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ADAPTABLE MULTI NUT FASTNER WITH MANUAL HEIGHT

ADJUSTMENT SYSTEM

SYNOPSIS:
The main concept of our project is removing bolt/nut fitting without
human help. The components used here for efficient function of the project
include motor, nut fitting and removing arrangement, gear arrangement,
switch and screw jack.
There will be a four tighter or remover mounted on a plate. Spur gear
arrangement is mounted at the rear end of each shaft. All the spur gears are
driven by a single spur gear which is mounted on the motors output shaft.
Hence when the motor shaft rotates the other four shafts also will rotate for
tightening or removing. If we push the corresponding switch for forward
rotation of the motor, it helps to fix the bolt /nut, else if we push the
corresponding switch for reverse rotation, the given polarity will be changed
oppositely and it helps to remove the bolt/nut. When the handle is rotated in
anticlockwise direction the jack moves downward. When the handle is
rotated in clockwise direction the jack moves in upward direction.

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1. PROJECT PLANNING

Before starting every project its planning is to be done. Planning is


very important task and should be taken with great care, as the efficiency of
the whole project largely depends upon its planning while planning a project
each and every details should be worked out in anticipation and should
carefully is considered with all the relating provisions in advance. Project
planning consists of the following steps.

PROJECT CAPACITY
The capacity of the project must be decided considering the amount of
money which can be invested and availability of material and machines.

DRAWINGS
Drawing been decided for the project to be manufacture. Its detailed
drawing specification for raw material and finished products should be
decided carefully along with the specification of the machines required for
their manufacture.

MATERIAL EQUIPMENT
The list of materials required for manufacture is prepared from the
drawings. The list of is known as “BILL OF MATERIALS”. This passes to
the store keeper and the required materials taken from the store under
permission of store keeper operation, the necessity of operation, the person
to do the job, machine to be used to do the job are considered while planning
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the operation. After considering tea above questions a best method is
developed and the best method is applied to the operation.

MACHINE LOADING
While planning proper care should be taken to find the machining
time for each operation as correct as possible. So that the arrangement for
full utilization of machine can be made machine loading programmed is also
known.

PURCHASE CONSIDERATION
It is different to manufacture all the component needed for the
equipment in the workshop it self. The decision about a particular item
whether to purchase or to manufacture is taken by planning after making
through study of relative merits demerits.

EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATION
Result obtained from “PROCESS PLANNING” and “MACHINE
LODING” helps in calculating the equipment requirement specification of
the equipment should be laid down by considering the drawing. Drawing
will also help in deciding and necessary requirement of tools, accessories.

COST CALCULATION

The cost of the project can be calculated by adding following.


1. Material Cost
2. Machining Cost
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3. Overhead Expenses.

COMPARISION
The various items in the finished project are compared to the
standards for the further correction.

REPORT
At the end of the project work report is prepared for future references.
The report consists of all the items done the project work.

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2. INTRODUCTION OF BASIC TOOL

A wrench or spanner is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical


advantage in applying torque to turn objects—usually rotary fasteners, such
as nuts and bolts—or keep them from turning.

In British English, spanner is the standard term. The most common shapes
are called open-ended spanner and ring spanner. The term wrench refers to a
type of adjustable spanner.[1]

In American English, wrench is the standard term. The most common shapes
are called open-end wrench and box-end wrench. In American English,
spanner refers to a specialized wrench with a series of pins or tabs around
the circumference. (These pins or tabs fit into the holes or notches cut into
the object to be turned.) In American commerce, such a wrench may be
called a spanner wrench to distinguish it from the British sense of spanner.

Higher quality wrenches are typically made from chromium-vanadium alloy


tool steels and are often drop-forged. They are frequently chrome-plated to
resist corrosion and ease

Some types manual operation spanner is mentioned below.

