Sunteți pe pagina 1din 7

Extraordinary architectural experiences: comparative

study of three paradigmatic cases of sacred spaces - The


Pantheon, the Chartres Cathedral and the Chapel of
Ronchamp
Julio Bermudez, Brandon Ro

To cite this version:


Julio Bermudez, Brandon Ro. Extraordinary architectural experiences: comparative study of three
paradigmatic cases of sacred spaces - The Pantheon, the Chartres Cathedral and the Chapel of Ron-
champ. Thibaud, Jean-Paul and Siret, Daniel. Ambiances in action / Ambiances en acte(s) - Interna-
tional Congress on Ambiances, Montreal 2012, Sep 2012, Montreal, Canada. International Ambiances
Network, pp.689-694, 2012. <halshs-00745545>

HAL Id: halshs-00745545


https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00745545
Submitted on 25 Oct 2012

HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est


archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci- destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion de documents
entific research documents, whether they are pub- scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non,
lished or not. The documents may come from émanant des établissements d’enseignement et de
teaching and research institutions in France or recherche français ou étrangers, des laboratoires
abroad, or from public or private research centers. publics ou privés.
!"#$%&$'()%$*+%$,-(#.,#/$%0+."1.$(.),.23+,&41%$%#(5.+
2#/'*+&6+#-$..+1%$%'(74%#(,+,%2.2+&6+2%,$.'+21%,.2++
!"#$%&'("#)'*$("#$+"&,(,#-$+&("#.,&/$&'.$("#$+"&0#/$)1$2)'3"&40$

789.'#:;<=>?;@A#:(+/B'/#<C#
!%&#D+E%'9.0#>/.F&(1.E)#'*#G,&(.0+A#H0%''9#'*#G(0%.E&0E8(&#+/B#I9+//./JA#K+1%./JL
E'/#?DA#>/.E&B#HE+E&1#'*#G,&(.0+#
-&(,8B&MN08+O&B8#L#-(('O1'/(.1+1NJ,+.9O0',#

56-(,&3(7( 0*&.1( .'+%23( 45677( '.8%&'*( 8$( +( *9%:'3( $.( ;<=8%+$%)&.+%3( >%/"&8'/89%+2(
<=?'%&'./'*@(A<><*B(+*(+(1'.'%+2(-+/C1%$9.)(,+??&.1(8"'(;*9-D'/8&:'(*&)'@($E('=F
8%+$%)&.+%3( +8,$*?"'%'*5( 8"&*( ?+?'%( E$/9*'*( $.( 8"%''( ?+%+)&1,+8&/( A+.)( *+/%')B(
-9&2)&.1*( %'?$%8')( 8$( &.)9/'( *9/"( '=/'?8&$.+2( %'*?$.*'*G( 8"'( H"+%8%'*( H+8"')%+25(
8"'( I+.8"'$.5( +.)( 8"'( /"+?'2( $E( J$./"+,?K( !"'( ?9%?$*'( &*( 8$( A+B( I%'*'.8( 8"'(
9.&L9'( ?"'.$,'.$2$1&/+2( *&1.+89%'( $E( '+/"( -9&2)&.1M*( +,-&+./'N( +.)( A-B( OEE'%( +(
/$,?+%+8&:'(+.+23*&*(-'8P''.(8"',(+.)(&.(%'2+8&$.(8$(<><*(&.(1'.'%+2K(
8#9:),.-;$0"#')4#')/)<9*$,#/=<=)'*$#40=,=3&/*$-(&(=-(=3-*$0-93")/)<9*$>?&/=(9$

8.)#$%0+%$7/4.)#+%)'+9%,:7$&/)'+$.2.%$,-+
K&# %+F&# 9'/J# P/'Q/# E%+E# 0&(E+./# -8.9B./J1# 0'/1.1E&/E9)# &9.0.E# E%&# ,'1E# R('*'8/B# +&1E%&E.0#
&SR&(.&/0&1#T#E%./P#'*#E%&#I+(E%&/'/A#U+#G9%+,-(+A#'(#E%&#H+9P#V/1E.E8E&#./#D+9.*'(/.+O#W+E8L
(+99)A# E%&# +(0%.E&0E8(&# B.10.R9./&# %+1# B&F'E&B# ,80%# &/&(J)# E'# ,+R# E%&# X'-Y&0E.F&Z# *(+,&L
Q'(P# [&OJOA# B.,&/1.'/1A# R('R'(E.'/1A# ,+E&(.+91A# 9.J%EA# &E0O\# 18RR'(E./J# 180%# &SE(+'(B./+()#
(&1R'/1&1O# ]&EA# 9.EE9&# +EE&/E.'/# %+1# J'/&# E'# +0E8+9# X18-Y&0E.F&Z# (&+0E.'/1# [&OJOA# &,'E.'/1^#
-'B)#(&+0E.'/1^#9&F&91#'*#1R'/E+/&.E)A#F'9.E.'/A#'(#./E('1R&0E.'/^#*'081^#(&+0%&B#./1.J%EA#&E0O\#
!%&#(&+1'/1#*'(#E%.1#+1),,&E()#+(&#,+/)#-8E#+(&#+99#0&/E&(&B#./#E%&#[1&&,./J9)\#./+00&11.-9&#
/+E8(&#'*#0'/10.'81/&11O#K&#%+F&#E(.&B#E'#09'1&#E%&#J+R#-)#(&1'(E./J#E'#10%'9+(1%.R#'(#(&B80L
E.'/.1E#10.&/0&#E'#1R&089+E&#+-'8E#%'Q#Q&#&SR&(.&/0&#1R+0&A#R9+0&A#E&0E'/.01A#10+9&A#,&+/L
./JA#&E0O#[:+0%&9+(BA#_.99.&(A#`(+,R&/A#=&+(9&+8LI'/E)A#W'(-&(JLH0%89MA#<+1,811&/\O#!%.1#%+1#
-&&/#%&9R*89#-8E#*(81E(+E./J9)#F+J8&#+/B#10.&/E.*.0+99)#Q&+P#+E#-&1EO#
V/# E%&# a.(1E# V/E&(/+E.'/+9# D'/J(&11# '/# G,-.+/0&1# ./# b(&/'-9&# [cdd5\A# :&(,8B&M# R(&1&/E&B#
./.E.+9# (&189E1# '*# EQ'# ,+Y'(# 18(F&)1# '/# X;SE(+'(B./+()# G(0%.E&0E8(+9# ;SR&(.&/0&1Z# ['(# ;G;1\#
B&F'E&B# E'# +BB(&11# E%.1# 1%'(E0',./J# [:&(,8B&MA# cdd5\O# :'E%# 18(F&)1# ['/&# ./# ;/J9.1%# +/B#
'/&#./#HR+/.1%\#%+B#E%&#1+,&#e4#f8&1E.'/1#0'F&(./J# f8+9.E+E.F&#+/B#f8+/E.E+E.F&#,&+18(&L
,&/E1#'*#;G;1#B&*./&B#+1#X+/#&/0'8/E&(#Q.E%#+#-8.9B./J#'(#R9+0&#E%+E#*8/B+,&/E+99)#+9E&(1#
'/&g1#/'(,+9#1E+E&#'*#-&./JO#:)#h*8/B+,&/E+9#+9E&(+E.'/i#.E#.1#,&+/E#+#R'Q&(*89#+/B#9+1E./J#
1%.*E# ./# '/&g1# R%)1.0+9A# R&(0&RE8+9A# &,'E.'/+9A# ./E&99&0E8+9A# +/Bj'(# 1R.(.E8+9# +RR(&0.+E.'/# '*#
+(0%.E&0E8(&O# V/# 0'/E(+1EA# +/# '(B./+()# &SR&(.&/0&# '*# +(0%.E&0E8(&A# %'Q&F&(# ./E&(&1E./J# '(#
&/J+J./JA#B'&1#/'E#0+81&#+#1.J/.*.0+/E#.,R+0E#./#'/&g1#9.*&ZO#
!%&# '/9./&# R'991# J+E%&(&B# E%&# 9+(J&1E# /8,-&(# '*# (&1R'/1&1# &F&(# 0'99&0E&B# [WkcA5lc\A# E%81#
&/+-9./J#+#9&F&9#'*#1E+E.1E.0+9#+/+9)1.1#.,R'11.-9&#8/E.9#E%&/O#G9E%'8J%#,+/)#'*#E%&#(&1&+(0%#
*./B./J1# *(',# E%.1# &**'(E# %+F&# -&&/# R8-9.1%&B# [:&(,8B&MA# cdd5A# cdd6+A# cdmm+L0\A# E%.1#
P/'Q9&BJ&# %+1# 0'F&(&B# E%&# X18-Y&0E.F&# 1.B&Z# '*# &SE(+'(B./+()# +E,'1R%&(&1# Q.E%# +# -.+1#
E'Q+(B1#Q%+E#.1#0',,'/#'(#J&/&(+9O#

