasting life to them.

1 Corinthians 15:22 For as in Adam death comes to all, so in Christ will

all come back to life. BBE

Romans 6:23 For the wages sin pays is death, but the gift God gives is
everlasting life by Christ Jesus our Lord. NWT

2. Wisdom: A prime ingredient in the recipe for redemption.

Wisdom would be the singular quality which when applied over

everything else, would act as the glue by which all other elements and
facets of a complex and comprehensive solution would be bound

3. Power: Would enter into the equation in number of ways;

a. Power would provide a means by which Jehovah could intervene

in unfolding events so as to allow the issue to be played out fairly
over an extended period of time, thus insuring that all alternative
means of rule proposed by Satan were given ample opportunity to
show what they could do.

One example where he used his power was when he confused the
language of men at the tower of Babel and prevented them from

advancing too rapidly for the issue to have enough time for a full

Another example was how he imparted powers to his Son Jesus to

show that promises made on God‘s side of the issue were realistic
and could be relied upon. Still another manifestation of his power
was in preserving a communication that reflected his truth in the
form known today as the Holy Bible (his inspired word). Also, he
would use his divine power to prevent Satan from totally over-
whelming humans through his own superhuman abilities.

b. Jehovah‘s power would prevent man from inadvertently taking

himself and his environment to a point of no return. A point from
which there could be no rescue due to the total destruction of the
physical earth and its environs. If allowed, something along the
lines of a full blown nuclear holocaust could do just that.

c. His Power would provide the physical means involved with

miraculously providing a new ―equal‖ to Adam in the form of a
redeemer who could compensate for what Adam had lost.

d. It would provide an ongoing counter balance by means of Holy

Spirit so as to provide a counter influence to Satan‘s influence,
thereby providing a choice for humans in whether they would
follow Satan or follow Jehovah.

e. His power would be the means by which he would bring dead

humans to life on a paradise earth to be given a chance to have the
opportunity to loyally follow his guidance under restored cond-
itions without external destructive interference from beings of
superior intelligence to their own.

f. Divine power would be the means by which he would eliminate all

elements of rebellion and opposition to his purposes obce the issue
was proven beyond any doubt as well as the means by which he
would again restore the earth and its systems to its originally
intended purposes.

These are just some of the ways which Jehovah God would use his power
to restore the earth to its originally intended state while allowing the
great issue raised by Satan the Devil to be fully settled to the satisfaction

of all creation.

4. LOVE:

God‘s love would manifest itself in at least two different ways;


First, he would continue to provide all the necessary means to not only
sustain life on a continuous basis while the issue was being resolved, but
if men would follow his direction while it was being resolved, they would
have a quality of life which would afford them a high degree of joy and

Secondly, he would provide a savior, as a means by which to comply with

divine justice as well as a means by which he would deliver his message
and viewpoint to humans. This one would personally prove that man
could have remained faithful, even under the circum- stances of satanic
influence over the world he lived in. This provision would be at very
great risk to the father Jehovah, in that it would be his own dearly
beloved son who he would risk for the sake of mankind. If we fail to see
this as an act of love, we do not fully understand how free moral agency
enters into the picture. Free moral agency dictates there be at least two
possibilities, two ways an intelligent human can choose from. Adam was
endowed with a choice, either to remain loyal or not to and he chose not
to. If there was no possibility his son Jesus could make a similar choice, it
would not have presented anything which could be justly construed as an
equal to Adam. There had to be a real possibility of failure, just as there
was in Adam‘s case. Thus, the act of love on Jehovah‘s part was to take
such a risk. A risk whereby, if Jesus proved unfaithful, the relationship
he had with his son for eons of years would be completely lost.

His only begotten son Jesus Christ became the means by which Jehovah
would redeem mankind from inherited sinfulness and also the
condemnation of death. If he remained faithful to the end of his earthly
life, Adam‘s sin would be atoned for (paid for) by his own self sacrificing

John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten
Son, that whosoever believes on him may not perish, but have life
eternal. DBY

(other versions)

John 3:16 "For God loved the world so much that he gave his only-
begotten Son, in order that everyone exercising faith in him might not
be destroyed but have everlasting life. NWT

John 3:16 For God had such love for the world that he gave his only Son,
so that whoever has faith in him may not come to destruction but have

eternal life BBE


Now, we arrive at the center piece of Jehovah‘s provision for complete

redemp- tion, the key figure, the absolute focal point, his own beloved
son, the Messiah or Christ. The one through whom the entire plan for
redemption by God would be accomplished. The one spoken of in Gen.
3:15 as the seed who would bruise the serpent (Satan) the Devil in the
head. In the following chapter, we will explore what the Bible teaches
about this outstanding and all important figure. We shall explore what
the bible teaches about his role as a redeemer, as a spokesman for his
father, and as a King over all his father was to deliver into his authority.

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[Return to Beginning]


(a key element in God‘s purpose)

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[Return to Beginning]


The hope connected to the Messiah is shared by Jews and Christians alike,
and there is only one Messiah. We invite those who embrace the Jewish
faith to consider what the Christian Greek scriptures say about the Messiah
along with what their Hebrew Scriptures disclose. We invite those who
embrace Christian- ity to consider what the Hebrew Scriptures disclose
about the Messiah as well as what their own Christian Greek scriptures

The meaning behind the ―Messiah‖ is a story of ―Redemption‖. The

Messiah (deliverer) is the sole means provided by God for the salvation of
the earth and for human beings as a species on it. The story of ―Messiah‖
begins in the very first chapter of the Bible at Gen. 3:15 and weaves its
way all through the Bible, with a culmination occurring in the 21st chapter
of Revelations.

Understanding who the Messiah is and why he is necessary is essential for

any greater benefit we may derive from studying God‘s direct commun-
ication. How- ever, it is not merely knowledge which is at stake. The impor-
tance of understand- ing the meaning behind the Messiah is summed up in
the words of Jesus Christ at John 17:3

John 17:3 ―This means everlasting life, their taking in knowledge of

you, the only true God, and of the one whom you sent forth, Jesus
Christ‖.[The Messiah] NWT

Thus, according to the Bible, taking in knowledge of the true God and the
one who he sent forth (the Messiah), is a matter of life and death. In this
chapter we will come to know about the Messiah from God‘s own word,
the Bible.

Included in this knowledge will be:

1. Various ways the Messiah is described in the Hebrew Scriptures,

providing us with vivid word pictures describing him.

2. The prophecies given in the Hebrew Scriptures by which the

Messiah may be identified, and who they show him to be in the
Christian Greek scriptures.


3. The nature of the Messiah‘s relationship to God almighty, from

his own personal point of view.

4. Who it was whom the first century Christian believers recog -

nized as the Messiah.

5. What they understood Messiah‘s relationship to God almighty to


6. The role the Messiah plays in God‘s purpose for the earth and its

7. The role Messiah plays in our individual lives.

The Messiah is God‘s instrument to return the earth to its originally

intended purpose. That purpose was and still remains for this earth to be
a worldwide paradise populated by a human family, in peace and harmony
with their creator and his creation. This is the major reason for God
Almighty in providing a Messiah. Also, the Messiah is God‘s loving
provision for atoning for mans sinful downfall in Genesis in a way which
serves divine justice. The Messiah may be illustrated as a detour provided
around a washed out road, one by which the traveler may arrive at the
final destination intended, despite the damage to the original roadway.

1. Various descriptions given in scripture, referring to

the Messiah.

The Hebrew noun, MASHIACH, [MESSIAH] meaning, "anointed one," is

only applied to animate objects. Those who were consecrated in this
category were priests (Leviticus 4:3), prophets (Psalm 105:15), and kings
(1 Samuel 10:1, 12:3). This term, however is used at least nine times in a
more technical sense referring to, "the anointed one" (e.g. "Jehohovah‘s
Anointed" Psalm 2:2, and Daniel 9:25-26,"Messiah, The Prince"). In
these instances it speaks of a Messiah as a coming deliverer.
This deliverer or Messiah is identified in the New Testament as Jesus,
who is called Christ (CHRISTOS), which happens to be the Greek
translation of the Hebrew term Messiah (MASHIACH).

There are also a number of other terms that refer to or are used for

Messiah, which are given as word pictures describing him and his
function. Reading these names (word pictures) of the Lord/Messiah

which were given prophetically as listed below in their context can


really shine some light on Old Testament beliefs about the "Lord." (Holy
Bible, King James Version.)

Old Testament Names and Descriptions of the ‗Messiah‘,JPS

Hebrew Scriptures JPS - (The Bible text designated JPS is from The Holy
Scriptures (Old Testament), originally published by the Jewish
Publication Society in 1917. The Bible text designated TNK is from The
TANAKH, published by the Jewish Publication Society in 1985)

A sapling - Is. 53:2JPS, A root out of dry ground - Is. 53:2 JPS The
planting of renown - Ezek. 34:29,TNK Im man‘-u-el - Is. 7:14, JPS Pele-
joez-el-gibbor-Abi-ad-sar-shalom; (Isa 9:6 JPS) (Wonderful Counselor -
Is. 9:6,KJV) The Mighty God - Is. 9:6, TNK The eternal Father - Is. 9:6, TNK
peaceable ruler - Is. 9:6, TNK The redeemer of Israel - Is. 59:20,JPS
YHWH‘s servant - Is. 42:1JPS The Seed of the woman - Gen. 3: 15, JPS and
A foundation stone - Is. 28:16 JPS

These are all powerful word pictures from the Hebrew Scriptures which
describe traits and attributes possessed by the Messiah.

New Testament names and descriptions for the Messiah; Christ:

Though sometimes treated as if it were Jesus' surname, Christ is not a

name but a title, and comes into English from the Greek Χρηζηός
(Khristos), via the Latin Christus. It means "anointed one" The Greek
is a borrowed translation of the Hebrew mashiakh ( ) or Aramaic
mshikha ( ), from which we derive the English word Messiah.
(Anointed one)

While the term ―Christ‖ is widely used in the N.T. there is evidence that
early scholars recognized it as being interchangeable with the term ―Messiah‖
in the O.T., at least in instances as found in Septuagint manuscripts dating
from around 200 BCE.

Daniel 9:25 And thou shalt know and understand, that from the going
forth of the com- mand for the answer and for the building of Jerusalem
until Christ the prince there shall be seven weeks, and sixty-two

weeks; and then the time shall return, and the street shall be built, and
the wall, and the times shall be exhausted. LXE

(Other Bible versions)


Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the word to
restore and to build Jerusalem unto one anointed, a prince, shall be
seven weeks; and for threescore and two weeks, it shall be built again,
with broad place and moat, but in troublous times JPS

Know thou, therefore, and take notice: that from the going forth of the
word, to build up Jerusalem again, unto Christ, the prince, there
shall be seven weeks, and sixty-two weeks: and the street shall be built
again, and the walls, in straitness of times. DRA

"Know therefore and understand, That from the going forth of the
command To restore and build Jerusalem Until Messiah the Prince,
There shall be seven weeks and sixty two weeks; The street shall be built
again, and the wall, Even in troublesome times. NKJ

1 Samuel 2:35 And I will raise up to myself a faithful priest, who shall
do all that is in my heart and in my soul; and I will build him a sure
house, and he shall walk before my Christ forever. LXE

And I will raise Me up a faithful priest, that shall do according to that

which is in My heart and in My mind; and I will build him a sure house;
and he shall walk before Mine anointed for ever. JPS

Psalm 2:2 The kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers gathered
themselves together, against the Lord, and against his Christ; LXE

The kings of the earth stand up, and the rulers take counsel together,
against the LORD, and against His anointed JPS

Psalm 20:6 Now I know that the Lord has saved his Christ: he shall
hear him from his holy heaven: the salvation of his right hand is mighty.

Now know I that the LORD saveth His anointed; He will answer him
from His holy heaven with the mighty acts of His saving right hand. JPS

The title ―anointed one: occurs in the Hebrew Bible, where it signifies the
installation of a "king", "prophet", or "high priest"; A person, chosen by
God or descended from a person chosen by God, to serve as a civil,

advisory, religious, and/or military authority.

In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus's genealogy (Matthew 1:2–16) uses the


title "Anointed One" ("Christ") for Jesus, in the sense of an anointed king.
It also lists the succession of anointed kings of Judah, starting with David

through Solomon until Jeconiah. All of them belong to the Davidic

Dynasty, which terminated when Babylon conquered Judah. Then the
successors listed after Jeconiah are heirs for when a Neo-Davidic-
Dynasty is finally restored to Judah. At the conclusion of the list, Jesus
is then identified as a new king and thus called the "Anointed One.‖Early
alternate spellings also exist: Chrestos or Chrestus.

Other titles for the Messiah found in the New Testament

The New Testament uses many titles to refer to Jesus, including: God,
Prophet, Lord, Son of man, Son of God, Lamb of God, King of the Jews,
King of Kings, Rabbi and Emmanuel. While some Christians understand
some of these titles as attesting to Jesus' divinity, historians have argued
that when used in other texts of the time, these titles had other meanings,
and therefore had other meanings when used in the Gospels as well.

John Dominic Crossan says that the titles "Divine", "Son of God", "God",
"Lord", "Redeemer", "Liberator", and "Saviour of the World" were
collectively applied to Octavian, who became Caesar Augustus after
defeating Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. In 42 BC,
Julius Caesar was formally deified as"the divine Julius" (divus Iulius).
His adopted son, Octavian (better known by the title "Augustus" given to
him 15 years later, in 27 BC) thus became known as "divi Iuli filius" (son
of the divine Julius) or simply "divi filius" (son of the god). The title was
for him "a useful propaganda tool", and was displayed on the coins that
he issued. The word applied to Julius Caesar as deified is "divus", not the
distinct word "deus". Thus Augustus was called "Divi filius", but never
"Dei filius", the expression applied to Jesus in the Vulgate trans- lation of
the New Testament, as, for instance, in 1 John 5:5, and in earlier Latin
translations, as shown by the Vetus Latina text "Inicium evangelii Ihesu
Christi filii dei" preserved in the Codex Gigas. As son of Julius Caesar,
Augustus was seen as the son of a god, not as the son of God, which was
how the monotheistic Christians saw Jesus.

Greek language did not have a distinction corresponding to that in Latin

between "divus" and "deus". "Divus" was thus translated as "θεός", the
same word used for the Olympian gods, and "divi filius" as "θεοῦ υἱός"

(theou huios), which, since it does not include the Greek article, would be
understood in a polytheistic context as "son of a god". In the mono-
theistic context of the New Testament, the same phrase[ refers to the one

God. Indeed, in the New Testament, Jesus is usually referred to by the


unambiguous phrase, " ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ" (ho huios tou theou), meaning
the son of God. All this must be taken in the context of the basic meaning
of the word God which is fundamentally implying a being superior in its
nature to that of any human in ability or intelligence.

Similar comments can be made about some of the other titles, such as
"Lord". The Britannica Online Encyclopaedia states that the word
"dominus" meant "in ancient Rome, 'master', or 'owner', particularly
of slaves. The name became the official title for the emperor, beginning
with Diocletian, who reigned from AD 284 to 305; and thus he and his
successors are often referred to as the dominate (dominatus), as con-
trasted with the earlier principate (principatus) of Augustus and his


According to the New Testament, many Jews of the time thought of Jesus
as a prophet. The New Testament also indicates that Jesus considered
himself to be a prophet. In the Hebrew Bible, prophets were generally
men who spoke for God, proclaiming God's words to the people, and
often predicting future events. But in Mathew 11: 9 -14 there it gives us
a dis- tinction between John the Baptist and Old Testament Prophets
indicating a new level of prophecy in connection with Christ Jesus.

11 Truly I say to YOU people, Among those born of women there has not
been raised up a greater than John the Baptist; but a person that is a
lesser one in
the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he is. 12 But from the days of
John the Baptist until now the kingdom of the heavens is the goal
toward which men press, and those pressing forward are seizing it. 13
For all, the Prophets and the Law, prophesied until John; 14 and if YOU
want to accept it, He himself is 'E-li'jah who is destined to come.'


The Gospels and Acts frequently use "Lord" as a title for Jesus. According to

the Gospel of John, Jesus accepted this title as his own. However, some
scholars believe Jesus did not claim this title himself. They argue others
ascribed it to him. Some Christians interpret the term as a refer- ence to

divinity. In one passage Jesus is addressed as "My Lord and my God".[24]


Scholars explain the use of this title in various ways: some believe that Jesus'
disciples called him "Lord", but not because he was divine, rather that he
was superior in a superlative sense. According to Geza Vermes, a close
reading of the Gospels suggests that most people addressed Jesus as lord as a
sign of respect for a miracle-worker (especial- ly in Mark and Matthew) or as
a teacher (especially in Luke). In many cases one can substitute the words
"sir" or "teacher" for "lord", and the meaning of the passage in question will
not change, though in some instances the substitution would make little
sense. Others believe that the New Testament uses the term lord to imply
divinity, but that it was only after Jesus' death and resurrection that his
followers ascribed divinity to him. Still others argue that neither Jesus nor
his disciples used the Aramaic term for lord, mara, and that the Greek term
θύρηος (kurios) was borrowed from pagan Hellenic usage. However, kurios
had long been used by the Septuagint to translate ‫( אדני‬adon) which had its
original form in YHWH (Tetragramaton / Jehovah)

The Hebrew Bible distinguishes between "lord" (adon) and "God"; the
word "lord" does not necessarily imply divinity, although God is often
described as "the Lord". Surviving inter-testamental Aramaic texts
frequently use the Aramaic mara to mean "the Lord", that is, God; but
they also provide evidence of people using mara and kurios as personal
titles (for example, used to address a husband, father, or king). There is
little evidence that term was used specifically to mean "teacher", but
there is much evidence of students using the term mar to refer to their
teachers respectfully, or to refer to an especially respected and author-
itative teacher. In one passage in the New Testament "lord" and "teacher"
are distin- guished by two different Greek words.

Son of Man

Jesus is rarely described as Son of man (‫ נשא בר‬bar nasha, in Aramaic)

outside of the Gospels, but in the Synoptic Gospels this title is used in
several speeches attributed to Jesus, in a way that is near universally
considered to have been intended as a self-refer- ence. Historically, the
title is a Semitic idiom that orig- inated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used
to denote humanity or self in a humble manner. Some argue that the
phrase relates to Daniel 7:13, which associates "one like a son of man"

with a messianic vision, and six Gospel uses of the title directly refer to,
and many others allude to, Daniel. Since Daniel is an apocalyptic work,
some scholars link Jesus' use of the term "son of man" with the short


apocalypse of chapter 13 of the Gospel of Mark (see Olivet discourse);

such a view paints Jesus as teacher of apocalyptic Judaism.

When the authors of the Gospels used the title "the Son of Man", the idea
of Daniel's "Son of Man" was probably a factor in their use. Bruce Chilton
puts it this way "the concept of the son of man as used in Daniel was
certainly in the air when Jesus used the term and a fortiori when the New
Testament was composed."

Geza Vermes, observing that other Aramaic texts reveal that the phrase
was used frequently to mean simply "man", or as a way by which a speaker
may refer to himself, concluded that it is possible that this phrase was
actually not a title. What- ever the meaning of the expression, when
transcribed into Greek it is almost always used with the direct article ὁ
(ho), translated "the", when it refers to Jesus.

The phrase 'Son of Man' as a title is most commonly used outside of the
Gospels in the book of Ezekiel. In addition, save for the possible excep-
tion of John 13:13, Jesus never referred to himself as "Lord". In the
Gospels, when Jesus spoke in the third person, he only referred to
himself as the "Son of Man."

Son of God

The New Testament frequently refers to Jesus as the son of God; Jesus
seldom does, but often refers to God as his father. However, at NJB
Matthew 16:16 when ―Simon Peter spoke up and said, 'You are the
Christ, the Son of the living God‖. Jesus reply at vs. 17 confirms his
acceptance of this description as being valid. Vs. 17; ―Jesus replied,
'Simon son of Jonah, you are a blessed man! Because it was no human
agency that revealed this to you but my Father in heaven.‖

Geza Vermes has argued that Jesus and his followers may have
understood this title differ- ently from inferring ―God‖ status. He
observes that the Hebrew Bible uses the phrase "son of God" in other
senses: to refer to heavenly or angelic beings; to refer to the Children of
Israel, and to refer to kings. There is no New Testament evidence to

suggest that early Christians thought of Jesus as an angel, so the first two
usages seem not to apply. In the Gospels, the being of Jesus as "son of
God", corresponds exactly to the typical Hasid from Galilee, a "pious"

holy man under the Code of Moses in a strict sense.


However, Mark identifies Jesus as the son of King David, and Matthew
and Luke provide lineages linking Jesus to King David. II Samuel 7:14,
Psalm 89:26-27 and possibly 2:7, refer to David as a "son" of God,
although historians find no evidence that the authors of the Bible
believed David to be divine or literally God's son. (Some Christians,
namely those believing in Bible prophecy, interpret these and other
Psalms as referring prophetically to Jesus, the "seed" referred to in Psalm
89. In post-Biblical Judaism, the title Son of God was often applied to
righteous men: Sirach 4:10 and Wisdom of Solomon 2:17-18 use the term
to refer to just men, and Book of Jubilees 1:24-25 has God declaring all
righteous men to be his sons. Philo too wrote that good people are sons
of God, and various rabbis in the Talmud declare that when Israelites are
good, they are sons of God.

King of the Jews

The title of "King of the Jews" is used to refer to Jesus in two recorded
episodes during his life. It is first used by the Magi, who ask of King
Herod "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw
his star when it rose and have come to worship him". The teachers of the
law answer that he will be found in Bethlehem, according to the
prophesy of Micah. It is again used in Jesus' trial. In all of the gospel
accounts, Pilate is recorded as asking Jesus "Are you king of the Jews?",
to which Jesus replies "You have said so". This may imply that the
Sanhedrin told Pilate that Jesus had claimed this title. Pilate then orders
the written charge on the sign on Jesus' stake to read "Jesus of Nazareth,
the King of the Jews". John reports that the sign was written in Aramaic,
Latin and Greek. In Latin this can be translated as "Iesus Nazarenus Rex
Iudaeorum". The abbreviation INRI is therefore used to represent this in
many depictions of Jesus' impalement.

Lamb of God

A title of Jesus used exclusively in John‘s writings. Though the word

"lamb" is used by other New Testament writers. Paul specifically

identifies Jesus with the Paschal (Passover) lamb.



1 Corinthians 5:7 Remove this wicked person from among you so that
you can stay pure. Christ, our Passover Lamb, has been sacrificed for
us. NLT

Christ, the new Adam

In the New Testament we read, 1 Corinthians 15:45 ―Thus it is written,

the first man, Adam, became a living being; the last Adam became a
life-giving spirit.‖ – NRSV

and we read;

Romans 5:12-21―Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one
man, and death came through sin, and so death spread to all because all
have sinned — sin was indeed in the world before the law, but sin is not
reckoned when there is no law. Yet death exercised dominion from
Adam to Moses, even over those whose sins were not like the
transgression of Adam, who is a type of the one who was to come. But
the free gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died through the one
man‘s trespass, much more surely have the grace of God and the free
gift in the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abounded for the many.
And the free gift is not like the effect of the one man‘s sin. For the
judgement following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free
gift following many trespasses brings just- ification. If, because of the
one man‘s trespass, death exercised dominion through that one, much
more surely will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free
gift of right- eousness exercise dominion in life through the one man,
Jesus Christ. Therefore just as one man‘s trespass led to condemnation
for all, so one man‘s act of righteousness leads to justification and life
for all. For just as by the one man‘s disobedience the many were made
sinners, so by the one man‘s obedience the many will be made righteous.
But law came in, with the result that the trespass multiplied; but where
sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, just as sin exercised
dominion in death, so grace might also exercise dominion through
justification* leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.―- NRSV

Jesus came as the new Adam, a new prototype, to reconcile humanity


with God and establish a relationship with the Father, thus establishing a
new humanity. The first Adam partici- pated in the fall, which brought
death through sin; while the second Adam brought life through

undeserved kindness, righteousness, and salvation.


Rabboni / Rabbi

Mary Magdalene calls Jesus Rabboni, which means "my rabbi" [lit. "my
teacher"], which is also used for Jesus in other passages. A rabbi is a
Jewish teacher, usually referring to a religious teacher and oft times was
associated with the Pharisees.


In the letter to the Hebrews, Jesus is called an Apostle. An apostle is one

who is sent for some purpose, one who represents the authority of the
sender, similar to an emissary. A verbal form of the word is used of Jesus
in the Gospel of John 17:3, where it is translated "one...sent".

Paraclete (Helper)

In 1 John 2:1 Jesus is called the paraclete.

1 John 2:1 My little children, I am writing YOU these things that YOU
may not commit a sin. And yet, if anyone does commit a sin, we have a
helper <3875> with the Father, Jesus Christ,
a righteous one. NWT

<3875>paraclete, para,klhtoj parakletos {par-ak'-lay-tos}


1) summoned, called to one's side, esp. called to one's aid

1a) one who pleads another's cause before a judge, a pleader, counsel for
defense, legal assistant, an advocate
1b) one who pleads another's cause with one, an intercessor
1b1) of Christ in his exaltation at God's right hand, pleading with God the
Father for the pardon of our sins

1c) in the widest sense, a helper, succourer, aider, assistant

1c1) of the Holy Spirit destined to take the place of Christ with the
apostles (after his ascension to the Father), to lead them to a deeper

knowledge of the gospel truth, and give them divine strength needed to


enable them to undergo trials and persecutions on behalf of the divine


1 John 2:1 Jesus is called the paraclete. <3875>

In John 14:16 Jesus said he will ask the Father to send "another"
paraclete, strongly implying that he is the first paraclete.

John 14:16 I shall ask the Father, and he will give you another Paraclete
to be with you for ever, NJB


In 1 Tim 2:5 Jesus is called the mediator between God and men.

1 Timothy 2:5 For there is only one God, and there is only one mediator
between God and humanity, himself a human being, Christ Jesus, NJB

Also, in Hebrews 8:6, 9:15, and 12:24 Jesus is called the mediator of the
new covenant.

High Priest

The Letter to the Hebrews calls Jesus the High Priest of our faith.

Hebrews 4:14 That is why we have a great High Priest who has gone to
heaven, Jesus the Son of God. Let us cling to him and never stop trusting
him. NLT

―Logos‖ (In original Greek translated into English as ―word‖)

John 1:14-18 calls Jesus the Logos in the flesh.

"In the beginning was the Logos, and the Logos was with God, and the

Logos was God. He was in the beginning with God; all things were
made through Him, and without Him was not anything made that was
made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men ... And the Logos


became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have
beheld His glory, glory as of the only Son from The Father." RSV


Immanuel (also Emmanuel, Emanuel, etc.) is another name associated

with Jesus. It is based on Isaiah 7:14, which is then cited in Matthew 1:23
(and thereby directly associated with Jesus). The name is translated by
the author of Matthew to be a sign that 'God with us'. Some have con-
strued this to mean therefore Jesus, is God. However this is form of
fallacious reasoning. (Refer to Volumne I. Page 215 re: Hebrew Names /

Head of the Church (Ecklesia or Congregation)

A number of passages in the epistles refer to Jesus as Head of the

Congregation. While some have argued this is not literal, on the basis
they have heads or leaders in their own churches, other than Jesus, There
is no evidence within the Bible to support a claim for the Eklesia to have
any other ―leaders‖ aside from Jesus.

Colossians 1:18 And himself is the head of the body -- the assembly --
who is a beginning, a first-born out of the dead, that he might become in
all things -- himself -- first, YLT

Colossians 1:18 Christ is the head of the church, which is his body. He is
the first of all who will rise from the dead, so he is first in everything. NLT

Having the awareness that these various titles, names and descriptions
connect with Jesus as the Messiah allows us greater insight when we
encounter these terms in our study of God‘s word.

2. Prophecies identifying the Messiah:

Let us explore a second aspect about the Messiah. That is the prophecies
which pointed in advance toward his mission, his purpose and towards
our being able to recognize him as the true and authentic Messiah sent by

God. Keep in mind, the Bible‘s predictions about the Messiah were
written centuries before he appeared on earth.

What is a Prophecy - and Why Should I Care?


The noun prophecy describes a ―prediction of the future, made under

divine inspiration‖ or a ―revelation of God.‖ The act of making a
prophecy is the verb, prophesy. Of all the prophecies written in the Bible
about events that were to have taken place by now, every single one was
fulfilled with 100% accuracy. This statement cannot be truthfully made
about any other ―sacred writing.‖ This is important because the Bible says
God will give us a savior who provides a way for our salvation.
If past prophecies have been 100% accurate, we can have confidence that
those not yet fulfilled are equally accurate and are sure to be fulfilled.

What is a ―Messianic‖ Prophecy?

The Old Testament books in the Bible (all of them written between 1450
BC and 430 BC) contained hundreds of prophecies about an ―anointed
one‖ (―Messiah‖ in Hebrew) who would arrive in the future. The Jews
believed The Messiah would ―deliver‖ or ―save‖ them, bringing them to
paradise or heaven. These prophecies also stated that the Messiah would
save all the other people in the world ―through the Jews.‖ For this reason,
people who are not Jewish need to learn about the Messiah, too. We
submit for your consideration, the table below listing many important
Messianic Prophecies. While we did not attempt to make a complete list,
still, there are enough prophecies listed to remove all doubt that the
Messiah did indeed appear 2000 years ago in the person of Jesus Christ.
These prophecies are arranged in the order in which they appear in the
Old Testament, and they are not in order of importance nor in
chronological order. Since the same fulfilled prophecy may be des-
cribed several times in different books, we did not list every place a
fulfillment occurred. We do list enough examples to prove that the
prophecy was fulfilled.

A Special Note on Psalm 22 and Isaiah 53

Even a casual reader of the Bible will notice something ―different‖ about
Psalm 22 and Isaiah 52:13 to 53:12. They tell stories that perfectly parallel
events in the life of Christ that took place much later. Psalm 22 is especially
amazing since it predicted 11 separate things about Jesus‘ death on a stake
about a thousand years before they happened. We know that David (the
author of Psalm 22) lived about 1043-973 BC and Isaiah lived about 740-
680 BC. Both passages, written far ahead of the time of Christ, are strong

proofs that help us to believe that the Bible was literally inspired by God.

A Comment on Understanding Prophecy



Some of these prophecies are very clear and easy to understand.

However, if you are new to reading the Bible, some other prophecies
will not be as easy to understand. Therefore, we have taken the liberty
of highlighting those prophecies that are easier to understand by a person
who is not familiar with ―prophetic language.‖ This does not imply that
these passages are more important than the others.

Prophecy fulfilled:

Old Testament Scriptures That Describe The Coming

The Messianic REFERENCE in Jesus‘-
the Old Testament
Prophecy the New Testament
(written between
(paraphrased) (written between 45 and 95
1450 BC and
The Messiah will be
the offspring
Genesis 3:15 Galatians 4:4
(descendant) of the
woman (Eve)
The Messiah will be a
descendant of
Genesis 12:3;
Abraham, through Acts 3:25,26
whom everyone on
earth will be blessed
The Messiah will be a
Genesis 49:10 Matthew 1:2 and Luke 3:33
descendant of Judah
The Messiah will be a Deuteronomy
Acts 3:22,23
prophet like Moses 18:15-19
The Messiah will be Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11;
Psalm 2:7
the Son of God Luke 3:22
The Messiah will be Matthew 28:5-9; Mark 16:6;
raised from the dead Psalm 16:10,11 Luke 24:4-7; John 20:11-16;
(resurrected) Acts 1:3 and 2:32

Psalm 22
The Messiah Matthew 27:34-50 and John
(contains 11
execution experience 19:17-30



all listed here)

The Messiah will be
sneered at and Psalm 22:7 Luke 23:11,35-39
The Messiah will be Luke 23:33 and 24:36-39;
pierced through Psalm 22:16 John 19:18 and 20:19-20,24-
hands and feet 27
The Messiah‘s bones
will not be broken (a
person‘s legs were Psalm 22:17 and
John 19:31-33,36
usually broken after 34:20
being impaleded to
speed up their death)
Men Will Gamble for Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24;
Psalm 22:18
the Messiah‘s clothing Luke 23:34; John 19:23,24
The Messiah will be
Matthew 26:59,60 and Mark
accused by false Psalm 35:11
The Messiah will be Psalm 35:19 and
John 15:23-25
hated without a cause 69:4
The Messiah will be
Psalm 41:9 John 13:18,21
betrayed by a friend
Luke 24:51; Acts 1:9; 2:33-
35; 3:20-21; 5:31,32; 7:55-
56; Romans 8:34; Ephesians
The Messiah will
1:20,21; Colossians 3:1;
ascend to heaven (at Psalm 68:18
Hebrews 1:3; 8:1; 10:12;
the right hand of God)
12:2; 1 Pet 3:22 .

A question which has

The Messiah will be
Matthew 27:34; Mark 15:23;
given vinegar and gall Psalm 69:21
John 19:29,30
to drink
Great kings will pay

homage and tribute to Psalm 72:10,11 Matthew 2:1-11

the Messiah

The Messiah is a Psalm 118:22,23 Matthew 21:42,43; Acts 4:11;


―stone the builders and Isaiah 28:16 Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:6-
rejected‖ who will 8
become the ―head
Psalm 132:11 and
The Messiah will be a
Jeremiah 23:5,6; Luke 1:32,33
descendant of David
The Messiah will be Matthew 1:18-25 and Luke
Isaiah 7:14
born of a virgin 1:26-35
The Messiah‘s first
spiritual work will be Isaiah 9:1-7 Matthew 4:12-16
in Galilee
The Messiah will Many places. Also see
make the blind see, Isaiah 35:5-6 Matthew 11:3-6 and John
the deaf hear, etc. 11:47
The Messiah will be
beaten, mocked, and Isaiah 50:6 Matthew 26:67 and 27:26-31
spat upon
The ―Gospel
Isaiah 52:13-53:12 Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
according to Isaiah‖
People will hear and
not believe the ―arm
Isaiah 53:1 John 12:37,38
of the LORD‖
Matthew 27:20-25; Mark
The Messiah will be
Isaiah 53:3 15:8-14; Luke 23:18-23;
John 19:14,15
The Messiah will be Matthew 27:50; Mark 15:37-
Isaiah 53:5-9
killed 39; Luke 23:46; John 19:30
The Messiah will be
Matthew 26:62,63 and
silent in front of his Isaiah 53:7
Matthew 27:59,60; Mark
The Messiah will be

Isaiah 53:9 15:46; Luke 23:52,53; John

buried with the rich

The Messiah will be Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27;

Isaiah 53:12
put to death with Luke 23:32,33

The Messiah is part of
Isaiah 55:3-4 and Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24;
the new and
Jeremiah 31:31-34 Luke 22:20; Hebrews 8:6-13
everlasting covenant
The Messiah will be
our intercessor
Isaiah 59:16 Hebrews 9:15
(intercede for us and
plead on our behalf)
Isaiah 61:1-3 (first First mission: Luke 4:16-21;
The Messiah has two mission ends at ―. . Second mission: to be
missions . year of the fulfilled at the end of the
LORD‘s favor‖) world
The Messiah will
Galatians 4:4 and Ephesians
come at a specific Daniel 9:25-26
The Messiah will be
Micah 5:2 Matthew 2:1 and Luke 2:4-7
born in Bethlehem
The Messiah will
enter Jerusalem Zechariah 9:9 Matthew 21:1-11
riding a donkey
The Messiah will be
Matthew 26:15 with
sold for 30 pieces of Zechariah 11:12,13
Matthew 27:3-10
The Messiah will
forsaken by His Zechariah 13:7 Matthew 26:31,56
The Messiah will
Matthew 21:12 and Luke
enter the Temple with Malachi 3:1

A question frequently asked is; Couldn‘t Someone Just Write These

Down and Pretend They Were Written Earlier? Many people who do not
believe in the Bible say this. However, manuscripts have been found that
confirm that these various prophecies were written down 400-1,000 years

before they actually occurred. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls put to
rest most of such idle talk.

Were These Originally Intended to Be Messianic Prophecies?


Some of the prophecies occur as part of the text of a story. So, a natural
question would be, ―How do you know these are Messianic prophecies?‖
Couldn‘t someone have read these texts after Jesus came along and
claimed they are Messianic prophecies?‖

The reason we know these texts were intended to be Messianic proph-

ecies is because they were recognized (and discussed) by the Jews before
Jesus‘ birth. For example one of the common early debates was whether
or not ―the Messiah‖ was actually two people (or twins) since it seemed
impossible to them that one person could accomplish all of the Messiah‘s
―goals‖ as stated at (Isaiah 61:1- 3).

Jesus applied the following scripture to himself at the outset of his

earthly ministry;

Isaiah 61:1 The spirit of the Lord is on me, because I am marked out by
him to give good news to the poor; he has sent me to make the broken-
hearted well, to say that the prisoners will be made free, and that those
in chains will see the light again; 2 To give knowledge that the year of
the Lord's good pleasure has come, and the day of punishment from our
God; to give comfort to all who are sad; 3 To give them a fair head-
dress in place of dust, the oil of joy in place of the clothing of grief,
praise in place of sorrow; so that they may be named trees of right-
eousness, the planting of the Lord, and so that he may have glory. 4
And they will be building again the old broken walls, and will make new
the old waste places, and will put up again the towns which have been
waste for long generations. BBE

In What ways does he fulfill this claim?

1. We now know that Jesus accomplished his goal (preaching God‘s word,
the ―good news‖of God‘s kingdom and becoming the sacrifice that saves
us). When he came to earth, he told everyone of God‘s new plan of
salvation before he was impaled..

2. He will fulfill the other goals (being our Savior and Lord, ruling at
God‘s right hand, and taking vengeance on the people who do not follow
God) when he comes back to earth (a time often called Jesus‘ ―second

Such fulfillments required being raised from the dead which was a
possibility the Jews never considered. When Jesus was raised from the

dead, many Jews then recognized how the Messiah could be ―one man‖,


as he fulfilled features found in prophecy only possible through death and

resurrection. From that time, more countless numbers of Jews and non-
Jews alike have chosen to get right with God and follow the Christ. Many
of them made their decision based on the evidence of these fulfilled
Messianic prophecies.