5
Types
American
British name Description Group
name
box-end ring spanner A one-piece common
wrench wrench with an
enclosed
opening that
grips the faces
of the bolt or
nut. The recess
is generally a
six-point or
twelve-point
opening for use
with nuts or
bolt heads with
a hexagonal
shape. The
twelve-point
fits onto the
fastening at
twice as many
angles, an
advantage

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where swing is
limited. Eight-
point wrenches
are also made
for square-
shaped nuts and
bolt heads.
Ring spanners
are often
double-ended
and usually
with offset
handles to
improve access
to the nut or
bolt.
spark plug box spanner / A tube with six- common
wrench tube spanner sided sockets
on both ends. It
is turned with a
short length of
rod (tommy bar
or T bar)
inserted
through two
holes in the
middle of the

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tube.
A double-ended
tool with one
end being like
an open-end
wrench or
open-ended
spanner, and
combination combination
the other end common
wrench spanner
being like a
box-end
wrench or ring
spanner. Both
ends generally
fit the same
size of bolt.
open-end open-ended A one-piece common
wrench spanner wrench with a
U-shaped
opening that
grips two
opposite faces
of the bolt or
nut. This
wrench is often
double-ended,
with a

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different-sized
opening at each
end. The ends
are generally
oriented at an
angle of around
15 degrees to
the longitudinal
axis of the
handle. This
allows a greater
range of
movement in
enclosed spaces
by flipping the
wrench over.
flare-nut crow's-foot A wrench that common
wrench spanner is used for
tube wrench gripping the
line wrench nuts on the
ends of tubes. It
is similar to a
box-end
wrench but,
instead of
encircling the
nut completely,

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it has a narrow
opening just
wide enough to
allow the
wrench to fit
over the tube,
and thick jaws
to increase the
contact area
with the nut.
This allows for
maximum
contact on
plumbing nuts,
which are
typically softer
metals and
therefore more
prone to
damage from
open-ended
wrenches.
ratcheting box ratcheting ring A type of ring common
wrench spanner spanner, or box
wrench, whose
end section
ratchets.

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Ratcheting can
be reversed by
flipping over
the wrench, or
by activating a
reversing lever
on the wrench.
This type of
wrench
combines
compact design
of a box
wrench, with
the utility and
quickness of
use of a ratchet
wrench. A
variety of
ratcheting
mechanisms are
used, from
simple pawls to
more complex
captured
rollers, with the
latter being
more compact,
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smoother, but
also more
expensive to
manufacture.
Saltus wrench ? Similar in common
concept to a
socket wrench.
A Saltus
wrench features
a socket
permanently
affixed to a
handle. Sockets
are not
interchangeable
as with a socket
wrench. The
socket often
rotates around
the handle to
allow the user
to access a
fastener from a
variety of
angles.
Commonly a
Saltus wrench

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is part of a
double-ended
wrench, with an
open-end type
head on the
opposite side
from the socket
head.

2.1 INSTRUCTION METHOD OF TORQUE WRENCH

1. Examine the torque wrench. You will see that the torque wrench looks
very much like a standard socket wrench except that the bottom part of the
handle has a dial that you can rotate to set the degree of force you want to
exert on a bolt or nut as you tighten it. By rotating this dial, you can change
the force limit for the wrench.

2. Look in the manual for your make and model of car to discover what
the manufacturer's recommended "torque" is for the particular nut or bolt
you are tightening.

3. Take the dial at the end of the wrench and change the dial by rotating it
back or forward to reach the setting stated in the manual. Be sure that the
torque wrench is set in the correct units for the manual that you are using.
There are two standard measurement systems used to measure force. One is
the metric system and the other is the U.S. Imperial system.

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4. Find the right socket for the nut or bolt you are planning on tightening.
Attach it to the wrench and fit it to the bolt or nut. Begin tightening the bolt
or nut with the wrench and continue in short strokes of the wrench handle.

5. Stop tightening when the wrench feels like it "breaks" or slips on the nut.
This is when the force being exerted on the wrench has reached the
recommended amount of force. The wrench doesn't actually break or slip on
the nut. There is a mechanism inside the handle of the wrench that releases
the force, once it reaches the setting on the handle.