!"#$#!%&'()#'*#+,-.+/0&1#2#!"#$%&'()'*(+,-&+./'*#####3#456#
K&#%&(&#R(&1&/E#+#/&Q#Q+)#E'#9''P#+E#E%&#18(F&)#B+E+#-)#./F&1E.J+E./J#e#R+(+B.J,+E.0#+(0%.L
E&0E8(+9#+,-.+/0&1#'00+1.'/&B#-)#E%&#I+/E%&'/A#E%&#D%+(E(&1#D+E%&B(+9A#+/B#E%&#0%+R&9#'*#
<'/0%+,RO#K&#R.0P&B#E%&,#'8E#'*#+#9'/J#9.1E#'*#0+/B.B+E&1#*'(#E%&#*'99'Q./J#(&+1'/1n#
• E%&)#+(&#./#E%&#E&/#,'1E#0.E&B#R9+0&1#1+.B#E'#./B80&#;G;1#[1&&#9.1E#./#:&(,8B&MA#cdd6+\#T
E%81#R('F.B./J#81#Q.E%#+#1'9.B#+J(&&,&/E#'*#E%&#%.J%#f8+9.E)#+/B#1800&11#'*#E%&1&#1E(80L
E8(&1^#
• E%&)#Q&(&#+99#B&1.J/&B#+1#1+0(&B#1R+0&1A#+(&#1E.99#./#'R&(+E.'/A#+/B#B&B.0+E&B#E'#1&(F&#
E%
E%&#D+E%'9.0#D%8(0%#[E%&#I+/E%&'/#Q+1#0'L'RE&B#E'#B'#1'#1./0&#E%&#l #D&/E8()\#T#E%81#
*'081./J#'8(#1E8B)#./#(&9.J.'81#+E,'1R%&(&1#'*#+#F&()#R+(E.089+(#P./B^#
• E%&)#Q&(&#-8.9E#E'#+BB(&11#F&()#B.**&(&/E#089E8(+9A#E&0%/'9'J.0+9A#+(0%.E&0E8(+9A#9.E8(J.0+9A#
0'1,'9'J.0+9A# R('J(+,,+E.0A# +/B# 'E%&(# B&,+/B1# T# E%81# &/+-9./J# 81# E'# J+8J&# E%&# .,L
R+0E#E%+E#*8/B+,&/E+99)#B.1E./0E#0.F.9.M+E.'/1#+/B#E.,&#R&(.'B1#,+)#%+F&#./#0'/E&,R'L
(+()#&SR&(.&/0&O#
W'E&n#;/J9.1%#H8(F&)#1E+E.1E.01#+(&#./#9&0'#Q%&(&+1#E%'1&#*'(#E%&#HR+/.1%#R'99#+(&#./#&8+2&/*O#

;.#-&'&0&7*+
!%&# ./*'(,+E.'/# 8E.9.M&B# E'# 0'/B80E# E%&1&# E%(&&# 0+1&# 1E8B.&1# 0',&# *(',# E%&# 9+(J&# 18(F&)#
B+E+-+1&# Q%.0%A# +*E&(# (&,'F./J# E%&# &SE(+0E&B# 0+1&L1E8B.&1A# 1&(F&B# +1# +# 0',R+(+E.F&# -+0PL
J('8/BO#K%.9&#Q&#0'8/E&B#&F&()#1./J9&#/+,./J#'*#+#1E(80E8(&#'(#R9+0&#E'#R('B80&#E%&#E+99)#'*#
m
-8.9B./J1#R('F'P./J#;G;1#[1&&#E%&#9.1E#./#:&(,8B&M#cdd6+\ A#*'(#E%.1#1E8B)#Q&#0'/1.B&(#'/9)#
E%'1&# &/E(.&1# E%+E# 0'89B# -&# F&(.*.&B# E'# R&(E+./# E'# E%+E# R+(E.089+(# -8.9B./JO# K&# B&F.1&B# EQ'#
(89&1#E'#+00',R9.1%#E%.1n##
• <89&#mn#`&&R#&/E()#.*#E%&(&#.1#'/9)#'/&#-8.9B./J#0.E&B#./#oe#LC<L#.*#E%&#*+,'#-8.9B./J#.1#
c
+J+./#0'/*.(,&B#+1#E%&#R(.,+()#18-Y&0E#./#oc6^ #
• <89&# cn# `&&R# &/E()# .*# E%&(&# .1# +/# &SR&(.&/E.+9# +00'8/E# ./# &.E%&(# f8&1E.'/# oc6# '(# oed #
c