Couldn‘t Someone Besides Jesus Fulfill These Prophecies?

A number representing the odds against them all being fulfilled by

anyone would fill this entire book. Professor Peter W. Stoner who
authored ―Science Speaks‖ stated that the probability of just eight
particular prophecies being fulfilled in one person is 1 in 1017, i.e.
1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000). The eight prophecies used in his
calculation were:

1. Messiah is to be born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2; fulfilled in Matt. 2:1-7;

John 7:42; Luke 2:47).

2. Messiah is to be preceded by a Messenger (Isaiah 40:3; Malachi 3:1;

fulfilled in Matthew 3:1-3; 11:10; John 1:23; Luke 1:17).

3. Messiah is to enter Jerusalem on a donkey (Zechariah 9:9; fulfilled in

Luke 35-37; Matthew 21:6-11).

4. Messiah is to be betrayed by a friend (Psalms 41:9; 55:12-14; fulfilled in

Matthew 10:4; 26:49-50; John 13:21).

5. Messiah is to be sold for 30 pieces of silver (Zechariah 11:12; fulfilled in

Matthew 26:15; 27:3).

6. The money for which Messiah is sold is to be thrown to the potter in

Gods house (Zechariah 11:13; fulfilled in Matthew 27:5-7).

7. Messiah is to be silent before His accusers (Isaiah 53:7; fulfilled in

Matthew 27:12).

8. Messiah is to be executed by crucifixion as a thief (Psalm 22:16;

Zechariah 12:10; Isaiah 53:5,12; fulfilled in Luke 23:33; John 20:25;
Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27,28).

Stoner‘s statement was validated in the ‗American Scientific Affiliation‘.

This number has been illustrated as follows:


If we take 1 X 1017 silver dollars and lay them on the face of Texas, they'll
cover all of the state two feet deep. Now mark one of these silver dollars
and stir the whole mass thoroughly, all over the state. Blindfold a man
and tell him that he can travel as far as he wishes, but he must pick up
one silver dollar and say that this is the right one. What chance would he
have of getting the right one? Professor Stoner went on to consider 48
prophecies and says, We find the chance that any one man fulfilled all 48
prophecies to be 1 in 10157.

This is a really large number and it represents an extremely small chance.

Let us try to visualize it. The silver dollar, which we have been using, is
entirely too large. We must select a smaller object. The electron is about
as small an object as we know of. It is so small that it will take 2.5 times
1015 of them laid side by side to make a line, single file, one inch long. If
we were going to count the electrons in this line one inch long, and
counted 250 each min - ute, and if we counted day and night, it would
take us 19,000,000 years to count just the one-inch line of electrons. If
we had a cubic inch of these electrons and we tried to count them it would
take us, counting steadily 250 each minute, 19,000,000 times
19,000,000 times 19,000,000 [nineteen million times nineteen million
times nineteen million] or 6.9 times 1021 years. This is approximately the
total number of electrons in all the mass of the known universe. In other
words the probability of Jesus Christ fulfilling 48 prophecies is similar to
one person being able to pick out one electron out of the entire mass of
our universe.

Such is the chance of any one man fulfilling even 48 prophecies. Yet
Jesus Christ fulfilled not just 48 prophecies, not just 61 prophecies, but
more than 300 indi- vidual prophecies that the Prophets wrote concern-
ing the Messiah. This makes the fact that Jesus fulfilled them all a miracle
in itself.

Still, some questions that may come to mind are: Couldn‘t anyone else
have fulfilled these prophecies if they really tried? Even though Jesus
fulfilled these prophecies, how do we know He is the Messiah. Other
religions say they have a Prophet that followed in Jesus‘ footsteps and is
the real Messiah. The Jews are still waiting for the Messiah. Isn‘t it
possible that Jesus happened to fulfill these prophecies and that the
―real‖ Messiah will still come some day?

You will notice that many of the prophecies Jesus fulfilled were not under
human control. In other words, if someone tried to fulfill all of them, how


would they arrange to be (1) born in Bethlehem (2) with a virgin for a

Already they would have a problem—and these are only two prophecies.
Even a casual glance through this list reveals that a person could not
fulfill them by their own efforts.

There are many people that have claimed to be the Messiah (or a similar
title that they gave themselves like ―God‘s Prophet‖). Some of them
founded false religions and cults, and have many followers. Anyone who
has read the Bible expected to see them appear. Two thousand years ago,
Jesus Himself said there would be many false Messiahs and prophets
who would gain followers (Matthew 7:15; Matthew 24:11; Matthew 24:23-
25; Mark 13:21-23).

Examine these other ―prophets‖ yourself. Was their appearance clearly

predicted in the Bible? Did they fulfill all the messianic prophecies? The
answer is obvious—none of them even came close.

It is true that the many Jews, who consider themselves God‘s chosen
people, are still waiting for their Messiah. The good news, is everyone
gets a chance to accept the Messiah as their Savior

Matthew 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed

throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the
end will come. ESV

There is no question that these many prophecies prove that Jesus is the
one and only Messiah. Here is another Chart with Messianic Prophecies
and their Fulfillments grouped by category

Prophecies Concerning His Lineage

Prophecy Topic Fulfillment

Born of the seed of
Genesis 3:15 Galatians 4:4
Genesis 21:12 Descendant of Isaac Matthew 1:1,2

Genesis 22:18, Genesis

Seed of Abraham Matthew 1:1

Genesis 49:10 Of the tribe of Judah Matthew 1:1,2

Numbers 24:17 Descendant of Jacob Matthew 1:1,2

Isaiah 11:1, 10 Descendant of Jesse Matthew 1:1,6

Jeremiah 23:5, Psalm Matthew 1:1,6, Revelation
Descendant of David
132:11 22:16
Psalm 2:7, Proverbs Matthew 17:5, Luke 3:38,
Son of God
30:4 Luke 22:70

Prophecies Concerning His Birth

Prophecy Topic Fulfillment
Psalm 72:10 Kings will present gifts Matthew 2:1-11
Isaiah 7:14 Born of a virgin Matthew 1:23-25, Luke 2:7
Isaiah 7:14 Will be called Immanuel Matthew 1:23
Jeremiah 31:15Children will be killed Matthew 2:16-18
Micah 5:2 Will be born in BethlehemLuke 2:4-7

Prophecies Concerning His Ministry

Prophecy Topic Fulfillment
Matthew 21:11, John
Deuteronomy 18:15-18 Will be a Prophet
6:14, John 4:19
Will bless His people
Psalm 29:11 Acts 10:36, John 14:27
with peace
Will commit Himself to
Psalm 31:5 Luke 23:46
Will speak words of
Psalm 45:2 Luke 4:22
Will ascend to heaven--
Acts 1:9, Hebrews 1:3,
Psalm 68:18, Psalm 110:1 to the Father's right
Mark 16:19
Psalm 69:9 Will have a zeal for God John 2:15-17
Psalm 78:2 Will teach parables Matthew 13:34,35
Hebrews 5:5,6,
Psalm 110:4 Will be a priest
Hebrews 3:1
He will judge & rebuke
Isaiah 2:4 Matthew 11:20
Will begin ministry in

Isaiah 9:1 Matthew 4:12-17

John 8:58, John 1:1,
Isaiah 9:6 He's eternal

Romans 9:5


Anointing of the Holy

Isaiah 11:2 Mark 1:10,11
Acts 10:40-42,
Isaiah 33:22 Will be Judge Matthew 25:31-34, II
Timothy 4:1
Will have a ministry of John 5:5-9, Luke 7:22,
Isaiah 35:5,6
miracles Matthew 11:4-6
He will minister to
Isaiah 42:1, 49:1 Luke 2:32
Luke 23:34, Romans
Isaiah 53:12, Isaiah 59:16 Will make intercession
Will be a Light to
Isaiah 60:3 Acts 13:47,48
Micah 5:2, Isaiah 9:6,
Colossians 1:17, John
Psalm 102:25-27, Isaiah Jesus' pre-existence
John 18:33-38,
Zechariah 9:9, Psalm 2:6 Will be King
Matthew 27:37
Triumphal entry on a
Zechariah 9:9 Luke 19:35-37
Will be preceded by John 1:23, Matthew
Malachi 3:1, Isaiah 40:3
messenger 3:1-3
Malachi 3:1 Will enter the temple Matthew 21:12
Prophecies Concerning Others' Reactions to Him
Prophecy Topic Fulfillment
Psalm 69:4 Will be hated without cause John 15:24,25
Psalm 69:9 Will be reproached Romans 15:3
Psalm 110:1,
Will be called LORD John 20:28, Luke 2:11
Jeremiah 23:6
Isaiah 9:6 Will be called God John 20:28, Titus 2:13
Isaiah 11:10 Gentiles will seek Him John 12:18-21
Jews will reject Him, but He
Isaiah 28:16, Psalm Acts 4:11,12, I Peter
will become the Chief
118:22 2:7, Matthew 21:42,43
Isaiah 53:3, Psalm Will be ignored by His own

John 1:11
31:11, Psalm 69:8 people

Prophecies Concerning His Death


Prophecy Topic Fulfillment

Psalm 16:10, Hosea 6:2 Will rise from the dead Acts 2:31
Mark 15:33,
Psalm 22:1 Forsaken by His Father
Matthew 27:46
Psalm 22:7,8 Will be ridiculed Matthew 27:39-44
Psalm 22:14 Heart will be broken John 19:34
Psalm 22:16, Zechariah
Hands & feet will be pierced Luke 23:33
12:10, Isaiah 53:5
Psalm 22:17,18 Will be stripped and stared at Luke 23:34,35
Soldiers will cast lots for His Luke 23:34, John
Psalm 22:18
clothing 19:23,24
Psalm 34:20 Bones will not be broken John 19:33
Will be accused by false
Psalm 35:11 Matthew 26:59,60
Friends will stand at a Luke 23:49, Mark
Psalm 38:11
distance 15:40
Luke 22:47,48,
Psalm 41:9 Will be betrayed by a friend
John 18:1-6
John 19:28,29,
Psalm 69:21 Will be offered vinegar & gall
Matthew 27:34
Psalm 109:25, Psalm Matthew 27:39,
People will wag their heads
22:7,8 Mark 15:29,30
Isaiah 50:6 People will spit in His face Matthew 26:67
Isaiah 53:5 Will be whipped Matthew 27:26
Isaiah 53:7 Will be silent before accusers Matthew 27:12
Isaiah 53:9 Buried in rich man's grave Matthew 27:57-60
Numbered with transgressors
Isaiah 53:12 Mark 15:27,28
- crucified with thieves
Amos 8:9 Darkness will cover the land Matthew 27:45
Betrayed for thirty pieces of
Zechariah 11:12 Matthew 26:14,15
Money thrown in the house of
Zechariah 11:13 Matthew 27:5
the Lord
Zechariah 11:13 Price for potter's field Matthew 27:6,7

Zechariah 12:10 Look on whom pierced John 19:34-37

Zechariah 12:10 Side will be pierced John 19:34


What is noteworthy is that these and other prophecies in the Bible contain
minute details which take them way beyond a realm of broad and nebulous
speculations on the future. This makes them far different from so many
prophecies offered by men over the centuries which were never fulfilled..

The Conclusion is Jesus Christ was the promised Messiah who arrived
exactly and according to God‘s schedule. The Jews of his time, while
expecting a Messiah, were expecting a political figure who would rule a
political nation as his ancestors David and Solomon had done. This was
not God‘s plan. This first phase of God‘s plan was tailored to providing a
ransom sacri -fice to atone for inherited sin of Adam and forming a
―spiritual nation‖ to constitute a dedi- cated people of his own. All of this
would be accomplished in the midst of a world which was to remain
under the dominion of Satan the Devil till a time in the distant future.
That final time was known only to the father. Jehovah himself. The Son,
Jesus would sit at the father‘s right hand until such time as he would be
granted power and rulership in con -nection with his second coming
(parousia) on the earth and establishment of
God‘s kingdom (Government) over the earth.

3. Messiahs Relationship to Almighty God

How did Jesus (the Messiah) understand his relationship with his father
Jehovah? Did he see himself as an equal to God or as part of a triune
godhead as Trini- tarians would have us believe? Did His apostles
understand him to be a second person of the Trinity at anytime, either
during his earthly ministry or after his death and resurrection to heaven?
A sampling of Verses shows that Jesus did not view himself on a par with
Jehovah (the father), but rather as a lesser one, not at all as an equal to
the Father. He viewed Jehovah as his own father and his own God, who
was superior to himself.

John 14:28 Remember what I told you: I am going away, but I will
come back to you again. If you really love me, you will be very happy
for me, because now I can go to the Father, who is greater than I
am. NLT
John 5:30 By myself I can do nothing; I can judge only as I am

told to judge, and my judging is just, because I seek to do not my

own will but the will of him who sent me. NJB

Php 2:6-8 Who [Jesus], although being essentially one with God and in
the form of God [possessing the fullness of the attributes which make

God God], did not think this equality with God was a thing to be eagerly
grasped or retained, 2:7 But stripped Himself [of all privileges and
rightful dignity], so as to assume the guise of a servant (slave), in that
He became like men and was born a human being. 2:8 And after He
had appeared in human form, He abased and humbled Himself [still
further] and carried His obedience to the extreme of death, even the
death of the cross! AMP

John 20:17 Jesus said to her, 'Do not cling to me, because I have not yet
ascended to the Father. But go to the brothers, and tell them: I am
ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your
God.' NJB

Matthew 26:53 "Or do you think that I cannot now pray to My

Father, and He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of
angels? NKJ

John 5:37 'And the Father who sent me Himself hath testified
concerning me; ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor
His appearance have ye seen; YLT

John 6:65 And He said, "Therefore I have said to you that no one can
come to Me unless it has been granted to him by My Father." NKJ

John 6:38 For I have come down from heaven not to do my will but
to do the will of him who sent me. NIB

John 16:28 I came from the Father and entered the world; now I am
leaving the world and going back to the Father." NIV

John 8:28 So Jesus said, "When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then
you will realize that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own, but I
speak these things as the Father instructed me. NRS

Matthew 3:17 And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, "This is
My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." NKJ

John 5:17 But Jesus replied, "My Father never stops working, so
why should I?" NLT

John 14:24 Anyone who does not love me does not keep my words. And
the word that you hear is not my own: it is the word of the

Father who sent me. NJB


Mark 14:36 "Abba, Father," he said, "everything is possible for you.

Please take this cup of suffering away from me. Yet I want your will,
not mine." NLT

Matthew 27:46 At about three o'clock, Jesus called out with a loud
voice, "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?" which means, "My God, my God,
why have you forsaken me?" NLT

Matthew 16:15, 16 He said to them: "YOU, though, who do YOU say I

am?" NWT 16 Then Simon Peter spoke up and said, 'You are the
Christ, the Son of the living God. ' NJB

John 1:18 No one has ever seen God. The only Son, God, who is at
the Father's side, has revealed him. NAB

4. First century Christians recognized Jesus as the the

Messiah. What did they understand his relationship to God to

How does the Bible speak of Jesus after he was resurrected to heaven? Is
there any instance where he is seen to be Jehovah God himself as Trin-
itarians claim? The apostles and early Christian writers continued to
recognize him ―dozens of times in their writings as The Son of God‖, and
never once as ―God the Son.‖

The following verses were written after the end of his earthly ministry
and after Jesus had been resurrected. As Such, they represent what
understanding the Apostles held as to who Jesus was from the time of his
death forward. This would be the understanding held by all true
Christians of the first century

Acts 9:20 And immediately he proclaimed Jesus in the synagogues,

saying, "He is the Son of God." ESV

[This was Peter speaking, after Christ had been resurrected to heaven and
was at the right hand of his father Jehovah God]

Ephesians 4:13 until we come to such unity in our faith and knowledge

of God's Son that we will be mature and full grown in the Lord,
measuring up to the full stature of Christ. NLT

Galatians 4:4 but when the completion of the time came, God sent his
Son, born of a woman, born a subject of the Law, NJB

Here, the apostle Paul speaking many years after Jesus death, still
recognized Jesus as God‘s son, not as God himself.]

1 John 4:9 In this the love of God was manifested toward us, that God
has sent His only begotten <3439> Son into the world, that we
might live through Him. NKJ

1 John 4:9 Herein was the love of God manifested in us, that God hath
sent his only begotten Son into the world that we might live through
him. NJB

John writing almost 60 years after Jesus death and still knew him as
God‘s Only Begotten Son – See definition for Only ―Begotten‖

begotten <G3439> monogenh,j monogenes {mon- g-en-ace'}

1) single of its kind, only

1a) used of only sons or daughters (viewed in relation to their parents)
1b) used of Christ, denotes the only begotten son of God

The Messiah as a Priest

Paul, in his writings described Jesus role as ―the High Priest in God‘s

Hebrews 4:14 Seeing then that we have a great High Priest who has
passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our
confession. NKJ
A priest is a mediator or go between, one who acts on behalf of others,
representing them before God, he is not one who represents himself to
himself. One cannot be a Priest of God and God himself, at the same time

In the letter to the Hebrews the priest is the person through whom and
through whose ministry people draw near to God, through which they are
"sanctified," i.e., made a people of God and enabled to worship. The
apostle finds it impossible to conceive of the Jewish religion without a
priest and without sacrifices. Men are presented as sinful people, and
without mediation of some kind they cannot draw near to God at all. As

the people of God had mediators under the OT, they have a Mediator
under the NT, and he is Christ Jesus.


Through Christ as the Mediator between God and man, man's sin is
effectually removed and the way into the Holiest is opened for all. The
system of the OT priesthood and the priests' sacrifices were indeed of
God, but that system was not the true and final one, for the simple reason
that that priesthood was imperfect. Those priests were mortal men and
could not continue because of death. They were sinful men, too, and had
to offer sacrifice for their own sins before they could offer for those of the
people. The sanctuary was imperfect, "a worldly or earthly sanctuary"
(Heb_9:1), not the real and actual dwelling place of God. The sacrifices
were imperfect; the blood of bulls and goats and other animals, whatever
their symbolic virtue, could not make the worshipers perfect touching the
conscience, i.e., it could not bring them to the desired goal of a fearless
peace toward God. The very repetition of the sacrifices showed that the
work of removing sin had not really, once and for all been achieved.
Man's access to God was imperfect. The priest had no access at all into
the Holiest Place and when the high priest did enter on one day in the
year, it was no abiding entrance; the communion of the people with God,
which his presence there symbolized, was lost as soon as he came out
from the shrine and the veil closed behind him. Everything in the old
religion had imperfection written upon it-the imperfection involved in
the nature of its priests (Heb 7:19) and sacrifices.

It is in contrast to this that Christ's priesthood is set forth. Christ is the

perfect priest. "Thou art a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek"
(Psa_110:4). A permanent fellowship with God has been won by our High
Priest forever. The word that characterizes the work of this High Priest,
Christ, is "eternal," aionios (G166). Inasmuch as He is the true priest,
Christ's blood (i.e., His sacrificial death) is the blood of an eternal
covenant (Heb_13:20). He offered Himself through His eternal spirit
(Heb_9:14) and has become the Author of eternal salvation (Heb_5:9).
He has obtained eternal redemption (Heb_9:12) and enables men to
receive of the eternal inheritance (Heb_9:15; Heb_13:20). All these are
ways of indicating the perfection and finality of His priesthood, i.e., of
His function to mediate between the Holy God and sinful men,
and to enable those sinful men to realize a complete and
abiding fellowship with God. His commission was divine (Heb_5:5
f.; Psa_2:7; Psa_110:4). He proved Himself a merciful and trustworthy
high priest (Heb_2:17) by becoming one with those whom He represents
before God, in having become like them a partaker of flesh and blood

(Heb_2:14), by being tempted in all points like us, yet without sin
(Heb_4:15). He learned obedience by the things which He suffered

(Heb_5:8) knowing what it is to worship with others and to wait upon

God (Heb_2:12 f.), and, at last, tasting death. He was tempted like all

mankind, yet sin is alien to Him (Heb_4:15). Hence, in virtue of His

nature and His experience, He can sympathize with us through suffering
especially. He has been made "perfect," i.e., been made all that He ought
to be as a priest to stand before God for sinful men, able truly to enter
into their case. The word translated "perfect" or "to perfect" is the verb
teleióo (G5048) meaning to bring to a successful conclusion, to
accomplish (Heb_2:10; Heb_5:9; Heb_7:28; Heb_10:14; Heb_12:23).

The Law and the old sacrifices could not accomplish anything that was
conclusive and perm -anent insofar as the restoration of man to God was
concerned (Heb. 7:19; Heb_9:9 (Heb 10:1). Every priest was appointed to
offer gifts and sacrifices (Heb_8:3) for sins (Heb_5:1), but our High
Priest, Christ, offered Himself because He was perfect and, therefore, the
work that He accomplished was also perfect. Heb_10:4-9, quoted from
Psa_40:6-8, shows Christ's work as "doing the will of God" in contrast
with sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin offerings,
indicating that the work of the priests has been put away in order to
establish the work of Christ. Indeed, we have been sanctified through the
offering of the body of Jesus Christ once and for all (Heb_10:10).

What the Jesus Christ did away with was not sacrifice and obedience in
themselves, but the OT sacrifices in which the victims were involuntary
and the offering, therefore, morally imperfect. Christ's willing sacrifice of
himself, as a voluntary act of obedience to the Father, had a significance
and a moral worth which no animal sacrifice could have. But the obed ience
involved in it was not simply the obedience required of man as such; it was
the obed - ience required of the Son whom the Father had commissioned to
be the mediator of a new covenant, the restorer of fellowship between
Himself and sinful men. In other words, it was the obedience of the Priest
who was to "annul sin by the sacrifice of himself" ([a.t.] Heb_9:26); to be
"offered once for all to bear the sins of many" ( Heb_9:28); to enter into
the sanctuary "through his own blood" ( Heb_9:12); and "by one offering to
perfect forever them that are being sanctified" (Heb_10:14). In short, it is
not sacrifice and obedience alone that are blankly contrasted here, but
unintelligent and involuntary animal sacrifice compared to the sacrificial
obedience of the Priest who willingly dies to make an atonement for sins

As the perfect high priest, Christ made once and for all the perfect
sacrifice for sin, and thus the Levitical sacrifices have passed away. What
Jesus Christ did on earth in shedding His blood for us in some way

purified the heavens (Heb_4:14; Heb_9:23-24). Our High Priest is now


seated with God the Father in heaven to intercede for us (Heb_4:16). The
title of high priest is never attributed to any believer, nor any of the
special functions involved in the unique priesthood of Christ.

In the NT, we do not have any Christian believers acting as a human high
priest or chief priest. All anointed Christian believers, however, are called
a holy priesthood (1Pe_2:5); a royal priesthood (1Pe_2:9); kings and
priests (Rev_1:6; Rev_5:10); priests of God and of Christ (Rev_20:6).
This is why all as believers at any time can draw near with boldness into
the presence of God (Eph_2:17; Heb_4:16). Because of our High Priest,
Christ, all true Christians have access directly to God (Rom_5:2). We are
acceptable to God (Rom_12:1). There is no such thing in the NT as a
sacrifice for sin by humans as priests of God and Jesus Christ. We need
no sacrifice for sin except the sacrifice which Christ offered once for all.

More on how early Christians viewed the relationship between Jesus

Christ and Jehovah God , his father;

1 Corinthians 8:6 But we know that there is only one God, the
Father, who created everything, and we exist for him. And there
is only one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom God made
everything and through whom we have been given life. NLT

Acts 2:32 This Jesus God has given back to life, of which we all
are witnesses. BBE

Acts 3:13 'The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the
God of our fathers, did glorify His child Jesus, whom ye
delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, he having given
judgment to release him, YLT

Acts 5:30 it was the God of our ancestors who raised up Jesus,
whom you executed by hanging on a tree. NJB

Acts 7:55 But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, gazed steadily
upward into heaven and saw the glory of God, and he saw Jesus
standing in the place of honor at God's right hand. NLT

Acts 9:20 And immediately he proclaimed Jesus in the synagogues,


saying, "He is the Son of God." ESV



Acts 10:38 God had anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power,
and because God was with him, Jesus went about doing good and
curing all who had fallen into the power of the devil. NJB

Acts 20:21 urging both Jews and Greeks to turn to God and to believe in
our Lord Jesus. NJB

Colossians 1:3 We always thank God, the Father of our Lord Jesus
Christ, when we pray for you,ESV

Ephesians 1:2 Grace and peace to you from God our Father and from
the Lord Jesus Christ. NJB

Ephesians 1:17 I keep asking that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the
glorious Father, may give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, so
that you may know him better. NIV

Ephesians 5:20 Giving praise at all times for all things in the name of
our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father; BBE

1 Corinthians 1:3 Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father,
and from the Lord Jesus Christ. KJV

1 Thessalonians 1:10 and how you are now waiting for Jesus, his Son,
whom he raised from the dead, to come from heaven. It is he who saves
us from the Retribution which is coming. NJB

1 Corinthians 15:24 Then comes the end, when he hands over the
kingdom to God the Father, after he has destroyed every ruler and every
authority and power. NRS

Hebrews 1:2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom
he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the
world. ESV

6. The role Messiah fills in God‘s purpose for the earth and its

It is through the Messiah that Jehovah God will provide the means and
circumstances by which hewill restore the earth to its originally intended
condition, which was an earth wide paradise.


1 John 4:14 And we have beheld and bear witness that the Father hath
sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world. ASV

This is to be accomplished under the ruler ship of his son, the Messiah
(Christ Jesus), along with his Kingdom Government consisting of
144,000 co- regents as described in the book of Revelations Revelation
5:10 and Revelation 14:1

5:10 and made them to our God kings and priests; and they shall reign
over the earth. DBY and at Revelation 14:1Then I looked, and behold, the
Lamb was standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and
forty-four thousand, having His name and the name of His Father
written on their foreheads. NAU

Under that righteous administration, God will fulfill all the prophetic
promises of blessings he has intended for his paradise earth.

Isaiah 11:9 They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain; for
the earth shall be full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters cover
the sea. ASV

Psalm 67:6 Then the earth will yield its harvests, and God, our God, will
richly bless us. NLT

Psalm 145:16 By the opening of your hand, every living thing has its
desire in full measure. BBE

Psalm 72:16 Let abundant grain be in the land, to the tops of the
mountains; let his crops thrive like the forest of Lebanon; and let men
sprout up in towns like country grass. TNK

Isaiah 11:6 In that day the wolf and the lamb will live together; the
leopard and the goat will be at peace. Calves and yearlings will be safe
among lions, and a little child will lead them all. NLT

Isaiah 65:25 The wolf and lamb will feed together. The lion will eat
straw like the ox. Poisonous snakes will strike no more. In those days, no
one will be hurt or destroyed on my holy mountain. I, the LORD, have
spoken!" NLT

All this was foretold for a future peaceful earth, completely in harmony
with Jehovah and his purposes. All of these prophecies are to be fulfilled

under the righteous rule of his Son, our Messiah.


Acts 5:31 God exalted this one as Chief Agent and Savior to his right
hand, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins. NWT

7. The role Messiah plays in our individual lives:

How about the lot of Mankind under the Messianic Kingdom rule during
the thousand year reign of Jesus? What role does he play in our future?

Here are verses which address that question;

Deuteronomy 28:2 and all these blessings will befall and overtake you,
for having obeyed the voice of Yahweh your God. NJB

Messiah is the channel through whom God‘s blessings are distributed

- Matthew 28:18 Then Jesus approached and said to them, "All power in
heaven and on earth has been given to me. NAB

Proverbs 10:22 The blessing of Jehovah-that is what makes rich, and he

adds no pain with it. NWT

Psalm 29:11 Yahweh will give strength to his people, Yahweh blesses his
people with peace. NJB

Psalm 128:2 You will eat the fruit of your labor; blessings and
prosperity will be yours. NIV

Psalm 104:35 Consumed are sinners from the earth, And the wicked are
no more. Bless, O my soul, Jehovah. Praise ye Jehovah! YLT

Isaiah 44:3 For I shall pour out water upon the thirsty NWT

Isaiah 65:23 They will not toil for nothing, nor will they bring to birth
for disturbance; because they are the offspring made up of the blessed
ones of Jehovah, and their descendants with them. NWT

Psalm 37:22 For those blessed by Him shall inherit the earth, But those
cursed by Him shall be cut off. NKJ

Psalm 115:15 Blessed are ye of Jehovah, maker of heaven and earth, YLT

Psalm 107:38 he blessed them, and their numbers greatly increased, and

he did not let their herds diminish. NIV


The following verses illustrate blessings by Jehovah in his dealings with

the nation of Israel when they were on the verge of entering the Promised
Land after forty years of wandering in the wilderness. These verses
foreshadow blessings and promises through the Messiah on believers
who stand on the edge of God‘s new Promised Land, the thousand year
millennial reign of his son as king of God‘s kingdom.

Deuteronomy 28:2 And all these blessings must come upon you and
overtake you, because you keep listening to the voice of Jehovah your
God: NWT

Nehemiah 9:21 And for forty years you provided them with food in the
wilderness. They lacked nothing. Their very garments did not wear out,
and their feet themselves did not become swollen. NWT

Deuteronomy 2:7 For Jehovah your God has blessed you in every deed
of your hand. He well knows of your walking through this great
wilderness. These forty years Jehovah your God has been with you. You
have not lacked a thing."' NWT

Nehemiah 9:21 Forty years you sustained them in the wilderness, and
they lacked nothing. Their clothes did not wear out and their feet did not
swell. ESV

Zechariah 8:23 Thus said Jehovah of Hosts: In those days take hold do
ten men of all languages of the nations, Yea, they have taken hold on the
skirt of a man, a Jew, saying: We go with you YLT


1. The Messiah is clearly identified as Jesus Christ, the only begotten son
of Jehovah who is his and our true and almighty God (the father).

2. The Messiah, Jesus Christ is the primary and singular provision by

Jehovah God almighty for the salvation of mankind on the earth.

3. The Messiah will bring about the restoration of the earth to its
originally intended purpose.

4. The Messiah will be instrumental in resurrecting the dead and give

them an opportunity for everlasting life.


5. The Messiah will restore humans on the earth to their originally

intended relationship with God almighty.

6. Those who exercise faith in the Messiah and live accordingly will see
all the promises and blessings of God fulfilled and live endlessly to enjoy

7. Through the life and work of the Messiah, Jehovah God‘s name and
sovereignty will be vindicated before the entire universe.
End of Chapter
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―WORDS‖ What do Bible words really mean?

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―WORDS‖ Definitions – How important?

As we continue to explore what ‖IS WRITTEN‖, and before we consider

the Bible‘s view of those important doctrines which whole religious
institutions are built on, it is essential to touch on the importance placed
on what bible words meant when they were written.

Why are accurate definitions for words so important? Words form

sentences; sentences express ideas and convey thoughts. If one word is
misunderstood, the entire sentence may be distorted. This is so because
individual word meanings are the root basis for under- standing any and
every written or verbal communi- cation we may encounter. Words are
the first portal through which error may enter into our understanding.
Also, they are the keys in arriving at the correct comprehension of any
thought or idea we may be considering. If we don‘t get the right meaning
to a key word in the sentence, we don‘t understand the sentence itself

Bible definitions are often obscured by modern day Dictionary meanings.

What God‘s words meant when they were written is all important to
understanding his thinking and mindset. Take for a quick example just a
few common widely used religious terms; ―spirit,‖ ―sin‖ and ―worship‖
We challenge you to think of what comes to your mind as the meanings
you hold for these words and then compare them with the definitions
given later in this chapter from Bible dictionaries. Sometimes you may
find Bible definitions for these words far more complex than those you
currently hold while in other instances you may find Bible definitions far
more concise and simpler than those you hold. The important thing is to
discover the Bible definitions these words hold from God‘s viewpoint.
Take a quick detour to a few of these important Bible terms, then return
and continue reading here.

―Spirit‖ (Click here) ―Sin‖ (Click here) ―Worship‖ (click here)

From these examples you can readily see that Bible words did not always
have the same meanings as we apply to them in our day. Therefore, we
will provide definitions in this chapter to help us understand the pre -
translational vernacular in which the bible was written. Remember the
object of the Bible is to convey God's thoughts and meanings as clearly as

possible. For this reason, definitions become very important. What

follows are definitions found in Bible dictionaries, rather than standard
dictionaries. In some instances you will find them to be very similar to a

contemporary dictionary definition. In other cases, you will find them to


be significantly different from modern day definitions, and in still other

cases, only slightly different. When you read scriptures, try to think in
terms of the definitions that fit the context around the words spoken, at
the time they were originally written down. Where Bible dictionary
definitions vary from your present understanding, consider the Bible
dict- ionary meanings carefully as you re-read the verses.

There is a certain level of ambiguity in every language. All languages

contain words which are spelled the same and have differing meanings,
words spelled differently with the same meanings and differing words
which express the same thoughts. All this presents translators and
linguists with difficult challenges in communicating accurately and
precisely. Nowhere is this more evident than in the Bible, where the
challenge is compounded by additional factors.

In Bible translations we encounter ancient word meanings which may

be obsolete today and modern translated word meanings which did not
exist at the time of the original writings or when earlier translations were
made. If that were not enough, there is also an element of pre-inclination
or bias from an individual‘s viewpoint which may enter into the translation
process. Religious organizations have attached their own meanings to
certain words to help support their own tradition based biblical doctrines.
Since these organizations frequently are the sponsors of Bible translations,
distortions in meaning can occur in their translations. Further, human
imperfection occasionally, may manifest itself, at least to some degree, in
mistakes made, either in the mechanics of language or in judgment as to
its conveyance of meanings.

It is for these reasons; this book devotes significant space in providing the
reader with concise definitions for important Bible words. Clearer under-
standing of these words is crucial to understanding Bible teachings acc-
urately. Since Bible word meanings may differ from standard modern
dictionary meanings, we will choose from a variety of Bible Word Study
Dictionaries. This will help us to clearer and more accurate definitions
for these key words.

Keep in mind there are different words which express similar thoughts,
yet have varying shades of nuance or meaning. Also dictionaries may
give varieties of definitions for the same word. We also need to be aware

that one is likely to find among a list of definitions any Bible dictionary
gives, those which have crept into general usage much later, after the
original writers were long dead. These definitions are not valid for deter-

mining true original meanings. Then too, on occasion one also finds
among definitions the word itself. Defining a word by means of itself is

illogical. Very much like saying; It is red because it is red, would be

illogical as a reason why something is red.

A translator should be concerned that the definition he chooses fits the

context around the sentence a word is used in. Unfortunately this is not
always the case for different reasons. For example when a translator has
an agenda to support, he may choose the definition which best fits his
viewpoint rather than the one which properly fits context.

Most importantly, always remember, context remains the reader‘s most

indispensable aid to understanding which definition a word finally takes
on in bible terms. So, let us never fail to apply both immediate context
and over all context to our powers of understanding.

If one were to merely read all the definitions in this chapter along with
the scriptural examples given, he or she would be surprised how much
additional insight can be gained into God‘s word and as a consequence,
into his thinking.

Our sources for Bible definitions are:

Brown-Driver Briggs Hebrew Definitions

Eastons Bible Dictionary
Etymology Dictionary
Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. 1,2.
International Standard Bible Dictionary
New American Standard Bible Dictionary
R.A. Torrey‘s New Topical Index
Smith‘s Bible Dictionary
Strong‘s Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries
Thayer‘s Greek Definitions
Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definitions
Vines Expository Dictionary of N.T. Bible words
Vines Expository Dictionary of O.T. Bible words
Wilsons Old Testament Word Studies
Word Study of Old Testament Words by Warren Baker
Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words




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ABHOR - G655 - Greek – αποζησγεω - ap-os-toog-eh‘-o - (Strongs

Greek Dictionary)

ABHOR - H8581 –Hebrew- ta‛ab: - - (Hebrew Word Study Dictionary -


ta‛ab: A verb meaning to abhor, to be abhorrent, to do abominably.

This word expresses a strongly detestable activity or the logical response

to such an activity. It is associated with a severe sense of loathing:

[Examples of Scriptural use:]

Romans 12:9 Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor that which is

evil; cleave to that which is good. ASV

Psalm 5:6 You destroy those who tell lies; bloodthirsty and
deceitful men the LORD abhors. NIV

Amos 5:10 They hate him that rebuketh in the gate and they abhor
him that speaketh uprightly KJV

ACCUSE: (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To charge with, or declare to have committed a crime, either by plaint,

charge with an offense against the laws, judicially or by a public process;

2. To charge with a fault; to blame.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Romans 2:15 They are the very ones who demonstrate the matter of the
law to be written in their hearts, while their conscience is bearing
witness with them and, between their own thoughts, they are
being accused1or even excused. NWT

1 Timothy 3:10 Also, let these be tested as to fitness first, then let them
serve as ministers, as they are free from accusation2. NWT


Romans 8:33 Who dares accuse2 us whom God has chosen for his
own? Will God? No! He is the one who has given us right standing with
himself. NLT

ACQUIT (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

To set free; to release or discharge from an obligation,

accusation, guilt, censure, suspicion, or whatever lies upon a
person as a charge or duty

H5352 - ACQUIT‘ - Hebrew – (Brown-Driver Briggs Hebrew Definitions)

1) to be empty, be clear, be pure, be free, be innocent, be desolate, be cut

1a) (Qal) to be empty, be clean, be pure
1b) (Niphal)
1b1) to be cleaned out, be purged out
1b2) to be clean, be free from guilt, be innocent
1b3) to be free, be exempt from punishment
1b4) to be free, be exempt from obligation
1c) (Piel)
1c1) to hold innocent, acquit
1c2) to leave unpunished

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Romans 6:7 For he who has died has been acquitted1b3 from [his]
sin NWT
Job 10:14 If I sin, you watch me and do not acquit1b4 me of my
iniquity. ASV

Nahum 1:3 The LORD {is} slow to anger, and great in power, and
will not at all acquit1c1 {the wicked}: the LORD {hath} his way in
the whirlwind and in the storm, and the clouds {are} the dust of his feet.