3. MAJOR COMPONENTS MULTI NUT TIGHTNER WITH


HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT SYSTEM

The electrical and mechanical components are listed below.


3.1.D.C motor(D.C/A.C Motor) -&Relay
3.2Structure
3.3 Spur gear
3.4Socket wrench
3.5Power supply
3.6 Scissor jack

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3.1. DC MOTOR:

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DC Motor Operation
This is an active graphic. Click on bold type for further
illustration.

Index

Magnetic
field
concepts

Magnetic
force
applications

Magnetic
interactions with
charge
HyperPhysics***** Electricity and Magnetism Go Back

16
Current in DC Motor
This is an active graphic. Click on bold type for further
illustration.

Index

Magnetic
field
concepts

Magnetic
force
applications

DC Motor
Operating
Principles
HyperPhysics***** Electricity and Magnetism Go Back

17
Magnetic Field in DC Motor
This is an active graphic. Click on bold type for further
illustration.

Index

Magnetic
field
concepts

Magnetic
force
applications

DC Motor
Operating
Principles
HyperPhysics***** Electricity and Magnetism Go Back

18
Force in DC Motor
This is an active graphic. Click on bold type for further
illustration.

Index

Magnetic
field
concepts

Magnetic
force
applications

DC Motor Operating Principles


HyperPhysics***** Electricity and Magnetism Go Back

19
Torque in DC Motor
This is an active graphic. Click on bold type for further
illustration.

Index

Magnetic
field
concepts

Magnetic
force
applications

DC Motor Operating Principles Torque on a Coil


Variation of torque with coil angle

The most widely used type of DC motor is the permanent magnet


commutator type, which is simply designed to rotate at some approximate
speed when powered from an appropriate DC voltage. This type of motors
are often used as fixed speed drivers in tape cassette recorders and
record/disc players and as wide range motive etc. in all of these applications,
the motor performance can be greatly enhanced with the aid of electronic
control circuitry.

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The basic action of this motor is such that an applied voltage causes a
current flow through sets of armature windings and generates
electromagnetic fields that r4eact with the fields of fixed stator magnets in
such a way that the armature is forced to rotate. As it rotates, its interfacing
fields force it to generate a back EMF that opposes the applied DC voltage
and is directly proportional to the armature speed.

The DC motor has a rotating armature in the form of an


electromagnet. A rotary switch called a commutator reverses the direction of
the electric current twice every cycle, to flow through the armature so that
the poles of the electromagnet push and pull against the permanent magnets
on the outside of the motor. As the poles of the armature electromagnet pass
the poles of the permanent magnets, the commutator reverses the polarity of
the armature electromagnet. During that instant of switching polarity, inertia
keeps the classical motor going in the proper direction.

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Fig 10. DC motor

A simple DC electric motor. When the coil is powered, a magnetic


field is generated around the armature. The left side of the armature is
pushed away from the left magnet and drawn toward the right, causing
rotation.

Spindle Motor (Ac\Dc):

Speed : 6500rpm
Current : 0.75Ams

Advantage of using DC Motor:


 Speed of rotation of DC Motor can be easily controlled.
 Used for drives requiring large power outputs.
 Direction of the motor can be easily changed.

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3.2 INTRODUCTION OF THE STRUCTURE
Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a
specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical
composition and strength. Structural steel shape, size, composition, strength,
storage, etc, is regulated in most industrialized countries.

Structural steel members, such as I-beams, have high second moments of


area, which allow them to be very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional
area. A steel I-beam, in this case used to support wood beams in a house.
Structural steel in construction: A primed steel beam is holding up the floor
above, which consists of a metal deck (Q-Deck), upon which a concrete slab
has been poured.Steel beam through-penetration with incomplete
fireproofing.