E%+E#+**.(,1#180%#-8.9B./J#&F&/#.*#.E#Q+1#.$8#/+,&B#./#oeO#
:+1&B#'/#E%&1&#0(.E&(.+#Q&#&/B&B#8R#Q.E%#E%&#<=A#Q#&/E(.&1#*'(#E%&#I+/E%&'/^#>?@#R#*'(#D%+(L
E(&1#^# +/B# <>@+ SR( *'(# <'/0%+,RO# K%.9&# E%&1&# &/E(.&1# B'# /'E# 1&&,# ,+/)# 0',R+(&B# E'# E%&#
e
>@<=AA#TQS#'*#*899)#0',R9&E&B#&/E(.&1#[XG99#CE%&(#;G;1Z\A #E%&)#+(&#1E.99#Q.E%./#1E+E.1E.0+9#(+/J&#
*'(#&/E(.&1#./#E%&#;/J9.1%#18(F&)#[E+P&/#E'#-&#+E#9&+1E#mm#&/E(.&1\O#?8&#E'#1R+0&#9.,.E+E.'/#+/B#
E%&#9+0P#'*#&/'8J%#&/E(.&1#*'(#EQ'#'*#E%&#E%(&&#HR+/.1%#18(F&)#0+1&1A#Q&#%+F&#B&0.B&B#/'E#E'#
./098B&#E%&,#./#E%&#R(&1&/E#R+R&(O##

B-.+)%#/$.+&6+."#$%&$'()%$*+%$,-(#.,#/$%0+."1.$(.),.2+
:&*'(&# R('0&&B./J# Q.E%# E%&# +/+9)1.1# '*# '8(# E%(&&# 1R&0.*.0# +E,'1R%&(&1A# Q&# Q.99# 18,,+(.M&#
E%&#&11&/E.+9#/+E8(&#'*#;G;1#Q.E%./#+/B#+J+./1E#Q%.0%#'8(#0+1&1#Q.99#-&#0'/1.B&(&BO##
!%&#18(F&)1#1%'Q#E%+E#;G;1#%+F&#+#18BB&/#[C>DCEA(TUKTVB(+/B#18(R(.1./J#[AFEA#URV\#+('81L
+9#^# 8/*'9B# 1R'/E+/&'819)# [AGDCEA# 6SV\#^# +(&# ./E&/1&# [G=EA# UUKTV\A# R('*'8/B# [GHEA# 6SKTV\#
+/B# F.F.B# [GCDCEA# UWKTVB^# +EE+./# %.J%# 1E+E&1# '*# +Q+(&/&11# [H<DCEA# XUV\^# *&&9# +1# ./E('1R&0L
E.F&j1.9&/E#[GADCEA#UXV\#^#+/B#./F'9F&#1E('/J#-'B)#(&+0E.'/1#T#J''1&#-8,R1A#%&+(E#R'8/B./JA#
1%.F&(1A#&E0O#[CFDCEA#WRV\O#K%&/#Q&#0'/1.B&(#E%&1&#+EE(.-8E&1#./#(&9+E.'/#E'n#
############################################################################
SK(>28"$91"(Y9%:'3(Z9'*8&$.(R(AZRB(*?'/&E&/+223(+*C')(8$(.+,'(8"'(-9&2)&.1(8"+8("+)(/+9*')(8"'(<><5(
,+.3(*9%:'3(?+%8&/&?+.8*($E8'.(.+,')(,+.3(-9&2)&.1*(?%&$%(8$(1$&.1(&.8$(8"'&%(?+%8&/92+%('=?'%&'./'K((
4K(Y9%:'3(Z9'*8&$.(46(AZ46B(&.:&8')(?+%8&/&?+.8*(8$(P%&8'(9?(8"'&%(<><(;+*(/2$*'(+*(?$**&-2'(+*(8$("$P(
[8"'3\(%',',-'%(&8@(P"'%'+*(Y9%:'3(Z9'*8&$.(R7(AZR7B(8$(*"+%'(+.3(+))&8&$.+2(/$,,'.8*K(
RK(>28"$91"(8"'%'(P'%'(>@GH=(+.)(6U4(8$8+2('.8%&'*5(AE5(UV($E(8"',(+.*P'%')(]O(8$(8"'(E&%*8(*9%:'3(
L9'*8&$.(A;^+:'(3$9(':'%("+)(+.(<><_@B(+.)(8"'%'E$%'(+%'(.$8("'%'(&./29)')5(.$%(+%'(+.3('.8%3(8"+8(P+*(
$.23(?+%8&+223(/$,?2'8')K(