ADULTERY: (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

Adultery, n. [L. adulterium. See Adulterate.]


1. Violation of the marriage bed; a crime, or a civil injury, which


introduces, or may introduce, into a family, a spurious offspring.


2. In a scriptural sense, all manner of lewdness or unchastity, as in the

seventh commandment. In scripture also, idolatry, or apostasy* from
the true God.

*(See Apostasy defined page 203.)

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Exodus 20:14 Thou shalt not commit adultery1 KJV

John 8:3 The scribes and Pharisees brought a woman along who had
been caught committing adultery1; and making her stand there in
the middle NJB

Isaiah 57:3 "But you--come here, you sons of a sorceress, you

offspring of adulterers 2 and prostitutes! NIB

Adultery – spiritual

[Examples of Scriptural use]

James 4:4 Adulteresses2, do YOU not know that the friendship with
the world is enmity with God? Whoever, therefore, wants to be a friend
of the world is constituting himself an enemy of God. NWT

Jeremiah 3:8 I gave faithless Israel her certificate of divorce and sent
her away because of all her adulteries2. Yet I saw that her
unfaithful sister Judah had no fear; she also went out and committed
adultery2. NIB

ALMIGHTY (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


Possessing all power; omnipotent; being of unlimited might; being

of boundless sufficiency; appropriately applied to the Supreme

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Genesis 35:11 And God said to him, "I am God Almighty; {Hebrew

El-Shaddai} be fruitful and increase in number. A nation and a


community of nations will come from you, and kings will come from
your body. NIB

Exodus 6:3 and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto
Jacob, as God Almighty, but by My name Jehovah I made Me not
known to them. JPS

Job 22:23 still if you return to the Almighty and clean up your
life, you will be restored. NLT

2 Corinthians 6:18 "'And I shall be a father to YOU, and YOU will be

sons and daughters to me,' says Jehovah the Almighty." NWT

AMEN (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

As a verb, it signifies to confirm, establish, verify; to trust.
Used at the beginning, but more generally at the end of declarations and
prayers, in the sense of, be it firm, be it established.

The word is used also as a noun."All the promises of God are amen in
Christ;" that is, firmness, stability, constancy.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Chronicles 16:36 Blessed be Jehovah the God of Israel from time

indef- inite to time indefinite.'"And all the people proceeded to say,
"Amen!" and a praise to Jehovah. NWT

Ephesians 3:21 to him be the glory by means of the congregation and

by means of Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen. NWT

Jeremiah 28:6 yes, Jeremiah the prophet proceeded to say: "Amen!

Thus may Jehovah do! May Jehovah establish your words that you have
prophesied by bringing back the utensils of the house of Jehovah and all
the exiled people from Babylon to this place! NWT

AMONG - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


AMONGST', prep. [Gr. See Mingle.]


1. In a general or primitive sense, mixed or mingled with; as tares

among wheat.

2. Conjoined or associated with, or making part of the number.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Acts 4:12 Furthermore, there is no salvation in anyone else, for there is

not another name under heaven that has been given among2 men by
which we must get saved." NWT

John 1:14 So the Word became human and lived here on earth
among1 us. He was full of unfailing love and faithfulness.1 And we
have seen his glory, the glory of the only Son of the Father. NLT
Matthew 13:25 While men were sleeping, his enemy came and over
sowed weeds in among 1,2 the wheat, and left. NWT

Philippians 2:15 that YOU may come to be blameless and innocent,

children of God without a blemish in among2 a crooked and twisted
generation, among1 whom YOU are shining as illuminators in the
world, NWT

ANGER (Eastons Bible Dictionary)

The emotion of instant displeasure on account of something evil that

presents itself to our view. In itself it is an original susceptibility of our
nature, just as love is, and is not necessarily sinful. It may, however,
become sinful when causeless, or excessive, or protracted (Mat 5:22; Eph
4:26; Col 3:8).
As ascribed to God, it merely denotes his displeasure with sin and with
sinners (Psa. 7:11).

AN'GER; Since anger is viewed as being the same as ―Wrath‖ and ―Rage‖
by so many people, and even by many Bible translators, we will devote
some time to a detailed explanation of these terms and their differences
in scriptural terms .



These are three words which people often equate with one another, even
to the extent of attaching the same meaning to all of them. In scriptural

terms, where meanings are directly attributable to how Jehovah sees


them, it is important to understand distinctions between them. First, let

us consider the word Rage and its Bible implication.


The word rage occurs 17 times in the O.T. and 1 time in the N.T. [KJV]

In none of these occurrences is the word associated with Jehovah. In

Bible terms the word is not applicable to Jehovah since it represents
characteristics foreign to his nature. In versions where it is found
applying to him, it represents a mistranslation. It is found scripturally to
be applicable to men, horses, chariots, etc. however, not to God almighty.
Rage H7264, H7265 [ Hebrew] raw-gaz' A primitive root; to
quiver (with any violent emotion, especially anger or fear): - be afraid,
stand in awe, disquiet, fall out, fret, move, provoke, quake, rage, shake,
tremble, trouble, be wroth.
Rage H7266 (Chaldee); regaz reg-az' corresponding to H7264: -
provoke unto wrath.
Rage H7266 regaz: An Aramaic masculine noun meaning violent anger,
rage. The term occurs only once in the entire Old Testament. When King
Nebuchadnezzar heard that three Jews-Shadrach, Meshach, and
Abednego-refused to worship the image of gold that he had erected, he
flew into a rage (Dan_3:13). This term is derived from the Aramaic verb
regaz (H7265)

Rage G5433 [Greek] frua,ssw phruasso {froo-as'-so}

1) to neigh, stamp the ground, prance, snort

2) to be high-spirited
2a) of horses
2b) of men
2b1) to take on lofty airs
2b2) behave arrogantly
2c) to be tumultuous, to rage

[Examples of Scriptural use]


1 2 Kings 5:12 Are not the A-ba'nah and the Phar'par, the rivers of
Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel? Can I not bathe in them


and certainly be clean?" . With that he turned and went away in a

rage. NWT [applies to Naaman]

2. 2 Kings 19:27 But I know <03045> (08804) thy abode <03427>

(08800), and thy going out <03318> (08800), and thy coming in
<0935> (08800), and thy rage <07264> (08692) against me. KJV
[applies to the people raging against God]

3. 2 Kings 19:28 Because thy rage <07264> (08692) against me

and thy tumult <07600> is come up <05927> (08804) into mine ears
<0241>, therefore I will put <07760> (08804) my hook <02397> in thy
nose <0639>, and my bridle <04964> in thy lips <08193>, and I will
turn thee back <07725> (08689) by the way <01870> by which thou
camest <0935> (08804). KJV [applies to the people raging against God]

4. 2 Chronicles 16:10 Then Asa <0609> was wroth <03707> (08799)

with the seer <07200> (08802), and put <05414> (08799) him in a
prison <04115> house <01004>; for he was in a rage <02197> with
him because of this thing. And Asa <0609> oppressed <07533> (08762)
some of the people <05971> the same time <06256>. KJV [Applies to Asa]

5. 2 Chronicles 28:9 But a prophet <05030> of the LORD <03068> was

there, whose name <08034> was Oded <05752>: and he went out
<03318> (08799) before <06440> the host <06635> that came <0935>
(08802) to Samaria <08111>, and said <0559> (08799) unto them,
Behold, because the LORD <03068> God <0430> of your fathers <01>
was wroth <02534> with Judah <03063>, he hath delivered <05414>
(08804) them into your hand <03027>,
and ye have slain <02026> (08799) them in a rage <02197> that
reacheth up <05060> (08689) unto heaven <08064>. KJV [Applies to the
armies of Israel]

6. Job 39:24 He swalloweth <01572> (08762) the ground

<0776> with fierceness <07494> and rage <07267>: neither
believeth <0539> (08686) he that it is the sound <06963> of the
trumpet <07782>. KJV [Applies to a horse]

7. Job 40:11 Cast abroad <06327> (08685) the rage <05678> of

thy wrath <0639>: and behold <07200> (08798) every one that is

proud <01343>, and abase <08213> (08685) him. KJV [Applies to Job]

8 Psalm 2:1 Why do the heathen <01471> rage <07283> (08804),


and the people <03816> imagine <01897> (08799) a vain thing

<07385>? . KJV [Applies to the Gentiles, nations, heathens]

9. Psalm 7:6 Arise <06965> (08798), O LORD <03068>, in thine anger

<0639>, lift up <05375> (08734) thyself because of the rage
<05678> of mine enemies <06887> (08802): and awake <05782>
(08798) for me to the judgment <04941> that thou hast commanded
<06680> (08765). KJV [Applies to David‘s enemies as a reason for
Jehovah‘s anger. Rage is not attributed to Jehovah]

10. Proverbs 6:34 For jealousy <07068> is the rage <02534> of a

man <01397>: therefore he will not spare <02550> (08799) in the day
<03117> of vengeance <05359>. KJV [application is self evident]

11. Proverbs 29:9 If a wise <02450> man <0376> contendeth <08199>

(08737) with a foolish <0191> man <0376>, whether he rage
<07264>(08804) or laugh <07832> (08804), there is no rest
<05183>. KJV [application is self evident]

12. Isaiah 37:28 But I know <03045> (08804) thy abode <03427>
(08800), and thy going out <03318> (08800), and thy coming in
<0935> (08800), and thy rage <07264> (08692) against me. KJV
[Applies to the fortified cities who raged against Jehovah]

13. Isaiah 37:29 Because thy rage <07264> (08692) against me,
and thy tumult <07600>, is come up <05927> (08804) into mine ears
<0241>, therefore will I put <07760> (08804) my hook <02397> in thy
nose <0639>, and my bridle <04964> in thy lips <08193>, and I will
turn thee back <07725> (08689) by the way <01870> by which thou
camest <0935> (08804). KJV [Applies to the fortified cities who raged
against Jehovah]

14. Jeremiah 46:9 Come up <05927> (08798), ye horses <05483>;

and rage <01984> (08703), ye chariots <07393>; and let the mighty
men <01368> come forth <03318> (08799); the Ethiopians <03568>
and the Libyans <06316>, that handle <08610> (08802) the shield
<04043>; and the Lydians <03866>, that handle <08610> (08802) and
bend <01869> (08802) the bow <07198>. KJV [application is self evident]

15. Daniel 3:13 Then <0116> Nebuchadnezzar <05020> in his rage

<07266> and fury <02528> commanded <0560> (08754) to bring

<0858> (08682) Shadrach <07715>, Meshach <04336>, and Abednego

<05665>. Then <0116> they brought <0858> (08717) these <0479> men
<01400> before <06925> the king <04430>.dle <08610> (08802) and

bend <01869> (08802) the bow <07198>. KJV [application is self evident]


16. Hosea 7:16 They return <07725> (08799), but not to the most High
<05920>: they are like a deceitful <07423> bow <07198>: their princes
<08269> shall fall <05307> (08799) by the sword <02719> for the
rage <02195> of their tongue <03956>: this <02097> shall be their
derision <03933> in the land <0776> of Egypt <04714>. KJV [applies to
the people of Israel]

17. Nahum 2:4 The chariots <07393> shall rage <01984> (08704)
in the streets <02351>, they shall justle one against another <08264>
(08698) in the broad ways <07339>: they shall seem <04758> like
torches <03940>, they shall run <07323> (08787) like the lightnings
<01300>. KJV [application is self evident]

18. Acts 4:25 Who <3588> by <1223> the mouth <4750> of thy <4675>
servant <3816> David <1138> hast said <2036> (5631), Why <2444>
did <5433> <0> the heathen <1484> rage <5433> (5656), and
<2532> the people <2992> imagine <3191> (5656) vain things <2756>?
KJV [Applies to the Gentiles, nations, heathens]

Having considered the scriptural meaning of RAGE, let us explore the

scriptural differences between ―anger‖ and ―wrath‖. Upon attempting to
discover a difference between the two words and the concepts they
represent in scripture, one finds a quagmire of confusion as to their
meanings. It is not at all uncommon to find opinions that they are so
similar, they may be used interchangeably. Even respected Bible scholars
have succumbed to this. Yet the scriptures themselves attest that there
must be some significant differences between the meanings of these two
related words, because the God who originated language for humans, and
himself a master of the communication arts used them at times within
the same sentence. This should not have been the case If they represented
the exact same meanings.


There are two Greek words that are translated "wrath" in the New
Testament scriptures:

1) orge (Strongs #3709) ―Wrath‖ - also translated anger and indignation


2) thymos (Strongs #2372) - also translated indignation and fierceness


To those people who infer that these two words can be used
interchangeably, we must ask; if they essentially mean the same thing,

why does Paul in two instances list them as two separate qualities in the
same sentence?

Colossians 3:8 - But now you also put off all these: anger 3709 (orge),
wrath 2372 (thymos), malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of
your mouth. RWB

Romans 2:8 - But to them that are contentious, and do not obey the
truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation 2372 (thymos), and wrath
3709 (orge).... RWB

John also uses the two words in the same sentence twice in

Revelation 14:10 - The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath 2372
(thymos) of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his
indignation 3709 (orge)... RWB

Revelation 16:19 - And the great city was divided into three parts, and
the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance
before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness 2372
(thymos) of his wrath 3709 (orge). RWB

If they both terms mean the same thing, the Holy Spirit would not have
inspired both Paul and John to use two different words for a single
meaning in the same sentence. We cannot readily accept that God‘s spirit
is a source of confusion nor can we conclude God does not know the
differences and is not sophisticated in the choice of words he expresses
his mindset with. Clearly, there must be a real and discernable difference
in the scriptural meaning of these two words.

Additionally, we find many O.T. examples where these two words are
used side by side in the same verses. This implies at least some shade of
difference their meanings.. There are still further variations and nuances
of meaning in both anger and wrath, indicated by the type of anger and
wrath spoken about. For example, there is; anger, Hot anger, burning
anger, kindled anger, and fierce anger. Wrath is described as; wrath, hot
wrath, burning wrath and fierce wrath. Mostly, these variations are
concerned with degree or intensity. It is our objective to discern what the

basic fundamental difference between the two words, anger and wrath
may be. In this objective, first, one must concede that there is a
difference between human anger and Godly anger, as well as a difference

between human wrath and Godly wrath.


[Scriptural Examples]

Psalm 37:8 / Refrain from anger, and forsake wrath! Fret not
yourself; it tends
only to evil. ESV [advice to humans]

Proverbs 27:4 / Wrath is cruel, anger is overwhelming, but who

can stand before jealousy? ESV [speaking in human terms]

Daniel 9:16 / ―O Lord, according to all your righteous acts, let your
anger and your wrath turn away from your city Jerusalem,
your holy hill, because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers,
Jerusalem and your people have become a byword among all who are
around us. ESV [speaking of Godly anger and wrath]

Psalm 78:38 / Yet he, being compassionate, atoned for their iniquity
and did not destroy them; he restrained his anger often and did
not stir up all his wrath. ESV [speaking of Godly anger and wrath]

Hosea 13:11 / I gave you a king in my anger, and I took him

away in my wrath. ESV [speaking of Godly anger and wrath]

Genesis 49:5-7 / ―Simeon and Levi are brothers; weapons of violence

are their swords. Let my soul come not into their council; O my glory, be
not joined to their company. For in their anger they killed men, and in
their willfulness they hamstrung oxen. Cursed be their ange, for it
is fierce, and their wrath, for it is cruel! I will divide them in
Jacob and scatter them in Israel. ESV [speaking of human wrath]

Amos 1:11 / Thus says the Lord: ―For three transgressions of Edom,
and for four, I will not revoke the punishment, because he pursued his
brother with the sword and cast off all pity, and his anger tore
perpetually, and he kept his wrath forever. ESV [speaking of
human wrath]

After a great deal of Symantec investigation into the root meanings of

both the words, their derivations and their subtleties of meaning, the
following obser- vations come into focus which help us to realize definite
differences in their meanings.

Human ―anger‖ has the characteristics of being sudden, often impulsive,

based on some hurt experienced, either in feelings or physically. It is

usually emotional and can be either short lived or may linger for some
limited duration. It has the basic characteristic of being temporary or

transitory. It can be either justifiable or may be a figment of the individuals

own mind, based on his or her perception of a given situation. It does not
necessarily represent reality. Therein lies the major difference between
godly anger and human anger. Godly anger is always justifiable and always
represents a response to a real affront to the creator and his viewpoint. It
is never based on a mistaken perception. While godly anger may also be
temporary or of a more extended duration, depending on his desire and
viewpoint, it is always in balance with his other personality traits. The other
major difference between human and godly anger is that godly anger is
never out of control, whereas human anger often is.

Anger is an emotion Jehovah allows at least to some extent, in humans

however with the proviso not to let it get out of control or linger. It is
considered a result of sinful human nature which is to be overcome and
brought under control.

Ephesians 4:26 ―BE ANGRY <3710>, AND yet DO NOT SIN <264>;
do not let the sun <2246> go <1931> down <1931> on your anger‖
<3950>, NAB

Galatians 5:19 ―When you follow the desires of your sinful

nature, your lives will produce these evil results: sexual
immorality, impure thoughts, eagerness for lustful pleasure, 20
idolatry, participation in demonic activities, hostility, quarreling,
jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish ambition, divisions, the feeling
that everyone is wrong except those in your own little group‖, NLT

While anger and wrath have some common aspects in their meanings, a
major difference between anger and wrath is that where anger may be
somewhat impulsive and sudden, wrath is of lingering duration, con-
trived and usually contains an element of premeditation. It is inclined to
take action or wish ill against the one causing the anger. While Jehovah‘s
wrath is justified according to his infallible judgment, man‘s wrath is
almost always flawed due to his own imperfect human judgment and
thinking. Therefore, human wrath is to be avoided as an emotional
quality not condoned for humans by Jehovah. On the other hand
Jehovah‘s wrath is a consequent and expression of all his qualities
manifesting themselves in perfect harmony. So, we may conclude that
anger on the part of Jehovah constitutes righteous indignation and that
his wrath is always justified due to his own innate righteousness and

infallibility. On the other hand, human anger, is subject to human

imperfection is usually flawed. Likewise, human wrath which festers and

leads to adverse action in connection with such anger is in itself a result

of imperfect judgment on the part of the administrator. In scriptural

terms all such wrath is prohibitedto us humans because all retribution or

vengeance belongs to Jehovah, and not us.

APPROVE - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To like; to be pleased with; to admit the propriety of; as, we
approve the measures of administration. This word may include, with the
assent of the mind to the propriety, a commendation to others.

2. To prove; to show to be true; to justify.

3. To experience; to prove by trial. [Not used. See Prove.]

4. To make or show to be worthy of approbation; to commend.

5. To like and sustain as right; to commend.

6. To improve.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Mark 1:11 and a voice came out of the heavens: "You are my Son, the
beloved; I have approved you." NWT

Romans 1:28 And just as they did not approve of holding God in
accurate knowledge, God gave them up to a disapproved mental state,
to do the things not fitting, NWT

2 Timothy 2:15 Do your best to present yourself to God as one

approved, a workman who does not need to be ashamed and who
correctly handles the word of truth. NIV

James 1:12 Happy is the man that keeps on enduring trial, because on
becoming approved he will receive the crown of life, which Jehovah
promised to those who continue loving him.NWT

APOSTLE (Thayers dictionary of Theological Terms)


G652 avpo,stoloj apostolos {ap-os'-tol-os}

apostle 78, messenger 2, he that is sent;



1.) a delegate, messenger, one sent forth with orders

1a) specifically applied to the twelve apostles of Christ
1b) in a broader sense applied to other eminent Christian teachers
1b1) of Barnabas
1b2) of Timothy and Silvanus

Apostle - (Eastons Bible dictionary)

A person sent by another; a messenger; envoy. This word is once

used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father
(Heb_3:1; Joh_20:21). It is, however, generally used as designating
the body of disciples to whom he entrusted the organization of
his congregation (church) and the dissemination of his gospel,
―the twelve,‖ as they are called (Mat_10:1-5; Mar_3:14; Mar_6:7;
Luk_6:13; Luk_9:1).
Our Lord gave them the ―keys of the kingdom,‖ and by the gift of his
Spirit fitted them to be the founders and governors of his congregation
(church) (Joh_14:16, Joh_14:17, Joh_14:26; Joh_15:26, Joh_15:27;
Joh_16:7-15). To them, as representing his congregation, he gave the
commission to ―preach the gospel to every creature‖
(Mat_28:18-20). After his ascension he communicated to them,
according to his promise, supernatural gifts to qualify them for
the discharge of their duties (Act_2:4; 1Co_2:16; 1Co_2:7, 1Co_2:10,
1Co_2:13; 2Co_5:20; 1Co_11:2). Judas Iscariot, one of ―the twelve,‖ fell
by transgression, and Matthias was substituted in his place (Act_1:21).
Saul of Tarsus was afterwards added to their number (Acts 9:3-20;
Act_20:4; Act_26:15-18; 1Ti_1:12; 1Ti_2:7; 2Ti_1:11).

It was characteristic of the apostles and necessary;

(1.) that they should have seen the Lord, and been able to
testify of him and of his resurrection from personal knowledge
(Joh_15:27; Act_1:21, Act_1:22; 1Co_9:1; Act_22:14, Act_22:15).
(2.) They must have been immediately called to that office by
Christ (Luk_6:13; Gal_1:1).
(3.) It was essential that they should be infallibly inspired, and
thus secured against all error and mistake in their public
teaching, whether by word or by writing (Joh_14:26; Joh_16:13;

(4.) Another qualification was the power of working miracles

(Mar_16:20; Act_2:43; 1Co_12:8-11).

Apostles therefore could have had no successors. They are the only
author- itative teachers of the Christian doctrines. The office of an apostle

ceased with its first holders, while the teaching of the Apostles survived
with the presser- vation of their writings for posterity.

In 2Co 8:23 and Phi 2:25 the word ―messenger‖ is the rendering of the
same Greek word, elsewhere rendered ―apostle.‖

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Hebrews 3:1 That is why all you who are holy brothers and share the
same heavenly call should turn your minds to Jesus, the apostle and
the high priest of our profession of faith. NJB

Luke 6:13 But when it became day he called his disciples to him and
chose from among them twelve, whom he also named apostles:

Galatians 1:1 This letter is from Paul, an apostle. I was not appointed by any
group or by human authority. My call is from Jesus Christ himself and from
God the Father, who raised Jesus from the dead. NLT

Apostate (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)
APOS'TATE, n. [Gr.]

One who has forsaken; the church, sect or profession to which he

before adhered. In its original sense, applied to one who has
abandoned his religion; but correctly applied also to one who
abandons a political or other party.

Apostate (Thayers Theological Dictioary)

G646 ,a apostasia {ap-os-tas-ee'-ah}

- to forsake + 575 1, falling away 1; 2

1) a falling away, defection, apostasy


[Examples of Scriptural use]


Isaiah 10:6 Against an apostate nation I shall send him, and against
the people of my fury I shall issue a command to him, to take much spoil

and to take much plunder and to make it a trampling place like the clay
of the streets. NWT

Hosea 5:2 And they have plunged themselves in the corruption

of apostasy, but I will be a chastiser of them all.DBY

2 Thessalonians 2:3 Let no one seduce YOU in any manner, because

it will not come unless the apostasy comes first and the man of
lawlessness gets revealed, the son of destruction. NWT

1 Timothy 4:1 But the Spirit speaks expressly, that in latter times
some shall apostatise from the faith, giving their mind to
deceiving spirits and teachings of demons DBY

Whereas modern day meanings for religious apostasy may include

departure from an organization or religious denomination which has
adapted the meaning for it‘s own ends, the scriptural meaning of apostasy
was always been understood to be a falling away from or an abandoning
of Jehovah himself. In a true Christian N.T. sense it means an
abandonment of Christ, (Jehovah‘s savior) and or his teachings.

ARMAGEDDON (Insight to the Scriptures – Vol. 1.)

ar-ma-ged´on Αρκαγεδδωλ, Armageddon: n) ―HAR-MAGEDON‖)
(which see). (Har–Ma·ged′on) [from Heb., meaning ―Mountain of
Megiddo‖]. (Insight – Vol 1.)
This name is directly associated with ―the war of the great day
of God the Almighty.‖ The term applies specifically to the
condition, or situation, to which ―the kings of the entire
inhabited earth‖ are gathered in opposition to Jehovah and his
Kingdom by Jesus Christ. In a number of versions it is rendered
―Armageddon.‖ (Re 16:14, 16, AT; KJ; JB; RS; TEV) The name Har–
Magedon, taken from Hebrew, means simply ―Mountain of Megiddo.‖

[Example of Scriptural use]


Rev 16:14, 16 These are demonic spirits, performing signs, who go

abroad to the kings of the whole world, to assemble them for battle on


the great day of God the Almighty. 16 And they assembled them at the
place that in Hebrew is called Harmagedon. RSV

ASCEND (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


1. To move upwards; to mount; to go up; to rise, whether in air or

water, or upon a material object.

2. To rise, in a figurative sense; to proceed from an inferior to a superior

degree, from mean to noble objects, from particulars to generals, &c.

3. To proceed from modern to ancient times; to recur to former ages; as,

our inquiries ascend to the remotest antiquity.

4. In a corresponding sense, to proceed in a line towards ancestors; as, to

ascend to our first progenitors.

5. To rise as a star; to proceed or come above the horizon.

6. In music, to rise in vocal utterance; to pass from any note to one more

ASCEND', v.t. To go or move upwards upon, as to ascend a hill or

ladder; or to climb, as to ascend a tree.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

John 3:13 Moreover, no man has ascended into heaven but he that
descended from heaven, the Son of man. NWT

John 20:17 Jesus said to her, 'Do not cling to me, because I have not
yet ascended to the Father. But go to the brothers, and tell them: I am
ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'

Mark 3:13 And he ascended a mountain and summoned those he

wanted, and they went off to him. NWT


ASHAMED (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. Affected by shame; abashed or confused by guilt or a conviction
of some criminal action or indecorous conduct, or by the
exposure of some gross errors or mis- conduct, which the
person is conscious must be wrong, and which tends to impair
his honor or reputation.

2. Confused by a consciousness of guilt or of inferiority; by the

mortification of pride; by failure or disappointment.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Isaiah 42:17 They must be turned back, they will be very much
2ashamed, those who are putting trust in the carved image, those who

are saying to a molten image: "YOU are our gods." NWT

Genesis 2:25 And both of them continued to be naked, the man and his
wife, and yet they did not become 1ashamed. NWT

Romans 1:16 For I am not 1ashamed of the good news; it is, in fact,
God's power for salvation to everyone having faith, to the Jew first and
also to the Greek; NWT

ASSEMBLE: (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

To collect a number of individuals or particulars into one
place, or body; to bring or call together; to convene; to congregate.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Amos 5:21 I hate, I despise your feast days, and I will not smell in your
solemn assemblies. {in...: or, your holy days} KJV

Isaiah 45:20 Assemble, come, all of you gather round, survivors of

the nations. They have no knowledge, those who parade their wooden
idols and pray to a god that cannot save. NJB

Hebrews 10:25 not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together,

as a custom of certain is, but exhorting, and so much the more as ye see
the day coming nigh. YLT


ATONEMENT (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


1. Agreement; concord; reconciliation, after enmity or controversy.

2. Expiation; satisfaction or repatriation made by giving an

equivalent for an injury, or by doing or suffering that which is
received in satisfaction for an offense or injury; with for.

In theology, the expiation of sin made by the obedience and

personal sufferings of Christ.

ATO'NEMENT - H3722 Hebrew - (Complete Word Study – O.T. by W. Baker, S.


Ka p ar: A verb meaning to cover, to forgive, to expiate, to reconcile. This

word is of supreme theological importance in the Old Testament as it is
central to an Old Testament understand- ing of the remission of sin. At its
most basic level, the word conveys the notion of covering but not in the
sense of merely concealing. Rather, it suggests the imposing of something
to change its appearance or nature.

It is therefore employed to signify the cancellation or "writing over" of a

contract (Isa_28:18); the appeasing of anger (Gen_32:20 [21];
Pro_16:14); and the overlaying of wood with pitch so as to make it
waterproof (Gen_6:14). The word also communicates God's covering of
sin. Persons made reconciliation with God for their sins by imposing
something that would appease the offended party (in this case the Lord)
and cover the sinners with righteousness (Exo_32:30; Eze_45:17; cf.
Dan_9:24). In the Old Testament, the blood of sacrifices was most
notably imposed (Exo_30:10). By this imposition, sin was purged
(Psa_79:9; Isa_6:7) and forgiven (Psa_78:38). The offenses were
removed, leaving the sinners clothed in righteous- ness (cf. Zec_3:3-4).
Of course, the imposition of the blood of bulls and of goats could never
fully cover our sinS (see Heb_10:4), but with the coming of Christ and the
imposition of His shed blood, a perfect atonement was made (Rom_5:9-

[Examples of Scriptural use]



Numbers 15:28 And the priest must make atonement for the soul
who made a mistake by a sin unintentionally before Jehovah, so as to
make atonement for it, and it must be forgiven him. NWT

Exodus 29:37 Make atonement for the altar every day for seven
days. After that, the altar will be exceedingly holy, and whatever
touches it will become holy.NLT

Numbers 31:50 So we present the offering of Jehovah, that which

each one hath found, jewels of gold, chains, and bracelets, rings,
earrings, and necklaces, to make atonement for our souls before
Jehovah. DBY

AWAKE: (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To rouse from asleep.

2. To excite from a state resembling sleep, as from death,

stupidity or inaction; to put into action, or new life; as, to awake the
dead; to awake the dormant faculty.

2a. To cease to sleep; to come from a state of natural sleep.

2b. To bestir, revive or rouse from a state of inaction; to be

invigorated with new life; as, the mind awakes from its stupidity.

3. To rouse from spiritual sleep.

AWA'KE = Not sleeping; in a state of vigilance or action.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Luke 21:36 Keep awake, then, all the time making supplication that
YOU may succeed in escaping all these things that are destined to occur,
and in standing before the Son of man." NWT

Mark 13:33 Keep looking, keep awake, for YOU do not know when
the appointed time is. NWT


Romans 13:11 [Do] this, too, because YOU people know the season,
that it is already the hour for YOU to awake from sleep, for now our
salvation is nearer than at the time when we became believers. NWT

BAT'TLE, (Thayers Dictionary of Theological Terms)

1. A fight, or encounter between enemies, or opposing armies;

an engagement. It is usually applied to armies or large bodies of men;
but in popular language, the word is applied to an encounter between
small bodies, between individuals, or inferior animals. It is also more
generally applied to the encounters of land forces than of ships; the
encounters of the latter being called engagements. But battle is applicable
to any combat of enemies.

2. A body of forces, or division of an army.

BAT'TLE, To join in battle; to contend in fight; sometimes with it; as,

to battle it.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Psalm 140:7 O Sovereign LORD, my strong savior, you protected me

on the day of battle. NLT

Ecclesiastes 9:11 I have observed something else in this world of ours.

The fastest runner doesn't always win the race, and the strongest
warrior doesn't always win the battle. NLT

Revelation 20:8 and will go out to deceive the nations in the four
corners of the earth-- Gog and Magog-- to gather them for battle. In
number they are like the sand on the seashore. NIV

BECOME (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


1. To pass from one state to another; to enter into some state or

condition, by a change from another state or condition, or by

assuming or receiving new properties or qualities, additional

matter, or a new character;


―The Lord God breathed into his nostrils the breath of like and man
became a living soul.‖

―To the Jew, I became a Jew.‖

2. To become of, usually with what preceding; to be the fate of; to be the
end of; to be the final or subsequent condition; as, what will become of
our commerce? what will become of us?

In the present tense, it applies to place as well as condition. What has

become of my friend? that is, where is he? as well as, what is his
condition? Where is he become? used by Shakespeare and Spenser, is
obsolete; but this is the sense in Saxon, where has he fallen?

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Genesis 3:22 Then Yahweh God said, 'Now that the man has
become like one of us in knowing good from evil, he must not be
allowed to reach out his hand and pick from the tree of life too, and eat
and live for ever!' NJB

John 1:12 Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his
name, he gave the right to become children of God--NIV

1 Corinthians 3:18 Let no one be seducing himself: If anyone among

YOU thinks he is wise in this system of things, let him become a fool,
that he may become wise. NWT

BELIEVE - (Zodhiates Greek Word Study Dictionary)

BELIE'VE, v.i.
1. To have a firm persuasion of anything. In some cases, to have full
persuasion, approaching to certainty; in others, more doubt is implied. It
is often followed by in or on, especially in the scriptures.

2. To believe in, is to hold as the object of faith. "Ye believe in God,

believe also in me." John 14.
3. To believe on, is to trust, to place full confidence in, to rest

upon with faith. "To them gave he power to become the sons of God,
even to them that believe on his name." John 1. Johnson. But there is no

ground for much distinction.


In popular use and familiar discourse, to believe often expresses an

opinion in a vague manner, without a very exact estimate of evidence,
noting a mere preponderance of opinion, and is nearly equivalent to
think or suppose.

In theology, to believe sometimes expresses 1a mere assent of the

understanding to the truths of the gospel; as in the case of Simon. Acts 8.
In others, 3 the word implies, with the assent of the mind, a
yielding of the will and affections, accompanied with a humble
reliance on Christ for salvation. John 1:12. 3.15.

One bible version equates scriptural belief with action, indicating that the
belief must include immersion into that which is believed upon, to such
an extent that it manifests itself in actions or activity in accord with such
belief. (John 3:16 NWT)

[Examples of Scriptural use] - belief

John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten
Son, that whoever 3believes in Him should not perish but have
everlasting life. NKJ

John 3:16 "For God loved the world so much that he gave his only-
begotten Son, in order that everyone exercising faith in him might
not be destroyed but have everlasting life. NWT

John 5:24 "I assure you, those who listen to my message and 3believe
in God who sent me have eternal life. They will never be condemned for
their sins, but they have already passed from death into life. NLT

2 Thessalonians 2:11 So that is why God lets an operation of error go

to them, that they may get to 2believing the lie, NWT

BEFORE - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. In front; on the side with the face, at any distance; used of persons.

2. In presence of, with the idea of power, authority, respect.


3. In sight of; as before the face.


4. In the presence of, noting cognizance of jurisdiction.


5. In the power of, noting the right or ability to choose or possess; free to
the choice.

6. In front of any object; as before the house; before the fire.

7. Preceding in time.

8. In preference to.

Poverty is desirable before torments.

9. Superior; preceding in dignity.

10. Prior to; having prior right; preceding in order; as, the eldest son
is before the younger in succession.

11. Previous to; in previous order; in order to.

12. Before the wind, is to move in the direction of the wind by its impulse.
[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Peter 1:20 True, he was foreknown 7,10before the founding of the

world, but he was made manifest at the end of the times for the sake of

2 Timothy 4:21 Make every effort to come 10before the winter.

Greetings to you from Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia and all the
brothers. NJB

Revelation 7:9 After these things I saw, and lo, a great crowd, which
no one could number, out of every nation and tribes and peoples and
tongues, standing 3,4.before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed
with white robes, and palm branches in their hands. DBY

BEGINNING - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

First entering upon; commencing; giving rise or original; taking rise or

BEGIN'NING, n. The first cause; origin.



1. That which is first; the first state; commencement; entrance into


2. Giving rise, or original

3. The rudiments, first ground or materials.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Colossians 1:18 and he is the Head of the Body, that is, the Church.
He is the 1Beginning, the first-born from the dead, so that he should
be supreme in every way; NJB

1 John 1:1 Something which has existed since the 3beginning, which
we have heard, which we have seen with our own eyes, which we have
watched and touched with our own hands, the Word of life -- this is our
theme. NJB

1 John 3:8 But when people keep on sinning, it shows they belong to
the Devil, who has been sinning since the 1beginning. But the Son of
God came to destroy these works of the Devil. NLT

BEGOT (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. Procreated; generated.

BEGOT', BEGOT'TEN (Vines Expository Dictionary of N.T. Bible words)

It is used metaphorically:
1. gennao (G1080), "to beget," in the passive voice, "to be born," is
chiefly used of men "begetting"
(a) in the writings of the apostle John, of the gracious act of God in
conferring upon those who believe the nature and disposition of
"children," imparting to them spiritual life, Joh_3:3, Joh_3:5, Joh_3:7;
1Jo_2:29; 1Jo_3:9; 1Jo_4:7; 1Jo_5:1, 1Jo_5:4, 1Jo_5:18;

(b) of one who by means of preaching the gospel becomes the human

instrument in the impartation of spiritual life, 1Co_4:15; Phm_1:10;



(c) in 2Pe_2:12, with reference to the evil men whom the apostle is
describing, the RV rightly has "born mere animals" (KJV, "natural brute

(d) in the sense of gendering strife, 2Ti_2:23.

3. apokueo (G616), "to give birth to, to bring forth" (from kueo, "to be
pregnant"), is used metaphorically of spiritual birth by means of the
Word of God, Jam_1:18, and of death as the offspring of sin (Jam_1:15;
so in the best texts). See BRING, A, No. 30.

4. tikto (G5088), "to bring forth," Luk_1:57; Joh_16:21; Heb_11:11;

Rev_12:2, Rev_12:4, or, "to be born," said of the Child, Mat_2:2;
Luk_2:11, is used metaphorically in Jam_1:15, of lust as bringing forth
sin. See apokueo, above, used in the same verse. See BRING, DELIVER,
TRAVAIL (be in).
Notes: (1) For prototokos see FIRSTBORN. (2) For monogenes, see ONLY

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 1:20 but while he pondered on these things, behold, an angel

of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, Joseph, son of David,
fear not to take to thee Mary, thy wife, for that which is 4begotten in
her is of the Holy Spirit. DBY

John 1:14 And the Word became flesh, and did tabernacle among us,
and we beheld his glory, glory as of an only 3begotten of a father, full
of grace and truth. YLT
John 3:16 For God so loved the world that he gave his only
3begotten Son that whosoever believeth in him should not perish but

have everlasting life KJV

BELONG, (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


1. To be the property of; as, a field belongs to Richard Roe; Jamaica

belongs to G.Britain.