Metal deck and OWSJ (Open Web Steel Joist), receiving first coat of spray
fireproofing plaster, made of polystyrene leavened gypsum. Contents
1 Common structural shapes
2 Standards
2.1 Standard structural steels
2.2 Standard structural steels
2.2.1 Carbon steels
2.2.2 High strength low alloy steels
2.2.3 Corrosion resistant high strength low alloy steels
2.2.4 Quenched and tempered alloy steels
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3 Steel vs. concrete
4 Thermal properties
5 Fireproofing of structural steel
COMMON STRUCTURAL SHAPES

In most developed countries, the shapes available are set out in


published standards, although a number of specialist and proprietary cross
sections are also available.
I-beam (I-shaped cross-section - in Britain these include Universal Beams
(UB) and Universal Columns (UC); in Europe it includes the IPE, HE, HL,
HD and other sections; in the US it includes Wide Flange (WF) and H
sections)
Z-Shape (half a flange in opposite directions)
HSS-Shape (Hollow structural section also known as SHS (structural hollow
section) and including square, rectangular, circular (pipe) and elliptical cross
sections)
Angle (L-shaped cross-section)
Channel ( [-shaped cross-section)
Tee (T-shaped cross-section)
Rail profile (asymmetrical I-beam)
Railway rail
Vignola rail
Flanged T rail
Grooved rail
Bar a piece of metal, rectangular cross sectioned (flat) and long, but not so
wide so as to be called a sheet.

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Rod, a round or square and long piece of metal or wood, see also rebar and
dowel. Plate, sheet metal thicker than 6 mm or 1/4 in. Open web steel joist

While many sections are made by hot or cold rolling, others are made by
welding together flat or bent plates (for example, the largest circular hollow
sections are made from flat plate bent into a circle and seam-welded).

Standard structural steels


Most steels used throughout Europe are specified to comply with the
European standard EN 10025. However, many national standards also
remain in force.Typical grades are described as 'S275J2' or 'S355K2W'. In
these examples, 'S' denotes structural rather than engineering steel; 275 or
355 denotes the yield strength in newtons per square millimetre or the
equivalent megapascals; J2 or K2 denotes the materials toughness by
reference to Charpy impact test values; and the 'W' denotes weathering steel.
Further letters can be used to designate normalized steel ('N' or 'NL');
quenched and tempered steel ('Q' or 'QL'); and thermomechanically rolled
steel ('M' or 'ML').

The normal yield strength grades available are 195, 235, 275, 355, 420, and
460, although some grades are more commonly used than others e.g. in the
UK, almost all structural steel is grades S275 and S355. Higher grades are
available in quenched and tempered material (500, 550, 620, 690, 890 and
960 - although grades above 690 receive little if any use in construction at
present).
Thermal properties
The properties of steel vary widely, depending on its alloying elements.
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The austenizing temperature, the temperature where a steel transforms to an
austenite crystal structure, for steel starts at 900°C for pure iron, then, as
more carbon is added, the temperature falls to a minimum 724°C for eutectic
steel (steel with only .83% by weight of carbon in it). As 2.1% carbon (by
mass) is approached, the austenizing temperature climbs back up, to 1130°C.
Similarly, the melting point of steel changes based on the alloy.
The lowest temperature at which a plain carbon steel can begin to melt, its
solidus, is 1130 °C. Steel never turns into a liquid below this temperature.
Pure Iron ('Steel' with 0% Carbon) starts to melt at 1492 °C (2720 °F), and is
completely liquid upon reaching 1539 °C (2802 °F). Steel with 2.1% Carbon
by weight begins melting at 1130 °C (2066 °F), and is completely molten
upon reaching 1315 °C (2400 °F). 'Steel' with more than 2.1% Carbon is no
longer Steel, but is known as Cast iron. http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-
trans/images/FeC.gif

Steel Typical Uses

Designation
C07, C 10 Used for cold forming and deep drawing.

Rimming quality used for Automobile bodies cold heading


wires and rivets.

Killed quality used for forging and heat treating applications.