46d#3#####c/B#V/E&(/+E.'/+9#D'/J(&11#'/#G,-.+/0&1A#='/E(&+9#cdmc#
• E%&# ./0(&B.-9&# .,R(&11.'/# '*# ;G;1# ./# R&'R9&1i# 9.F&1# [H>DIEA( XQK6V# (+E&B# E%&1&# &SR&L
(.&/0&1#E'#-&#+1#'(#,'(&#R'Q&(*89#E%+/#'E%&(#XF&()#1E('/J#9.*&#&SR&(.&/0&1Z\^#
• E%&#%.J%#./*(&f8&/0)#'*#E%&#&F&/E#[CHDCEA#QTKXV(./B.0+E&B#E'#%+F&#%+B#*.F&#'(#9&11#;G;1#
./#E%&.(#&/E.(&#9.F&1\^#
• E%&#%8J&#B.1E+/0&1#R&'R9&#E(+F&9&B#E'#&/Y')#E%&,#[?@I==A#R5677#,.9&1\^#+/B##
• E%&.(#-(.&*#B8(+E.'/#[C<EA#QTKTV(E.,&B#;G;1#+E#9&11#E%+/#ed#,./8E&1\^#
Q&# (&+9.M&# E%&# J(&+E# *'(0&# E%+E# E%&1&# &SR&(.&/0&1# %+F&O# VE# .1# %+(B9)# 18(R(.1./J# E'# 1&&# >GEA#
4UKTV('*#E%&#R&'R9&#+0P/'Q9&BJ./J#Q&&R./J#+/B#E%&#%.J%#9&F&91#'*#(&0+99#(&R'(E&B#[F?DCEA#
QWV\#&F&/#E%'8J%#E%&#+F&(+J&#E.,&#9+R1&B#-&EQ&&/#+/#&F&/E#+/B#.E1#%.J%9)#B&E+.9&B#(&R'(EL
./J#Q+1#>?A#SS()&+(1#[:&(,8B&MA#cdmm0\O#
='(&#1R&0.*.0+99)A#Q%&/#+1P&B#E'#B&*./&#*'8(#&SR&(.&/E.+9#0%+(+0E&(.1E.01#'*#E%&.(#&SE(+'(B.L
/+()#&/0'8/E&(A#;/J9.1%#+/B#HR+/.1%#1R&+P./J#R+(E.0.R+/E1#+J(&&B#B&1R.E&#-&./J#1'#*+(#+R+(E#
./# 1R+0&A# 9+/J8+J&# +/B# 089E8(&n# ;G;1# +(&# 1E('/J9)# ?2'+*9%+-2'# +/B# ',$8&$.+2# &F&/E1# E%+E#
R('F.B&#.,,&B.+E&#+00&11#E'#E%&#8&,'2'**#/+E8(&#'*#?"3*&/+25(*'.*$%&+25(+.)(?'%/'?89+2#(&+9.L
E)#T#+/B#/'E#+E#+99#X+/+9)E.0+9#'(#./E&99&0E8+9Z#&F&/E1O#K%&/#Q&#0'/1.B&(#+99#E%&1&#(&189E1#+/B#
+BB# E%+E# E%&1&# &SR&(.&/0&1# B.B# /'E# 1&(F&# +/)# R8(R'1&# &S0&RE# E%&.(# 'Q/# '008((&/0&# /'(#
B.1R&/1&# J''B1# 18.E+-9&# *'(# 0'/0(&E&# J+./# -8E# ./1E&+B# B&9.F&(&B# h&.*&1"8M( [CCE@+ TWKTV\A#
h-'+983M([IHEA#TWKTV\A#hD$3M([I?DCE\#'(#h*+8&*E+/8&$.M([WWKTV\A#+/B#h?'+/'M([I=EA#RRV\#E'#E%&#
./B.F.B8+9#[:&(,8B&MA#cdmm0\A#Q&#,81E#0'/098B&#E%+EA#./#E%&#(.J%E#0'/B.E.'/1A#+(0%.E&0E8(+9#
+E,'1R%&(&1# 0+/# +/B# B'# -&0',&# J+E&Q+)1# E'# E(+/10&/B&/E+9# &SR&(.&/0&1O# a'(# E%.1# F&()#
(&+1'/A#+#,+Y'(.E)#'*#-8.9B./J1#(&R'(E&B#./#E%&#18(F&)#E'#./B80&#180%#&SE(+'(B./+()#R%&/',L
&/'9'J.&1#+(&#(&9.J.'81#./B&&B#[:&(,8B&MA#cdd6+A#cdd6-\O#

8%2.+2#/'(.2+
K&#1E+(E&B#'8(#1E8B)#-)#0'/1.B&(./J#E%&#(&1R'/1&1#E'#EQ'#18(F&)#f8&1E.'/1#B.(&0E9)#(&9+E&B#
E'# E%&# 'F&(+99# f8+9.E.&1# '*# E%&# &SR&(.&/0&O# HR&0.*.0+99)A# o8&1E.'/# l# +1P&B# X^$P( P$92)( 3$9(
/"+%+/8'%&`'(3$9%('=8%+$%)&.+%3(+%/"&8'/89%+2('=?'%&'./'_(AI2'+*'(/"$$*'(8$?(TB@(+/B#R('F.BL
&B# 5# 0%'.0&1n# +2'%85( *'.*9+2a?'%/'?89+2a?"3*&/+25( ',$8&$.+25( ?'%*$.+2a?%&:+8'5( 1%+/'E925(
8&,'2'**5(+.)(R($?'.(*2$8*O#!+-9&#m#1%'Q1#E%&#(&189E1O#!%&#*.(1E#/8,-&(#1%'Q1#E%&#(+/P./J#'*#
E%&# &SR&(.&/E.+9# 0%+(+0E&(.1E.0# Q%.9&# E%&# '/&# ./# R+(&/E%&1.1# B&/'E&1# E%&# R&(0&/E+J&# '*#
+J(&&,&/E#+,'/J#(&1R'/B&/E1#[(&1R'/1&1#-&9'Q#"dp#Q&(&#/'E#0'/1.B&(&B\O#W'E.0&#E%+E#E%&#
E'R#E%(&&#0%'.0&1#*'(#+99#E%(&&#0+1&#1E8B.&1#[+/B#XG99#CE%&(#;G;1Z\#+(&#E%&#1+,&A#-8E#./#B.*L
*&(&/E#'(B&(#+/B#R&(0&/E+J&1O##
#
(
V/E&99&0E8+9#
R&(0&RE8+9L

;,'E.'/+9#

G/+9)E.0+9L
I&(1'/+9#L
!.,&9&11#

I9&+18(&#
R%)1.0+9#
H&/18+9L

CE%&(#m#
R(.F+E&#

I+/E%&'/# m#[lqp\# c#[4qp\# e#[qdp\# # # # e#[qdp\#


D%+(E(&1# e#[4cp\# m#[5qp\# c#[llp\# # "#[qdp\# q#["4p\# #
<'/0%+,R# c#[lmp\# m#[l4p\# e#[qcp\# # "#[qdp\# # #
>22(O8"'%(<><*( m#[lmp\# c#[ldp\# e#[qdp\# "#["cp\# # # #

!+-9&#mO#H8,,+()#'*#<&1R'/1&1#E'#H8(F&)#o8&1E.'/#l#

H8(F&)#f8&1E.'/#cm#+1P&B#;b"+8()&)(3$9(1'8($98($E(8"'('=?'%&'./'_(A?2'+*'(/"$$*'(8$?(RB@(
+/B#R('F.B&B#l#0%'.0&1n#C.$P2')1'5(&.*&1"85(*+8&*E+/8&$.5(D$35(%'2'+*'5(?'+/'5(-'+9835(+.)(R(
$?'.( *2$8*K# !+-9&# c# 1%'Q1# E%&# ,'1E# 0',,'/# 0%'.0&1O# G1# ./# !+-9&# mA# E%&# *.(1E# /8,-&(# ./B.L
0+E&1#E%&#(+/P./J#'*#E%&#f8+9.E)#Q%.9&#E%&#'/&#./#R+(&/E%&1.1#(&R(&1&/E1#E%&#R&(0&/E+J&#'*#
+J(&&,&/E# +,'/J# (&1R'/B&/E1# T# (&1R'/1&1# 8/B&(# "dp# Q&(&# /'E# 0'/1.B&(&BO# G1# -&*'(&A#