2. To be the concern or proper business of; to appertain; as, it belongs to

John Doe to prove his title.

3. To be appendant to.

4. To be a part of, or connected with, though detached in place; as, a

beam or rafter belongs to such a frame, or to such a place in the building.

5. To have relation to.

6. To be the quality or attribute of.

7. To be suitable for.

8. To relate to, or be referred to.

10. To be the native of; to have original residence.

11. In common language, to have a settled residence; to be domiciliated.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Corinthians 3:23 in turn YOU 1belong to Christ; Christ, in turn,

belongs to God. NWT

Isaiah 44:21 "Remember these things, O Jacob, and you, O Israel,

because you are my servant. I have formed you. You are a servant 4
belonging to me. O Israel, you will not be forgotten on my part. NWT

Romans 14:8 for both if we live, we live to Jehovah, and if we die, we

die to Jehovah. Therefore both if we live and if we die, we 3belong to
Jehovah. NWT

Romans 12:5 so we, although many, are one body in union with
Christ, but members 4belonging individually to one another. NWT
BLAMELESS (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)
a. Without fault; innocent; guiltless; not meriting censure.

H5355 - BLA'MELESS (Complete Word Study – O.T. by W. Baker, S.


naqiy, naqiy‘: An adjective meaning clean, free from,

exempt. This term frequently refers to innocent blood, that is, the shed

blood of an innocent individual. It also refers to a person who is innocent.

According to Psa_24:4, it is a necessary quality for those who will stand

in the presence of the Lord. It also refers to those who are free from
blame (Gen_44:10); free from liability or punishment (Exo_21:28;
2Sa_14:9); released from an oath (Gen_24:41; Jos_2:17, Jos_2:19-20);
exempt from various obligations (Num_32:22); or free from the
obligation of military service (Deu_24:5).

G273- Greek - BLA'MELESS - amemptos (Thayers Greek


1) blameless, deserving no censure, free from fault or defect

G273- Greek - BLA'MELESS - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary)

without, fault to be found.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Job 1:1 There happened to be a man in the land of Uz whose name was
Job; and that man proved to be blameless and upright, and fearing
God and turning aside from bad.NWT

Philippians 2:15 that YOU may come to be blameless and

innocent, children of God without a blemish in among a crooked and
twisted generation, among whom YOU are shining as illuminators in
the world, NWT

Luke 1:6 Both of them were upright in the sight of God, observing all
the Lord's commandments and regulations blamelessly. NIV

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BLASPHEME (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


1. To speak of the Supreme Being in terms of impious irreverence; to

revile or speak reproachfully of God, or the Holy Spirit

2. To speak evil of; to utter abuse or calumny against; to speak

reproachfully of.

3. To arrogate the prerogatives of God. - to claim unwarrantably or

presumptuously; assume or appropriate to oneself without right:

G989 BLASPHE'ME (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary)


(G5345), rumor, fame. To be

abusive, reviling, destroying one's good name (2Ti_3:2, a
slanderer, blasphemer in respect to men); blasphemous, a blasphemer
(Act_6:11, Act_6:13, of words uttered against God and divine
things; 1Ti_1:13, a subst. meaning a blasphemer in respect to God;
2Pe_2:11, of words against men, slanderous).

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Romans 2:24 For "the name of God is being 1blasphemed on

account of YOU people among the nations"; just as it is written. NWT

Romans 2:24 No wonder the Scriptures say, "The world

blasphemes the name of God because of you." NLT

1 Timothy 1:13 although formerly I was a 2blasphemer and a

persecutor and an insolent man. Nevertheless, I was shown mercy,
because I was ignorant and acted with a lack of faith NWT

2 Timothy 3:2 For men will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money,


self-assuming, haughty, 1,3. blasphemers, disobedient to parents,

unthankful, disloyal, NWT


H1293 – Hebrew - Blessing - - (Complete Word Study – O.T. by W.

Baker, S. Zodhiates)
be :
The general idea of this word is one of good favor bestowed on

1. This may be expressed in the giving of a tangible gift

2. or in the pronouncing of a verbal blessing
3. Most often, however, this word speaks of God's favor on the
It is related to the common verb barak (H1288), meaning to bless and is
often used to contrast God's blessing and His curse.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Joshua 8:34 After this, Joshua read all the words of the Law -- the
1blessing and the cursing -- exactly as it stands written in the Book of
the Law. NJB

Psalm 67:6 The earth itself will certainly give its produce; God, our
3God, will bless us.NWT

Genesis 28:1 Consequently Isaac called Jacob and 2blessed him and
commanded him and said to him: "You must not take a wife from the
daughters of Ca'naan. NWT

Proverbs 10:22 The blessing of Jehovah, it maketh rich; And he

addeth no sorrow therewith. ASV

BLESS, BLESSING, G3107 - Blessed – Greek –

(Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary)

makários; fem. makaría, neut. makárion, adj.

Blessed, 3possessing the favor of God, that state of being marked
by fullness from God. It indicates the state of the believer in Christ

(Mat_5:3-11, "Blessed . . . for my sake"; Luk_6:20-22, "Blessed . . . for the


Son of man's sake"), said of one who becomes a partaker of God's nature
through faith in Christ (2Pe_1:4). The believer is indwelt by the Holy
Spirit because of Christ and as a result should be fully satisfied no matter
the circumstances.
3Makários differs from the word "happy" in that the person is

happy who has good luck (from the root hap meaning luck as a
favorable circum stance). To be makários, blessed, is equivalent to
having God's kingdom within one's heart (Mat_5:3, Mat_5:10). Aristotle
contrasts makários to endees (G1729), the needy one. Makários is the
one who is in the world yet independent of the world. His satisfaction
comes from God and not from favorable circumstances.

Deriv.: makarízo (G3106), to declare blessed.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 5:3 "God 3blesses those who realize their need for him, for
the Kingdom of Heaven is given to them. NLT

Hebrews 6:14 saying: "Assuredly in 2blessing I will 3bless you, and

in multiplying I will multiply you." NWT

John 20:29 Jesus said to him: You believe because you can see me.
are those who have not seen and yet believe. NJB

BROTHER, (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. A human male born of the same father and mother. A male by
one of the parents only is called a half-brother, or brother of the half

2. Any one closely united; an associate; as a band of brothers.

3. One that resembles another in manners.


H251 Brother – Hebrew - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary)


A masculine noun meaning brother. The word is used not only of

those with common parents but also of those with common

ancestors. Thus, the descendants of Israel are brothers (Lev_19:17;

Lev_25:46), as are two nations with common ancestors (Amo_1:11,
Oba_1:10, Oba_1:12). It further describes a close friend outside the
immediate physical family (2Sa_1:26).

G80 – Brother – Greek - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary)

αδειθος adelphós; gen. adelphoú, fem. adelphe (G79), masc. noun from
the collative a (G1), denoting unity, and delphús (n.f.), a womb
. A brother. Adelphós
1. generally denotes a fellowship of life based on identity of
origin, e.g., members of the same family
2. members of the same tribe, countrymen, and so
3. One of the same nature, a fellow man was regarded as a brother
4. Adelphós a came to designate a fellowship of love equivalent
to or bringing with it a community of life In this manner Jesus
speaks of His brethren (Mat_25:40; Mat_28:10; Joh_20:17; Rom_8:29;
The members of the same Christian community are called
brothers (Joh_21:23; Act_9:30; Rom_16:14; 1Co_7:12).

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 12:50 Anyone who does the will of my Father in

heaven is my 4brother and sister and mother.' NJB

Matthew 23:8 As for you, do not be called 'Rabbi.' You have but one
teacher, and you are all 4brothers. NAB

1 John 4:20 If anyone makes the statement: "I love God," and yet is
hating his 3brother, he is a liar. For he who does not love his 3brother,
whom he has seen, cannot be loving God, whom he has not seen. NWT

Genesis 42:8 Thus Joseph recognized his 1brothers, but they

themselves did not recognize him. NWT

BRUISE, (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


To crush by beating or pounding with an instrument not edged or

pointed. When applied to animal flesh or to vegetables, a bruise is a

contusion that impairs the natural solidity and texture of the part, but
often without breaking the skin.

BRUISE, n. A contusion; a hurt upon the flesh of animals, upon plants

or other bodies, with a blunt or heavy instrument.

H7779 – BRUISE – Hebrew - - : - (Complete Word Study – O.T. by W.

Baker, S. Zodhiates)

1. A verb meaning to crush, to bruise. A verb used twice, once referring

to the attack of the serpent and once of the seed of the woman
(Gen_3:15). It may be translated as crush in Job_9:17 to describe God's
supposed attack on Job. It also has the sense of to engulf, to hide, to cover
2. A verb meaning to strike, to snap at. It is used of the attack of the
serpent and the response of the seed of the woman (Gen_3:15). The verb
is rendered figuratively as follows by the various translations: KJV, bruise
. . . bruise; NIV, crush . . . strike; NASB, bruise . . . bruise; NKJV, bruise . .
. bruise.
3. A verb meaning to cover, to envelop, to overwhelm. It is used of
darkness engulfing or hiding a person from God (Psa_139:11).

BRUISE – Greek – G4937 suntri,bw suntribo {soon-tree'-bo} -

(Thayers / Smiths Bible Dictionary)

1) break, to break in pieces, shiver

2) to tread down
2a) to put Satan under foot and (as a conqueror) trample on him
2b) to break down, crush
2b1) to tear one's body and shatter one's strength

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Genesis 3:15 I shall put enmity between you and the woman, and
between your offspring and hers; it will 1bruise your head and you
will 2strike its heel.' NJB

Isaiah 53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was

2b1bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon
him; and with his stripes we are healed. YLT

Romans 16:20 and the God of the peace shall 2abruise the
Adversary under your feet quickly; the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ

be with you. Amen! KJV


BURDEN (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. That which is borne or carried; a load. Hence,

2. That which is borne with labor or difficulty; that which is

grievous, wearisome or oppressive.

3. A birth.

4. The verse repeated in a song, or the return of the theme at the end of
each verse; the chorus; so called from the application of this word to the
drone or base, and the pipe or string which plays it, in an instrument. A
chord which is to be divided, to perform the intervals of music,when open
and undivided, is also called the burden.

5. In common language, that which is often repeated; a subject on which

one dwells.

6. A fixed quantity of certain commodities; as a burden of gad steel, 120


7. The contents of a ship; the quantity or number of tons, a vessel will

carry; as a ship of a hundred tons burden.

BURD'EN, - hebrew - (Word Study - Baker)

To load; to lay on a heavy load; to incumber with weight. Hence,

2. To oppress with anything grievous; as, to burden a nation with


8. To surcharge; as, to burden the memory.

G922 BURD'EN – Greek - - - báros; gen. bárous. - (Zodhiates

Word Study Dictionary)

1. Burdensome, weight in reference to its pressure, burden,


load (Mat_20:12, where "the burden . . . of the day" means the heavy
labor of the day). Used in Act_15:28; Rev_2:24


to designate precepts which are burdensome to observe; to

indicate sinful conduct and its consequences resulting in trouble and
sorrow (Gal_6:2); in a pecuniary sense (1Th_2:6) meaning to be
burdensome. In 2Co_4:17 "eternal weight [báros] of glory," here "weight"
refers to greatness, abundance, fullness.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Jeremiah 23:33 'And when this people, or a prophet, or a priest, asks

you, "What is Yahweh's 8burden?" you must answer, "You are the
2burden, and I shall get rid of you, Yahweh declares!" NJB

Galatians 6:2 Go on carrying the 2burdens of one another, and

thus fulfill the law of the Christ. NWT

Revelation 2:24 But on the rest of you in Thyatira, all of you who
have not accepted this teaching or learnt the deep secrets of Satan, as
they are called, I am not laying any other 2burden; NJB

CALL - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To name; to denominate or give a name. And God called the light day,
and the darkness he called

2. To convoke; to summon; to direct or order to meet; to assemble by

order or public notice; often with together; as, the king called his council
together; the president called together the congress.

3. To request to meet or come.

4. To invite.

5. To invite or summon to come or be present; to invite, or collect.

6. To give notice to come by authority; to command to come; as,

call a servant.

7. To proclaim; to name, or publish the name.

8. To appoint or designate, as for an office, duty or employment.



9. To invite; to warn; to exhort. Isa 22:12.

10. To invite or draw into union with Christ; to bring to know,

believe and obey the gospel.

11. To own and acknowledge. Heb 2:11.

12. To invoke or appeal to.

13. To esteem or account. Isa 47:5. Mat 3:15.

2.To call for, to demand, require or claim, as a crime calls for

punishment; or to cause to grow. Ezek 36. Also, to speak for; to ask; to
request; as, to call for a dinner.

12. To call in, to collect, as to call in debts or money; or to draw from

circulation, as to call in clipped coin; or to summon together; to invite to
come together; as, to call in neighbors or friends.

8. To call forth, to bring or summon to action; as, to call forth all

the faculties of the mind.

2.To call off, to summon away; to divert; as, to call off the attention; to
call off workmen from their employment.

5. To call up, to bring into view or recollection; as, to call up the image of
an old friend; also, to bring into action, or discussion; as, to call up a bill
before a legislative body.

13 . To call over, to read a list, name by name; to recite separate

particulars in order, as a roll of names.

2. To call out, to summon to fight; to challenge; also, to summon into

service; as, to call out the militia.

12. To call to mind, to recollect; to revive in memory.

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Acts 2:21 And everyone who 8calls on the name of Jehovah will be
saved."' NWT


1 Corinthians 1:26 Consider, brothers, how you were 5called; not

many of you are wise by human standards, not many influential, not
many from noble families. NJB

Romans 11:29 For the gifts and the 4calling of God are not things he
will regret. NWT

1 Thessalonians 4:7 For God 5called us, not with allowance for
uncleanness, but in connection with sanctification. NWT

1 Corinthians 1:2 to the assembly of God which is in Corinth, to those

sanctified in Christ Jesus, 13called saints, with all that in every place
8call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both theirs and ours: DBY

Corinthians 7:20 Everyone should stay in whatever state he was in

when he was 5called. everywhere are 8calling upon the name of
our Lord, Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours: NJB

2 Thessalonians 2:4 he that opposeth and exalteth himself against all

that is 13called God or that is worshipped; so that he sitteth in the
temple of God, setting himself forth as God. ASV

2 Timothy 1:9 He saved us and 10called us with a holy 8calling, not

by reason of our works, but by reason of his own purpose and
undeserved kindness. This was given us in connection with Christ Jesus
before times long lasting, NWT

Ephesians 4:4 One body there is, and one spirit, even as YOU were
8called in the one hope to which YOU were 2called; NWT

Jude 1:1 Jude, a slave of Jesus Christ, but a brother of James, to the
10called ones who are loved in relationship with God [the] Father and

preserved for Jesus Christ: NWT

Romans 8:28 Now we know that God makes all his works cooperate
together for the good of those who love God, those who are the ones
5called according to his purpose; NWT

CHASTE - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)



1. Pure from all unlawful commerce of sexes. Applied to persons

before marriage, it signifies pure from all sexual commerce, undefiled;
applied to married persons, true to the marriage bed.

2. Free from obscenity.

3. In language, pure; genuine; uncorrupt; free from barbarous

words and phrases, and from quaint, affected, extravagant

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Timothy 4:12 Let no man ever look down on your youth. On the
contrary, become an example to the faithful ones in speaking, in
conduct, in love, in faith, in 2,3chasteness. NWT

James 3:17 But the wisdom from above is first of all 3chaste, then
peaceable, reasonable, ready to obey, full of mercy and good fruits, not
making partial distinctions, not hypocritical. NWT

2 Corinthians 11:2 For I am jealous of you with the jealousy of God. For
I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a
1chaste virgin to Christ. DRA

1 Peter 3:2 when they observe your reverent and 3chaste

behavior. NAB

CHOSE - CHOSEN, (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. Selected from a number; picked out; taken in preference;

elected; predestinated; designated to office.

2. Select; distinguished by preference; eminent.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

John 15:16 You did not choose me, no, I 1chose you; and I

commissioned you to go out and to bear fruit, fruit that will last; so that
the Father will give you anything you ask him in my name. NJB


John 15:19 If YOU were part of the world, the world would be fond of
what is its own. Now because YOU are no part of the world, but I have
1chosen YOU out of the world, on this account the world hates YOU.

1 Corinthians 1:28 God 2chose things despised by the world, things

counted as nothing at all, and used them to bring to nothing what the
world considers important, NLT

James 2:5 Listen, my dear brothers: Has not God 1chosen those
who are poor in the eyes of the world to be rich in faith and to inherit the
kingdom he promised those who love him? NIV

1 Peter 2:9 But YOU are "a 2chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy
nation, a people for special possession, that YOU should declare abroad
the excellencies" of the one that called YOU out of darkness into his
wonderful light. NWT

CHRIST (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. THE ANOINTED; an appellation given to the Savior of the World,

and synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah. It was a custom of
antiquity to consecrate persons to the sacerdotal and regal offices by
anointing them with oil.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Peter 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ!
According to his great mercy, he has caused us to be born again to a
living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, ESV

1 Timothy 1:2 to Timothy, true child of mine in the faith. Grace, mercy
and peace from God the Father and from Christ Jesus our Lord. NJB

1 Corinthians 12:27 Now YOU are Christ's body, and members

individually. NWT

Romans 8:9 You, however, are controlled not by the sinful nature but

by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you. And if anyone does not
have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ NIV


CHRISTIAN (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. A believer in the religion of Christ.

2. A professor of his belief in the religion of Christ. Professing the religion

of Christ

3. A real disciple of Christ; one who believes in the truth of the

Christian religion, and studies to follow the example, and obey
the precepts, of Christ;
a believer in Christ who is characterized by real piety.

4. Pertaining to Christ, taught by him, or received from him; as

the Christian religion; Christian doctrines.

5. Pertaining to the church; ecclesiastical; as courts Christian.

6. In a general sense, the word Christians includes all who are born in a
Christian country or of Christian parents.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Peter 4:16 But if [he suffers] as a 3Christian, let him not feel shame,
but let him keep on glorifying God in this name. NWT

Acts 26:28 And Agrippa said to Paul, A little more and you will be
making me a 1Christian. BBE

CHURCH, (Congregation, Assembly) (Strongs Hebrew and Greek


Greek - G1577 – - Ekklesia - ek-klay-see'-ah

From a compound of G1537 and a derivative of G2564; a calling out,
that is, (concretely) a popular meeting, especially a religious
congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Christian community of
members on earth or saints in heaven or both): - assembly, church.

Church (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


1. A house consecrated to the worship of God, among Christians; the

Lords house. This seems to be the original meaning of the word. The

Greek, to call out or call together, denotes an assembly or

collection. But, Lord, a term applied by the early Christians to Jesus
Christ; and the house in which they worshipped was named from the
title. So church goods, bona ecclesiastica; the Lords day, dies dominica.

2. The collective body of Christians, or of those who profess to

believe in Christ, and acknowledge him to be the Savior of mankind. In
this sense, the church is sometimes called the Catholic or Universal

3. A particular number of christens, united under one form of

ecclesiastical government, in one creed, and using the same ritual and
ceremonies; as the English church; the Gallican church; the Presbyterian
church; the Romish church; the Greek church.

4. The followers of Christ in a particular city or province; as the church of

Ephesus, or of Antioch.

5. The disciples of Christ assembled for worship in a particular

place, as in a private house. Col 4.

6. The worshipers of Jehovah or the true God, before the

advent of Christ; as the Jewish church.

7. The body of clergy, or ecclesiastics, in distinction from the laity. Hence,

ecclesiastical authority.

8. An assembly of sacred rulers convened in Christs name to execute his


9. The collective body of Christians, who have made a public profession of

the Christian religion, and who are untied under the same pastor; in
distinction from those who belong to the same parish, or ecclesiastical
society, but have made no profession of their faith.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Acts 20:17 From Miletus, Paul sent to Ephesus for the elders of the
5church. NIV

Acts 20:17 And from Miletus, having sent to Ephesus, he called for the
elders of the 5assembly, YLT


Romans 16:1 I recommend to YOU Phoe'be our sister, who is a minister

of the 1congregation that is in Cen'chre-ae, NWT

Romans 16:1 And I commend you to Phebe our sister -- being a

ministrant of the 1assembly that is in Cenchrea – YLT

1 Corinthians 12:28 Here is a list of some of the members that God has
placed in the 2body of Christ: first are apostles, second are prophets,
third are teachers, then those who do miracles, those who have the gift
of healing, those who can help others, those who can get others to work
together, those who speak in unknown languages. NLT

1 Corinthians 12:28 And those whom God has appointed in the

2Church are, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers; after
them, miraculous powers, then gifts
of healing, helpful acts, guidance, various kinds of tongues. NJB

1 Corinthians 12:28 And God has set the respective ones in the
2congregation, first, apostles; second, prophets; third, teachers; then
powerful works; then gifts of healings; helpful services, abilities to
direct, different tongues. NWT

CLEAN (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

CLEAN, a. In a general sense, free from extraneous matter, or

whatever is injurious or offensive; hence its signification depends
on the nature and qualities of the substances to which it is applied.

1. Free from dirt, or other foul matter; as clean water; a clean cup; a
clean floor.

2. Free from weeds or stones; as clean land; a clean garden or field.

3. Free from knots or branches; as clean timber. In America, clear is

generally used.

4. Free from moral impurity; innocent.

5. Free from ceremonial defilement. Lev 10; Num 19.


6. Free from guilt; sanctified; holy. John 13. Psa 51.


7. That might be eaten by the Hebrews. Gen 7; Gen 8.

8. That might be used. Luke 11.

9. Free from a foul disease; cured of leprosy. 2 Ki 5. Math. 8.

10. Dextrous; adroit; not bungling; free from awkwardness; as a clean

feat; a clean boxer.

11. Free from infection; as a clean ship. A clean bill of health is a

certificate that a ship is clean, or free from infection.

CLEAN, adv.

1. Quite; perfectly; wholly; entirely; fully; indicating separation or

complete removal of every part. The people passed clean over Jordan.
Josh 3. Is his mercy clean gone forever? Psa 77. This use of clean is not
now elegant, and not used except in vulgar language.

2. Without miscarriage; dextrously.

CLEAN, v.t. To remove all foreign matter from; to separate from

any thing whatever is extraneous to it, or whatever is foul,
noxious, or offensive, as dirt or filth from the hands, body or
clothes, foul matter from a vessel, weeds, shrubs and stones from a
meadow; to purify. Thus, a house is cleaned by sweeping and washing; a
field is cleaned by plowing and hoeing.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Timothy 2:22 So, flee from the desires incidental to youth, but pursue
righteousness, faith, love, peace, along with those who call upon the
Lord out of a 6clean heart. NWT

2 Timothy 2:22 But keep yourself from those desires of the flesh which
are strong when the body is young, and go after righteousness, faith,
love, peace, with those whose prayers go up to the Lord from a 6clean
heart. BBE

Jeremiah 4:14 O Jerusalem, wash your heart 4,6clean of wickedness so

that you may be saved. How long shall your evil schemes lodge within
you? NRS


John 15:3 Already you are 4,6clean because of the word that I have
spoken to you. ESV

Titus 1:15 All things are 6clean to 5clean [persons]. But to [persons]
defiled and faithless nothing is clean, but both their minds and their
consciences are defiled. NWT

CLEAVE - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To stick; to adhere; to hold to.

2. To unite aptly; to fit; to sit well on.

3. To unite or be united closely in interest or affection; to adhere with

strong attachment.

CLEAVE, v.t.

4. To part or divide by force; to split or rive; to open or serve the

cohering parts of a body, by cutting or by the application of force; as, to
cleave wood; to cleave a rock; to cleave the flood. Psa 74.

5. To part or open naturally.

CLEAVE, v.i. To part; to open; to crack; to separate, as parts of cohering

bodies; as, the ground cleaves by frost.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Joshua 23:8 But it is to Jehovah YOUR God that YOU should 1cleave,
just as YOU have done down to this day. NWT

Psalm 119:31 I have 1cleaved to your reminders. O Jehovah, do not

put me to shame. NWT

Joshua 22:5 Only, be very watchful to do the command and the law
which Moses, servant of Jehovah, commanded you, to love Jehovah

your God, and to walk in all His ways, and to keep His commands,
and to 1cleave to Him, and to serve Him, with all your heart, and
with all your soul.' YLT


CLOUD - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. A collection of visible vapor, or watery particles, suspended

in the atmosphere, at some altitude.

2. A state of obscurity or darkness.

3. A collection of smoke, or a dense collection of dust, rising or floating in

the air; as a cloud of dust.

4.The dark or varied colors, in veins or spots, on stones or other bodies,

are called clouds.

5. A great multitude; a vast collection.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 17:5 But even as he said it, a bright 1cloud came over them,
and a voice from the 1cloud said, "This is my beloved Son, and I am
fully pleased with him. Listen to him." NLT

Luke 21:27 And then they will see the Son of man coming in a cloud 2
with power and great glory. NWT

Hebrews 12:1 Therefore, since we have so great a 5cloud of witnesses

surrounding us,
let us also lay aside every encumbrance and the sin which so easily
entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us,

COLLECT - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To gather, as separate persons or things, into one body or

place; to assemble or bring together; as, to collect men into an
army; to collect ideas; to collect particulars into one sum.

2. To gain by observation or information.

From all that can be collected, the public peace will not soon be



3. To gather from premises; to infer as a consequence.

Which consequence, I conceive, is very ill collected.

4. To gather money or revenue from debtors; to demand and receive; as,

to collect taxes; to collect the customs; to collect accounts, or debts.

5. To gather, as crops; to reap, mow or pick, and secure in

proper repositories; as, to collect hay, corn or fruits.

6. To draw together; to bring into united action; as, to collect all the
strength, or all the powers of the mind.

7. To obtain from contribution.

8. Command over the thoughts, when dispersed; over the passions, when
tumultuous; or the mind, when dismayed.

9. To run together; to accumulate; as, pus collects in an abscess; sand

or snow collects in banks.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Chronicles 16:35 And say, 'Save us, O God of our salvation, And 5,9
collect us together and deliver us from the nations, To give thanks to
your holy name, to speak exultingly in your praise. NWT

1 Corinthians 16:1 Now about the 7collection for God's holy people;
you are to do the same as I prescribed for the churches in Galatia. NJB
Luke 3:13 "Don't 4collect any more than you are required to," he told
them. NIV

Romans 15:28 When therefore I have completed this and have delivered
to them what has been 7collectedI will leave for Spain by way of you.

COMFORT - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)



1. Relief from pain; ease; rest or moderate pleasure after pain, cold or
distress or uneasiness of body. The word signifies properly new
strength, or animation; and relief from pain is often the effect
of strength. In a popular sense, the word signifies rather negatively the
absence of pain and the consequent quiet, than positive animation.

2. Relief from distress of mind; the ease and quiet which is experienced
when pain, trouble, agitation or affliction ceases. It implies also some
degree of positive animation of the spirits; or some pleasurable
sensations derived from hope, and agreeable prospects;

3. Support; consolation under calamity, distress or danger.

4. That which gives strength or support in distress, difficulty,

danger, or infirmity.

5. In law, support; assistance; countenance; encouragement; as, an

accessory affords aid or comfort to a felon.

6.That which gives security from want and furnishes moderate

enjoyment; as the comforts of life.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Corinthians 1:4 He comforts us in all our troubles so that we can

comfort 4 others. When others are troubled, we will be able to give
them the same 4comfort God has given us. NLT

2 Corinthians 13:11 Finally, brethren, farewell. Become complete. Be of

good 2comfort, be of one mind, live in peace; and the God of love and
peace will be with you. NKJ

Matthew 5:4 Blessed they that mourn, for *they* shall be

4comforted. DBY

COMMEND (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


1. To represent as worthy of notice, regard, or kindness; to speak

in favor of; to recommend.

2. To commit; to entrust or give in charge.


3. To praise; to mention with approbation.

4. To make acceptable or more acceptable.

5. To produce or present to favorable notice.

6. To send or bear to.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Corinthians 11:2 Now I 3commend YOU because in all things YOU

have me in mind and YOU are holding fast the traditions just as I
handed [them] on to YOU. NWT

Psalm 63:3 Because your loving-kindness is better than life, My own lips
will 3commend you. NWT

Psalm 145:4 One generation will 2commend your works to another; they
will tell of your mighty acts. NIV

Judges 11:40 From year to year the daughters of Israel would go to

give 1commendation to the daughter of Jeph'thah the Gil'eúadúite,
four days in the year. NWT

COMMISSION, (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. The act of committing, doing, performing, or perpetrating; as
the commission of a crime.

2. The act of committing or sending to; the act of entrusting, as a

charge or duty. Hence,

3. The thing committed, entrusted or delivered; letters patent, or any

writing from proper authority, given to a person as his warrant for
exercising certain powers, or the performance of any duty,
whether civil, ecclesiastical, or military. Hence,

4. Charge; order; mandate; authority given.



5. By a metonymy, a number of persons joined in an office or trust.

6. The state of that which is entrusted, as the great seal was put into
commission; or the state of being authorized to act or perform
service, as a ship is put into commission.

4. In commerce, the state of acting under authority in the purchase

and sale of goods for another. To trade or do business on commission, is
to buy or sell for another by this authority. Hence,

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Jeremiah 15:3 "'And I will 6commission over them four families,'

is the utterance of Jehovah, 'the sword to kill, and the dogs to drag
away, and the flying creatures of the heavens and the beasts of the earth
to eat and to bring to ruin. NWT

Isaiah 62:6 Upon your walls, O Jerusalem, I have commissioned

watchmen. All day long and all night long, constantly, let them not
keep still. "YOU who are making mention of Jehovah, let there be no
silence on YOUR part, NWT

COMMIT - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

COMMIT, v.t. Literally, to send to or upon; to throw, put or lay

upon. Hence,

1. To give in trust; to put into the hands or power of another; to

entrust; with to.

2. To put into any place for preservation; to deposit; as, to

commit a passage in a book to memory; to commit the body to the grave.

3. To put or sent to, for confinement; as, to commit an offender to prison.

Hence for the sake of brevity, commit is used for imprison. The sheriff
has committed the offender.

4. To do; to effect or perpetrate; as, to commit murder, treason,

felony, or trespass.


5. To join or put together, for a contest; to match; followed by with; a


6. To place in a state of hostility or incongruity. Committing short and

long words. But this seems to be the same signification as the foregoing.

7. To expose or endanger by a preliminary step or decision which cannot

be recalled; as, to commit the peace of a country by espousing the cause
of a belligerent.

You might have satisfied every duty of political friendship without

committing the honor of your sovereign.

8. To engage; to pledge; or to pledge by implication.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Acts 26:12 'In which things, also, going on to Damascus -- with

authority and 1commission from the chief priests YLT

2 Timothy 1:12 for which cause also these things I suffer, but I am not
ashamed, for I have known in whom I have believed, and have been
persuaded that he is able that which I have 1committed to him to
guard -- to that day. YLT

James 5:15 And their prayer offered in faith will heal the sick, and the
Lord will make them well. And anyone who has 4committed sins will be
forgiven. NLT

John 8:4 they say to him, Teacher, this woman has been taken in the
very act, 4committing adultery. DBY

John 8:34 Jesus answered them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone
who 4commits sin is the slave of sin. NAU

COMPEL - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


1. To drive or urge with force, or irresistibly; to constrain; to oblige;

to necessitate, either by physical or moral force.

2. To force; to take by force, or violence; to seize.


3. To drive together; to gather; to unite in a crowd or company. A

Latinism, compellere gregem.

4. To seize; to overpower; to hold.

5. To call forth, L. compeller.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Luke 14:23 And the master said to the slave, 'Go out into the roads and
the fenced-in places, and, 2,5 compel them to come in, that my house
may be filled. NWT

Mark 6:45 And, without delay, he 1compelled his disciples to board the
boat and go on ahead to the opposite shore toward Beth-sa'i-da, while
he himself dismissed the crowd. NWT

Galatians 2:14 But when I saw that they walked not uprightly
according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Cephas before them all,
If thou, being a Jew, livest as do the Gentiles, and not as do the Jews,
how 2compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews? ASV

Galatians 2:3 but not even Titus, who is with me, being a Greek, was
1compelled to be circumcised – YLT

COMPLETE - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. Having no deficiency; perfect.

2. Finished; ended; concluded; as, the edifice is complete.

In strict propriety, this word admits of no comparison; for that which is

complete, cannot be more or less so. But as the word, like many others, is
used with some indefiniteness of signification, it is customary to qualify it
with more, most, less and least. More complete, most complete, less
complete, are common expressions.


3. To finish; to end; to perfect; as, to complete a bridge, or an edifice;


to complete an education.


4. To fill to accomplish; as, to complete hopes or desires.

5. To fulfil; to accomplish; to perform; as, the prophecy of Daniel is


[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Timothy 3:17 So that the man of God may be 1complete, trained

and made ready for every good work. BBE

Acts 3:23 Anyone who does not listen to him will be 5completely cut
off from among his people.' {23 Deut. 18:15,18,19} NIV

Hebrews 7:25 Whence also he is able to save 5completely those who

approach by him to God, always living to intercede for them. DBY

Matthew 28:18 Jesus came and told his disciples, "I have been given
1completeauthority in heaven and on earth. NLT

Daniel 1:18 When the three-year training period ordered by the king
was 5completed, the chief official brought all the young men to King
Nebuchadnezzar NLT

CONCEAL - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

Conceal, To withhold from sight

1. To keep close or secret; to forbear to disclose; to withhold from

utterance or declaration; as, to conceal ones thoughts or opinions.

2. To hide; to withdraw from observation; to cover or keep

from sight.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Proverbs 14:13 Laughter can 2conceal a heavy heart; when the

laughter ends, the grief remains. NLT

Mark 4:11 He replied, "You are permitted to understand the secret about
the Kingdom of God. But I am using these stories to 1conceal

everything about it from outsiders, NLT


Proverbs 26:26 While their hatred may be 2concealed by trickery, it

will finally come to light for all to see. NLT

Luke 8:17 For there is nothing hidden that will not become manifest,
neither anything carefully 2concealed that will never become
known and never come into the open. NWT

Luke 12:2 But there is nothing carefully 2concealed that will not be
revealed, and secret that will not become known. NWT

Psalm 32:7 You are a place of 2concealment for me; you will
safeguard me from distress itself. With joyful cries at providing escape
you will surround me. NWT

Isaiah 29:15 Woe to those who burrow down to 1conceal their plans
from Yahweh, who scheme in the dark and say, 'Who can see us? Who
knows who we are?' NJB

CONCEIVE - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To receive into the womb, and breed; to begin the formation

of the embryo or fetus of animal.

2. To form in the mind; to imagine; to devise.

3. To form an idea in the mind; to understand; to comprehend.

4. To think; to be of opinion; to have an idea; to imagine, to have a

conception or idea.

5. To have a fetus formed in the womb; to breed; to become pregnant.

6. To understand; to comprehend; to have a complete idea of;

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Hebrews 11:11 It was equally by faith that Sarah, in spite of being past
the age, was made able to 1conceive, because she believed that he who
had made the promise was faithful to it. NJB


Ephesians 3:20 Now to the one who can, according to his power which
is operating in us, do more than superabundantly beyond all the things
we ask or 2conceive, NWT

1 Corinthians 2:9 However, as it is written: "No eye has seen, no ear has
heard, no mind has 6conceived what God has prepared for those who
love him" NIV

Job 15:35 They 2conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity, and their
belly prepareth deceit. DBY

CONDEMN - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To pronounce to be utterly wrong; to utter a sentence of

disapprobation against; to censure; to blame. But the word often
expresses more than censure or blame, and seems to include the idea of
utter rejection; as, to condemn heretical opinions; to condemn ones

2. To determine or judge to be wrong, or guilty; to disallow; to


3. To witness against; to show or prove to be wrong, or guilty, by

a contrary practice.

4. To pronounce to be guilty; to sentence to punishment; to utter

sentence against judicially; to doom; opposed to acquit or absolve;
with to before the penalty.

5. To doom or sentence to pay a fine; to fine.

6. To judge or pronounce to be unfit for use or service; as, the ship

was condemned as not sea-worthy. To judge or pronounce to be forfeited;
as, the ship and her cargo were condemned.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

John 8:11 She said: "No one, sir." Jesus said: "Neither do I 4condemn

you. Go your way; from now on practice sin no more." NWT

1 John 3:20 as regards whatever our hearts may 3condemn us in,


because God is greater than our hearts and knows all things. NWT


Romans 8:1 There is therefore now no 4condemnation <2631> to

them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk <4043> not after the flesh, but
after the Spirit. KJV

Luke 6:37 Do not judge, and you will not be judged; do not 2condemn,
and you will not be 2condemned; forgive, and you will be forgiven. NJB

CONDUCT - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. Literally, the act of leading; guidance; command. To lead; to
bring along; to guide; to accompany and show the way.

2. The act of convoying, or guarding; guidance or bringing along under


3. To lead; to direct or point out the way.

4. In a general sense, personal behavior; course of actions;

deportment; applicable equally to a good or a bad course of actions; as
laudable conduct; detestable conduct. The word seems originally to have
been followed with life, actions, affairs, or other term; as the conduct of
life; the conduct of actions; that is, the leading along of life or actions.

5. Exact behavior; regular life.

6. Management; mode of carrying on.

7. To lead; to bring along; to guide; to accompany and show the way.

8. To give a direction to; to manage; applied to things; as, the

farmer conducts his affairs with prudence.

9. To lead, as a commander; to direct; to govern; to command;

as, to conduct an army or a division of troops.