C10 And C14 Case hardening steels used for making camshafts, cams, light
duty gears, worms, gudgeon pins, selector forks, spindle,
pawls, ratchetgs, chain wheels, tappets, etc.,

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Steel Typical Uses

Designation
C15 Used for lightly stressed parts. The material, although easily
machinable is not designed specifically for rapid cutting, but is
suitable where cold work, such as bending and riveting may be
necessary.
C 15 Mn 75, General Purpose steels for low stressed components.
C 20, C 25
and C 25 Mn
75
C 30 Used for cold formed levers – Hardened and tempered tie rods,
cables, sprockets, hubs and bushes – steel tubes.
C 35 Steel for low stressed parts, automobile tubes and fasteners
C35 Mn 75 Steel for making low stressed parts in machine structures,
cycles and motorcycle frame tubes, fish plates for rails and
fasteners.
C 40 Steel for crankshafts, shafts, spindles, automobile axle beams,
push rods, connecting rods, studs, bolts, lightly stressed gears,
etc.,
C 45 Steel for spindles of machine tools, bigger gears, bolts and
shafts.
C 50 Steel for making keys, shafts, cylinders, machine components
requiring moderate wear resistance. In surface hardened
condition it is also suitable for large-pitch worms and gears.

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Steel Typical Uses

Designation
C50 Mn1 Rail steel. Also used for making spike bolts, gear safts,
rocking levers and cylinder lines.
C 55 and C Steels used for making gears, cylinders, cams, keys, crank
55 Mn 75 shafts, sprockets and machine parts requiring moderate wear
resistance for which toughness is not of primary importance.
C 60 Steel for making spindles for machine tools, hardened screws
and nuts, coupling, crankshaft, axles and pinions.
C 65 High tensile structural steel for making locomotive carriage
and wagon tyres. Typical muses of this steel in the spring
industry include engine valves springs, small washers and thin
stamped parts.

3.3. POWER SUPPLY


DEFINITION:
It is an electronics unit. This is used to give regulated power to any
electronics system.
BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:
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1. Transformer : This block consist step-down transformer
for our required ratings.
2. Rectifier : This block consist diode based rectifier
Circuit
3. Filter circuit : This block consist capacitor based filter
Circuit.
4. Regulator : This block consists +ve (and) – ve three
Terminal regulators

RELAY AND TRANSFORMER

Fig 8. Basic relay operation

The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil, wound on an


iron core, to form an electromagnet. When the coil is energized, by passing
current through it, the core becomes temporarily magnetized. The
magnetized core attracts the iron armature. The armature is pivoted which
causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts. When the coil is
de-energized the armature and contacts are released.

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The coil can be energized from a low power source such as a
transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the
main supply. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control
source. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when
switched off.

This can damage other components in the circuit. To prevent this


diode is connected across the coil. The cathode of the diode is connected to
the most positive end of the coil.

Fig 9. Relay contacts

The spring sets (contacts) can be a mixture of N.O, N.C and c.o. look
at the page on switches to see how they can be used in circuits. Various coil-
operating voltages (ac and dc) are available. The actual contact points on the
spring sets are available for high current and low current operation. The
REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above.

Internal Operation of Mechanical Relays:

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1. Standard: Single Side Stable with any of the following three different
methods for closing contacts:

i. Flexure Type: The armature actuates the contact spring


directly, and the contact is driven into a stationary contact,
closing the circuit
ii. Lift-off Type: The moveable piece is energized by the
armature, and the contact closes
iii. Plunger Type: The lever action caused by the energization of
the armature produces a long stroke action

2. Reed: A Single Side Stable Contact that involves low contact pressure
and a simple contact point
3. Polarized: Can be either a single side stable or dual-winding. A
permanent magnet is used to either attract or repel the armature that
controls the contact. A definite polarity (+ or -) is required by the relay
coil. The latching option makes a polarized relay dual-winding,
meaning it remains in the current state after the coil is de-energized.