!"#$#!%&'()#'*#+,-.+/0&1#2#!"#$%&'()'*(+,-&+./'*#####3#46m#
E%&(&#.1#+#(&,+(P+-9&#+00'(B#'/#E%&#E'R#*'8(#1&9&0E.'/1#&F&/#Q%&/#B.**&(./J#./#%.&(+(0%)#+/B#
R&(0&/E+J&1O#
#
( c.*&1"8( d'+983( e$3( I'+/'(
I+/E%&'/# c#[qqp\# e#[qdp\# m#[4dp\# c#[qqp\#
D%+(E(&1# m#[46p\# c#["4p\# c#["4p\# c#["4p\#
<'/0%+,R# m#[4cp\# c#[qlp\# c#[qlp\# e#["5p\#
>22(O8"'%(<><*( m#[qqp\# c#["6p\# e#["ep\# "#["dp\#

!+-9&#cO#H8,,+()#'*#<&1R'/1&1#E'#H8(F&)#o8&1E.'/#cm#

V/#'(B&(#E'#1E+E.1E.0+99)#+/+9)M&#E%&#(&1E#'*#E%&#H8(F&)#B+E+-+1&A#Q&#B&F&9'R&B#*'8(#0(.E&(.+O#
a.(1EA# 18(F&)# &/E(.&1# E%+E# %+B# /'# (&9&F+/0)# E'# E%&# +/+9)E.0+9# E+1P# +E# %+/B# Q&(&# (&,'F&BO#
H&0'/BA# E%&(&# %+B# E'# -&# +# rqp# (&9+E.F&# B.**&(&/0&# -&EQ&&/# E%&# +F&(+J&# ;G;1# +/B# +E# 9&+1E#
'/&# '*# E%&# 1E8B.&B# ;G;1# *'(# +/# &SR&(.&/E.+9# B.,&/1.'/# E'# -&# ./098B&B# ./# E%&# +/+9)1.1O# !%&#
0',-./+E.'/# '*# E%&# *.(1E# EQ'# (89&1# (&B80&B# E%&# /8,-&(# '*# &/E(.&1# E'# ml# [*(',# cl\O# !%.(BA#
B.**&(&/0&1# Q&(&# (+/P&B# +1# %.J%A# ,&B.8,# '(# 9'Q# -+1&B# '/# E%&.(# 0',R+(+E.F&# R&(0&/E+J&#
B.**&(&/0&# +/B# +11.J/&B# +# mOdA# dOqA# '(# dOcq# 0'&**.0.&/E# (&1R&0E.F&9)O# a'8(E%A# +/)# R&(0&/E+J&#
B.1R+(.E)#rmqp#(&0&.F&B#+#qdp#-''1E#./#.E1#0'&**.0.&/E#E'#+0P/'Q9&BJ&#.E1#1E('/J#Q&.J%EO#!%&#
(&189E#'*#E%&1&#,&E%'B'9'J.0+9#'R&(+E.'/1#.1#R(&1&/E&B#./#E+-9&#eO#W8,-&(1#'/#E%&#9&*E#Af$/+F
8&$.B# R'(E(+)# R&(0&/E+J&# B.**&(&/0&1# -&EQ&&/# ;G;1# +E# +# R+(E.089+(# R9+0&# +/B# E%&# +F&(+J&#
;G;O#:'9B#/8,-&(1#./#J(&)#-'S&1#1%'Q#rmqp#R&(0&/E+J&#B.**&(&/0&1O#W8,-&(1#'/#E%&#(.J%E#
Ag&EE'%'./'*B#9.1E#E%&#0'&**.0.&/E1O#
#
( UCDG!VCW# # ?Vaa;<;WD;H#
( I+.8"'$.( H"+%8%'*( J$./"+,?( (
I(h(J(( I(h(H(( H(h(J((
AIB( AHB( AJB(
Y9))'.(( e5#p# Lcm#p# Tc#p# ( dOlq# mOq# dOelq#
Y9%?%&*&.1i( Tme#p# T5#p# Tq#p# # m# dOq# ##
]$(!+2C&.1i( ""#p# e4#p# ce#p# ( mOq# dOq# dOcq#
b''?&.1i( ee#p# mdd#p# mm#p# ( dOelq# dOlq# mOq#
<,-$)&')(( e4#p# ed#p# Tc#p# ( mOq# dOcq# dOlq#
c.8%$*?'/8&:'( #
+.)(Y&2'.8i( 6#p# 4#p# 6#p# ## ## ##
>P+%'i( T"#p# T6#p# Te#p# # ## dOq# m#
c.8'.*'( Tm6#p# mq#p# d#p# ( dOlq# mOq# dOelq#
I%$E$9.)i(( l#p# mc#p# l#p# # ## m# m#
Y?$.8+.'$9*i( e#p# 4#p# mq#p# # m# ## dOq#
]$(b$%)*( m6#p# Tq#p# Tee#p# ( mOq# dOelq# dOlq#
Y"+%')( Tme#p# m4#p# q#p# # dOq# mOq# dOcq#
!%+.*E$%,&.1( T6#p# d#p# q#p# # m# dOq# dOcq#
Y8%$.1(J'/+22( T4#p# d#p# cq#p# ( mOq# dOcq# dOq#
j+2'( Tc"#p# 5#p# Te#p# ( dOlq# mOq# dOcq#
k%+)l(<)9/( Tmc#p# e"#p# c4#p# ( dOlq# mOq# dOcq#
>%/"&8'/89%'( cl#p# d#p# "l#p# ( dOelq# dOlq# mOq#
!$8+2( # # # # meOe# mcO6# 6Oq#

!+-9&#eO#?.**&(&/0&1#+/B#D',,'/+9.E.&1#+,'/J#;G;1#./B80&B#-)#E%&#
I+/E%&'/A#E%&#D%+(E(&1#D+E%&B(+9A#+/B#E%&#0%+R&9#'*#<'/0%+,R#