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Jeremiah 32:19 You have all wisdom and do great and mighty miracles.
You are very aware of the 4conduct of all people, and you reward
them according to their deeds. NLT


Philippians 3:18 For I have told you often before, and I say it again with
tears in my eyes, that there are many whose 4conduct shows they
are really enemies of the cross of Christ. NLT

1 Timothy 3:15 but if I delay, in order that thou mayest know how one
ought to 6conduct oneself in God's house, which is the assembly of
the living God, the pillar and base of the truth. DBY

1 Timothy 3:5 (but if one does not know how to 3conduct his own
house, how shall he take care of the assembly of God?) DBY

Colossians 4:5 1 Conduct yourselves wisely toward outsiders,

making the best use of the time. ESV

James 3:13 Who is wise and understanding among YOU? Let him show
out of his fine 4conduct his works with a mildness that belongs to
wisdom. NWT

CONFESS - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

1. To own, acknowledge or avow, as a crime, a fault, a charge, a

debt, or something that is against one's interest, or reputation.

2. In the Catholic Church, to acknowledge sins and faults to a priest; to

disclose the state of the conscience to a priest, in private, with a view to
absolution; sometimes with the reciprocal pronoun.

3. To own, avow or acknowledge; publicly to declare a belief in and

adherence to.

4. To own and acknowledge, as true disciples, friends or children.

5. To own; to acknowledge; to declare to be true, or to admit or

assent to in words; opposed to deny.

6. To show by the effect; to prove; to attest.

7. To hear or receive the confession of another; as, the priest confessed


the nuns.

8. To make confession; to disclose faults, or the state of the conscience;



[Examples of Scriptural use]

John 12:42 Nevertheless, many even of the authorities believed in him,

but for fear of the Pharisees they did not 5confess it, so that they
would not be put out of the synagogue; ESV

Acts 24:14 But this I 3confess to thee that according to the way which
they call a heresy, so do I serve the Father and my God, believing all
things which are written in the law and the prophets: DRA

James 5:16 So 8confess your sins to one another, and pray for one
another to be cured; the heartfelt prayer of someone upright works very
powerfully. NJB

1 John 1:9 But if we 8confess our sins to him, he is faithful and just
to forgive us and to cleanse us from every wrong. NLT

CONFIDENT - (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

CON'FIDENT, n. One entrusted with secrets; a confidential or bosom


1. Having full belief; trusting; relying; fully assured.

2. Positive; dogmatical; as a confident talker.

3. Trusting; without suspicion.

4. Bold to a vice; having an excess of assurance.

CON'FIDENT, n. One entrusted with secrets; a confidential or bosom


[This word has been usually, but improperly, written confidant.

definition of confidant by the Free Online Dictionary
con·fi·dant (k n f -d nt , -dänt , k n f -d nt , -dänt ). n.

1. One to whom secrets or private matters are disclosed.

2. A character in a drama or fiction, such as a trusted .

[Examples of Scriptural use]


1 John 5:14 And this is the 3confidence that we have toward him,
that, no matter what it is that we ask according to his will, he hears us.

Proverbs 22:19 For your 3confidence to come to be in Jehovah himself

I have given you knowledge today, even you. NWT

Philippians 1:6 For I am 1confident of this very thing, that he who

started a good work in YOU will carry it to completion until the day of
Jesus Christ. NWT

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CONGREGATION (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)

(see also Church, Eklesia)

1. The act of bringing together, or assembling.

2. A collection or assemblage of separate things; as a

congregation of vapors.

3. More generally, an assembly or persons; and appropriately, an

assembly of persons met for the worship of God, and or for
religious instruction.

4. An assembly of rulers.

5. An assembly of ecclesiastics or cardinals appointed by the pope; as the

congregation of the holy office, &c. Also, a company or society of religious
cantoned out of an order.

6. An academical assembly for transacting business of the university.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Acts 5:11 Consequently great fear came over the whole

3congregation and over all those hearing about these things. NWT

Acts 5:11 Great fear gripped the entire 3church and all others who
heard what had happened. NLT

Acts 5:11 and great fear came upon all the 3assembly, and upon all
who heard these things. YLT

Ephesians 5:24 In fact, as the 3congregation is in subjection to the

Christ, so let wives also be to their husbands in everything. NWT

Ephesians 5:24 As the 3church submits to Christ, so you wives must


submit to your husbands in everything NLT

Ephesians 5:24 but even as the 3assembly is subject to Christ, so also
are the wives to their own husbands in everything. YLT


CONQUER / CONQUEST (Vines Dictionary of N.T. Words)

1. nikao (G3528), "to overcome" (its usual meaning), is translated

"conquering" and "to conquer" in Rev_6:2. See OVERCOME, PREVAIL,
2. hupernikao (G5245), "to be more than conqueror" (huper, "over," and
No. 1), "to gain a surpassing victory," is found in Rom_8:37, lit., "we are
hyper-conquerors," i.e., we are pre-eminently victorious.

Conquers - G3528 nika,w nikao {nik-ah'-o} (Thayer‘s Greek Definitions)

1.) to conquer

2.) to carry off the victory, come off victorious

3.) of Christ, victorious over all His foes

4.) of Christians, that hold fast their faith even unto death
against the power of their foes, and temptations and persecutions

5.) when one is arraigned or goes to law, to win the case, maintain one's

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 John 2:13 I am writing to you, fathers, because you know him who is
from the beginning. I am writing to you, young men, because you have
4conquered the evil one. NAB

1 John 5:4 for whatever is born of God 4conquers the world. And this is
the victory that 2conquers the world, our faith. NRS

John 16:33 I have told you all this so that you may find peace in me. In
the world you will have hardship, but be courageous: I have
3,4conquered the world. NJB

CONSCIENCE (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)


Conscience, n. [L., to know, to be privy to.]


1. Internal or self-knowledge, or judgment of right and wrong; or the

faculty, power or principle within us, which decides on the lawfulness or
unlawfulness of our own actions and affections, and instantly approves or
condemns them.

2. The estimate or determination of conscience; justice; honesty.

3. Real sentiment; private thought; truth; as, do you in conscience believe

the story?

4. Consciousness; knowledge of our own actions or thought.

5. Knowledge of the actions of others.

6. In ludicrous language, reason or reasonableness.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Corinthians 8:12 So, sinning against your brothers and wounding

their vulnerable 1consciences, you would be sinning against Christ.

1 Peter 2:19 For God is pleased with you when, for the sake of your
1conscience, you patiently endure unfair treatment. NLT

1 Timothy 1:5 The aim of this instruction is love from a pure heart, a
good 4conscience, and a sincere faith. NAB
Romans 2:15 They demonstrate that God's law is written within them,
for their own 4consciences either accuse them or tell them they are
doing what is right. NLT

2 Timothy 1:3 I thank God whom I serve, as did my ancestors, with a

clear 1conscience, as I remember you constantly in my prayers night
and day. ESV 261

CONSECRATE (1828 Webster Dictionary with Bible definitions)



1. To make or declare to be sacred, by certain ceremonies or rites; to

appropriate to sacred uses; to set apart, dedicate, or devote, to the
service and worship of God; as, to consecrate a church (Eklesia).

2. To canonize; to exalt to the rank of a saint; to enroll among the gods, as

a Roman emperor.

3. To set apart and bless for sacred service

4. To render venerable; to make respected; as, rules or principles
consecrated by time.
The word consecrate is used interchangeably with ―Sanctify‖ in
some Bible versions.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Leviticus 20:7 1Consecrate yourselves, therefore, and be holy, for I

am the LORD your God. ESV

Leviticus 20:7 "'And YOU must 1sanctify yourselves and prove

yourselves holy, because I am Jehovah YOUR God. NWT

Numbers 3:3 These are the names of the sons of Aaron, the priests which
were anointed, whom he 3consecrated <04390> to minister in the
priest's office. KJV

2 Chronicles 26:18 confronting King Uzziah, they said to him, 'Uzziah,

you are not allowed to burn incense to Yahweh; only the Aaronite priest
3consecrated for the purpose may burn incense. Leave the

sanctuary, for you have been unfaithful and will have no honour from
Yahweh God.' NJB

2 Chronicles 29:31 Hezekiah spoke again, 'Now that you have

1consecrated yourselves to Yahweh, come forward and bring

thanksgivings NJB

John 17:19 and for their sake I 1consecrate myself so that they too may
be 4consecrated in truth.

CONSIDER - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)



1. To fix the mind on, with a view to a careful examination; to

think on with care; to ponder; to study; to meditate on.

2. To view attentively; to observe and examine.

3. To attend to; to relieve.

4. To have regard to; to respect.

5. To take into view in examination, or into account in estimates.

6. In the imperative, consider is equivalent to, think with care, attend,

examine the subject with a view to truth or the consequences of a
measure. So we use see, observe, think, attend.

7. To requite; to reward; particularly for gratuitous services.

8. To think seriously, maturely or carefully; to reflect.

9. To deliberate; to turn in the mind; as in the case of a single person;

to deliberate or consult, as numbers; sometimes followed by of; as, I will
consider your case, or of your case.

10. To doubt; to hesitate.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Hebrews 10:24 And let us 8consider how to stir up one another to love
and good works, ESV

James 1:2 7Consider it all joy, my brothers, when YOU meet with
various trials, NWT

Philippians 3:13 Brothers, I do not 6consider that I have made it my

own. But one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining
forward to what lies ahead, ESV

CONTEMPLATE (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)




1. To view or consider with continued attention; to study; to

meditate on. This word expresses the attention of the mind, but
sometimes in connection with that of the eyes; as, to contemplate the
heavens. More generally, the act of the mind only is intended; as, to
contemplate the wonders of redemption; to contemplate the state of the
nation and its future prospects.

2. To consider or have in view, in reference to a future act or

event; to intend.

3. To think studiously; to study; to muse; to meditate.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Psalm 119:15 I will meditate on Your precepts, And 3contemplate Your

ways. NKJ

Psalm 55:1 To the Chief Musician. With stringed instruments. A

1Contemplation (Maskil) of David. Give ear to my prayer, O God,

And do not hide Yourself from my supplication. NKJ

CONTEMPT (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Contempt, n. [L. See Contemn.]

1. The act of despising; the act of viewing or considering and treating

as mean, vile and worthless; disdain; hatred of what is mean or deemed
vile. This word is one of the strongest expressions of a mean
opinion which the language affords.

2. The state of being despised; whence in a scriptural sense,

shame, disgrace.

3. In law, disobedience of the rules and orders of a court, which is a

punishable offense.

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Mal 1:7 Ye offer polluted bread upon mine altar; and ye say, Wherein
have we polluted thee? In that ye say, The table of the LORD is

1contemptible. ASV


Psalm 107:40 He pours 2contempt on great men and makes them lose
their way in trackless deserts; TNK

Psalm 123:4 We have had our fill of the scoffing of the proud and the
2contempt of the arrogant. NLT

CONTEND - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Contend, v.i. [L., to stretch. Gr., See Tend, Tenet.]

1. To strive, or to strive against; to struggle in opposition.

2. To strive; to use earnest efforts to obtain, or to defend and


3. To dispute earnestly; to strive in debate.

4. To reprove sharply; to chide; to strive to convince and reclaim.

5. To strive in opposition; to punish.

6. To quarrel; to dispute fiercely; to wrangle. The parties contend

about trifles.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Jeremiah 2:9 "Therefore I will yet 4contend with you," declares


2 Timothy 2:5 And if also a man 2contend in the games, he is not

crowned, except he have 2contended lawfully. ASV

CONTINUE - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


1. To remain in a state, or place; to abide for any time


2. To persevere; to be steadfast or constant in any course; ; not to cease


3. To extend from one thing to another; to produce or draw out in


[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Timothy 3:14 But as for you, 1continue in what you have learned
and have firmly believed, knowing from whom you learned it ESV

Colossians 3:14 2Continue putting up with one another and forgiving

one another freely if anyone has a cause for complaint against another.
Even as Jehovah freely forgave YOU, so do YOU also. NWT

CONTRADICT - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Contradict, v.t. [L., to speak.]

1. To oppose by words; to assert the contrary to what has been

asserted, or to deny what has been affirmed.

2. To oppose; to be directly contrary to.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Titus 1:9 He must have a firm grasp of the word that is trustworthy in
accordance with the teaching, so that he may be able both to preach
with sound doctrine and to refute those who 1contradict it. NRS

1 Timothy 6:20 O Timothy! Guard what was committed to your trust,

avoiding the profane and idle babblings and 2contradictions of what is
falsely called knowledge -- NKJ

CORBAN - (Smiths bible Dictionary)

Corban. An offering to God, of any sort, bloody or bloodless, but

particularly, in fulfillment of a vow. The law laid down rules for vows, (1)

affirmative; (2) negative. Lev_27:1; Num_30:1. Upon these rules, the

traditionists enlarged, and laid down that a man might interdict himself
by vow, not only from using for himself, but from giving to another or


receiving from him, some particular object, whether of food or any other
kind whatsoever.
The thing thus interdicted was considered as corban. A person might
thus exempt himself from any inconvenient obligation under plea of
corban. It was practices of this sort that our Lord reprehended, Mat_15:5;
Mar_7:11, as annulling the spirit of the law.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Mark 7:11 But you say that if a man says to his father or mother:`
Whatever help you might otherwise have received from me is Corban'
(that is, a gift devoted to God), NIB

Mark 7:11 But you say it is all right for people to say to their parents,
'Sorry, I can't help you. For I have vowed to give to God what I could
have given to you.' NLT

CORPOREAL, CORPOREOUS - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary

with Bible Definition)

a. Having a body; consisting of a material body; material;

opposed to spiritual or immaterial; as our corporeal frame; corporeal

(See definition and examples for FLESHY)

CORRECT - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

CORRECT, a. [L., to set right; right, straight. See Right.] Literally, set
right, or made straight. Hence, right; conformable to truth, rectitude or
propriety, or conformable to a just standard; not faulty; free from
error. A correct edition of a book is exactly according to the original
copy. Correct manners correspond with the rules of morality and received
notions of decorum. Correct principles coincide with the truth. Correct
language is agreeable to established usage.

CORRECT, v.t. [L. See Right.]


1. To make right; to rectify; to bring to the standard of truth, justice, or

propriety; as, to correct manners or principles. Hence,

2. To amend; to remove or retrench faults or errors; to set right; as, to

correct a book; to correct a copy for the press; or in printing, to correct
the press, or errors of the press.

3. To bring back or attempt to bring back to propriety in morals; to

punish for faults or deviations from moral rectitude; to chastise; to
discipline; as, a child should be corrected for lying.

4. To obviate or remove whatever is wrong or inconvenient; to

reduce or change the qualities of any thing by mixture, or other
application; to counteract whatever is injurious; as, to correct the acidity
of the stomach by alkaline preparations; to correct the relaxing quality of
water by boiling it with animal substances.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Jeremiah 2:19 Your badness should 1correct you, and your own
acts of unfaithfulness should reprove you. Know, then, and see that your
leaving Jehovah your God is something bad and bitter, and no dread of
me [has resulted] to you,' is the utterance of the Sovereign Lord,
Jehovah of armies. NWT

Titus 2:8 Let your teaching be so 4correct that it can't be criticized.

Then those who want to argue will be ashamed because they won't have
anything bad to say about us. NLT

1 Corinthians 12:1 And now, dear brothers and sisters, I will write about
the special abilities the Holy Spirit gives to each of us, for I must
2correct your misunderstandings about them. NLT

CORRUPTION - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


1. The act of corrupting, or state of being corrupt or putrid; the

destruction of the natural form of bodies, by the separation of
the component parts, or by disorganization, in the process of

2. Putrid matter; pus.


3. Putrescence; a foul state occasioned by putrefaction.


4. Depravity; wickedness; perversion or deterioration of moral

principles; loss of purity or integrity..

5. Debasement; taint; or tendency to a worse state.

6. Impurity; depravation; debasement; as a corruption of


7. Bribery. He obtained his suit by corruption.

8. In law, taint; impurity of blood, in consequence of an act of attainder of

treason or felony, by which a person is disabled to inherit lands from an
ancestor, nor can retain those in his possession, nor transmit them by
descent to his heirs.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Acts 2:27 for you will not abandon me to Hades or allow your holy
one to see 1corruption. NJB

Psalm 14:3 But no, all have turned away from God; all have become
5corrupt. No one does good, not even one! NLT

Ephesians 4:22 that you should put away the old self of your former
way of life, 4corrupted through deceitful desires, NAB
COST- (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Cost, n.

1. The price, value or equivalent of a thing purchased; the

amount in value paid, charge or engaged to be paid for anything bought
or taken in barter. The word is equally applicable to the price in money or
commodities; as the cost of a suit of clothes; the cost of a house or farm.

2. Expense; amount in value expended or to be expended; charge; that

which is given or to be given for another thing..

3. In law, the sum fixed by law or allowed by the court for charges of a

suit awarded against the party losing, in favor of the party prevailing, &c.
The jury find that the plaintiff recover of the defendant ten dollars with
costs of suit or with his cost.


4. Loss or expense of any kind; detriment; pain; suffering. The

vicious man indulges his propensities at a great cost.

5. Sumptuousness; great expense.

COST, v.t

1a. To require to be given or expend in barter or purchase; to be bought

for; as, this book cost a dollar; the army and navy cost four millions a

2a. To require to be laid out, given, bestowed or employed

3a. To require to be borne or suffered.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Corinthians 9:18 What, then, is my reward? That while declaring the

good news I may furnish the good news without 2cost, to the end
that I may not abuse my authority in the good news. NWT

Luke 14:28 'And indeed, which of you here, intending to build a tower,
would not first sit down and work out the 2a cost to see if he had
enough to complete it? NJB

Jeremiah 42:20 that you have gone astray at the 2cost of your
lives. For you sent me to the LORD your God, saying, 'Pray for us to the
LORD our God, and whatever the LORD our God says declare to us and
we will do it.' ESV

COUNSEL- (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Counsel, n. [L., to consult; to ask, to assail.]

1. Advice; opinion, or instruction, given upon request or

otherwise, for directing the judgment or conduct of another;
opinion given upon deliberation or consultation.

2. Consultation; interchange of opinions.


3. Deliberation; examination of consequences.



4. Prudence; deliberate opinion or judgment, or the faculty or habit of

judging with caution.

5. In a bad sense, evil advice or designs; art; machination.

6. Secrecy; the secrets entrusted in consultation; secret opinions or

purposes. Let a man keep his own counsel.

7. In a scriptural sense, purpose; design; will; decree.

8. Directions of Gods word.

9. The will of God or his truth and doctrines concerning the way of

10. Those who give counsel in law; any counselor or advocate, or any
number of counselors, barristers or sergeants; as the plaintiffs counsel, or
the defendants counsel. The attorney-general and solicitor-general are
the kings counsel. In this sense, the word has no plural; but in the
singular number, is applicable to one or more persons.


1a. To give advice or deliberate opinion to another for the

government of his conduct; to advise.

2a. To exhort, warn, admonish, or instruct. We ought frequently to

counsel our children against the vices of the age.

3a. To advise or recommend;

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Kings 12:13 And the king answered the people harshly, and forsaking
the 1counsel that the old men had given him, ESV

Isaiah 14:24 Jehovah of armies has sworn, saying: "Surely just as I

have figured, so it must occur; and just as I have 3a counseled, that
is what will come true, NWT

COUNSELOR - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)



1. Any person who gives advice; but properly one who is authorized
by natural relationship, or by birth, office or profession, to
advise another in regard to his future conduct and measures.

2. The members of a counsel; one appointed to advise a king or chief

magistrate, in regard to the administration of the government.

3. One who is consulted by a client in a law case; one who gives advice in
relation to a question of law; one whose profession is to give advice in
law, and manage causes for clients.

[Example of Scriptural use]

Proverbs 15:22 Without 2counsel purposes are disappointed: but in

the multitude of 1counselors they are established. WEB

COUNTERFEIT - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


1. To forge; to copy or imitate, without authority or right, and

with a view to deceive or defraud, by passing the copy or thing
forged, for that which is original or genuine; as, to counterfeit coin, bank
notes, a seal, a bond, a deed or other instrument in writing, the hand
writing or signature of another, &c. To make a likeness or
resemblance of any thing with a view to defraud.

2. To imitate; to copy; to make or put on a resemblance; as, to counterfeit

the voice of another person; to counterfeit piety.

Counterfeit, v.i. To feign; to dissemble; to carry on a fiction or deception.


1. Forged; fictitious; false; fabricated without right; made in

imitation of something else, with a view to defraud, by passing

the false copy for genuine or original; as counterfeit coin; a counterfeit

bond or deed; a counterfeit bill or exchange.


2. Assuming the appearance of something; false; hypocritical; as

a counterfeit friend.

3. Having the resemblance of real; however, false; not genuine;

as counterfeit modesty.


1a. A cheat; a deceitful person; one who pretends to be what he

is not; one who personates another; an imposter.

2a. In law, one who obtains money or goods by counterfeit letters or false

3a.That which is made in imitation of something, but without

lawful authority, and with a view to defraud, by passing the
false for the true. We say, the note is a counterfeit.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Thessalonians 2:9 The coming of the lawless one will be in accordance

with the work of Satan displayed in all kinds of 3counterfeit
miracles, signs and wonders, NIB

1 John 2:27 As for you, the anointing you received from him remains in
you, and you do not need anyone to teach you. But as his anointing
teaches you about all things and as that anointing is real, not
3counterfeit-- just as it has taught you, remain in him. NIV

2 Peter 2:3 Also, with covetousness they will exploit YOU with 3a
counterfeit words. But as for them, the judgment from of old is not
moving slowly, and the destruction of them is not slumbering. NWT

COURAGE - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definitions)

Courage, n. [L., the heart.] Bravery; intrepidity; that quality of mind

which enables men to encounter danger and difficulties with

firmness, or without fear or depression of spirits; valor;

boldness; resolution. It is a constituent part of fortitude; but fortitude
implies patience to bear continued suffering.


[Examples of Scriptural use]

Deuteronomy 31:6 Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be

affrighted at them: for Jehovah thy God, he it is that doth go with thee;
he will not fail thee, nor forsake thee. ASV

Acts 28:15 When the brothers there heard about us they came to meet
us, as far as the Forum of Appius and the Three Taverns. When Paul
saw them he thanked God and took courage. NJB

John 16:33 these things I have spoken to you, that in me ye may have
peace, in the world ye shall have tribulation, but take courage -- I
have overcome the world.' YLT

COVENANT - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Covenant, n. [L, to come; a coming together; a meeting or agreement of


1. A mutual consent or agreement of two or more persons, to do

or to forbear some act or thing; a contract; stipulation. A covenant is
created by deed in writing, sealed and executed; or it may be implied in
the contract.

2. A writing containing the terms of agreement or contract

between parties; or the clause of agreement in a deed containing the

3. In theology, the covenant of works, is that implied in the commands,

prohibitions, and promises of God; the promise of God to man, that mans
perfect obedience should entitle him to happiness. This do, and live; that
do, and die.

4. In church affairs, a solemn agreement between the members of a

church, that they will walk together according to the precepts of the
gospel, in brotherly affection.

COVENANT, v.i. To enter into a formal agreement; to stipulate;


to bind ones self by contract. A covenants with B to convey to him a

certain estate. When the terms are expressed ti has for before the thing or


COVENANT, v.t. To grant or promise by covenant.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Exodus 19:5 Now if you will obey me and keep my covenant, you
will be my own special treasure from among all the nations of the earth;
for all the earth belongs to me. NLT

Exodus 34:27 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Write down these words,
for in accordance with them I have made a covenant with you and
with Israel." NAB

Jeremiah 31:33 No, this is the covenant I shall make with the
House of Israel when those days have come, Yahweh declares. Within
them I shall plant my Law, writing it on their hearts. Then I shall be
their God and they will be my people. NJB

COVET- (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

1. To desire or wish for, with eagerness; to desire earnestly to
obtain or possess; in a good sense.

2. To desire inordinately; to desire that which it is unlawful to

obtain or possess; in a bad sense.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Peter 2:3 Also, with covetousness1 they will exploit YOU with
counterfeit words. But as for them, the judgment from of old is not
moving slowly, and the destruction of them is not slumbering. NWT

Luke 12:15 And he said unto them, Take heed, and keep yourselves
from all covetousness2: for a man's life consisteth not in the
abundance of the things which he possesseth. ASV

Romans 1:29 They were filled with all manner of unrighteousness,


evil, covetousness2, malice. They are full of envy, murder, strife,

deceit, maliciousness. They are gossips ESV
COWARD - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)



1. A person who lacks courage to meet danger; a poltroon; a timid

or pusillanimous man.

2. In heraldry, a term given to a lion borne in the escutcheon with his tail
doubled between his legs.


1a. Destitute of courage; timid; base; as a coward wretch.

2a. Proceeding from or expressive of fear, or timidity; as coward cry;

coward joy.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Timothy 1:7 For God has not given us a spirit of 1acowardice, but of
power, and of love, and of wise discretion. DBY

Revelation 21:8 But 1a cowards who turn away from me, and
unbelievers, and the corrupt, and murderers, and the immoral, and
those who practice witchcraft, and idol worshipers, and all liars-- their
doom is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur. This is the second
death." NLT

CRAFTY - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


1. Cunning; artful; skillful in devising and pursuing a scheme,

by deceiving others, or by taking advantage of their ignorance;
wily; sly; fraudulent.

2. Artful; cunning; in a good sense, or in a laudable pursuit.

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Matthew 26:4 and took counsel together to seize Jesus by 1crafty

device and kill him. NWT


Job 15:5 For thy mouth uttereth thine iniquity, and thou choosest the
tongue of the 1crafty. KJV

Psalm 83:3 They have taken 1crafty counsel against thy people, and
consulted against thy hidden ones. KJV
CRAG - (Thayers Bible dictionary)

H5553 [l;s, cela` {seh'-lah}

1) crag, cliff, rock

1a) crag, cliff

1b) as stronghold of Jehovah, of security (fig.)

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Isaiah 33:16 He is the one that will reside on the heights themselves; his
secure height will be 1b craggy places difficult to approach. His own
bread will certainly be given [him]; his water supply will be unfailing."

Psalm 18:2 Jehovah is my crag1b and my stronghold and the Provider

of escape for me. My God is my rock. I shall take refuge in him, My
shield and my horn of salvation, my secure height. NWT

CREATE - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


1. To produce; to bring into being from nothing; to cause to


2. To make or form, by investing with a new character; as, to

create one a peer or baron; to create a manor.

3. To produce; to cause; to be the occasion of.


4. To beget; to generate; to bring forth.



5. To make or produce, by new combinations of matter already created,

and by investing these combinations with new forms, constitutions and
qualities; to shape and organize.

6. To form anew;
H1254 bara' {baw-raw'}

1) to create, shape, form

1a) (Qal) to shape, fashion, create (always with God as subject)
1a1) of heaven and earth
1a2) of individual man
1a3) of new conditions and circumstances
1a4) of transformations
1b) (Niphal) to be created
1b1) of heaven and earth
1b2) of birth
1b3) of something new
1b4) of miracles
1c) (Piel)
1c1) to cut down
1c2) to cut out
2) to be fat
2a) (Hiphil) to make yourselves fat

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Genesis 1:1 When God began to 1b3create heaven and earth – TNK

Genesis 5:1 This is the book of Adam's history. In the day of God's
1,6creating Adam he made him in the likeness of God. NWT

Revelation 4:11 "Worthy are you, our Lord and God, to receive glory
and honor and power, for you 1created all things, and by your
will they existed and were 4created." ESV

Revelation 10:6 and by the One who lives forever and ever, who
5created the heaven and the things in it and the earth and the
things in it and the sea and the things in it, he swore: "There will

be no delay any longer; NWT



CREATURE- (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


1. That which is created; every being besides the Creator, or

every thing not self-existent. The sun, moon and stars; the earth, animals,
plants, light, darkness, air, water, &c., are the creatures of God.
2. In a restricted sense, an animal of any kind; a living being; a
beast. In a more restricted sense, man. Thus we say, he was in trouble
and no creature was present to aid him.

3. A human being, in contempt; as an idle creature; a poor creature; what

a creature!

4. With words of endearment, it denotes a human being beloved; as a

pretty creature; a sweet creature.

5. That which is produced, formed or imagined; as a creature of the


6. A person who owes his rise and fortune to another; one who is made to
be what he is.

Great princes thus, when favorites they raise, to justify their grace, their
creatures praise.

7. A dependent; a person who is subject to the will or influence of


[Examples of Scriptural use]

Revelation 5:13 And I heard every 2creature in heaven and on

earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them,
saying, "To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and
honor and glory and might forever and ever!" ESV

Genesis 9:15 And I will remember my covenant which is between

me and you and every living 2creature <05315> of all flesh and
the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh KJV

Hebrews 4:13 And there is no 1creature that is not manifest in

his sight: but all things are naked and laid open before the eyes of him

with whom we have to do. ASV


CROOKED - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


1. Bent; curved; curving; winding.

2. Winding in moral conduct; devious; forward; perverse; going out

of the path of rectitude; given to obliquity or wandering from duty.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Acts 2:40 And with many other words he bore witness and continued to
exhort them, saying, "Save yourselves from this 2crooked generation."

Isaiah 59:8 They do not know the way of peace, there is no fair
judgement in their course, they have made their own 2crooked paths,
and no one treading them knows any peace. NJB

Proverbs 8:8 All the words of my mouth are in righteousness, there is

nothing perverse or 1crooked in them. JPS

CROSS, - See also ―Stake‖ and ―Tree‖ which are a more

correct form of the original Greek words stauros and Xulon, rendered
Cross by many translators. Many dictionaries are based on this mistaken
translation. The error is explained fully in a definition given in Vines
Expository Dictionary of New testament terms.

Cross, Crucify (Vines Expository Dictionary of N.T. Bible words)

A. Noun.
stauros (G4716) denotes, primarily, "an upright pale or stake." On such
malefactors were nailed for execution. Both the noun and the verb
stauroo, "to fasten to a stake or pale," are originally to be distinguished
from the ecclesiastical form of a two beamed "cross."
The shape of the cross had its origin in ancient Chaldea, and

was used as the symbol of the god Tammuz (being in the shape of
the mystic Tau, the initial of his name) in that country and in adjacent

lands, including Egypt.


By the middle of the 3rd cent. A.D. the churches had either departed
from, or had distorted, certain doctrines of the Christian faith. In order
to increase the prestige of the apostate ecclesiastical system, pagans were
received into the churches apart from regeneration by faith, and were
permitted largely to retain their pagan signs and symbols. Hence the
Tau or T, in its most frequent form, with the cross-piece
lowered, was a pagan symbol adopted to stand for the "cross"
of Christ.

As for the Chi, or X, which Constantine declared he had seen in a vision

leading him to champion the Christian faith, that letter was the initial of
the word "Christ" and had nothing to do with "the Cross" (for xulon, "a
timber beam, a tree," as used for the stauros, see under TREE). The
method of execution was borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the
Phoenicians. The stauros denotes (a) "the cross, (stauros) or stake
itself," (b) "the crucifixion suffered," e.g., 1Co_1:17-18, where "the word
of the cross," RV, stands for the gospel as a message of the cross; The
judicial custom by which the condemned person carried his stake to the
place of execution, was applied by the Lord to those sufferings by which
His faithful followers were to express their fellowship with Him, e.g.,

B. Verbs.
1. stauroo (G4717) signifies (a) "the act of crucifixion," e.g., Mat_20:19;
(b) metaphorically, "the putting off of the flesh with its passions and
lusts," a condition fulfilled in the case of those who are "of Christ Jesus,"
Gal_5:24, RV; so of the relationship between the believer and the world,
2. sustauroo (G4957), "to crucify with" (su-, "for," sun, "with"), is used (a)
of actual "crucifixion" in company with another, Mat_27:44; Mar_15:32;
Joh_19:32; (b) metaphorically, of spiritual identification with Christ in
His death, Rom_6:6, and Gal_2:20.
3. anastauroo (G388) (ana, again) is used in Heb_6:6 of Hebrew
apostates, who as merely nominal Christians, in turning back to Judaism,
were thereby virtually guilty of "crucifying" Christ again.
4. prospegnumi (G4362), "to fix or fasten to anything" (pros, "to,"
pegnumi, "to fix"), is used of the "crucifixion" of Christ, Act 2:23.

[Examples of Scriptural use]



1 Peter 2:24 He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so
that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds you
have been healed. NRS

1 Peter 2:24 who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree,
that we, having died to sins, might live for righteousness -- by whose
stripes you were healed. NKJ

Acts 10:39 And we are witnesses of all things which he did both in the
country of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom also they slew, hanging
him on a tree. ASV

Galatians 3:13 Christ by purchase released us from the curse of the Law
by becoming a curse instead of us, because it is written: "Accursed is
every man hanged upon a stake." NWT

Galatians 3:13 But Christ has rescued us from the curse pronounced by
the law. When he was hung on the cross, he took upon himself the curse
for our wrongdoing. For it is written in the Scriptures, "Cursed is
everyone who is hung on a tree." NLT

CRUEL - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


Disposed to give pain to others, in body or mind; willing or

pleased to torment, vex or afflict; inhuman; destitute of pity, compassion
or kindness; fierce; ferocious; savage; barbarous; hardhearted; applied to
persons or their dispositions.

2. Inhuman; barbarous; savage; causing pain, grief or distress;

exerted in tormenting, vexing or afflicting.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Isaiah 13:9 See, the day of the Lord is coming, 1cruel, with wrath and
burning passion: to make the land a waste, driving the sinners in it to
destruction. BBE

Proverbs 17:11 An evil man seeketh only rebellion; Therefore a 1cruel

messenger shall be sent against him. ASV


Jeremiah 6:23 They are fully armed for slaughter. They are 2cruel and
show no mercy. As they ride forward, the noise of their army is like a
roaring sea. They are marching in battle formation to destroy you,
Jerusalem. NLT

CUBIT - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Cubit, n. [L., the elbow; signifying a turn or corner; Gr.]

1. In anatomy, the fore arm; the ulna, and bone of the arm from the elbow
to the wrist.

2. In mensuration, the length of a mans arm from the elbow to

the extremity of the middle finger. The cubit among the ancients
was of a different length among different nations. Dr. Arbuthnot states
the Roman cubit at seventeen inches and four tenths; the cubit of the
scriptures at a little less than 22 inches; and the English cubit at 18
[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 6:27 Who of YOU by being anxious can add one 2cubit to his
life span? NWT

Revelation 21:17 He measured its wall, and this was a hundred and
forty-four cubits high -- by human measurements. NJB

Exodus 25:23 "You shall make a table of acacia wood. Two cubits
shall be its length, a cubit its breadth, and a cubit and a half its
height. ESV

CULTIVATE - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Cultivate, v.t. [L., to till, to dwell.]

1. To till; to prepare for crops; to manure, plow, dress, sow and reap;

to labor on manage and improve in husbandry; as, to cultivate land; to

cultivate a farm.


2. To improve by labor or study; to advance the growth of; to

refine and improve by correction of faults, and enlargement of
powers or good qualities; as, to cultivate talents; to cultivate a taste
for poetry.

3. To study; to labor to improve or advance; as, to cultivate

philosophy; to cultivate the mind.

4. To cherish; to foster; to labor to promote and increase; as, to

cultivate the love of excellence; to cultivate gracious affections.

5. To improve; to meliorate, or to labor to make better; to correct; to

civilize; as, to cultivate the wild savage.

6. To raise or produce by tillage; as, to cultivate corn or grass.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Psalm 104:14 You cause the grass to grow for the livestock and plants
for man to 1cultivate, that he may bring forth food from the earth ESV

1 Corinthians 3:9 For we are God's fellow workers. YOU people are
God's field under 2cultivation, God's building. NWT

Hosea 10:13 "But you have 3cultivated wickedness and raised a

thriving crop of sins. You have eaten the fruit of lies-- trusting in your
military might, believing that great armies could make your nation
safe! NLT

CUNNING - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

1. Knowing; skillful; experienced; well-instructed. It is applied to
all kinds of knowledge, but generally and appropriately, to the
skill and dexterity of artificers, or the knowledge acquired by

2. Artful; shrewd; sly; crafty; astute; designing; as a cunning fellow.


3. Deceitful; trickish; employing stratagems for a bad purpose.

4. Assumed with subtilty; artful.



[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Corinthians 3:19 For the wisdom of the world is folly to God. As

scripture says: He traps the crafty in the snare of their own 4
cunning NJB

Ephesians 4:14 in order that we may be no longer babes, tossed and

carried about by every wind of *that* teaching which is in the sleight of
men, in unprincipled 3 cunning with a view to systematized
error; DBY

Ephesians 4:14 in order that we should no longer be babes, tossed about

as by waves and carried hither and thither by every wind of teaching by
means of the trickery of men, by means of 3 cunning in contriving
error. NWT

Job 5:13 He catches those who think they are wise in their own
cleverness, so that their 2 cunning schemes are thwarted. NLT

CURSE - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Curse v.t. pret. and pp. cursed or curst.

1. To utter a wish of evil against one; to imprecate evil upon; to call

for mischief or injury to fall upon; to execrate.

2. To injure; to subject to evil; to vex, harass or torment with

great calamities.

3. To devote to evil.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Deuteronomy 27:16 3'Cursed <0779> is he who dishonors his

father or mother.' And all the people shall say 'Amen ' NAU

Jeremiah 11:3 Tell them, "Yahweh, God of Israel, says this: 2Cursed be
anyone who will not listen to the terms of this covenant NJB

Jeremiah 17:5 This is what the LORD says: 3Cursed are those who
put their trust in mere humans and turn their hearts away from



CUSTOM - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Custom n.

1. Frequent or common use, or practice; a frequent repetition o the

same act; hence, way; established manner; habitual practice.

2. A buying of goods; practice of frequenting a shop and purchasing or

procuring to be done.