Types of Relays:

There are two basic classifications of relays: Electromechanical and


Solid State. Electromechanical relays have moving parts, whereas solid-state
relays have no moving parts. Advantages of Electromechanical relays
include lower cost, no heat sink is required, multiple poles are available, and
they can switch AC or DC with equal ease.

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 Electromechanical Relays:

General Purpose Relay: The general-purpose relay is rated by the


amount of current its switch contacts can handle. Most versions of the
general-purpose relay have one to eight poles and can be single or double
throw. These are found in computers, copy machines, and other consumer
electronic equipment and appliances.

 Power Relay:

The power relay is capable of handling larger power loads – 10-50


amperes or more. They are usually single-pole or double-pole units.

 Contactor:

A special type of high power relay, it’s used mainly to control high
voltages and currents in industrial electrical applications. Because of these
high power requirements, contactors always have double-make contacts.

 Time-Delay Relay:

The contacts might not open or close until some time interval after the
coil has been energized. This is called delay-on-operate.Delay-on-release
means that the contacts will remain in their actuated position until some
interval after the power has been removed from the coil. A third delay is
called interval timing.

Contacts revert to their alternate position at a specific interval of time


after the coil has been energized. The timing of these actions may be a fixed

32
parameter of the relay, or adjusted by a knob on the relay itself, or remotely
adjusted through an external circuit.

 Solid State Relays:

These active semiconductor devices use light instead of magnetism to


actuate a switch. The light comes from an LED, or light emitting diode.
When control power is applied to the device’s output, the light is turned on
and shines across an open space. On the load side of this space, a part of the
device senses the presence of the light, and triggers a solid-state switch that
either opens or closes the circuit under control. Often, solid-state relays are
used where the circuit under control must be protected from the introduction
of electrical noises.

Advantages of Solid State Relays include low EMI/RFI, long life, no


moving parts, no contact bounce, and fast response. The drawback to using a
solid-state relay is that it can only accomplish single pole switching.

Advantages of relays:

 Relays can switch AC and DC


 Relays can switch high voltages

 Relays are a better choice for switching high currents

 Relays can switch many contacts at once

Applications:

 General Purpose Relays:

33
HVAC, Appliances, Security, Pool & Spa, Industrial Controls,
Office Equipment.

 Low Signal Relays:

Telecommunications, Datacom, CP/OA, Security

 Power Relays:

Office Automation, Process Control, Automotive, Energy


Management Systems, HVAC, Motor Drives/Controls, Appliance
Controls.

 Solid State Relays:

Industrial Control, Motors, Timers

3.4. Spur Gears

Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth,
and are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at
once to create very large gear reductions.

34
Spur gears are used in many devices that you can see all over How Stuf
Works, like the electric screwdriver, dancing monster, oscillating sprinkler,
windup alarm clock, washing machine and clothes dryer. But you won't find
many in your car.

This is because the spur gear can be really loud. Each time a gear tooth
engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth.

To reduce the noise and stress in the gears, most of the gears in your car are
helical.

Usually, motors provide enough power, but not enough torque.


Gear scan be used to reduce speed and increase torque, or the other way if
necessary. Gears can also be used to change direction of rotation or motion,
and transfer power from one place to another .In main housing, the main
drive gear transmits power to two idler or compound gears. The output gear
present in the idler housing is meshed with the compound gear which is
present in the main housing. If the main drive gear rotates in the clock wise
direction then the each compound gear rotates in anti clock wise direction
and vice versa. and due to this the two output gears rotates in clock wise
direction and vice versa.

35

3.5. Wrench

A wrench or spanner is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical


advantage in applying torque to turn objects—usually rotary fasteners, such
as nuts and bolts—or keep them from turning. In British English, spanner is
the standard term. The most common shapes are called open-ended spanner
and ring spanner. The term wrench refers to a type of adjustable spanner.[1]
In American English, wrench is the standard term. The most common shapes
are called open-end wrench and box-end wrench. In American English,
spanner refers to a specialized wrench with a series of pins or tabs around
the circumference. (These pins or tabs fit into the holes or notches cut into
the object to be turned.) In American commerce, such a wrench may be
called a spanner wrench to distinguish it from the British sense of spanner.