46c#3#####c/B#V/E&(/+E.'/+9#D'/J(&11#'/#G,-.+/0&1A#='/E(&+9#cdmc#
H$,,$.+2&8&'*($E(8"'(8"%''(<><*(&.(/$.8%+*8(8$(8"'(+:'%+1'(<><(
!%&(&#+(&#1&F&/#&SR&(.&/E.+9#B.,&/1.'/1#E%+EA#./#J&/&(+9A#B.**&(&/E.+E&#E%&#E%(&&#;G;1#-&./J#
0'/1.B&(&B#*(',#E%&#+F&(+J&#;G;O#!%&)#+(&#,+(P&B#Q.E%#+/#+1E&(.1P#[s\#./#E+-9&#eO#;SE(+'(B.L
/+()# G(0%.E&0E8(+9# ;SR&(.&/0&1# +E# E%&# I+/E%&'/A# D%+(E(&1# +/B# <'/0%+,R# +(&# 1.J/.*.0+/E9)#
9&11# E+9P+E.F&A# ,'(&# ./E('1R&0E.F&j1.9&/EA# ,'(&# R('*'8/BA# ,'(&# 1R'/E+/&'81A# +/B# ,'(&#
%&+(ELQ(&/0%./J# E%+/# E%&# ,&+/# ;G;O# CE%&(# 9&11# 1E(.P./J# -8E# 1E.99# Q'(E%# ,&/E.'/./J# B.**&(L
&/0&1#./098B&#E%&.(#-&./J#9&11#18(R(.1./J#+/B#+Q+(&O#W'E.0&#E%+E#/'E#+99#R&(0&/E+J&1#/&0&1L
1+(.9)# %+F&# E%&# 1+,&# Q&.J%EO# a'(# &S+,R9&A# 1./0&# E%&# +F&(+J&# ;G;# Q+1# (&0'J/.M&B# +1# XR('L
*'8/BZ#-)#56p#'*#E%&#18(F&)#R+(E.0.R+/E1A#+9E%'8J%#'8(# E%(&&#;G;1#%+F&#$.23#+#lp#'(#mcp#
%.J%&(# XR('*'8/B.E)ZA# E%&# 9&F&9# '*# B&RE%# +0%.&F&B# B8(./J# E%&1&# &SR&(.&/0&1# .1# +99# E%&# ,'(&#
(&,+(P+-9&#[D%+(E(&1#J&E1#E'#mddp#t\O#H.,.9+(#-8E#./#E%&#'RR'1.E&#B.(&0E.'/#.1#+Q+(&/&11O#!%&#
*+0E#E%+E#'8(#E%(&&#;G;1#8/*'9B#+E#+#9'Q&(#9&F&9#'*#+Q+(&/&11#E%+/#E%&#+F&(+J&#[T6p#'(#Tep\#
1%'89B# /'E# ,+P&# 81# *'(J&E# E%+E# E%&# -+0PJ('8/B# +Q+(&/&11# 9&F&9# Q+1# 1'# (&,+(P+-9)# %.J%#
[6ep\#E%+E#'8(#E%(&&#;G;1#1E.99#,+/+J&#E'#B.1R9+)#F&()#.,R(&11.F&#9&F&91#'*#+Q+(&/&11#AUqpA#
56p#+/B#6dp\O##
!%&1&#(&189E1#,+)#1.J/.*)#E%+E#E%&#E%(&&#;G;1#-&./J#1E8B.&B#+(&#&F&/#,'(&#./E&(/+99)#B(.F&/#
[./E('1R&0E.'/A# R('*8/B.E)\# E%+/# ,'1E# ;G;1A# 1',&E%./J# E%+E# *./B1# &SE&(/+9# &SR(&11.'/# ./#
f8.&EA#/'/LF&(-+9A#8/R(',RE&BA#+/B#E&+(*89#,+//&(1O#!%.1#,+)#./B.0+E&#E%+E#+E#.E1#%.J%&1EA#+1#
I+99+1,++#+(J8&1#[cdd5\A#+#R('*'8/B#&SR&(.&/0&#'*#+(0%.E&0E8(&#,+)#/'E#-&#+-'8E#+(0%.E&0L
E8(&# +E# +99# T# E%&# -8.9B./J# +E,'1R%&(&# -&./J# +# -(.BJ&# E'# +# E(+/10&/B&/E+9# ,',&/EO# !%&# (&L
R'(E&B# 8/18(R(.1./J# /+E8(&# '*# E%&# +('81+9# ./# +99# E%(&&# 0+1&1# ,+)# -&# &SR9+./&B# ./# R+(E# -)#
R&'R9&i1# ./E&/E.'/+9# E(+F&9# E'# E%&1&# -8.9B./J1O# V/# 'E%&(# Q'(B1A# E%&# R(&R+(+E.'/A# &**'(EA# +/B#
B&1.(&# ./F'9F&B# ./# /&J'E.+E./J# E%'81+/B1# '*# ,.9&1# ,+)# /+E8(+99)# B.,./.1%# 18(R(.1&A# &F&/#
E%'8J%#.E#1E.99#(&,+./1#%.J%#[4qpA#46pA#lmp#0',R+(&B#E'#lqp#*'(#+99#;G;1\O#]&EA#E%&#*+0E#E%+E#
+99# E%(&&# -8.9B./J1# ,+/+J&B# E'# 0+E+R89E# R&'R9&# E'# &/Y')# +# %.J%&(# 1R'/E+/&'81# (&1R'/1&#
18JJ&1E#E%+E#E%&#,',&/E#E(+/10&/B&B#+/)#&SR&0E+E.'/#'(#R(&L&1E+-9.1%&B#(&1R'/1&O#