3. In law, long established practice, or usage, which constitutes

the unwritten law, and long consent to which gives it authority.
Customs are general, which extend over a state or kingdom, and
particular, which are limited to a city or district.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Corinthians 11:16 But if anyone is disposed to be contentious-- we

have no such custom, nor do the churches of God. NRS

Hebrews 10:25 not forsaking the gathering of ourselves together, as

some have the custom, but encouraging one another, and all the
more so as YOU behold the day drawing near. NWT

Genesis 29:26 Laban replied, 'It is not the custom in our place to marry
off the younger before the elder. NJB

CUSTOMARY - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Customary, Custom

1. According to custom, or to established or common usage; as a

customary dress; customary compliments.

2. Habitual; in common practice; as customary vices.

3. Holding by custom; as customary tenants, who are copyholders.


4. Held by custom; as a custom

[Example of Scriptural use]



Philippians 2:29 Therefore give him the 1customary welcome in

[the] Lord with all joy; and keep holding men of that sort dear, NWT

DAMN - (Easton‘s Bible Dictionary)

In Rom_13:2, means ―condemnation,‖ which comes on those who
withstand God's ordinance of magistracy. This sentence of condemnation
comes not from the magistrate, but from God, whose authority is thus
In Rom_14:23 the word ―damned‖ means ―condemned‖ by one's own
conscience, as well as by the Word of God. The apostle shows here that
many things which are lawful are not expedient; and that in using our
Christian liberty the question should not simply be, Is this course I follow
lawful? but also, can I follow it without doing injury to the spiritual
interests of a brother in Christ? He that ―doubteth‖, i.e., is not clear in his
conscience as to ―meats‖, will violate his conscience ―if he eat,‖ and in
eating is condemned; and thus one ought not so to use his liberty as to
lead one who is ―weak‖ to bring upon himself this condemnation.

Damn; Damnation; Damnable

dam, dam-na´shun, dam´na-b'l: These words have undergone a change

of meaning since the King James Version was made. They are derived
from Latin damnare = ―to inflict a loss,‖ ―to condemn,‖ and
that was their original meaning in English. They have been
excluded altogether from the Revised Version (British and American).
The words for which they stand in the King James Version are:

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Mark 16:16 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved ,but he that
believeth not <shall be damned <2632 KJV

Matthew 23:14 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye

devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayer:
therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation. WEB

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DEACON - (Vines Expository Dictionary of N.T. Bible words)

diakonos (G1249), (Eng., "deacon"), primarily denotes a "servant,"
whether as doing servile work, or as an attendant rendering free service,
without particular reference to its character. The word is probably
connected with the verb dioko, "to hasten after, pursue" (perhaps
originally said of a runner. Once diakonos is used where, apparently,
angels are intended, Mat_22:13; in Mat_22:3, where men are intended,
doulos is used."*
* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 91.
Diakonos is, generally speaking, to be distinguished from doulos, "a
bond- servant, slave"; diakonos views a servant in relationship to his
work, doulos views him in relationship to his master.
Note: As to synonymous terms, leitourgos denotes "one who performs
public duties"; misthios and misthotos, "a hired servant"; oiketes, "a
household servant"; huperetes, "a subordinate official waiting on his
superior" (originally an under-rower in a war-galley); therapon, "one
whose service is that of freedom and dignity." see MINISTER, SERVANT.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Timothy 3:8 Deacons, likewise, are to be men worthy of

respect, sincere, not indulging in much wine, and not pursuing
dishonest gain. NIV

Philippians 1:1 Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus, To all the
saints in Christ Jesus at Philippi, together with the overseers and
deacons: NIB

1 Timothy 3:13 For those who serve well as deacons gain a good
standing for themselves and also great confidence in the faith that is in
Christ Jesus. ESV

DECEIT, DECEIVE, DECEPTION - (Noah Webster‘s 1828

Dictionary with Bible Definitions )



1. To mislead the mind; to cause to err; to cause to believe what

is false, or disbelieve what is true; to impose on; to delude.

2. To beguile; to cheat.

3. To cut off from expectation; to frustrate or disappoint; as,

his hopes were deceived.

4. To take from; to rob.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Ephesians 5:6 Let no one 1deceive you with empty words, for
because of these things the wrath of God comes on those who are
disobedient. NRS

Galatians 6:3 For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing

he 1deceives <5422> himself NAU

2 Thessalonians 2:10 He will use every kind of wicked

1,2,3deception to fool those who are on their way to destruction because

they refuse to believe the truth that would save them. NLT

DISCIPLE, learner follower - (International Standard Bible


Disciple di-sı´p'l:

(1) ―a learner,‖ from manthano, ―to learn‖; Latin discipulus, ―a

scholar‖): The word is found in the Bible only in the Gospels and
Acts. But it is good Greek, in use from Herodotus down, and always
means the pupil of someone, in contrast to the master or teacher
(δηδαζθαιος, didaskalos). See Mat_10:24; Luk_6:40. In all cases it
implies that the person not only accepts the views of the
teacher, but that he is also in practice an adherent.

(2) We have also the verb, καζεηεσω, matheteuo, ―Jesus' disciple‖


(literally, ―was discipled to Jesus,‖ Mat_27:57); ―Make disciples of all the

nations‖ (the King James Version ―teach,‖ Mat_28:19); ―had made many

disciples‖ (the King James Version ―taught many. The disciple of Christ
today may be described in the words of Farrar, as ―one who believes His

doctrines, rests upon His sacrifice, imbibes His spirit, and imitates His
example.‖ The Old Testament has neither the term nor the exact idea,
though there is a difference between teacher and scholar among David's
singers (1Ch_25:8), and among the prophetic guilds the distinction
between the rank and file and the leader (1Sa_19:20; 2Ki_6:5).

Disciple - G3101 (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words)

mathe te s; gen. mathetoú, masc. noun from mantháno (G3129), to learn,

to understand. A learner, pupil.

1. Mathetes means more in the NT than a mere pupil or

learner. It is an adherent who accepts the instruction given to
him and makes it his rule of conduct, e.g., the disciples of John
(Mat_11:2; Mar_2:18; Luk_5:33; Luk_7:18; Joh_3:25); the disciples of
the Pharisees (Mar_2:18). In Joh_9:28, the Pharisees told the healed
blind man, "Thou art his disciple; but we are Moses' disciples." Jesus had
disciples in the sense that they believed and made His teaching the basis
of their conduct. (Mat_5:1; Mat_9:19; Mat_14:22; Luk_14:26-27,
Luk_14:33; Joh_9:27; Joh_15:8).

2. Besides these believers, however, there was a smaller select group of

twelve apostles whom Jesus chose out of the general group of His
followers (Mat_8:21; Luk_6:13, Luk_6:17; Luk_7:11; Joh_6:60,
Joh_6:66). They were to teach and exercise power in performing miracles
in substantiation of His authority transferred to them. Thus, "the twelve"
are so designated in Mat_26:14 and called "the eleven" after Judas
betrayed Jesus (Mar_16:14). These were not ordinary disciples, but those
who remained with Him and followed Him (Mat_5:1; Mat_8:23,
Mat_8:25 [TR]; Mat_9:10; Mat_11:1; Mat_14:22).

3. The general designation of mathetes was given to those who believed

on Christ (Joh_8:31). They were disciples but not the disciples
(Mat_10:42; Joh_8:31; Act_6:2; Act_19:9). The name mathetaí (pl. of
mathetes) was applied to John's disciples at Ephesus due to the
relationship of John the Baptist to the Messiah (Act_19:1). These

disciples were ignorant of the fact that Jesus was the Messiah (Act_19:4).
Generally speaking, however, the term mathetaí, disciples, denoted just
the followers of Christ, the Messiah.


[Examples of Scriptural use]

John 8:31 Jesus said to the people who believed in him, "You are truly
my 3disciples if you keep obeying my teachings. NLT

John 6:3 So Jesus went up into a mountain, and there he was sitting
with his 2disciples. NWT

Luke 14:26 "If you want to be my follower you must love me more than
your own father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters--
yes, more than your own life. Otherwise, you cannot be my
3disciple. NLT

DEMOM - (Smith‘s Bible Dictionary)


Demons. In the Gospels, generally, in Jam_2:19, and in Rev_16:14, the

demons are spoken of as spiritual beings, at enmity with God,
and having power to afflict man, not only with disease, but,
as is marked by the frequent epithet "un-clean," with spiritual
pollution also. They "believe" the power of God, "and tremble;"
Jam_2:19, they recognized the Lord as the Son of God; Mat_8:29;
Luk_4:41, and they acknowledged the power of his name, used in
exorcism, in the place of the name of Jehovah, by his appointed
messengers; Act_19:15, and they looked forward, in terror, to the
judgment to come. Mat_8:29. The description is precisely that of a nature
akin to the angelic in knowledge and powers, but with the emphatic
addition of the idea of positive and active wickedness.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

John 10:21 Others said, "This doesn't sound like a man possessed by a
demon! Can a demon open the eyes of the blind?" NLT

Luke 9:1 And he called the twelve together and gave them power and
authority over all demons and to cure diseases, ESV

Luke 10:17 The seventy-two came back rejoicing. 'Lord,' they said, 'even
the devils submit to us when we use your name.' NJB

DEVIL - (Vines Expository Dictionary of N.T. Bible words)



Devil, Devilish

diabolos (G1228), "an accuser, a slanderer" (from diaballo, "to

accuse, to malign"), is one of the names of Satan. From it the English
word "Devil" is derived, and should be applied only to Satan, as a
proper name. Daimon, "a demon," is frequently, but wrongly,
translated "devil"; it should always be translated "demon," as in the RV
margin. There is one "Devil," there are many demons. Being the
malignant enemy of God and man, he accuses man to God, Job_1:6-
11; Job_2:1-5; Rev_12:9, Rev_12:10, and God to man, Genesis 3. He
afflicts men with physical sufferings, Act 10:38. Being himself sinful,
1Jo_3:8, he instigated man to sin, Genesis 3, and tempts man to do evil,
Eph_4:27; Eph_6:11, encouraging him thereto by deception, Eph_2:2.
Death having been brought into the world by sin, the "Devil" had the
power of death, but Christ through His own death, has triumphed over
him, and will bring him to nought, Heb_2:14; his power over death is
intimated in his struggle with Michael over the body of Moses, Jud_1:9.
Judas, who gave himself over to the "Devil," was so identified with him,
that the Lord described him as such, Joh_6:70 (see Joh_13:2). As the
"Devil" raised himself in pride against God and fell under condemnation,
so believers are warned against similar sin, 1Ti_3:6; for them he lays
snares, 1Ti_3:7, seeking to devour them as a roaring lion, 1Pe_5:8; those
who fall into his snare may be recovered therefrom unto the will of God,
2Ti_2:26, "having been taken captive by him (i.e., by the 'Devil')"; "by the
Lord's servant" is an alternative, which some regard as confirmed by the
use of zogreo ("to catch alive") in Luk_5:10; but the general use is that of
taking captive in the usual way. If believers resist he will flee from them,
Jam_4:7. His fury and malignity will be especially exercised at the end of
the present age, Rev_12:12. His doom is the lake of fire, Mat_25:41;
Rev_20:10. The noun is applied to slanderers, false accusers, 1Ti_3:11;
2Ti_3:3; Tit_2:3.

Devil, The (R.A. Torrey‘s New topical Index)

Descriptions of The Devil given in Torreys Topical Index;

The author of the fall [into sin;

Gen_3:1; Gen_3:6; Gen_3:14; Gen_3:24; Rev. 12:9-11

Gen 3:1 NOW THE serpent was more subtle and crafty than any living
creature of the field which the Lord God had made. And he [Satan] said


to the woman, Can it really be that God has said, You shall not eat from
every tree of the garden? [Rev. 12:9-11.] AMP

Rev 12:9 And the huge dragon was cast down and out--that age-old
serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, he who is the seducer
(deceiver) of all humanity the world over; he was forced out and down
to the earth, and his angels were flung out along with him.. AMP

Gen 3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good (suitable,
pleasant) for food and that it was delightful to look at, and a tree to be
desired in order to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate; and she
gave some also to her husband, and he ate. AMP

Gen 3:14 And the Lord God said to the serpent, Because you have done
this, you are cursed above all [domestic] animals and above every
[wild] living thing of the field; upon your belly you shall go, and you
shall eat dust [and what it contains] all the days of your life. AMP
Gen 3:24 So [God] drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the
Garden of Eden the cherubim and a flaming sword which turned every
way, to keep and guard the way to the tree of life. AMP

Sinned against God

1Jo_3:8; 2Pe_2:4;

1 John 3:8 But when people keep on sinning, it shows they belong to the
Devil, who has been sinning since the beginning. But the Son of God
came to destroy these works of the Devil. NLT

2 Peter 2:4 For if God did not spare the angels when they sinned, but
condemned them to the chains of Tartarus and handed them over to be
kept for judgment; NAB

Perverts the meaning of Scripture

Mat_4:6; Psa_91:11; Psa_91:12;

Matthew 4:6 and said to him: "If you are a son of God, hurl
yourself down; for it is written, 'He will give his angels a
charge concerning you, and they will carry you on their
hands, that you may at no time strike your foot against a

stone.'" NWT

Matthew 4:6 and said, "If you are the Son of God, jump off! For

the Scriptures say, NLT


Psalm 91:11 For he will command his angels concerning you to guard
you in all your ways; NIV

Psalm 91:11 For he will give his own angels a command concerning you,
To guard you in all your ways. NWT

and they will carry you on their hands, that you may at no time
strike your foot against a stone.'" NIV

Psalm 91:12 On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike
your foot against a stone. ESV

Opposes God's work

Zec_3:1; 1Th_2:18;

Zechariah 3:1 And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before
the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to
resist him. WEB

1 Thessalonians 2:18 For we wanted to come to you-- certainly I, Paul,

wanted to again and again-- but Satan blocked our way. NRS

Hinders the gospel

Mat_13:19; 2Co_4:4;

Matthew 13:19 When the word of the kingdom comes to anyone, and the
sense of it is not clear to him, then the Evil One comes, and quickly
takes away that which was put in his heart. He is the seed
dropped by the wayside. BBE

2Co 4:4 For the god of this world has blinded the unbelievers' minds
[that they should not discern the truth], preventing them from
seeing the illuminating light of the Gospel of the glory of Christ
(the Messiah), Who is the Image and Likeness of God. AMP

Works lying wonders

2Th_2:9; Rev_16:14;

2Th 2:9 The coming [of the lawless one, the antichrist] is through the
activity and working of Satan and will be attended by great power
and with all sorts of [pretended] miracles and signs and delusive

marvels--[all of them] lying wonders— AMP


Rev 16:14 For really they are the spirits of demons that perform
signs (wonders, miracles). And they go forth to the rulers and leaders
all over the world, to gather them together for war on the great day of
God the Almighty. AMP

Assumes the form of an angel of light


2Co 11:14 No wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an

angel of light. 15 Therefore it is not surprising if his servants also
disguise themselves as servants of righteousness, whose end will be
according to their deeds. NASB

The Wicked
Are the children of
1Jo_3:10; Act_13:10; Mat_13:38;

1 John 3:10 This is what distinguishes the children of God from

the children of the devil: whoever does not live uprightly and does
not love his brother is not from God. NJB

Act 13:10 And said, O full of all subtilty and all mischief, thou child of
the devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to
pervert the right ways of the Lord? KJV

Mat 13:38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of
the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; KJV

Possesses humans
Luk_22:3; Act_5:3; Eph_2:2;

Luke 22:3 And Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed
Iscariot, one of the twelve. DRA
Acts 5:3 Peter said, 'Ananias, how can Satan have so possessed you
that you should lie to the Holy Spirit and keep back part of the price of
the land? NJB

Ephesians 2:2 You used to live just like the rest of the world, full of sin,
obeying Satan, the mighty prince of the power of the air. He is

the spirit at work in the hearts of those who refuse to obey

God. NLT

Is a god and rules the world

2Co_4:4; John 12:31

2 Corinthians 4:4 Because the god of this world has made blind the
minds of those who have not faith, so that the light of the good news of
the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, might not be shining on
them. BBE

John 12:31 now is a judgment of this world, now shall the ruler of
this world be cast forth; YLT

Blinds Minds

2 Corinthians 4:4 Because the god of this world has made blind the
minds of those who have not faith, so that the light of the good news of
the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, might not be shining on
them. BBE

Deceives humans
1Ki_22:21; 1Ki_22:22; Rev_20:7,8.

The Devil‘s Character:


Jeremiah 50:31 Job_1:6; Mat_4:5;

Jeremiah 50:31 "Look! I am against you, O Presumptuousness," is

the utterance of the Sovereign Lord, Jehovah of armies, "for your day
must come, the time that I must give you attention. NWT

Job 1:6 Now it came to pass on the day when the sons of God came to
present themselves before Jehovah, that Satan also came among them.

Matthew 4:5 Then the devil took him up into the holy city, and set him
upon the pinnacle of the temple, DRA


1Timothy 3:6 not a novice, lest being puffed up with pride he fall
into the same condemnation as the devil. NKJ


Eph_6:12; 1 John 5:19. 2 Corinthians 11:14

Ephesians 6:12 For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood,

but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the
cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces
of evil in the heavenly places. ESV

1 John 5:19 We know that we belong to God, and the whole world is
under the power of the evil one. NAB

2 Corinthians 11:14 And no wonder! For Satan himself transforms

himself into an angel of light. NKJ

1Jo_2:13; Matthew 5:37

1 John 2:13 I write to you, fathers, because ye have known him that is
from the beginning. I write to you, young men, because ye have
overcome the wicked one. I write to you, little children, because ye
have known the Father. DBY

Matthew 5:37 Just let YOUR word Yes mean Yes, YOUR No, No; for
what is in excess of these is from the wicked one. NWT

Subtle, crafty
Gen_3:1; 2Co_11:3;

Gen 3:1 NOW THE serpent was more subtle and crafty than any
living creature of the field which the Lord God had made. And he [Satan]
said to the woman, Can it really be that God has said, You shall not eat
from every tree of the garden? AMP

2 Corinthians 11:3 But I fear, lest somehow, as the serpent deceived

Eve by his craftiness, so your minds may be corrupted from the
simplicity that is in Christ. NKJ

Genesis 3:13 2 Corinthians 11: 14

Genesis 3:13 Then the God <0430> said to the woman, "What is this you
have done?" And the woman said said, "The serpent deceived

<05378> me, and I ate." NAU


2 Corinthians 11:14 And no wonder, for Satan himself keeps transforming

himself into an angel of light. NWT

Fierce and cruel

Luk_8:29; Luk_9:39; Luk_9:42; 1Pe_5:8;

Luke 8:29 For Jesus had commanded the evil spirit to come out of the
man. Many times it had seized him, and though he was chained hand
and foot and kept under guard, he had broken his chains and had been
driven by the demon into solitary places. NIV

Luke 9:39 An evil spirit keeps seizing him, making him scream. It
throws him into convulsions so that he foams at the mouth. It is always
hitting and injuring him. It hardly ever leaves him alone. NLT

Luke 9:42 Even while the boy was coming, the devil threw him to the
ground in convulsions. But Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit and cured
the boy and gave him back to his father, NJB

1 Peter 5:8 Be sober and vigilant. Your opponent the devil is prowling
around like a roaring lion looking for (someone) to devour. NAB

DISCIPLINE - (Vines Expository Dictionary of N.T. Bible words)

sophronismos (G4995), from sophron, lit., "saving the mind,"
from saos, "contracted to" sos, "safe" (cf. sozo, "to save"), phren, "the
mind," primarily, "an admonishing or calling to soundness of
mind, or to selfcontrol," is used in 2Ti_1:7, KJV, "a sound mind"; RV,
"discipline." Cf. sophroneo ("to be of sound mind"), sophronizo ("to
admonish"), sophronos ("soberly"), and sophron, "of sound mind.

Discipline (International Standard Bible Dictionary)

In classic Greek paideia means ―education,‖ mental culture.

Through the influence of the Septuagint, which translates the Hebrew
musar by paideia, the meaning of ―chastisement‖ accompanies

παιδεια, paideia in the New Testament. Compare Heb_12:5,

Heb_12:7, Heb_12:8, Heb_12:11.

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Hebrews 12:6 For the Lord disciplines the one he loves, and
chastises every son whom he receives." ESV

Hosea 7:15 Though I disciplined and strengthened their arms,

Yet they devise evil against Me; NKJ

Ephesians 6:4 And YOU, fathers, do not be irritating YOUR children,

but go on bringing them up in the discipline and mental-
regulating of Jehovah. NWT

DISCREET- (Vines Expository Dictionary of N.T. Bible Words)

Discreet, Discreetly

A. Adjective.
sophron (G4998), "of sound mind self-controlled" (for the deri -
vation, see DISCIPLINE), is translated "sober-minded," in its four
occurrences in the RV, 1Ti_3:2 (KJV, "sober"); Tit_1:8 (KJV, "ditto");
Tit_2:2 (KJV, "temperate"); Tit_2:5 (KJV, "discreet"). See SOBER,
B. Adverb.
nounechos (G3562), lit., "mindpossessing" (nous, "mind,
understanding," echo, "to have"), hence denotes "discreetly,
sensibly prudently." Mar_12:34.
Discreet - G4998 - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words )

Σωθρωλ sophron; gen. sophronos, masc.-fem., neut. sophron, adj. from

soos (n.f.), sound, and phren (G5424), understanding. Discreet,
sober, temperate, of a sound mind (1Ti_3:2; Tit_1:8; Tit_2:2,
Tit_2:5); self-disciplined in one's freedom, self-restrained in all passions
and desires.
Deriv.: sophronéo (G4993), to be of sound mind; sophronízo (G4994),
to teach to be discreet; sophrónos (G4996), temperately; sophrosúne
(G4997), sobriety, sanity.

[Examples of Scriptural use]



Gen 41:33 So now let Pharaoh seek out and provide a man discreet,
understanding, proficient, and wise and set him over the land of Egypt [as
governor]. KJV

Proverbs 5:2 that you may keep discretion, and your lips may
guard knowledge. ESV

Proverbs 2:11 discretion will watch over you, understanding will

guard you, ESV

DOGMA - (Noah Websters 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


DOGMA, n. [Gr., to think; L.] A settled opinion; a principle, maxim

or tenet; a doctrinal notion, particularly in matters of faith and
philosophy; as the dogmas of the church; the dogmas of Plato.

(See also Volume III. Chapter 12. under ―BIBLE TEACHINGS vs


[Examples of Scriptural use]


DRAGON - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words)

DRAGON - G1404 – δραθωλ

drákon; gen. drákontos, masc. noun from dérkomai (n.f.), to look at,
behold. A dragon, a huge serpent, so-called because of his sight
which is very acute (cf. óphis [G3789], a serpent). The Greeks called
the dragon a species of serpent because he could see so well. In the NT,
drákon is used only symbolically for Satan

[Examples of Scriptural use]



Revelation 12:7 And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels
going out to the fight with the dragon; and the dragon and his angels
made war, BBE

Revelation 12:9 And the great dragon was forced down, the old
snake, who is named the Evil One and Satan, by whom all the earth
is turned from the right way; he was forced down to the earth, and his
angels were forced down with him. BBE

ELDER - (Thayers Greek Definitions)

ELDER - G4245 – πρεσβστερος – presbuteros –

elder, bishop, and presbyter – are variations of the same word
found in different translations
1) elder, of age
1a) the elder of two people
1b) advanced in life, an elder, a senior
1b1) forefathers
2) a term of rank or office
2a) among the Jews
2a1) members of the great council or Sanhedrin (because in early times
the rulers of the people, judges, etc., were selected from elderly men)
2a2) of those who in separate cities managed public affairs and
administered justice
2b) among the Christians, those who presided over the
assemblies (or churches) The NT uses the term bishop, elders, and
presbyters interchangeably
2c) the twenty four members of the heavenly Sanhedrin or court seated
on thrones around the throne of God
Part of Speech: adjective
A Related Word by Thayer‘s/Strong‘s Number: comparative of presbus
Thayers- presbuteroi - their maturity of spiritual experience. The divine
arrangement seen throughout the NT was for a plurality of

these to be appointed in each church, Act_14:23; Act_20:17;

Phi_1:1; 1Ti_5:17; Tit_1:5.


The duty of "elders" is described by the verb episkopeo. They were

appointed according as they had given evidence of fulfilling the divine
qualifications, Tit_1:6-9; cf. 1Ti_3:1-7 and 1Pe_5:2;
G1984- episkopeo. - επιζκοπη – (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of
New Testament Words) episkope; gen. episkopes, fem. noun from
episkopéo (G1983), to look after. Visitation, or the public office of
an overseer (epískopos [G1985]). The act of visiting or being
visited, inspected. In the NT, metaphorically, of God, who is said to visit
men for good, equal to episképtomai (G1980), to visit upon,
consider, examine, and provide covering for (Luk_19:44, "the
time when God visited thee" [a.t.], i.e., was present to favor thee;
1Pe_2:12; Sept.: Job_10:12; Job_34:9). To visit for evil in order to punish
(Sept.: Exo_13:19; Isa_10:3; Jer_10:15). Also used of the office,
charge or duty of an overseer in Christ's church or cong-
regation (Act_1:20 quoted from Psa_109:8; 1Ti_3:1, "the office of a
bishop," i.e., the care and oversight of a Christian church
(assembly or congregation); Sept.: Num_4:16; Neh_11:9, epískopos).

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1Ti 3:2-5 A bishop [elder] then must be blameless, the husband of

one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to
teach; Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but
patient, not a brawler, not covetous; One that ruleth well his own house,
having his children in subjection with all gravity; (For if a man know
not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of
God?) KJV

Acts 14:23 And when they [Paul and Barnabas] had appointed
elders for them in every church, with prayer and fasting they
committed them to the Lord in whom they had believed. ESV

1 Peter 5:1 And now, a word to you who are elders in the churches. I,
too, am an elder and a witness to the sufferings of Christ. And I, too,
will share his glory and his honor when he returns. As a fellow elder,
this is my appeal to you: NLT


(Thayers Bible definitions)

ELECT - -G1588 evklekto,j eklektos {ek-lek-tos'}


1) picked out, chosen


1a) chosen by God,

1a1) to obtain salvation through Christ
1a1a) Christians are called "chosen or elect" of God
1a2) the Messiah in called "elect", as appointed by God to the most
exalted office conceivable
1a3) choice, select, i.e. the best of its kind or class, excellence preeminent:
applied to certain individual Christians

G1588 Elect, chosen ones, saints (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary

of New Testament Words)
eklektós; fem. eklekte, neut. eklektón, adj. from eklégo (G1586), to
choose, select. Chosen, select. In the group of three important biblical
words, eklektós, eklégo, and ekloge (G1589), choice or election, selection
involves thoughtful and deliberate consideration.

(I) Select, choice, elect. Used as an adj. in regard to stone as in 1Pe_2:4,

1Pe_2:6 quoted from Isa_28:16; see Ezr_5:8. In both of these instances
the stone is the Lord Jesus Christ as the one chosen of God the Father to
accomplish the work of redemption for sinful man. Of persons, chosen or
distinguished as in 1Pe_2:9, génos eklektón (génos [G1085], generation),
"a chosen generation," referring to the believers in Christ. See Sept.:
Isa_43:20. Of angels in 1Ti_5:21, referring to them as chosen by God to
minister to the special needs of believers.

(II) By implication meaning chosen, with the accessory idea of kindness,

favor, love, equivalent to cherished, beloved. In Luk_23:35, the enemies
of Christ around His cross said, "Let him save himself, if he be Christ, the
chosen of God," which means the one cherished and beloved of God and
who was selected to accomplish the work of salvation for others. In
Rom_16:13, referring to Rufus, "the chosen one in the Lord" (a.t.),
meaning the beloved one as in the previous verse referring to Persis. For
Paul, Rufus was special in the Lord. He was dearly beloved. In the pl.
hoi eklektoí, the elect, are those chosen of God unto salvation
and who therefore enjoy His favor and lead a holy life in
communion with Him. They are also called saints . . . Therefore,
to arrive at the proper conclusion of who the elect are in each
instance of its occurrence, the context has to be taken into

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Matthew 24:22 and if those days had not been cut short, no flesh had
been saved; but on account of the elect those days shall be cut
short. DBY

Matthew 24:24 "For false christs and false prophets will rise and
show great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the
elect. NKJ

EVANGELIZE, EVANGELIZER - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary

of New Testament Words)

G2097 - εσαγγειηδω – euaggelízo; fut. euaggelíso, aor. eueggélisa, from

euággelos (n.f.),

bringing good news, which is from eu (G2095), good, well, and

aggéllo (n.f.), to proclaim, tell. To evangelize, proclaim the
good news, preach the gospel. It was at the time that the first
Christians who were "scattered abroad, and went about preaching the
Word" after the martyrdom of Stephen (he being one of the seven), that
the verb euaggelízo (G2097), to publish the good tidings or good news,
was used by Luke in Act_8:4, Act_8:12, Act_8:25, Act_8:35, Act_8:40.
Used in the act. voice meaning to declare, proclaim (Rev_10:7;
Rev_14:6); in the pass. voice, euaggelízomai, of matters to be proclaimed
as glad tidings (Luk_16:16; Gal_1:11; 1Pe_1:25); of persons to whom the
proclamation is made (Mat_11:5; Luk_7:22; Heb_4:2, Heb_4:6;
1Pe_4:6); in the mid. voice especially of the message of salvation with a
personal obj., either of the person preached (Act_5:42; Act_11:20;
Gal_1:16), or with a prep., of persons evangelized (Act_8:12; Act_13:32;
Eph_3:8). Not found in Gospel of Mark, or the epistles and
Gospel of John, only once in the Gospel of Matthew, and twice
in the Book of the Revelation. Related to euaggélion (G2098), a
good message. Also from euággelos (n.f.): euaggélion (G2098), good
(I) Act. with the acc. of person with an acc. of thing implied, to announce
unto, to publish unto, as glad tidings (Rev_10:7; Rev_14:6; Sept., with
the dat.: 1Sa_31:9; 2Sa_18:19-20). The act. form is not found in earlier

(II) Mid., in earlier writers and in the NT, to announce, publish, as glad

(A) Generally and with the acc. of thing (Act_10:36; Rom_10:15 quoted
from Isa_52:7; Sept.: 1Ki_1:42). Followed by the acc. of thing and dat. of

person, which was the more usual construction (Luk_1:19; Luk_2:10;

Eph_2:17; 1Th_3:6; Sept.: 2Sa_1:20; 1Ch_10:9; Psa_40:9). With an acc.
of thing implied (Luk_4:18 [cf. Isa_61:1]). By attraction for hóti (G3754),
that (Act_13:32).
(B) Spoken of the annunciation of the gospel of Christ and all
that pertains to it, to preach, proclaim, the idea of glad tidings
being implied. (1) To preach the kingdom of God meaning the
things concerning the kingdom of God (Luk_8:1; Act_8:12). With
the dat. of person (Luk_4:43). With the kingdom implied, in an absolute
sense (Luk_9:6; Luk_20:1). With the acc. of person, as in Luk_3:18. (2)
To preach Jesus Christ or the Lord Jesus (Act_5:42; Act_11:20;
Act_17:18). With the dat. of person (Act_8:35). Followed by
"among the nations" (a.t. [Gal_1:16]). In Eph_3:8, "the riches of Christ
among the nations" (a.t.). (3) Generally to preach the gospel, the
Word, the faith (Act_8:4; Act_15:35; Gal_1:23); followed by the dat. of
person (1Co_15:1-2, "the gospel . . . unto you [humín]"; also 2Co_11:7;
Gal_1:8); with the gospel, the Word implied, i.e., to preach the gospel,
with the dat. of person (Rom_1:15; Gal_4:13); with the acc. of person
(Act_14:15; Act_16:10; Gal_1:9; 1Pe_1:12); with the acc. of place or
person (Act_8:25, Act_8:40; Act_14:21). Followed by eis (G1519), with
the acc., marking extent (2Co_10:16). In an absolute sense (Act_14:7;
Rom_15:20; 1Co_1:17; 1Co_9:16, 1Co_9:18).
(III) Pass., to be announced, be published, as glad tidings.
(A) Particularly with a nom. of the thing announced (Luk_16:16;
Gal_1:11; 1Pe_1:25); with the dat. of person (1Pe_4:6).
(B) With a nom. of person (Heb_4:2, "to us good tidings have been
proclaimed, as well as unto them" [a.t. {see also Heb_4:6; Sept.:
2Sa_18:31}]). In respect to the gospel, to have the gospel preached, to
hear the gospel tidings (Mat_11:5; Luk_7:22).

G2099 - euaggelistes; gen. euaggelistoú, masc. noun from eauggelízo
(G2097), to evangelize. - εσαγγειηζηες - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary
of New Testament Words)

Evangelist, one who declares the good news (Rom_10:15). An evangelist,

a preacher of the gospel. He was often not located in any particular place
but traveled as a missionary to preach the gospel and establish churches

(Act_21:8; Eph_4:11; 2Ti_4:5). The only evangelist named is Philip

(Act_21:8). He was one of the seven who were appointed to serve the

physical needs of the church in Jerusalem. These were men of a good

testimony filled with the Holy Spirit and wisdom. It is evident that Philip

was a renowned preacher among them. His name and work are
mentioned in one of the "we" passages of Acts (Act_21:7), which may
mean that he was the spokesman for the seven or the best spokesman.
He was called the evangelist because of his good work in preaching to
the heathen.
In Eph_4:11, Paul lists the five kinds of ministers which have been given
by Christ to His Church with evangelists being third: apostles, prophets,
evangelists, pastors, and teachers. The first three of these were itinerant
ministers, apostles, prophets and evangelists, who were preaching wher-
ever they found an opportunity, while pastors and teachers were attached
to some congregation or location. Philip was a traveling missionary. He
went from Jerusalem to preach in Samaria and was on the road to Gaza
when he met the eunuch whom he baptized (Act_8:5 f., Act_8:26 f.). He
afterwards came to Azotus (known as Ashdod today), and passing
through, he preached the gospel to all the cities until he came to Caesarea
(Act_8:40). Perhaps prophets preached to believers and evangelists to
unbelievers, while apostles addressed either. An apostle is a prophet and
an evangelist, but a prophet or an evangelist is not an apostle if we take
the word "apostle" with the narrow sense of the apostles who had seen
Jesus Christ in His resurrection (1Co_9:1). Apparently those who acted as
missionaries to the Gentiles and to those who never heard the gospel
from Jesus were called evangelists. An evangelist knew the gospel
narrative thoroughly and was capable of explaining it, as Philip the
evangelist did to the eunuch. We need not suppose that Eph_4:11 gives us
five orders of ministers appointed to discharge five different kinds of
duties. No such organization existed. The distinctions of ministry lay in
the work that was done by individual workers, and that depended on
their personal gifts, which often overlapped.
The third passage is 2Ti_4:5, where Timothy is charged to "do the work
of an evangelist" in addition to his other duties as an appointed apostolic
delegate at the church at Ephesus. Although he was ministering for a
while at the church of Ephesus, he was not to forget the work of an
evangelist, preaching the gospel to unbelievers. A local ministry should
never in any way neglect evangelism.
The term was later used to indicate the writers of the life of Christ, such
as Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The list of gifted persons in Eph_4:11
is short as compared with the 3 lists in 1Co_12:8-10, 1Co_12:28-30. Why
is it that the gifts, especially the sign gifts which were extraordinary, are
not also mentioned in the list of gifts in Ephesians? It is to be

remembered that 1 Cor. was written in the spring of A.D. 57 (or,

according to some, as early as A.D. 54), while the Epistle to the Ephesians

was written between A.D. 60-61, corresponding to the time of Paul's

Roman imprisonment. It is quite possible that the regular exercise of

extraordinary gifts was already dying out. However, in the short list in
Eph_4:11, there are two items which are not found in any of the other
lists, evangelists and pastors. (shepherds) Of Timothy we read, "do the
work of an evangelist" (2Ti_4:5); that he had served with Paul in the
gospel (Php_2:22); that he was "a minister (diákonos [G1249], deacon)
of God" and Paul's fellow laborer (sunergós [G4904]) in the gospel
The number of evangelists must have been greater than the number
suggested by NT references (2Co_8:18; Php_4:3; Col_1:7; Col_4:12).
Originally, euaggelistes denoted a function rather than an office. There
could have been little difference between an apostle and an evangelist, all
the apostles being evangelists, but not all evangelists being apostles.
Evangelists were subordinate to the apostles. In Eph_4:11, the evangelists
are mentioned only after the apostles. They were not just missionaries. A
distinction must be made between the office of an evangelist and the
work of one.
Syn.: kerux (G2783), preacher; ággelos (G32), messenger.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Ephesians 4:11 And His gifts were [varied; He Himself appointed and
gave men to us] some to be apostles (special messengers), some prophets
(inspired preachers and expounders), some evangelists (preachers of
the Gospel, traveling missionaries), some pastors (shepherds of His flock)
and teachers. AMP

Ephesians 4:11 And to some, his 'gift' was that they should be
apostles; to some prophets; to some, evangelists; to some, pastors and
teachers; NJB

Ephesians 4:11 And he gave some as apostles, some as prophets, some as

evangelizers, some as shepherds and teachers, NWT

Acts 21:8 The next day we set out and arrived in Caes-a-re'a, and we
entered into the house of Philip the evangelizer, who was one of
the seven men, and we stayed with him. NWT

EVIL - (BDB Definition)


Hebrew - H7451 – Evil –


1) bad, evil (adjective)

1a) bad, disagreeable, malignant
1b) bad, unpleasant, evil (giving pain, unhappiness, misery)
1c) evil, displeasing
1d) bad (of its kind - land, water, etc)
1e) bad (of value)
1f) worse than, worst (comparison)
1g) sad, unhappy
1h) evil (hurtful)
1i) bad, unkind (vicious in disposition)
1j) bad, evil, wicked (ethically)
1j1) in general, of persons, of thoughts
1j2) deeds, actions
2) evil, distress, misery, injury, calamity (noun masculine)
2a) evil, distress, adversity
2b) evil, injury, wrong
2c) evil (ethical)
3) evil, misery, distress, injury (noun feminine)
3a) evil, misery, distress
3b) evil, injury, wrong
3c) evil (ethical)

Hebrew - from H7489 - H7489

BDB Definition:

1) to be bad, be evil
1a) (Qal)
1a1) to be displeasing
1a2) to be sad
1a3) to be injurious, be evil

1a4) to be wicked, be evil (ethically)

1b) (Hiphil)

1b1) to do an injury or hurt


1b2) to do evil or wickedly

1b3) mischief (participle)
2) to break, shatter
2a) (Qal)
2a1) to break
2a2) broken (participle)
2a3) to be broken
2b) (Hithpolel) to be broken, be broken in pieces, be broken asunder

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Proverbs 24:8 As for anyone scheming to do bad, he will be called a

mere master at evil ideas. NWT
EVIL: – (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words)

Greek - G2556 – -
kakós; fem. kake, neut. kakón, adj. Bad, worthless externally. Of a
soldier, cowardly. In the NT evil, wicked, from the verb cházo or cházomai
(n.f.), to give back, recede, retire, retreat in battle. One who is evil in
himself and, as such, gets others in trouble.