36
Higher quality wrenches are typically made from chromium-vanadium alloy
tool steels and are often drop-forged. They are frequently chrome-plated to
resist corrosion and ease
3.6 SCREW JACK

A scissor jack assembly with double-lead Acme threaded screw. Through use
of urethane or similar material as a braking means, the jack assembly is
operable with a self locking action over a wider range of loads and
especially at lower loads where an Acme loading phenomenon that results in
said self locking action has previously been unattainable. Faster and
smoother jack operation is made possible by employing a thrust bearing,
including a plurality of roller or ball bearings, with the jack assembly. A

37
spacing washer is also provided to retain the threaded shaft within the
trunnions of the jack assembly, in order that the ends of each of the trunnions
need not be machined or stamped to retain the trunnions within the jack
assembly. Utilizing such a spacing washer decreases the costs involved with
manufacturing the jack assembly, while increasing the ability to repair the
jack assembly.

Screw-operated scissor jacks have long been known to be useful in lifting


applications and especially in situations where it may be desired to level
heavy objects. A particular type of well known screw-operated scissor jack
employs a double lead Acme screw which traditionally has proven to be
particularly advantageous where extremely massive objects need to be raised
quickly. One industry in which jacks having the double lead Acme screw
have been widely used is the railroad industry, where the need often has
arisen to lift locomotives and rail cars from train tracks. For this and similar
types of lifting jobs, the double lead Acme screw has been shown to be
capable of raising loads up to three times faster than a standard SAE screw
that has been used in other jacks.

In addition to providing a faster operating jack, the Acme double lead screw
exhibits a further operational advantage that derives from the physical
characteristics which are unique to the Acme screw thread. Such operational
advantage is the ability for the Acme screw to become self-locking when the
jack is subjected to loads generally in excess of one thousand pounds. Where
loading is above the stated level, it has been determined that frictional forces
developed among the thread lands or roots become sufficiently large to
prevent the vertically downward directed force of the lifted object from
causing the screw to unwind and prematurely allow the lifted object to
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descend. As already suggested, the described advantage, which also may be
termed an “Acme loading phenomenon,” requires that a minimum load be
lifted by the jack before the Acme loading phenomenon takes effect and
becomes of any benefit to the jack operator. Thus, the advantage to be
gained from discovery of a means to lower the minimum load at which the
jack will become self-locking has been recognized, and the present invention
provides a simple and inexpensive jack construction that is aimed at
achieving that end.

A scissor jack assembly comprising: a base member for resting the jack
assembly against a substantially flat surface; a support bracket assembly;
first and second lower arm members each of an open channel construction
with outer sidewalls and having one end connected to said base plate; first
and second upper arm members each of an open channel construction with
outer sidewalls and having one end connected to said support bracket
assembly; first and second trunnions connecting said upper arms with said
lower arms, each said trunnion including a bore; a rotatable shaft member
extending into the bores of said first and second trunnions; at least one
spacer dimensioned to substantially occupy the space between the sidewalls
of an upper or lower arm member for maintaining the position of said
rotatable shaft within the area between planes created by the sidewalls of
said upper or lower arm members; and a means for locking at least said
spacer on said rotatable shaft member.

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4. VARIOUS MACHINING PROCESS INVOLVED IN OUR
PROJECT

OPERATIONS INVOLVED:

 Turning (facing, plain turning, step turning , threading etc)


 Facing (flat surface)
 Drilling
 Gas cutting (flat plate, cylindrical rods)
 Shaping
 Welding
 Tapping
 Thread cutting
Hardening
TURNING:
Turning is the operation of reducing a cylindrical surface by
removing material from the outside diameter of a work piece. It is done by
rotating the work piece about the lathe axis and feeding the tool parallel to
the lathe axis. Due to this operation screw rod and head are done by the
turning operation to get the required shape.
FACING:
Machining the end of the work piece to produce flat surface is called
facing. Due to this, the plate can get flat surface have done by the facing
operation.