g&EE'%'./'*(-'8P''.(8"'(8"%''(<><*(
!+-9&1# m# +/B# c# B&R.0E# I+/E%&'/# ;G;1# +1# E%&# ,'1E# H&/18+9jI&(0&RE8+9jI%)1.0+9# +/B# Y')*89#
&SR&(.&/0&1# '*# E%&# E%(&&O# K%.9&# 9&11# &,'E.'/+9# E%+/# E%&# 'E%&(# EQ'A# I+/E%&'/# ;G;1# Q&(&#
B&10(.-&B#+1#./1.J%E*89#+/B#R&+0&*89#Q.E%#-&+8E)#0',./J#9+1EO#V/E(.J8./J#&/'8J%A#B&1R.E&#E%&#
9'Q&(# 9&F&9# '*# 'F&(+99# +J(&&,&/E# +,'/J# E%&# (&1R'/B&/E1A# E%&)# B.B# +J(&&# ./# '**&(./J# E%&.(#
"
'Q/# +11&11,&/E# '*# E%&# &SR&(.&/0& O# !%&# I+/E%&'/# ;G;1# Q&(&# E%&# ,'1E# &,-'B.&BA# /'/L
E+9P+E.F&A#+/B#18BB&/#'*#E%&#E%(&&O#!%&)#Q&(&#+91'#E%&#9&+1E#./E&/1&A#18(R(.1./JA#+/B#1R'/E+L
/&'81A#Q%.0%#J&/&(+E&B#E%&#Q&+P&1E#9&F&91#'*#(&0+99#+/B#0+81&B#E%&#9'Q&1E#0%+/J&1#./#E%&#
18-Y&0E1i#8/B&(1E+/B./J#'*#+(0%.E&0E8(&O#]&EA#R+(+B'S.0+99)A#I+/E%&'/#;G;1#Q&(&#+91'#(&R'(EL
&B#E'#-&#8/*'9B./J#+E#E%&#%.J%&1E#9&F&91#'*#1.9&/0&j./E('1R&0E.'/#+/B#0+81./J#F&()#R('*'8/B#
(&1R'/1&1O#V/#E&(,1#'*#0',,8/.0+E.'/A#E%&1&#;G;1#Q&(&#1+.B#E'#-&#E%&#9&+1E#0',,8/.0+-9&#
E%('8J%# Q'(B1# +/B# E%&# 9&+1E# 1%+(&B# Q.E%# 'E%&(# R&'R9&O# a./+99)A# I+/E%&'/i1# ;G;1# +EE(+0E&B#
['(# Q&(&# (&R'(E&B# -)\# ,'(&# *&,+9&1# +1# Q&99# +1# ./B.F.B8+91# Q.E%# E%&# 9&+1E# &B80+E.'/# +/B#
/8,-&(#'*#R(&F.'81#;G;1O#
!+-9&1#m#+/B#c#R(&1&/E#D%+(E(&1#;G;1#-)#*+(#+1#E%&#,'1E#&,'E.'/+9#+/B#E.,&9&11#&SR&(.&/0&1#
'*# E%&# E%(&&# Q.E%# E%&# 1&/18+9jR&(0&RE8+9jR%)1.0+9# 0',./J# +E# +# B.1E+/E# E%.(B# ./# .,R'(E+/0&#
[+9E%'8J%#1E.99#(&9+E.F&9)#%.J%\O#;G;1#+E#D%+(E(&1#D+E%&B(+9#Q&(&#R(.,+(.9)#+-'8E#./1.J%E#Q.E%#
-&+8E)A#Y')#+/B#R&+0&#0',./J#+E#E%&#1+,&#-8E#09&+(9)#1&0'/B+()#9&F&9#'*#.,R+0EO#D'/1.1E&/E#
Q.E%# E%.1# R%&/',&/'9'J)A# !+-9&# e# 1%'Q1# E%+E# E%&# D%+(E(&1# D+E%&B(+9# ./B80&B# E%&# ,'1E#
R('*'8/BA#./E&/1&A#+/B#,'F./J#[Q&&R./J\#&SR&(.&/0&1#'*#E%&#E%(&&#+/B#E%+E#E%&)#Q&(&#E%&#
,'1E# 1%+(&B# Q.E%# 'E%&(1# [18JJ&1E./J# +# F&()# R&(1'/+9# .,R+0EA# 1',&E%./J# (&0'J/.M&B# ./# !+L
############################################################################
WK(!"'%'(P'%'(8"%''(83?'*($E('.8%&'*(G(A+B(*8%$.15(+P'*$,'5(?$P'%E92N(A-B(*9-2&,'a*?&%&89+2N(+.)(A/B(
+./&'.8K(

!"#$#!%&'()#'*#+,-.+/0&1#2#!"#$%&'()'*(+,-&+./'*#####3#46e#
-9&#m\O#!%&)#Q&(&#+91'#E%&#9&+1E#18BB&/#+/B#+Q+(&A#+/B#+EE(+0E&BjQ&(&#(&0'8/E&B#-)#,'1E#
,+9&#+/B#&B80+E&B#R'R89+E.'/O#K%.9&#D%+(E(&1i#;G;1#%+B#%.J%#9&F&91#'*#&,-'B.,&/EA#/'/L
E+9P./JA# +/B# ./E('1R&0E.'/j1.9&/0&A# E%&)# Q&(&# 9'Q&(# E%+/# E%&# I+/E%&'/# ;G;1O# !%&1&# (&189E1#
,+)# -&# R+(E.+99)# &SR9+./&B# -)# E%&# R+(+B.J,+E.0# b'E%.0# *&+E8(&1# '*# E%.1# 1+0(&B# 1R+0&# E%+E#
1R&+P# X/+E8(+99)Z# Q&99# E'# %'Q# E%&# ,+Y'(.E+(.9)# D%(.1E.+/# K&1E# 0'/0&.F&j*&&9j0',,8/.0+E&#
Q.E%#b'BO#
!+-9&1# m# +/B# c# R+./E# E%&# &SR&(.&/0&1# +E# <'/0%+,R# +1# E%&# ,'1E# -+9+/0&B# 0',-./+E.'/# '*#
&,'E.'/+9.E)#+/B#1&/18+9.E)jR&(0&RE.'/jR%)1.0+9.E)#E%+E#B.1R&/1&1#E%&#%.J%&1E#Y')*89#-&+8E)#
'*#E%&#E%(&&#-8E#Q.E%#./1.J%E#1E.99#0',./J#+E#E%&#E'RO#<'/0%+,R#R('B80&B#E%&#%.J%&1E#&SR&(.L
&/E.+9#1R'/E+/&.E)A#1E('/J&1E#(&0+99A#+/B#,'1E#0%+/J&#./#F.1.E'(1i#8/B&(1E+/B./Jj+RR(&0.+E.'/#
'*#+(0%.E&0E8(&O#!%.1#.1#R+(E.08+(9)#1.J/.*.0+/E#-&0+81&#./B.F.B8+91#Q.E%#E%&#%.J%&1E#+(0%.E&0L
E8(+9# &SR&(E.1&# +/B# 1&0'/B# ./# 9&F&9# '*# &B80+E.'/# +(&# E%&# '/&1# E%+E# (&R'(E&B# 180%# E(+/1*'(L
,+E.'/O#GE#E%&#1+,&#E.,&A#E%&1&#1+,&#R&'R9&#1+.B#E%+E#E%&.(#&/0'8E&(#Q.E%#<'/0%+,R#Q+1#
E%&#&+1.&1E#E'#0',,8/.0+E&#E%('8J%#Q'(B1A#1',&E%./J#%+(B#E'#&SR9+./#8/9&11#Q&#0'/1.B&(#
E%&.(#%.J%#9&F&9#'*#+(0%.E&0E8(+9#&SR&(E.1&#+/B#9'Q&(#9&F&91#'*#&,-'B.,&/EA#/'/LE+9P./JA#+/B#
Q&&R./JA#0%+(+0E&(.1E.01#E%+E#R&(%+R1#&/0'8(+J&#+#,'(&#F&(-+9#+/B#R('*&11.'/+9#+EE.E8B&O##