(1) In a moral sense meaning wicked, vicious, bad in heart,

conduct, and character
(2) Actively causing evil, i.e., hurtful, harmful

Deriv.: ákakos (G172), one without evil, upright; anexíkakos (G420),

without evil, longsuffering; ekkakéo or egkakéo (G1573), to treat badly;
kakía (G2549), wickedness, trouble; kakopoiós (G2555), evildoer;
kakoúrgos (G2557), one who works evil; kakouchéo (G2558), to suffer
adversity; kakóo (G2559), to ill-treat; kakos (G2560), badly.
(see also Wicked)

[Examples of Scriptural use]



Genesis 2:17 except fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and
1,2evil. If you eat of its fruit, you will surely die." NLT

James 1:13 When under trial, let no one say: "I am being tried by God."
For with 2evil things God cannot be tried nor does he himself try
anyone. NWT

Romans 12:17 Never pay back 2evil with 2evil, but bear in mind the
ideals that all regard with respect. NJB

FALSE PROPHET - (Strongs Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries)

FALSE PROPHET - G5578 – ψεσδοπροθεηες - pseudoprophetes - psyoo-

dop-rof-ay'-tace -
a spurious prophet, that is, pretended foreteller or religious
impostor: - false prophet.
From G5571 and G4396;
G5571 – ψεσδες - pseudes - psyoo-dace'
1. From G5574 FALSE: untrue, that is, erroneous, deceitful,
wicked: - false, liar.
2. G4396 – PROPHET; προθεηες - prophetes - prof-ay'-tace
From a compound of G4253 and G5346; a foreteller (―prophet‖); by
analogy an inspired speaker; by extension a poet: - prophet.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Thessalonians 2:11 For this reason God sends them a powerful

delusion, leading them to believe what is 1false, NRS

1 John 4:1 Dear friends, do not believe everyone who claims to speak by
the Spirit. You must test them to see if the spirit they have comes from
God. For there are many 1,2false prophets in the world. NLT

2 Peter 2:1 However, there also came to be 1,2 false prophets

among the people, as there will also be 1false teachers among YOU.

These very ones will quietly bring in destructive sects and will disown
even the owner that bought them, bringing speedy destruction upon
themselves. NWT


FINE - (Authors definition)

The word fine as it is used in the scriptures is an example of how many

translators have been derelict in their work. They frequently substitute
the word ―good‖ in place of something which goes far beyond the normal
meaning of good. In doing this, they deprive the reader of some of the
richness of meaning found in God‘s word.

Once we get past a―fine‖ as a form of punishment, which is a legitimate

meaning easily understood by applying simple context, we come to the
subtlety of ‖fine‖ in the sense of it being a superlative to ―good‖. In the
scriptures, when a different word is used, it generally has at least a shade
of different meaning from a similar word. God almighty is not without
the ability to communicate clearly. If he uses differing words in his
descriptions, we can be sure there is a reason for it. On these occasions
there are always nuances of meaning which when ignored, either change
a meaning or fail to deliver the full richness intended.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Scriptural examples where ―fine‖ and ―good‖ are interchanged show us

how understanding and meaning can be lost in the process;

Matthew 7:18 A good <18> tree cannot bring forth evil fruit neither can
a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. KJV

Simply explained, using what is stated here, we are left with a statement
that is not entirely true. A corrupt (rotten, diseased or blemished) tree
may, in actuality, be able to bear some good fruit, however, not in the
quantity or of the quality it would be capable of if it weren‘t diseased. A
diseased tree could still bear fruit, depending upon the extent of
corruption or disease the tree had. However, when we speak of super-
latively good, better, exceptional fruit, both in quantity and quality, this
is not possible from a rotten or diseased tree.


Matthew 7:18 a good tree cannot bear worthless fruit, neither can a
rotten tree produce fine fruit. NWT

In this translation, we notice the translator differentiates between the



So, we see in the example cited here, that the translators of NWT
understood the difference in meanings between the (greek word kalo,j
kalos {kal-os'} <G2570> Strongs) and renderd it ―fine‖ from the (greek
word agathos {ag-ath-os'} <G18> Strongs), which they rendered
―good‖, whereas, most other translations fail to discern any difference in
their rendering and use the word ―good‖ in both instances.

similar examples:

Romans 7:18 For I know that nothing good <18> dwells in me, that is,
in my flesh; for the willing is present in me, but the doing of the good
<2570> is not. NAU

Romans 7:18 For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, there dwells
nothing good; for ability to wish is present with me, but ability to work
out what is fine is not [present]. NWT

John 10:11 I am the good <2570> shepherd; the good <2570>

shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. KJV

John 10:11 I am the fine shepherd; the fine shepherd surrenders his
soul in behalf of the sheep. NWT

While this may seem to be a minor difference, upon careful consideration

it is not, for it is one which changes, or at least deprives us of the fullness
of God‘s intended meaning.

Definitions from Thayers Greek Definitions

GOOD G18 avgaqo,j agathos {ag-ath-os'}

1, well 1, benefit 1; 102

2) useful, salutary
3) good, pleasant, agreeable, joyful, happy
4) excellent, distinguished 5) upright, honourable

FINE G2570 kalo,j kalos {kal-os'}

¤ 1) beautiful, handsome, excellent, eminent, choice, surpassing,

precious, useful, suitable, commendable, admirable

1a) beautiful to look at, shapely, magnificent
1b) good, excellent in its nature and characteristics, and therefore

well adapted to its ends


1b1) genuine, approved

1b2) precious
1b3) joined to names of men designated by their office, competent, able,
such as one ought to be
1b4) praiseworthy, noble
1c) beautiful by reason of purity of heart and life, and hence
1c1) morally good, noble 1d) honourable, conferring honour
1e) affecting the mind agreeably, comforting and confirming

While, the word kalo,j kalos <G2570>(fine) carries much of the meaning
conveyed in the word avgaqo,j agathos <G18>, (good) we find the following
enrichments in kalo,j kalos <G2570>;
Better, , choice, surpassing, , magnificent, excellent in its
nature and characteristics, and therefore well adapted to its
ends, beautiful by reason of purity of heart and life, and hence
praiseworthy, honorable, conferring honor, and affecting the
mind agreeably, comforting and confirming.

Thus, ―fine‖ maintains a dignity and meaning beyond that of the word
―good‖. It implies a higher level of good often more appropriate to the
context in which it is found.

FLESHLY - (Thayer / Brown Driver Briggs Definitions)

Fleshly, a. G4559 sarkiko,j sarkikos {sar-kee-kos'}

1) fleshly, carnal
1a) having the nature of flesh, i.e. under the control of the animal
1a1) governed by mere human nature not by the Spirit of God
1a2) having its seat in the animal nature or aroused by the animal nature
1a3) human: with the included idea of depravity
1b) pertaining to the flesh
1b1) to the body: related to birth, linage, etc

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Galatians 5:16 But I say, walk by the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfill the
lust of the 1a1flesh. ASV


John 1:12,13 However, as many as did receive him, to them he gave authhority
to become God's children, because they were exercising faith in his name; 13
and they were born, not from blood or from a 1a1fleshly will or from
man's will, but from God. NWT

2 Corinthians 10:4 for the weapons of our warfare are not of the 1b
flesh <4559>, but divinely powerful for the destruction of fortresses . NAU

FRUIT - (Thayers Hebrew definition)

FRUIT – H6529 - yrIP. - p@riy {per-ee'}
1) fruit 1a) fruit, produce (of the ground)

1b) fruit, offspring, children, progeny (of the womb)

1c) fruit (of actions) (fig.)

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Isaiah 3:10 Say, 'Blessed the upright, for he will feed on the fruit of his
deeds; NJB

Micah 7:13 And the land must become a desolate waste on account of its
inhabitants, because of the fruit of their dealings. NWT

Fruit – G2590 karpo,j karpos {kar-pos'} (Thayers Greek definitions)

1a) the fruit of the trees, vines, of the fields

1b) the fruit of one's loins, i.e. his progeny, his posterity

2) that which originates or comes from something, an effect,


[Examples of Scriptural use]


Colossians 1:10 in order to walk worthily of Jehovah to the end of fully

pleasing [him] as YOU go on bearing 2fruit in every good work and
increasing in the accurate knowledge of God, NWT


Galatians 5:22 But when the Holy Spirit controls our lives, he will
produce this kind of 2fruit in us: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness,
goodness, faithfulness, NLT

John 15:8 My true disciples produce much 2fruit. This brings great
glory to my Father. NLT

HARVEST - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

1. The season of reaping and gathering in, corn or other crops.

2. The ripe corn or grain collected and secured in barns or stacks.

The harvest this year is abundant.

3. The product of labor; fruit or fruits.

4. Fruit or fruits; effects; consequences.

5. In Scripture, harvest signifies figuratively the proper season

for business of gathering

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Proverbs 10:5 He who lays in stores during the summer is a capable

son, But he who sleeps during the 5 harvest is an incompetent.

Joel 3:13 Swing the sickle, for the 1harvest is ripe. Come, trample the
grapes, for the winepress is full and the vats overflow-- so great is their
wickedness!' NIV

Luke 10:2 He told them, "The 1harvest is plentiful, but the workers are
few. Ask the Lord of the 5harvest, therefore, to send out workers into his
harvest field. NIB

G2326 therismos - {ther-is-mos'} - (Thayers Greek Definitions)


1a.) fig. of the gathering of men into the kingdom of God

1b.) referring to time of reaping, the final judgment, when the


righteous are gathered into the kingdom of God and the wicked
are cast into hell for ever

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 9:38 Ask the Lord of the harvest, therefore, to send out
workers into his 1aharvest field." NIV

Matthew 13:39 the enemy who sowed it, the devil; the 1b harvest is
the end of the world; the reapers are the angels. NJB

HEADSHIP - (Excerpt from Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. 1.)

The basic principle of headship is set out at 1 Corinthians 11:3:

―The head of every man is the Christ; in turn the head of a woman is the
man; in turn the head of the Christ is God.‖ NWT
Man‘s Place:
The independence God created man with was never absolute. He was not
independent and without need to recognize a ―head.‖ The first man,
Adam had Jehovah God as his head. Today, man is obliged to follow the
directions and pattern provided by his head, Christ. (1Jo 2:6) This is so
not only in regard to his religious activities (Mt 28:19, 20) but also in his
personal activities. As man had priority in human creation, he is given
priority of position over the woman. (1Ti 2:12, 13) The woman was made
from a rib taken from the man and was bone of his bones and flesh of his
flesh. (Ge 2:22, 23) She was created for the sake of the man, not the man
for her sake. (1Co 11:9) Therefore, the woman, in God‘s arrangement for
the family, was always to be in subjection to her husband and was not to
usurp his authority.
Among the Hebrews of ancient times the superior position occupied by
the man in the family and in the tribal arrangement was recognized.
Sarah was submissive, calling Abraham ―lord,‖ and is favorably
mentioned for this recognition of his headship. (Ge 18:12; 1Pe 3:5, 6)
Under the Law covenant the preferred position of the male was
emphasized. Only the males were required by command to assemble for
the three festivals of Jehovah at the place that God chose, although
women also attended

Woman‘s Place. Discussing the headship arrangement in the Christian

congregation,. . . A woman should let her own actions demonstrate her

submissiveness and her acknowledgment of man‘s headship. This proper

theocratic order in the congregation and in the family arrangement does

not hinder the woman in serving God, nor does it impede her efforts in
carrying out her family activities and responsibilities. It allows her full
and Scriptural freedom to serve in her place, while still being pleasing to
God in harmony with the principle: ―God has set the members in the
body, each one of them, just as he pleased.‖
Responsibility. The exercise of authorized headship grants certain
rights, but it also involves duties or obligations. ‗Christ is head of the
congregation‘ and so has the right to make decisions involving it and
demonstrate authority over it. (Eph 5:23) But his headship also obliges
him to accept the duty of caring for the congregation and bearing
responsibility for his decisions. In a similar manner, a husband in
exercising his headship has certain rights as to making final decisions and
providing oversight. In addition, though, he has the duty to accept
responsibility for his family. He has the primary obligation to provide
materially and spiritually for his household.—1Ti 5:8.
The Christian man is to exercise his headship wisely, loving his wife as
himself. (Eph 5:33) Jesus Christ exercises his headship over the Christian
congregation in this manner. (Eph 5:28, 29) As head over his children, a
father is not to irritate them but is to bring them up ―in the discipline and
mental-regulating of Jehovah.‖ (Eph 6:4) And as shepherds of the flock of
God, ―older men‖ in the Christian congregation are not to lord it over
God‘s ―sheep‖ but are to remem- ber their subjection to Jesus Christ and
Jehovah God. (1Pe 5:1-4) Jesus Christ has always acted in accord with the
headship principle, manifesting full recog- nition of his Father‘s headship
in word and deed. Even after ruling the earth for a thousand years, he will
acknowledge Jehovah‘s universal headship by handing the Kingdom over
to Jehovah, subjecting ―himself to the One who subjected all things to him,
that God may be all things to everyone.‖ (1Co 15:24-28; John 5:19, 30;
8:28; 14:28; Php 2:5-8) Christians, followers of Jesus Christ, also
acknowledge Jehovah‘s supreme headship, addressing their prayers to him
and recognizing him as Father and God Almighty.—

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Corinthians 11:3 But it is important for you to keep this fact in mind,
that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the
man, and the head of Christ is God.

NJB Colossians 1:18 and he is the Head of the Body, that is, the Church.
He is the Beginning, the first-born from the dead, so that he should be
supreme in every way; BBE


Ephesians 1:22 And he has put all things under his feet, and has made
him to be head over all things to the church, BBE

Ephesians 5:23 For the husband is the head of the wife just as Christ is
the head of the church, the body of which he is the Savior. NRS

1 Corinthians 11:3 But it is important for you to keep this fact in mind,
that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the
man, and the head of Christ is God. BBE

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―HEAVEN‖ through ―NAME‖

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[Return to Beginning]

―HEAVEN‖ through ―NAME‖

HEAVEN - Hebrew H8065 !yIm;v. shamayin (Aramaic) {shaw-mah'-yin}

- (Word Study of Old Testament Words by Warren Baker)

An Aramaic noun meaning sky, heavens. This word has several

different connotations, but the basic meaning is that of the sky
(Dan_4:11 [8]; Dan_7:2).
Reaching beyond the simple meaning of sky, this word also
referred to heaven, the dwelling place of God that is much
higher than any other place (Dan_2:28; Dan_4:34
[31]). The heavens are great not because of what they are but
because of who lives there. Not only does God dwell in heaven,
but His messengers, the angels, also dwell there and are sent
down to earth to do His work (Dan_4:13 [10]).
This word also signifies the whole universe where God showed
His mighty signs and made His works known to all (Dan_6:27

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Daniel 2:44 And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set
up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall this kingdom be
left to another people. It shall crush all these kingdoms and bring them
to an end, and it shall stand forever; NRS

Psalm 53:2 God looks down from heaven on the children of man to
see if there are any who understand, who seek after God. ESV

Heaven - G2032 - - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New

Testament Words)

Heavenly, celestial, what pertains to or is in heaven. In Mat_18:35,

"the Father, the heavenly One [epouránios]" (a.t.). The meaning of
this word is determined according to the various meanings of
heaven. In Php_2:10, "the heavenly ones" (a.t.), i.e., angels. Of those
who come from heaven (1Co_15:48-49 [see 1Co_15:47 ex {ek (G1537), of;

ouranoú (G3772), heaven}]; Php_3:21). Of heavenly or celestial

bodies, the sun, moon (1Co_15:40 [see 1Co_15:44]). The neut. pl.
with the def. art. tá epouránia means the heavens, heaven (Eph_1:20);

en toís epouraníois, in the heavenlies (Eph_2:6; Eph_3:10), in heaven.


Of the lower heavens, the sky or air as the seat of evil spirits
(Eph_6:12; see ouranós [G3772], heaven, sky, and aer [G109], air).
Spoken of the kingdom of heaven and whatever pertains to it, see
basileía (G932), kingdom. In 2Ti_4:18, unto the kingdom, the heavenly
one. Also Heb_3:1; Heb_6:4; Heb_8:5; Heb_9:23; Heb_11:16;
Heb_12:22 (cf. Rev_21:2, "out of heaven"). In Eph_1:3, tá epouránia,
"things pertaining to the kingdom of God" (a.t.), or generally things
spiritual (Joh_3:12).

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Mark 16:19 So then the Lord Jesus, after he had said these words to
them, was taken up into heaven and took his seat at the right hand of
God. BBE

Ephesians 6:12 because we have a wrestling, not against blood and

flesh, but against the governments, against the authorities, against the
world rulers of this darkness, against the wicked spirit forces in the
heavenly places. NWT

HELL - The terms ―Sheol‖ in Hebrew, (translated as Hell in English) ,

and ―Hades‖ in the Greek (translated as Hell in English) both indicate a
common grave, a resting place in death from which there is a hope of
resurrection. These words are often confused with ―Gehenna‖, a Greek
term (also translated Hell in English) which indicates total destruction
from which there can be no return). [See Volume III. CHAPTER FOUR -
subheading ―Hell‖]

HOLY – Hebrew (Vines Expository Dictionary of O.T. Bible words)

Holy –
A. Adjective.
qadosh (H6918), "holy." The Semitic languages have two separate
original forms of the root. The one signifies "pure" and
"devoted," as in Akkadian qadistu and in Hebrew qadec, "holy." The
word describes something or someone. The other signifies

"holiness" as a situation or as an abstract, as in Arabic al-qaddus "the

most holy or most pure." In Hebrew the verb qadash and the
word qadesh combine both elements: the descriptive and the static.

The traditional understanding of "separated" is only a derived

meaning, and not the primary.

In the Old Testament qadosh has a strongly religious connotation.

In one sense the word describes an object or place or day to be
"holy" with the meaning of "devoted" or "dedicated" to a
particular purpose:
God has dedicated Israel as His people. They are "holy" by their
relationship to the "holy" God. All of the people are in a sense "holy," as
members of the covenant community, irrespective of their faith and
obedience: (Num_16:3). God's intent was to use this "holy" nation as a
"holy," royal priesthood amongst the nations (Exo_19:6). Based on the
intimate nature of the relationship, God expected His people to live up to
His "holy" expectations and, thus, to demon- strate that they were a "holy
nation": "And ye shall be holy (devoted) unto me: for I the Lord am holy
(pure), and have severed you from other people, that ye should be mine"
The Old Testament clearly and emphatically teaches that God is "holy."
He is "the Holy One of Israel" (Isa_1:4), the "holy God" (Isa_5:16), and
"the Holy One" (Isa_40:25). His name is "Holy
The negative statement, "There is none holy as the Lord: for there is none
besides thee: neither is there any rock like our God" (1Sa_2:2), explains
that He is most "holy" and that no one is as "holy" as He is. Also the
angels in the heavenly entourage are "holy": Then the Lord your God will
come, and all the holy ones [KJV, "saints"] with him" (Zec_14:5, RSV).
The seraphim proclaimed to each other the holiness of God: "And one
cried unto another, and said, "Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts: the
whole earth is full of his glory" (Isa_6:3).
In the Septuagint the word hagios ("holy") stands for the Hebrew qadosh.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Exodus 19:6 You shall be to me a kingdom of priests, a holy

(devoted) nation. That is what you must tell the Israelites." NAB
(Parenthesis – authors)

Leviticus 20:26 And YOU must prove yourselves holy ( clean,

pure) to me, because I Jehovah am holy (pure); and I am proceeding
to divide YOU off from the peoples to become mine. NWT (Parenthesis –

Isaiah 6:3 And this one hath called unto that, and hath said: 'Holy,

Holy, Holy, is Jehovah of Hosts, The fulness of all the earth is His
glory.' YLT

Holiness, Holy – Greek (Vines Expository Dictionary of N.T. Bible words)

1. hagiasmos (G38), translated "holiness" in the KJV of Rom_6:19,

Rom_6:22; 1Th_4:7; 1Ti_2:15; Heb_12:14, is always rendered
"sanctification" in the RV.

It signifies (a) separation to God, 1Co_1:30; 2Th_2:13; 1Pe_1:2; (b)

the resultant state, the conduct befitting those so separated,
1Th_4:3, 1Th_4:4, 1Th_4:7, and the four other places mentioned above.
"Sanctification" is thus the state predetermined by God for
believers, into which in grace He calls them, and in which they begin
their Christian course and so pursue it. Hence they are called "saints"
Note: The corresponding verb hagiazo denotes "to set apart to God."
see also ―hallow‖ and sanctify.
2. hagiosune (G42) denotes the manifestation of the quality of "holiness"
in personal conduct; (a) it is used in Rom_1:4, of the absolute "holiness"
of Christ in the days of His flesh, which distinguished Him from all
merely human beings; this (which is indicated in the phrase "the spirit of
holiness") and (in vindication of it) His resurrection from the dead,
marked Him out as (He was "declared to be") the Son of God; (b)
believers are to be "perfecting holiness in the fear of God," 2Co_7:1, i.e.,
bringing "holiness" to its predestined end, whereby (c) they may be found
"unblameable in holiness" in the Parousia of Christ, 1Th_3:13.
"In each place character is in view, perfect in the case of the Lord Jesus,
growing toward perfection in the case of the Christian. Here the exercise
of love is declared to be the means God uses to develop likeness to Christ
in His children. The sentence may be paraphrased thus:— The Lord
enable you more and more to spend your lives in the interests of others,
in order that He may so establish you in Christian character now, that
you may be vindicated from every charge that might possibly be brought
against you at the Judgment-seat of Christ;' cf. 1Jo_4:16, 1Jo_4:17."*
* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine pp. 108, 115.

3. hagiotes (G41), "sanctity," the abstract quality of "holiness," is used (a)

of God, Heb_12:10; (b) of the manifestation of it in the conduct of the
apostle Paul and his fellowlaborers, 2Co_1:12 (in the best mss., for


4. hosiotes (G3742) is to be distinguished from No. 3, as denoting that

quality of "holiness" which is manifested in those who have regard
equally to grace and truth; it involves a right relation to God; it is used in
Luk_1:75 and Eph_4:24, and in each place is associated with
Notes: (1) In Act_3:12, the KJV translates eusebeia, by "holiness," RV,
"godliness," as everywhere, the true meaning of the word. See
GODLINESS. (2) In Tit_2:3, KJV, hieroprepes, which denotes
"suited to a sacred character, reverent," is rendered "as becometh
holiness," RV, "reverent." see REVERENT.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Colossians 1:22 he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through death,
so as to present you holy and blameless and irreproachable before
him-- NRS

1 Peter 1:15 But now you must be holy in everything you do, just
as God-- who chose you to be his children-- is holy. NLT

Ephesians 2:19 Certainly, therefore, YOU are no longer strangers and

alien residents, but YOU are fellow citizens of the holy ones and
are members of the household of God, NWT

HOPE - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

1. A desire of some good, accompanied with at least a slight expectation of

obtaining it, or a belief that it is obtainable. Hope differs from wish
and desire in this, that it implies some expectation of obtaining
the good desired, or the possibility of possessing it. Hope
therefore always gives pleasure or joy; whereas wish and desire may
produce or be accompanied with pain and anxiety.

2. Confidence in a future event; the highest degree of well

founded expectation of good; as a hope founded on God's gracious
promises; a scriptural sense.

A well founded scriptural hope, is, in our religion, the source of ineffable


3. That which gives hope; he or that which furnishes ground of

expectation, or promises desired good. The hope of Israel is the

The Lord will be the hope of his people. Joel 3.

4. An opinion or belief not amounting to certainty, but

grounded on substantial evidence. The christian indulges a hope,
that his sins are pardoned.

HOPE (Thayers Greek Definitions)

HOPE G1680 elpis {el-pece'}

1) expectation of evil, fear

2) expectation of good, hope

2a) in the Christian sense

2a1) joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation

3) on hope, in hope, having hope

3a) the author of hope, or he who is its foundation

3b) the thing hoped for

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Thessalonians 5:8 But as for us who belong to the day, let us keep our
senses and have on the breastplate of faith and love and as a helmet the
2hope of salvation; NWT

Acts 24:15 and I hold the same hope in 3God as they do that there
will be a resurrection of the upright and the wicked alike. NJB

1 Timothy 4:10 And this is the purpose of all our work and our fighting,
because our 3hope is in the living God, who is the Saviour of all
men, and specially of those who have faith. BBE

IDOLS, IDOLATRY, IMAGES (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with


Bible Definition)


Idolatry IDOL'ATRY, n. [L. idololatria. Gr. idol, and to worship or


Idolatry is of two kinds; the worship of images, statues, pictures,

etc. made by hands; and the worship of the heavenly bodies,
the sun, moon and stars, or of demons, angels, men and

1. The worship of idols, images, or anything made by hands, or

which is not God.

2. Another definition forthis kind of idolatry is found in scriptures such as

Romans 1:25, where it refers to created things as being objects of

[Scriptural examples]

Ro 1:25 - They exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped
and served 2created things rather than the Creator-- who is forever
praised. Amen. NIV

Romans 1:25 even those who exchanged the truth of God for the lie
and venerated and rendered sacred service to the creation
rather than the One who created, who is blessed forever. Amen. NWT

This verse covers a mulyitude of things aside from God, including nature,
natural elements, animals and even men. When worship is applied to
things which are created rather than the Creator himself it constitutes
idolatry. Not only men but their created institutions or organizations
may fall under this kind of idolatry.

1. Substituting or sharing attachment or veneration, which rightfully

belongs to god with someone or something else.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Isaiah 42:8 "I am Jehovah. That is my name; and to no one else

shall I give my own glory, neither my praise to graven images. NWT

Isaiah 42:8 "I am the LORD; that is my name! I will not give my
glory to another or my praise to idols. NIV


Isaiah 42:8 I am the LORD, that is My name; I will not yield My

glory to another, Nor My renown to idols. TNK

Exodus 20:3 'You shall have no other gods to rival me. You shall
not make yourself a carved image or any likeness of anything in heaven
above or on earth beneath or in the waters under the earth. 'You shall
not bow down to them or serve them. For I, Yahweh your God, am
a jealous God NJB

Exodus 20:3 You must not have any other gods against my face."You
must not make for yourself a carved image or a form like anything that
is in the heavens above or that is on the earth underneath or that is in
the waters under the earth. You must not bow down to them nor be
induced to serve them, because I Jehovah your God am a God
exacting exclusive devotion, NWT

Joshua 24:19 Then Joshua said to the people: "YOU are not able to serve
Jehovah, for he is a holy God; he is a God exacting exclusive
devotion. He will not pardon YOUR revolting and YOUR sins. NWT

Zechariah 13:2 "And on that day, says the LORD Almighty, I will get rid of
every trace of idol worship throughout the land, so that even the names of
the idols will be forgotten. I will remove from the land all false prophets
and the unclean spirits that inspire them. NLT The various forms Idols may
take are not limited exclusively to objects, things or represent- ations of
objects and things. They can also relate to men, to oneself, to other humans
or their institutions, such as governmental or religious organizations, even
to sports teams and so called stars of the entertainment world. Idols can be
concepts, philosophies, ideas, doctrines and traditions. They can relate to
emotional expressions like greed, jealousy or covetness, even to money
itself or the material things it makes available. Anything can become an
idol if it competes with, substitutes for, or replaces the worship,
honor or glory rightly due to Jehovah.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Zechariah 13:2 "On that day, I will banish the names of the idols
from the land, and they will be remembered no more," declares
the LORD Almighty. "I will remove both the prophets and the spirit of

impurity from the land. NIB

Ephesians 5:5 For YOU know this, recognizing it for yourselves, that no

fornicator or unclean person or greedy person which means being


an idolater—has any inheritance in the kingdom of the Christ and of

God. NWT

1 Corinthians 10:14 Therefore, my beloved ones, flee from idolatry. NWT

2 Kings 17:12 And they continued to serve dungy idols, concerning

which Jehovah had said to them: "YOU must not do this thing"; NWT

2 Kings 17:12 They served idols, although Yahweh had told

them, 'This you must not do.' NJB

Colossians 3:5 Deaden, therefore, YOUR body members that are upon
the earth as respects fornication, uncleanness, sexual appetite, hurtful
desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry. NWT

Also see definitions for ―WORSHIP‖

INTEG'RITY - (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)


1. Wholeness; entireness; unbroken state. The constitution of the

U.States guaranties to each state the integrity of its territories. The
contracting parties guarantied the integrity of the empire.
2. The entire, unimpaired state of anything, particularly of the
mind; moral soundness or purity; incorruptness; uprightness; honesty.
Integrity comprehends the whole moral character, but has a
special reference to uprightness in mutual dealings, transfers of property,
and agencies for others.

The moral grandeur of independent integrity is the sublimest thing in

nature, before which the pomp of eastern magnificence and the splendor
of conquest are odious as well as perishable.

Integrity Hebrew - H8537 - tom – (Brown-Driver Briggs Hebrew Definitions)

3) integrity, completeness

3a) completeness, fulness

3b) innocence, simplicity

3c) integrity


4. Purity; genuine, unadulterated, unimpaired state; as the integrity

of language.

[Examples in scripture]

Proverbs 11:3 The 2integrity <08538> of the upright will guide

them, But the crookedness of the treacherous will destroy them. NAU

Psalm 26:1 Judge me, O Jehovah, for I myself have walked in my

own 2integrity, And in Jehovah I have trusted, that I may not wobble.

Job 31:6 Let God judge me on the scales of justice, for he knows my
2integrity. NLT

1 Kings 9:4 "As for you, if you walk before me in 3aintegrity of

heart and uprightness, as David your father did, and do all I command
and observe my decrees and laws, NIV

IMPALE (Noah Webster‘s 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

Impale – (See also Volume III. Chapter Three – subheading CROSS)

IMPA'LE, v.t. [L. in and palus, a pole, a stake.]

1. To fix on a stake; to put to death by fixing on an upright sharp stake. [


2. To inclose with stakes, posts or palisades.

INVALID / INVALIDATE - (Strongs Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries)

INVALIDATE - Greek - NLT G-208 αθσροω ak-oo-ro'-o
From G1 (as a negative particle) and G2964; to invalidate: - disannul,
make of none effect.
To cancel. In Mat_15:6, the Lord tells the Pharisees that they revoked

(ekurosate, aor. 2d person pl. of akuróo) the Word of God, or "You made
God's law of no effect for the sake of your tradition" (a.t.). He did not
mean that it ceases to be the law of God, but that it had no value, worth,

or lordship over them. All these are indicated by the word kúros (from
which kúrios [G2692], lord, is derived), authority. Syn.: athetéo (G114),

to annul, nullify, thwart; katargéo (G2673), to reduce to inactivity; kenóo

(G2758), to make empty, of no effect; katalúo (G2647), dissolve; dialúo
(G1262), to dissolve completely; metakaléo (G333), to recall elsewhere.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Mark 7:13 and thus YOU make the word of God invalid by YOUR
tradition which YOU handed down. And many things similar to this
YOU do." NWT

Mark 7:13 thus invalidating <208> the word <3056> of God

<2316> by your tradition <3862> which <3739> you have handed
<3860> down <3860>; and you do <4160> many <4183> things
<4183> such <3946> as that." NAU

Galatians 3:17 What I am saying <3004> is this <3778>: the Law

<3551>, which came <1096> four <5071> hundred <5071> and thirty
<5144b> years <2094> later <3326>, does not invalidate <208> a
covenant <1242> previously <4300> ratified <4300> by God <2316>,
so <1519> as to nullify <2673> the promise <1860>. NAU

JEALOUS - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words)

Jealous, Jealousy (see also ZEAL)

zelos (G2205), "zeal, jealousy," is rendered "jealousy" in the RV (KJV,

"envying") in Rom_13:13; 1Co_3:3; Jam_3:14, Jam_3:16; in 2Co_12:20
(KJV, "envyings"); in Gal_5:20, RV "jealousies" (KJV, "emulations"); in
Act_5:17 (KJV, "indignation"); in Act_13:45 (KJV, "envy"); in 2Co_11:2 it
is used in the phrase "with a godly jealousy," lit., "with a jealousy of God"
(RV, marg.). See ENVY.
1. zeloo (G2206), akin to A, "to be jealous, to burn with jealousy"
(otherwise, to seek or desire eagerly), is rendered "moved with
jealousy," in Act_7:9 and Act_17:5, RV (KJV, "moved with envy"); in
1Co_13:4, "envieth (not)," KJV and RV; in Jam_4:2, RV marg., "are
jealous" (text "covet;" KJV, "desire to have"). See AFFECT, Note,

2. parazeloo (G3863), "to provoke to jealousy" (para, "beside," used

intensively, and No. 1), is found in Rom_10:19 and Rom_11:11, of God's
dealings with Israel through his merciful dealings with Gentiles; in

Rom_11:14, RV, "I may provoke to jealousy" (KJV, "...emulation"), of the

apostle's evangelical ministry to Gentiles with a view to stirring his fellow

nationals to a sense of their need and responsibilities regarding the

gospel; in 1Co_10:22, of the provocation of God on the part of believers
who compromise their divine relationship by partaking of the table of
demons; in Gal_5:20, of the works of the flesh.

Jealousy (International Standard Bible Dictionary)

jel´us-i ( , kin'ah; δειος, zelos): Doubtless, the root idea of both the
Greek and the Hebrew translated ―jealousy‖ is ―warmth,‖ ―heat.‖ Both are
used in a good and a bad sense - to represent right and wrong passion.

When jealousy is attributed to God, the word is used in a good

sense. The language is, of course, anthropomorphic; and it is based upon
the feeling in a husband of exclusive right in his wife. God is conceived as
having wedded Israel to Himself, and as claiming, therefore, exclusive
devotion. Disloyalty on the part of Israel is represented as
adultery, and as provoking God to jealousy. See, e.g., Deu_32:16,
Deu_32:21; 1Ki_14:22; Psa_78:58; Eze_8:3; Eze_16:38, Eze_16:42;
Eze_23:25; Eze_36:5; Eze_38:19.

When jealousy is attributed to men, the sense is sometimes

good1, and sometimes bad2. In the good sense, it refers to an
ardent concern for God's honor. See, e.g., Num_25:11 (compare
1Ki_19:10; 2Ki_10:16); 2Co_11:2 (compare Rom_10:2). In the bad sense
it is found in Act_7:9; Rom_13:13; 1Co_3:3; 2Co_12:20; Jam_3:14,

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 Corinthians 13:4 Love is always patient and kind; love is never

jealous2; love is not boastful or conceited NJB

2 Corinthians 11:2 For I am jealous over YOU with a godly

jealousy1, for I personally promised YOU in marriage to one husband
that I might present YOU as a chaste virgin to the Christ. NWT

Exodus 34:14 For thou shalt worship no other *God; for Jehovah --

Jealous is his name -- is a jealous1 *God; DBY


JEW - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words)


JEW – Greek - G2453 ’Ιουδαιος Ioudaíos; )

1. Fleshly Jew,

a) Jewish, belonging to the Jewish race

b) Jewish as respects to birth, race, religion Jewish, subst., a Jew or a

Judean, from Judea. All the posterity of Jacob were called
"Israel" or "children of Israel" from the surname of the
patriarch, until the time of King Rehoboam. Ten tribes, revolting from
this prince and adhering to Jeroboam, became known from then on as
the House of Israel. The two tribes of Judah and Benjamin, remaining
faithful to the family of David, were called the House of Judah. Therefore,
after the defection of the ten tribes, Ioudaíoi, Jews, signified subjects of
the kingdom of Judah (2Ki_16:6; 2Ki_25:25; Jer_38:19; Jer_40:11).
After the Babylonian captivity, the name "Jews" was extended
to all the descendants of Israel who retained the Jewish
religion, whether they belonged to the two or the ten tribes and whether
or not they returned to Judah as no doubt some of them did. It is in this
extensive sense that the word is applied in the NT (Act_2:5,
Act_2:10 [cf. Act_26:7; Jas_1:1]).

2. Spiritual Jew: ―a child of Abraham through faith in Christ, the

promised seed‖

The Apostle Paul distinguishes between the one who is a Jew outwardly
and the one who is a Jew inwardly (Rom_2:29; Rom_3:1). By the former
he means a person descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob according
to the flesh and observing the outward ordinances of the Mosaic Law, but
destitute of the faith of Abraham, not believing in the seed which is
By one who is a Jew inwardly Paul means one who, whether
Jew or Gentile by natural descent, is a child of Abraham
through faith in Christ, the promised seed (cf. Rom_4:16;
Gal_3:7, Gal_3:29), and consequently is a true confessor of

[Examples of Scriptural use]



Romans 10:12 For there is no difference between 1Jew and

Gentile-- the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on
him, NIV

Rom 2:28,29 For he is not a [real] Jew who is only one outwardly and
publicly, nor is [true] circumcision something external and physical. 29
But he is a 2Jew who is one inwardly, and [true] circumcision
is of the heart, a spiritual and not a literal [matter]. His praise is
not from men but from God. AMP

JUSTIFY - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words)

G1344 dikaióo; contracted dikaio, fut. dikaioso, from díkaios

just, righteous. To justify. Verbs which end in -óo generally indicate
bringing out that which a person is or that which is desired, but not
usually referring to the mode in which the action takes place. In the case
of dikaióo, it means to bring out the fact that a person is righteous.