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DRILLING:
Drilling is the operation of producing cylindrical hole in work piece.
It is done by rotating the cutting edge of the cutter known as drill bit. In this
Project the jig plates require holes for locating indexing plate and screw rod,
drill bush assembly. These holes are done by conventional vertical drilling
machine.
THREAD CUTTING:
Thread cutting is the operation of forming external thread of required
diameter of rod by using a multipoint tool is called thread. This process is
used in screw clamp to done on the rod which is used for the movement of
the movable plate
FINE GRINDING

It is nothing but the grinding process, which is done as

smooth with fine grains. This is done as the each plate and base plate

for good surface finish. It is done by conventional grinding machine.

GAS CUTTING
It is used to break are cut the plates. In this project it is used to cut
the raw materials such as plates. This done by gas cutting machine.
SHAPING
Shaping operation is used to reduce the dimensions of the
plates. In this project the plates are in need of shaping process. It is
done by shaping machine.

WELDING

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It is the process, which is used to join two, is more similar
materials as well as dissimilar materials. In this project it is used to
join the jig plate one to another. This is done by arc welding machine.

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5. LINE DIAGRAM

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6. WORKING PRINCIPLES

The ADAPTABLE MULTI NUT FASTNER WITH MANUAL HEIGHT


ADJUSTMENT SYSTEM can be used to tight smaller
size nut by the following principle:

 First wrench is fixed proper socket.


 The smaller nut is first fixed the wrench set up.
 Then D.C motor is controlled through DPDT switch.
 At once the motor will rotate as well as socket will rotates.
 Due to the rotational energy the nut will tight appropriate level
 After completion the direction will be changed.
 After than the job will be remove from it.
 If we needed bolt removing process the reverse switch will operate
 If the height changes we will adjust the Height with the help of
Scissor jack.

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7. COST ESTIMATION

MATERIAL
S.NO COMPONENT QUANTITY COST(RS)
USED
1 D.C Motor 1 M.S 900
2 D.C controller 1 600
3 Socket wrench 3 - 450
4 Structure work 1 M.S 1000
5. Gear arramgement 1 - 2000
6 Jack 1 800

TOTAL 5750

Total cost =5750


Machining charges-800
Total charges-6550

8. ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGE

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1. It does not require extraordinary manual force.
2. Easier maintenance
3. Operation is very smooth and in this system we can get more output
by applying less effort.
4. Comparatively cheaper in cost then the other systems.

BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT


1. With the help of variable adjustment we can tight very easily with the
various height
2. Fine height arrangement can be possible

DISADVANTAGES

1. slippage may occur some time


2. Heavy torque can’t achieve some time.

CONCLUSION

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This report details with ADAPTABLE MULTI NUT FASTNER

WITH MANUAL HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT SYSTEM for heavy vehicle

for loose and tight mechanism with suitable drawing. The project carried out

by us made an impressing task.. Through this type of changes in hydraulics

principle and its application we have increased the performance etc...

Therefore, the result obtain from the project is to reduces the time
taken and efficiency over the other system.
The necessary requirements and fulfillment of the project details which
we have given is factual.

BIBLOGRAPHY

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 GUPTA J.K and KHURUMI R.S (1981) “Text book of Machine
Design”, S.Chand & comp and.

 Parr. ANDREW (2003) ‘Hydraulic & Pneumatics’ Butterworth


Heimann Ltd

 Dr.D.K.AGGARVAL & Dr.P.C SHARMA(2004) “machine design”,


S.K.Kataria and sons

 MAJUMDAR.S.R “Pneumatic systems”, Tata mcgraw-hills company


ltd.

 SRINIVASAN.R(2004) “Hydraulic & pneumatic controls”, vijay


Nicole imprints private ltd.

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