J.6.$.),.2+
:&(,8B&M# 7O# [cdd5\A# =+RR./J# E%&# I%&/',&/'9'J.0+9# !&((.E'()# '*# I('*'8/B# G(0%.E&0E8(+9#
GE,'1R%&(&1O#<&189E1#'*#+#U+(J&#H8(F&)A#I%$/'')&.1*($E(8"'(c.8'%.+8&$.+2(Y3,?$*&9,(;H%'+8F
&.1(+.(+8,$*?"'%'@A#u0'9&#W+E.'/+9&#H8Rv(.&8(&#BiG(0%.E&0E8(&#B&#b(&/'-9&A#a(+/0&A#F.&Q&B#
cq#GR(.9#cdmcA#QQQO0(&11'/O+(0%.O*(jI>:UVjR8-DCUUCo>;jG=:5Lm:&(,8B&MORB*#
:&(,8B&M#7O#[cdd6+\A#G,+M./J#b(+0&O#W&Q#<&1&+(0%#./E'#X;SE(+'(B./+()#G(0%.E&0E8(+9#;SR&L
(.&/0&1Z#<&F&+91#E%&#D&/E(+9#<'9&#'*#H+0(&B#I9+0&A#m+&8"(n(m$%,A#"c[e\A#RRO#5Lme#
:&(,8B&M#7O#[cdd6-\A#!%&#;SE(+'(B./+()#./#G(0%.E&0E8(&A#4>(h(>%/"&8'/89%'(+.)(>%8(j+1+`&.'A#
/w#mcA#RRO#"4L"6#
:&(,8B&M#7O#[cdmm+\A#;,R.(.0+9#G&1E%&E.01n#!%&#:'B)#+/B#;,'E.'/#&.#;SE(+'(B./+()#G(0%.E&0L
E8(+9#;SR&(.&/0&1A#&.#I9'Q(.J%E#IO#x#b+,R&(#:O#[&B1O\A#I%$/'')&.1*($E(8"'(47SS(>%/"&8'/89%+2(
J'*'+%/"(H'.8'%*(H$.*$%8&9,A#U+Q(&/0&#!&0%#>/.F&(1.E)A#?&E('.E#=VA#RRO#e46Le5d#
:&(,8B&M# 7O# [cdmm-\A# C8E0',&1# '*# E%&# G(0%.E&0E8(+9# ;SE(+'(B./+()n# G/# ;,R.(.0+9# HE8B)A# ./#
H$22'/8')( >-*8%+/8*( $E( 8"'( !"&%)( >%/"&8'/89%'5( H9289%'( n( Y?&%&89+2&83( Y3,?$*&9,# [;9&0E('/.0#
I8-9.0+E.'/\A#H&(&/-&#bG#[78/&#c6L789)#m\A#F.&Q&B#cq#GR(.9#cdmcA#QQQO+01*'(8,O'(Jj#1),R'L
1.8,cdmmjR+R&(1j-&(,8B&MORB*#
:&(,8B&M#7O#[cdmm0\A#I('*'8/B#;SR&(.&/0&1#'*#G(0%.E&0E8(&O#!%&#<'9&#'*#X?.1E+/0./JZ#./#E%&#
V/&**+-9&A#4>(h(>%/"&8'/89%'(+.)(>%8(j+1+`&.'A#/w#mlA#RRO#cdLcq#
I+99+1,++#7O#[cdd5\A#<./$9.8'%*5(>%/"&8'/89%+2(<**+3*A#<+P&//81E.&E'A#_&91./P.#

K/#-&$2+
789.'#:&(,8B&MA#I%O?OA#.1#+/#G11'0.+E&#I('*&11'(#+E#!%&#D+E%'9.0#>/.F&(1.E)#'*#G,&(.0+#H0%''9#
'*#G(0%.E&0E8(&#+/B#I9+//./JA#Q%&(&#%&#B.(&0E1#E%&#H+0(&B#HR+0&#+/B#D89E8(+9#HE8B.&1#J(+B8L
+E&# 0'/0&/E(+E.'/O# _.1# (&1&+(0%# ./E&(&1E1# ./098B&# R%&/',&/'9'J)# +/B# E%&# (&9+E.'/1%.R# -&L
EQ&&/# +(0%.E&0E8(&A# 089E8(&# +/B# 1R.(.E8+9.E)O# :&(,8B&Mi1# Q'(P# %+1# (&0&.F&B# ,+/)# (&0'J/.L
E.'/1#+/B#-&&/#Q.B&9)#R8-9.1%&B#+/B#R&(*'(,&BO#_&#,+)#-&#(&+0%&B#+E#-&(,8B&MN08+O&B8##
:(+/B'/#<'A#:O#G(0%OA#.1#+#J(+B8+E&#1E8B&/E#+E#!%&#D+E%'9.0#>/.F&(1.E)#'*#G,&(.0+#R8(18./J#+#
=+1E&(i1#B&J(&&#./#G(0%.E&0E8(+9#HE8B.&1O#_.1#08((&/E#(&1&+(0%#.1#&SR9'(./J#E%&#./E&(0'//&0L
E.F.E)#-&EQ&&/#+(0%.E&0E8(&A#(&9.J.'/A#(.E8+9A#089E8(&A#J&'J(+R%)A#+/B#%8,+/#&SR&(.&/0&O#<'#.1#
+/#+Q+(BLQ.//./J#B&1.J/&(#Q.E%#Q'(P#E%+E#%+1#-&&/#&S%.-.E&B#+/B#(&0'J/.M&B#'/#(&J.'/+9A#
1E+E&A#/+E.'/+9A#+/B#./E&(/+E.'/+9#9&F&91O#_&#,+)#-&#(&+0%&B#+E#-(('O1'/(.1+1NJ,+.9O0',#
#

46"#3#####c/B#V/E&(/+E.'/+9#D'/J(&11#'/#G,-.+/0&1A#='/E(&+9#cdmc#