It must be clearly understood that in the NT the verb dikaióo, to justify,

never means to make anyone righteous or to do away with his violation of
the law, by him bearing the condemnation and the imposed sentence. In
the NT, man in his fallen condition can never do anything in order to pay
for his sinfulness and thus be liberated from the sentence of guilt that is
upon him as it happens in the mundane world; i.e., when a guilty person
has paid the penalty of a crime, he is free from condemnation.

In the NT, dikaióo in the act. voice means to recognize, to set forth as
righteous, to declare righteous, to justify as a judicial act. In the OT, in
some instances (such as Psa_73:13 KJV), the Sept. translation of
edikaíosa, "I justified my heart" really means "I cleansed my heart."
Elsewhere, when used in regard to a thing or a person, it means to find
anything as right, to recognize or acknowledge anyone as just, to set forth
as right or just.

1. As a matter of right or justice, to absolve, acquit, clear from

any charge or imputation.

In the class of Gr. writers, the word is used more widely meaning to do
justice to or to defend the right of anyone, irrespective of whether such a

defense may prove the person guilty or innocent.


2. Spoken of character, dikaióo means to declare to be just as it

should be, to pronounce right; of things, to regard as right and
proper. It means to have the right to own or to claim things. In the
NT, however, it is used only of persons meaning to acknowledge
and declare anyone to be righteous, virtuous, good, díkaios
(G1342), just; therefore it means:
(A) By implication, to vindicate, approve, honor, glorify, and
in the pass. to receive honor, and so forth
(B) In relation to God and the divine Law, it means to declare
righteous, to regard as pious.
3. In the sense of to make or cause to be upright.
4. Everywhere in the OT, the root meaning of dikaióo is to set
forth as righteous, to justify in a legal sense (Eze_16:51-52).
5. In the NT, dikaióo means to recognize, set forth as
righteous, justify as a judicial act (Luk_10:29; Luk_16:15). It has
the same meaning in the pass., to be recognized, found, set forth as
6. The NT tells how being justified by God and declared just
before Him may be achieved in the lives of men. We are
justified before God by Christ's grace through faith
7. According to the Apostle Paul man is justified by God's grace
(Rom_3:24; Rom_4:5; Eph_2:8; Tit_3:7).
Deriv.: dikaíoma (G1345), judgment, ordinance; dikaíosis (G1347),

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Romans 3:30 since there is only one God; he will 1 justify the circumcised
by their faith, and he will justify the uncircumcised through their faith. NJB

Romans 3:30 yes, also of nations; since one is God who shall 6declare
righteous the circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through the
faith. YLT

Galatians 3:8 And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would 1justify the
Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying,
"In you shall all the nations be blessed." ESV

Luke 10:29 But wishing <2309> to 5justify <1344> himself <1438>, he

said <3004> to Jesus <2424>, "And who <5101> is my neighbor
<4139>?" NAU


LAWLESS - (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words)

LAWLESSNESS - Greek - G458 - anomía; gen. anomías, from ánomos

(G459), lawless. Lawlessness.

In most cases in the NT it means not the absence of the Law, but the
violation of Law, i.e., transgression or lawlessness. In the NT, it places
stress, not in a subjective law that we ourselves create for our conven-
ience, but chiefly in a divinely instituted Law.

In 1Jn_3:4, we have a statement which relates hamartía (G266), the

general word for sin, and anomía. A literal translation of this verse is:
"Whosoever commits the sin [on a continual basis] also commits
[continuously] lawlessness [anomían], and the sin is the lawlessness"
(a.t.). Sin (hamartía) is missing the mark ordained by God and not by us.
God has placed in our hearts an innate knowledge of what is good and
evil. There may not be any specific law which we violate when we sin, but
that does not make sin any less sinful.

Crucial to the understanding of all this is Rom_2:15, ". . . the work of the
law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and
between themselves their thoughts accusing or else excusing them) The
nonexistence of a specific law forbidding an act or a life of sinfulness does
not absolve a person from being lawless.

(II) By implication, therefore, anomía is sin, iniquity, unrighteousness

(Mat_23:28; Mat_24:12; Rom_4:7; see Sept.: Psa_32:1, where anomía is
paralleled with hamartía). Rom_6:19, ". . . for as ye have yielded your
members servants to uncleanness and to iniquity [anomía] unto iniquity
[anomían]" means you were obedient to depraved desires so as to work
iniquity. There may not be a specific law against depraved or lustful
desires, but nevertheless they are sin (2Co_6:14; Tit_2:14). In Heb_1:9,
"Thou hast . . . hated iniquity [anomían, used collectively]." In Heb_8:12
and Heb_10:17, the sins and iniquities (anomíai) are coupled together
(also Sept.: Jer_31:34). He who works or does iniquity (anomían) is a
worker of iniquity, meaning a wicked, impious person (Mat_7:23;
Mat_13:41; Sept.: Job_31:3; Psa_5:6). In 2Th_2:7, we have the phrase,
"The mystery of iniquity [anomías]," meaning the resistance of people to

come to Christ. Their resistance, however, will not hinder Christ in

executing His plan in making His appearance visible (2Th_2:8). See also
Sept.: Exo_34:7; Isa_6:7; Eze_8:6; Eze_18:12, Eze_18:20; Eze_33:12.


[Examples of Scriptural use]

Hebrews 10:17 Then he adds, "I will never again remember their sins
and lawless deeds." such as he ought to be NLT

2 Thessalonians 2:9 But the lawless one's presence is according to the

operation of Satan with every powerful work and lying signs and
portents NWT

1 John 3:4 Everyone who practices sin is also practicing lawlessness,

and so sin is lawlessness. NWT

Matthew 7:23 "And then I will declare to them, 'I never knew you;
<458>.' NAU

(Or, as another version states)

Matthew 7:23 But I will reply, 'I never knew you. Go away; the
things you did were unauthorized. ' NLT

LEAVEN - (Thayers Greek Definitions)

LEAVEN - G2219 zu,mh zume {dzoo'-may}

1) leaven literal as leaven used in baking or as material for changing a

2) Scriptually as a metaphor of inveterate mental and moral corruption,
viewed in its tendency to infect others.
Leaven is applied to that which, though small in quantity, yet by its
influence thoroughly pervades a thing; either in a good sense as in the
parable Mat. 13:33; or in a bad sense, of a pernicious influence, "a little
leaven leaveneth the whole lump".

[Whether used in appositive context or a negative one, the main point

about leaven or yeast is that it takes very little to greatly change the entire
mass into which it is introduced.]

[Examples of Scriptural use]



Matthew 13:33 He told them another parable. "The kingdom of heaven

is like leaven that a woman took and hid in three measures of flour, till it
was all leavened." ESV

1 Corinthians 5:6 This pride of yours is not good. Do you not see that a
little leaven makes a change in all the mass? BBE

Galatians 5:9 A little yeast leavens the whole batch of dough. NRS

Matthew 16:11 How is it that ye do not perceive that I spake not to you
concerning bread? But beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and
Sadducees. ASV

Love – Hebrew - 'ahab (H157), or 'aheb (H157), "to love; like."
A. Verb.
This verb occurs in Moabite and Ugaritic. It appears in all periods of
Hebrew and around 250 times in the Bible.

Basically this verb is equivalent to the English "to love" in the

sense of having a strong emotional attachment to and desire
either to possess or to be in the presence of the object.

'Ahab (or 'aheb) seldom refers to making love (usually this is represented
yada', "to know," or by shakab, "to lie with"). 'Ahab (or 'aheb) is also used
of the love between parents and their children. In its first biblical
appearance, the word represents Abraham's special attachment to his son
Isaac: "And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou
lovest..." (Gen_22:2). 'Ahab (or 'aheb) may refer to the family love
experienced by a daughter-in-law toward her mother-in-law (Rth_4:15).
This kind of love is also represented by the word racham. 'Ahab (or 'aheb)
sometimes depicts a special strong attachment a servant may have
toward a master under whose dominance he wishes to remain:
The word suggests, furthermore, that one seek to relate to his brother and
all men according to what is specified in the law structure God gave to

Israel. This was to be the normal state of affairs between men. This verb
is used politically to describe the loyalty of a vassal or a subordinate to his

lord-so Hiram of Tyre "loved" David in the sense that he was completely
loyal (1Ki_5:1).

The strong emotional attachment and desire suggested by 'ahab (or

'aheb) may also be fixed on objects, circumstances, actions, and
deals with the "love" between man and wife as a general concept. In
Hos_3:1 the word is used of "love" as a sexual activity. 'Ahabah means
"love" between friends in 1Sa_18:3 : "Then Jonathan and David made a
covenant because he loved him as his own soul." The word refers to
Solomon's "love" in 1Ki_11:2 and to God's "love" in Deu_7:8

(Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. 1,2.)

A feeling of warm personal attachment or deep affection, as for a friend,
for a parent or child, and so forth; warm fondness or liking for another;
also, the benevolent affection of God for his creatures, or the reverent
affection due from them to God; also, the kindly affection properly
expressed by God‘s creatures toward one another; that strong or pas-
sionate affection for a person of the opposite sex that constitutes the
emotional incentive to conjugal union. One of the synonyms for love is
Aside from those meanings, the Scriptures speak also of love guided by
principle, as love of righteousness or even love for one‘s enemies, for
whom a person may not have affection. This facet or expression of love is
an unselfish devotion to righteousness and a sincere concern for the
lasting welfare of others, along with an active expression of this for their

The verb ‘a·hev′ or ‘a·hav′ (―love‖) and the noun ‘a·havah′ (―love‖) are the
words primarily used in Hebrew to denote love in the foregoing senses,
the context determining the sense and degree meant .

Love – Greek
The ancient Greeks had four words for ―love. Therefore, our English word
Love takes on four differing personas in the N.T. and uses different Greek
words to describe each type:

―e′ros‖ was one, denoting romantic love associated with sex attraction.
Writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures had no occasion to use e′ros,

―stor·ge‖ was another word. It indicated strong family love, or natural

affection, based on blood relationship. - John 11:1-44, 1 Thessalonians 2:7


―phi·le′o‖ is a third word describing LOVE in the greek scriptures. James

Strong‘s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, in its Greek dictionary
(1890, pp. 75, 76), remarks under phi·le′o: ―To be a friend to (fond of [an
individual or an object]). ]), i.e. have affection for (denoting personal
attachment, as a matter of sentiment or feeling. Vine comments: ―[It] is
to be distinguished from agapao in this, that phileo more nearly represents
tender affection. (examples- John 5:20, JOHN 12:24)
―a·ga′pe‖ is the word form for ―Love‖ which appears more frequently
than all the other terms combined.
Of the noun a·ga′pe and the verb a·ga·pa′o, Vine‘s Expository
Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words says: ―Love can be known
only from the actions it prompts. God‘s love is seen in the gift of His Son,
I John 4:9, 10‖. But obviously this is not a love of remuneration, that is, it
was not drawn out by any excellence in its objects, Rom. 5:8. It was an
exercise of the Divine will in deliberate choice, made without assignable
cause other than that which lies in the nature of God Himself, cp. Deut.
7:7, 8.‖—1981, Vol. 3, p. 21.
A·ga′pe, therefore, carries the primary meaning of love guided, or
governed, by principle. It may or may not include affection and fondness.
That a·ga′pe may include affection and warmth is evident in many
passages. At John 3:35, Jesus said: ―The Father loves [a·ga·pai′] the
Son.‖ At John 5:20, he said: ―The Father has affection for [phi·lei′] the
Son.‖ Certainly God‘s love for Jesus Christ is coupled with much
affection. Also Jesus explained: ―He that loves [a·ga·pon′] me will be
loved [a·ga·pe·the′se·tai] by my Father, and I will love [a·ga·pe′so] him.‖
(Joh 14:21) This love of the Father and of the Son is accompanied by
tender affection for such loving persons. Jehovah‘s worshipers must love
him and his Son, as well as one another, in the same way.—Joh 21:15-17.
So, while distinguished by respect for principle, a·ga′pe is not unfeeling;
otherwise it would not differ from cold justice. But it is ruled primarily by
principal, not by feeling or sentiment. It never ignores principle.
Christians rightly show a·ga′pe toward others for whom they may feel no
affection or fondness, doing so for the welfare of those persons. (Ga 6:10),
as Jehovah does when he makes his blessings rain on both the righteous
and the un-righteous. Yet, while they may not feel affection, they do feel
compassion and sincere concern for such fellow humans, to the limits
and in the way that righteous principles allow and direct.

LUCIFER - (Brown-Driver Briggs Hebrew Definitions)



LUCIFER - – heylel - H1966

Lucifer = ―light-bearer‖

1) shining one, morning star, Lucifer

1a) of the king of Babylon and Satan (figuratively)
2) (TWOT) ‗Helel‘ describing the king of Babylon

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Isaiah 14:12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer

<01966>, son of the morning how art thou cut down to the ground
which didst weaken the nations. KJV

Isaiah 14:12 "O how you have fallen from heaven, you shining one, son
of the dawn! How you have been cut down to the earth, you who were
disabling the nations! NWT

MEEK – Hebrew [Thayer/Brown Driver Briggs Definition]

H6035 wn"[' `anav {aw-nawv'} or [by intermixture with 6041] wyn"[' `anayv
1) poor, humble, afflicted, meek
1a) poor, needy
1b) poor and weak
1c) poor, weak and afflicted
1d) humble, lowly, meek

Wilsons Old Testament Word Studies adds (p.271 under MEEK)

2. ―those who patiently suffer without resistance‖
2a. ―those who willingly endure with submission what they
might escape from.
2b.‖ those who prefer to suffer wrong, rather than do wrong‖

The Gesenius Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon adds:

3. "afflicted, miserable; commonly with the added notion of a lowly,

pious, and modest mind, which prefers to bear injuries rather

than return them" (p. 643).

[Examples of Scriptural use]


Psalm 37:11 But the meek <06035> 2abc.shall inherit the earth;
and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace. KJV

Zephaniah 2:3 Seek ye Jehovah, all ye 3meek of the earth, that

have kept his ordinances; seek righteousness, seek meekness: it may
be ye will be hid in the day of Jehovah's anger. ASV

MEEK – Greek Definition (Thayers Greek Definitions)

1. Mild of temper; soft; gentle; not easily provoked or irritated;

yielding; given to forbearance under injuries.

2. Appropriately, humble, in an evangelical sense; submissive

to the divine will; not proud, self-sufficient or refractory; not peevish
and apt to complain of divine dispensations.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.

2 Corinthians 10:1 I myself, Paul, appeal to you by the meekness and

gentleness of Christ-- I who am humble when face to face with you,
but bold toward you when I am away! – NRS

MERCY- Mercy - (Noah Websters 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

1. That benevolence, mildness or tenderness of heart which disposes a
person to overlook injuries, or to treat an offender better than he deserves;
the disposition that tempers justice, and induces an injured person to
forgive trespasses and injuries, and to forbear punishment, or inflict less
than law or justice will warrant. In this sense, there is perhaps no word in
our language precisely synonymous with mercy. That which comes nearest
to it is grace. It implies benevolence, tenderness, mildness, pity or com-
passion, and clemency, but exercised only towards offenders. Mercy is a
distinguishing attribute of the Supreme Being.

2. An act or exercise of mercy or favor.

3. Pity; compassion manifested towards a person in distress.


4. Clemency and bounty.


5. Charity, or the duties of charity and benevolence.

6. Grace (undeserved kindness); favor.

7. The act of sparing, or the forbearance of a violent act expected. The

prisoner cried for mercy.

To be or to lie at the mercy of, to have no means of self-defense, but to be

dependent for safety on the mercy or compassion of another, or in the
power of that which is irresistible; as, to be at the mercy of a foe, or of the

MERCY – Hebrew- (Thayer / Brown Driver Briggs Definitions)

H7355 ~x;r' racham {raw-kham'} ...mercy 32, ...compassion 8, pity 3,

love 1, merciful 1, Ruhamah 1, surely 1; 47

1. to love, love deeply, have mercy, be compassionate, have tender

affection, have compassion
1a) to love
1b) 1b1) to have compassion, be compassionate
1b1a) of God, man
1c)) to be shown compassion, be compassionate

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Hosea 6:6 I want you to be 1,1bmerciful; I don't want your sacrifices. I

want you to know God; that's more important than burnt offerings. NLT

Psalm 103:13 As a father hath 1mercy on sons, Jehovah hath

1mercy on those fearing Him. YLT

2 Chronicles 30:9 For if you return to Yahweh, your brothers and your
sons will be treated mercifully by their captors and be allowed to return
to this country; for Yahweh your God is gracious and 1merciful
and will not turn his face away from you, if you return to
him.' NJB

MERCY- Greek - G1656 - ειεος – eleos - (Thayers Greek Definitions)


1) mercy: kindness or good will towards the miserable and the afflicted,

joined with a desire to help them


1a) of men towards men: to exercise the virtue of mercy, show one‘s self
1b) of God towards men: in general providence; the mercy and clemency
of God in providing and offering to men salvation by Christ
1c) the mercy of Christ, whereby at his return to judgment he will bless
true Christians with eternal life

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 5:7 God blesses those who are 1merciful, for they will be shown
1bmercy. NLT

James 2:13 For the one that does not practice 1mercy will have [his]
judgment without 1b,1cmercy. 1Mercy exults triumphantly over
judgment. NWT

Mat 12:7 And if you had only known what this saying means, I desire
1mercy [readiness to help, to spare, to forgive] rather than sacrifice

and sacrificial victims, you would not have condemned the guiltless.
[Hos. 6:6; Matt. 9:13.] AMP

MINISTER, MINISTRY - (Brown Driver Briggs Definitions)

MINISTER – Hebrew - H8334 sharath {shaw-rath'}

Also, MINISTER - H5647 – ‛ - abad –

1) to work, serve
1a) (Qal)
1a1) to labour, work, do work
1a2) to work for another, serve another by labour
1a3) to serve as subjects
1a4) to serve (God)
1a5) to serve (with Levitical service)
1b) (Niphal)
1b1) to be worked, be tilled (of land)
1b2) to make oneself a servant

1c) (Pual) to be worked

1d) (Hiphil)

1d1) to compel to labour or work, cause to labour, cause to serve


1d2) to cause to serve as subjects

1e) (Hophal) to be led or enticed to serve

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Psalm 101:6 My eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land, that they may
dwell with me; He who walks in a blameless way is the one who
will 1a4minister <08334> to me. NAU

Numbers 16:9 seemeth it but a small thing unto you, that the God of
Israel hath separated you from the congregation of Israel, to bring you
near to himself, to do the service of the tabernacle of Jehovah, and to
stand before the congregation to 1minister unto them; ASV

Samuel 2:11 Then El-ka'nah went to Ra'mah to his house; and as for the
boy, he became a 1a4minister of Jehovah before E'li the priest. NWT

MINISTER – Greek - (Thayers Greek Definitions)

G1247- - diakoneo {dee-ak-on-eh'-o}

1)) to be a servant, attendant, domestic, to serve, wait upon

1a) to minister to one, render ministering offices to
1a1) to be served, ministered unto
1b) to wait at a table and offer food and drink to the guests,
1b1) of women preparing food
1c) to minister i.e. supply food and necessities of life
1c1) to relieve one's necessities (e.g. by collecting alms), to provide take
care of, distribute, the things necessary to sustain life
1c2) to take care of the poor and the sick, who administer the office of a
1c3) in Christian churches to serve as deacons
1d) to minister 1d1) to attend to anything, that may serve
another's interests
1d2) to minister a thing to one, to serve one or by supplying any

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 20:28 even as the Son of man came not to be


1a1ministered unto, but to 1a1minister, and to give his life a ransom

for many. ASV



Colossians 1:25 of which I became a 1d minister according to the

stewardship from God which was given to me for you, to fulfill the
word of God, NKJ

Hebrews 1:14 Are they not all 1d ministering spirits sent out to
serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation? ESV

NEIGHBOR - (Thayer / Brown Driver Briggs Definitions)

G4139 - plhsi,on - plesion {play-see'-on}

1.) a neighbor, one nearby proximity

2.) a friend
3.) any other person, and where two are concerned, the other (thy fellow
man, thy neighbor), according to the Jews, any member of the Hebrew
race and commonwealth
4.) according to Christ, any other man irrespective of race or
religion with whom we live or whom we chance to meet

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Proverbs 27:10 Never abandon a friend-- either yours or your father's.

Then in your time of need, you won't have to ask your relatives for
assistance. It is better to go to a 1neighbor than to a relative
who lives far away. NLT

Exodus 12:4 If any household is too small for a whole lamb, they must
share one with their nearest 1neighbor, having taken into account
the number of people there are. You are to determine the amount of
lamb needed in accordance with what each person will eat. NIV
Galatians 5:14 For the entire Law stands fulfilled in one saying, namely:
"You must love your 4neighbor as yourself." NWT

Romans 13:10 Love does no wrong to a neighbor 4; therefore love

is the fulfilling of the law. ESV

James 4:12 There is one lawgiver and judge who is able to save or to
destroy. Who then are you to judge your 3neighbor? NAB

NAME - (Complete Word Study – O.T. – W. Baker, S. Zodhiates)


Name - H8034 – Hebrew -

1. A masculine noun meaning a name, fame. It is what specifically
identifies a person or anything:
2. To make a name for oneself means to attain a renowned reputation
(Gen_11:4; 2Sa_8:13); as when God made Abraham's name great
3. To become famous is to have one's name spread through the land
4. To have a good name is to have a good character, a good reputation
5. A name3 may serve as a memorial or monument (Isa_55:13).

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Psalm 83:18 That people may know that you, whose 1name is
Jehovah, You alone are the Most High over all the earth. For the
director upon the Git'tith. Of the sons of Ko'rah. A melody. NWT

Proverbs 22:1 A good 4name is more to be desired than great

wealth, and to be respected is better than silver and gold. BBE

Ezekiel 20:14 But I acted for the sake of my 4name, that it should
not be profaned in the sight of the nations, in whose sight I had brought
them out. ESV

Exodus 3:15 Then God said once more to Moses: "This is what you are to
say to the sons of Israel, 'Jehovah the God of YOUR forefathers, the God
of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, has sent me to YOU.'
This is my 4name to time indefinite, and this is the memorial of
me to generation after generation. NWT

Psalm 113:3 From the rising of the sun to its setting, praised be the
1name of Yahweh! NJB

Name – Greek - G3686 - ónoma; gen. onómatos, neut. Noun.

Name, title, character, reputation, person.

6. Particularly and generally to call someone by a particular name

or by), kat‘ ónoma, by name, individually (Joh_10:3; 3 Jn_1:14
7. Implying authority, e.g., to come or to do something in or by

the name of someone, meaning using his name; as his messenger,

envoy, representative; by his authority, with his authorization

8. As implying character, dignity, referring to an honorable

appellation, title (Mat_10:41
9. Emphatic, the name of God, of the Lord, of Christ, as a
representational expression for God Himself, for Christ
Himself, in all their being, attributes, relations, manifestations
(Mat_6:9; Mat_18:20; Mat_28:19).
9a. Specifically of God where His name is said to be hallowed,
revealed, invoked, honored
9b. Of Christ as the Messiah where His name is said to be honored,
revered, believed on, invoked (Mat_12:21; Joh_1:12; Joh_2:23;
Act_19:17; Rom_1:5; Php_2:10; 2Th_1:12; Rev_2:13; Rev_3:8).
9c. Of the Holy Spirit (Mat_28:19).

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Acts 2:21 And all who call on the 6name of the Lord will be saved. NJB

Acts 4:7 and they stood them in their midst and began to inquire: "By
what power or in whose 7name did YOU do this?" NWT

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OBESIENCE - (See ―Worship‖)

PARADISE – (Zodhiates Word Study Dictionary of New Testament Words)

G3857 – - parádeisos; gen. paradeísou,

masc. noun. Paradise. This is an oriental word which the Greeks

borrowed from the Persians, among whom it meant a garden, park, or
enclosure full of all the vegetable products of the earth. In Xenophon's
economics, Socrates said that the king of Persia took particular care,
wherever he was, to have gardens or enclosures full of every beautiful and
good thing the earth could produce. These were called paradises. In
Sanskrit, paradésha and paradisha meant a land elevated and cultivated.
In Armenian, pardes means a garden around the house planted with
grass, herbs, and trees for food and ornament.
The Septuagint uses it to refer to the Garden of Eden (Gen_2:8). In later
Jewish usage and in the NT, parádeisos is used for the abode of the
blessed after resurrection.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Gen 2:8 And God planted paradiseG3857 in Eden according to the

east, and he put there the man whom he shaped. APB

Genesis 2:8 And Jehovah God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and
there he put the man whom he had formed. ASV

Luke 23:43 And he said to him: "Truly I tell you today, You will be
with me in G3857Paradise." NWT

PERFECT / PERFECTION - (Thayer / Brown Driver Briggs



PERFECT – Hebrew- H8549 ~ymiT' tamiym {taw-meem'} - 1) complete,

whole, entire, sound

1a) complete, whole, entire

1b) whole, sound, healthful
1c) complete, entire (of time)
1d) sound, wholesome, unimpaired, innocent, having integrity
1e) what is complete or entirely in accord with truth and fact
(neuter adj/subst)

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Psalm 18:30 As for God, his way is 1eperfect <08549>: the word of the
LORD is tried: he is a buckler to all those that trust in him. KJV

Deuteronomy 32:4 "The Rock His work Is 1,1e perfect <08549>, For all
His ways are just A God of faithfulness and without injustice Righteous
and upright is He. NAU

PERFECT – Greek - (Thayers Greek Definitions)

G5048 teleio,w teleioo {tel-i-o'-o}

2. to make perfect, complete

2a) to carry through completely, to accomplish, finish, bring to an
3) to complete (perfect)
3b) to be found perfect
4) to bring to the end (goal) proposed
5) to accomplish
5a) bring to a close or fulfilment by event
5a1) of the prophecies of the scriptures

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Matthew 5:48 YOU must accordingly be 2,2a perfect, as YOUR

heavenly Father is perfect. NWT

Luke 6:40 A pupil is not above his teacher, but everyone that is 2,3b
perfectly instructed will be like his teacher. NWT

1 John 4:12 At no time has anyone beheld God. If we continue loving one
another, God remains in us and his love is made 2aperfect in us. NWT



(Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. 1,2.)

Pharisees - (Phar′i·sees)
A prominent religious sect of Judaism existing in the first century C.E.
The term ―Pharisee‖ comes from a root word meaning ―separated,‖
―distinguished.‖ The group first appears in historical writings that deal
with events of the second century B.C.E. While living in the same
locations as other Jews, the Pharisees separated or distinguished
themselves by extraordinary efforts to observe the Mosaic law fully.

Sadducees - (Sad′du·cees)
A prominent religious sect of Judaism associated with the priesthood. (Ac
5:17, With reference to their religious beliefs, Acts 23:8 states:
―Sadducees say there is neither resurrection nor angel nor spirit, but the
Pharisees publicly declare them all.‖ Sadducees appear to have taken the
lead in trying to stop the spread of Christianity after Jesus‘ death and
resurrection.—Ac 4:1-23; 5:17-42; 9:14.

Scribes -
Early Bible - A secretary or a copyist of the Scriptures; later, a person
educated in the Law. The Hebrew word so·pher′, which comes from a root
meaning ―count,‖ is translated ―secretary,‖ ―scribe,‖ ―copyist‖; and the
Greek word gram·ma·teus′ is rendered ―scribe‖ and ―public instructor.‖
The term implies one who has learning. There were scribes, or secretaries,
in connection with the temple. (2Ki 22:3) The Hebrew scribes also acted as
public notaries, prepared bills of divorce, and recorded other transactions.
At least in later times they had no fixed fee, so one could bargain with
them beforehand. Usually one of the parties to a transaction paid the fee,
but sometimes both shared.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Acts 5:34 But one of the Sanhedrin, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a

man of learning in the law, of whom all the people had a high opinion,
got up and made a suggestion for the men to be put outside for a little

time BBE

Luke 18:11 The Pharisee stood there and said this prayer to
himself, "I thank you, God, that I am not grasping, unjust, adulterous

like everyone else, and particularly that I am not like this tax collector
here. NJB

Matthew 23:13 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!

For you shut up the kingdom of heaven against men; for you neither go in
yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in. NKJ

PLAGUE - (Strongs Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries)

PLAGUE – Hebrew - H5061 - nega‛neh'-gah
From H5060;
a blow (figuratively infliction); also (by implication) a spot (concretely a
leprous person or dress): - plague, sore, stricken, stripe, stroke, wound.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Joshua 24:5 I then sent Moses and Aaron, and plagued Egypt with the
wonders that I worked there; finally I brought you out. NJB

Exodus 11:1 And Jehovah said to Moses, Yet one plague will I bring
upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence:
when he shall let you go altogether, he shall utterly drive you out hence.

PRAYER - (Eastons Bible Dictionary)


Is conversation with God; the intercourse of the soul with God, not in
contemplation or meditation, but in direct address to him. Prayer may be
oral or mental, occasional or constant, ejaculatory or formal. It is a
―beseeching the Lord‖ (Exo_32:11); ―pouring out the soul before the
Lord‖ (1Sa_1:15); ―praying and crying to heaven‖ (2Ch_32:20); ―seeking
unto God and making supp-lication‖ (Job_8:5); ―drawing near to God‖
(Psa_73:28); ―bowing the knees‖ (Eph_3:14).

Prayer presupposes a belief in the personality of God, his ability and

willing- ness to hold intercourse with us, his personal control of all things

and of all his creatures and all their actions.


Acceptable prayer must be sincere (Heb_10:22), offered with reverence

and godly fear, with a humble sense of our own insignificance as creatures
and of our own unworthiness as sinners, with earnest importunity, and
with unhesitating submission to the divine will. Prayer must also be
offered in the faith that God is, and is the hearer and answerer of prayer,
and that he will fulfill his word, ―Ask, and ye shall receive‖ (Mat_7:7,
Mat_7:8; Mat_21:22; Mar_11:24; Joh_14:13, Joh_14:14), and in the name
of Christ (Joh_16:23, Joh_16:24; Joh_15:16; Eph_2:18; Eph_5:20;
Col_3:17; 1Pe_2:5).

Prayer is of different kinds, secret (Mat_6:6); social, as family prayers,

and in social worship; and public, in the service of the sanctuary.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

Psalm 65:3 all mankind comes to You, You who hear prayer. TNK

Luke 6:12 One day soon afterward Jesus went to a mountain to

pray, and he prayed to God all night. NLT

Matthew 6:5 "And when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites,
for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street
corners to be seen by men. I tell you the truth, they have received their
reward in full. NIV

Mark 12:40 But they shamelessly cheat widows out of their property,
and then, to cover up the kind of people they really are, they
make long prayers in public. Because of this, their punishment
will be the greater." NLT

Matthew 6:6 But whenever you pray, go into your room and shut the
door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who
sees in secret will reward you. NRS



Prophecy, Prophesy, Prophesying


Two types:


1. Predictive – Foretelling events which have not yet occured

2. Declarative – Speaking forth the mind and counsel of God
2a. Speaking God‘s mind or counsel with the purpose of
comfort, edification and encouragement (a N.T. usage found
in Congregations After Pentecost)

Prophecy - (G4394) - (Vines Expository Dictionary of O.T. and

N.T. Bible words)

signifies "the speaking forth of the mind and counsel of God"

(pro, "forth," phemi, "to speak; in the NT it is used

(a) of the gift, e.g., Rom_12:6; 1Co_12:10; 1Co_13:2;

(b) either of the exercise of the gift or of that which is "prophesied," e.g.,
Mat_13:14; 1Co_13:8; 1Co_14:6, 1Co_14:22 and 1Th_5:20, "prophesying
(s)"; 1Ti_1:18; 1Ti_4:14; 2Pe_1:20, 2Pe_1:21; Rev_1:3; Rev_11:6;
Rev_19:10; Rev_22:7, Rev_22:10, Rev_22:18, Rev_22:19.

"Though much of OT prophecy was purely 1predictive, see Mic

5:2, e.g., and Joh_11:51, prophecy is not necessarily, nor even
primarily, fore-telling. It is the declaration of that which
cannot be known by natural means, Mat. 26:68, it is the forth-
telling [disclosure] of the will of God 2, whether with reference
to the past, the present, or the future, see Gen_20:7; Deu_18:18;
Rev_10:11; Rev_11:3....

"In such passages as 1Co_12:28; Eph_2:20, the 'prophets'3 are

placed after the 'Apostles,' since not the prophets of Israel are intended,
but the 'gifts' of the ascended Lord, Eph_4:8, Eph_4:11; cf. Act_13:1;...;
the purpose of their 3 ministry was to edify, to comfort, and to
encourage the believers, 1Co_14:3,

[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Peter 1:21 For no prophecy 1,2 was ever produced by the will of
man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy
Spirit. ESV

Ezekiel 2:5 And whether they listen or not-- for remember, they are
rebels-- at least they will know they have had a 1prophet among
them. NLT


Deuteronomy 18:22 When a 1prophet speaks in the name of Yahweh

and the thing does not happen and the word is not fulfilled, then
it has not been said by Yahweh. The prophet has spoken
presumptuously. You have nothing to fear from him.' NJB

1 Thessalonians 2:15 For some of the Jews had killed their own
prophets 1,2, and some even killed the Lord Jesus. Now they have
persecuted us and driven us out. They displease God and oppose
everyone NLT

1 Corinthians 14:3 However, he that 3prophesies upbuilds and

encourages and consoles men by his speech. NWT

Acts 2:17 'It will come to pass in the last days,' God says, 'that I will pour
out a portion of my spirit upon all flesh. Your sons and your
daughters shall 2prophesy, your young men shall see visions, your
old men shall dream dreams. NAB

PROPITIATION - (Noah Websters 1828 Dictionary with Bible Definition)

1. The act of appeasing wrath and conciliating the favor of an offended
person; the act of making propitious.

2. In theology, the atonement or atoning sacrifice offered to God to

assuage his wrath and render him propitious to sinners. Christ is the
propitiation for the sins of men. Rom 3. 1 John

[Examples of Scriptural use]

1 John 4:10 In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us
and sent His Son to be the 2propitiation for our sins. NKJ

1 John 4:10 And He [that same Jesus Himself] is the 2propitiation

(the atoning sacrifice) for our sins, and not for ours alone but also
for [the sins of] the whole world. AMP

Romans 3:25 whom God set forth as a 2propitiation by His

blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in

His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously
committed, NKJ


PREACH – (Authors comments based on overall context)

―Preaching‖, is and always has been of primary importance to the

continuation and furthering of the Christian faith which Jesus left as
his posterity.

Among the last words of instruction and directions Jesus gave his faithful
Apostles are those found at Matt. 28:19,20 and Luke 16:14,15,19,20. There
we find what many Christians refer to as ―The Great Commission‖ Within
these verses is found an explicit command to make disciples. It has been
understood by implication that this making of disciples was to be
accomplished by ―preaching‖.

[Examples of Scriptural use]

2 Timothy 4:2 preach the word, be at it urgently in favorable season,

in troublesome season, reprove, reprimand, exhort, with all long-
suffering and [art of] teaching. NWT [Paul to Timothy]

Matthew 28:19 Go therefore and make disciples of people of all the

nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of
the holy spirit, NWT [Jesus to his apostles]

Matthew 24:14 And this good news of the kingdom will be

preached in all the inhabited earth for a witness to all the nations; and
then the end will come. NWT [a general declaration of fact] NWT

Rom 10:14 However, how will they call on him in whom they have not
put faith? How, in turn, will they put faith in him of whom they have
not heard? How, in turn, will they hear without someone to
preach? 15 How, in turn, will they preach unless they have
been sent forth? NWT [requires a mandate]

That being said, exactly what is ―preaching‖ and is there any difference
between closely related words such as ―declaring‘, speaking, proclaiming,
teaching or evangelizing, when compared with the bible meaning of the
word ―preaching‖ ?

Logically, there would be, as God has perfect command of the words used

to express his will. If he uses different words, we can safely assume he has
at least shades of differences in their meanings in mind.


If these different words were used in different instances in God‘s inspired

Bible, does a translator have the right to take it upon himself to use them
interchangeably for each other? To answer yes would be to imply that
Almighty God, creator of language among all other things did not have
any concise reason for his selection of specific words. Or it would imply
he did not discern differences in meanings of words he chose to com-
municate with. Or it would imply that man as a higher authority can
change God‘s word to suit his own understanding. Few would argue any
of the above are true.

Never the less, a small minority of Bible translations consistently

interchange these words for each other. This leads to potential mis-
understanding and or likely misapplication of what the Bible actually

What follows are definitions for the words which have been interchanged
by translators in describing what ―preaching‖ is. While this may not
seem to be a major issue, it is one which can lead to distorted Bible
understanding and thereby have some side effects for those who may be
led to follow an understanding different from what the Bible actually

Let us examine the words individually and determine if these words are
really as interchangeable as some bibles use them to convey meaning.

preach, G2097 euaggelízo; fut. euaggelíso, aor. eueggélisa, from euággelos (n.f.),
bringing good news, which is from eu (G2095),

Teach, G1321 didásko; fut. didáxo, from dáo (n.f.), to know or teach. Teach,
instruct by word of mouth

Herald, proclaim G2784 kerússo kerútto; fut.

kerúxo. to herald, proclaim.

I. Deriv.: kerugma (G2782), the message of a herald, denotes preaching,

the substance of which is distinct from the act; kerux (G2783), a herald, a

preacher; prokerússo (G4296), to proclaim before or ahead.