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STANDARDE - Producerea mesajelor scrise

Clasa a 12-a

Elevul poate:
1. sa utilizeze corect structurile gramaticale si lexicul aferent temelor din
Programa MEC pt clasa a 11-a, Limba 1A
2. sa redacteze o naratiune / descriere detaliata de lungime mare
3. sa redacteze scrisori formale / informale în mod nuanţat (ironic, ambiguu,
umoristic etc.)
4. sa redacteze rezumatul unui text autentic lung
5. sa prezinte cu detalii, exemple si in mod nuantat opinii / idei personale in
eseuri de opinie, eseuri argumentative, eseuri reflective
6. sa prezinte cu detalii, exemple si in mod nuantat experiente reale / ipotetice
7. sa redacteze texte originale (final / început de povestire / descriere, articol
etc.) de lungime medie
8. sa exprime nuantat sentimente
9. sa aduca argumente pro si contra in in scrisori formale / informale si in
eseuri structurate
10.să transpună un text dintr-un registru in altul, dintr-o perspectiva narativa
(punct de vedere) in alta
11.sa ia notite pe baza unor stimuli vizuali sau auditivi
12.să producă texte structurate complexe (articole, rapoarte, eseuri), eventual
prin combinarea unor informaţii obţinute din diverse surse

Elevul poate avea probleme cu:


 utilizarea limbajului ironic, satiric etc.
 transferul de registru
 structurarea unui text in functie de siuatia de comunicare
 identificarea elementelor structurale ale unui text literar
 structurarea eseului reflectiv

Text scurt: 200-250 cuvinte.


Text de lungime medie: 300-350 cuvinte.
Text lung: 450-500 cuvinte
6. STRUCTURE:
THE REFLECTIVE ESSAY Introduction  It is the most important paragraph: it
is an essay in miniature - the writer gives their
interpretation of the subject by touching briefly on
1. NAME: some of the main aspects of the subject (the
‘REFLECTIVE’ / ‘DISCURSIVE’ ESSAY introduction should lead the reader to expect certain
things)  The introduction can include: a reference to
2. DEFINITIONS: an unusual / striking scene / idea / situation / a
THE REFLECTIVE ESSAY is an exercise in rhetorical question / a quotation.  It can address the
contemplation on any given subject. It tests the reader directly.
writer’s ability to think and describe, to order ideas Body  It is the development of the points hinted at
and to draw on personal experience, imagination, and in the introduction: each viewpoint is developed in
general knowledge. (L. G. Alexander) one paragraph. The opposite view should be included.
THE DISCURSIVE ESSAY is formal in style. In The body should be made up of: 1 st viewpoint &
this type of essay, the writer focuses on various opposing argument + 2nd viewpoint & opposing
aspects of the topic in turn. Some possible aspects to argument + etc  The points made in the essay
be considered are set out in the “discussion clock”. should be ordered from abstract / general to concrete /
Each viewpoint is supported by examples. Opposing personal (see the Discussion clock)
viewpoints should be mentioned as well. The Conclusion  It contains the writer’s opinion + a
discursive essay does not aim to persuade the reader balanced consideration of the topic.  It must be
that the writer’s opinion is the only valid one, but to related to the introduction and echo the points made
make him/her consider a current issue from various there.  The essay may end in a quotation, a
angles, allowing him/her to form his/her own opinion rhetorical question or a statement that gives the reader
or expand on the viewpoints already mentioned. something to consider further on.
(Virginia Evans)
7. DEVICES:
3. Type of TITLE: Walls / On Walls description:  always in descriptive-reflective essays
/ occasionally in abstract-reflective essays  it is
4. LENGTH: 600 to 800 words (450 - 500 words) important because comments will be based on what
has been described  description can draw on
5. TYPES of reflective essays: personal experience or on imagination and general
a. descriptive-reflective: actual description + knowledge
conclusions drawn from the description e.g. illustration / examples:  needed to prove /
‘Walls’- description of actual walls + one’s feelings demonstrate one’s comments  especially necessary
about them (the walls in one’s room or house, interior in abstract-reflective essays
and exterior walls, defensive walls in history, walls in contrast:  gives variety to the essay, makes it more
old historic buildings, ruined walls, walls in fields, interesting  one view in one paragraph + the
walls as seen by a person in a hospital or prison, opposite view in the next paragraph
decorated walls or blank walls, walls made of humour:  a light approach is suitable  poking fun
different types of materials etc) at certain beliefs / activities to give reader an unusual
b. abstract-reflective: analogy, personal point of view + to amuse reader  irony, satire,
reasoning, feelings and views on the topic e.g. parody
‘Walls’ - metaphorical interpretation of the topic +
occasional description (e.g. hurdles in life providing 8. STYLE:  suitability (the style adopted by the
people with a challenge, things that isolate people writer should match the writer’s approach to the
from one another and preventing them from loving subject, e.g. an essay on the technical aspects of
their neighbour in that they exist between houses and photography should not contain irony)  impersonal
between countries as political barriers; mountains, (a reflective essay should be in the 3rd person, unless
rivers, frontiers and different languages are also the task asks specifically for the writer’s personal
‘walls’; the reason why people build walls: suspicion, opinion)  use of words (simple sentences and simple
desire to protect oneself, desire for privacy etc) words - NOT long sentences, long words)
Working with the MARKING SCHEME on
a REFLECTIVE ESSAY “On Walls”
Common mistakes Marking scheme

1. irrelevant details / arguments / information / examples / quotes


2. imbalance (all points covered but some points covered in very little detail) A. Task achievement:
3. mixing the two types of reflective essay (e.g. one paragraph describing walls  coverage of points required 
in a nursery + one paragraph on ‘walls’ dividing nations) relevance to task /
4. essay written in the 1st person when the task says: ‘Write an abstract- correct literary
reflective essay on content
Walls’ and not ‘Write an abstract-reflective essay in which you express your
opinions on Walls’
5. essay on another topic, even if related (e.g. about ‘fences’ and not about
‘walls’ - ‘crastavetele’!)
6. essay progressing from the particular to the general, and not vice versa
7. essay exceeds no of words  10%

(see standards for each level / grade) B. Language accuracy: 


(‘no / few grammar/spelling errors’ = a total of 9 errors for grade 9, 7 errors for grammar errors  spelling errors
grade 10, 5 errors for grade 11, 3 errors for grade 12 which are NOT penalized)  range of grammar structure
1. incoherence (long, involved sentences / long, uncommon words - ‘drunken
driving’!) C. Register & Vocabulary: 
2. a series of short sentences (e.g. ‘Many people think so. They are wrong.’) register  range of
3. informal / colloquial style (contracted forms, abbreviations, colloquial vocabulary
vocabulary, phrasal verbs, idioms)
4. simplistic vocabulary (e.g. Experts say they think this is bad...’ instead of:
‘Experts are of the opinion that this is inappropriate / to be discouraged ...’)
5. very emotional language (e.g. ‘I absolutely detest people who ...’)

1. incorrect paragraphing (a paragraph = one topic sentence + related ones)


2. a one-sentence or a two-sentence paragraph D. Organization, cohesion,
3. abrupt ending layout:  organization  linking
4. the same linking device(s) used throughout / no linking device used devices  paragraphing  layout
5. no introduction / body / conclusion
6. introduction + body / body + conclusion in the same paragraph
7. no / little connection between the ideas contained in the paragraphs

1. trite observations (e.g. ‘Walls are very useful’, ‘We see walls everywhere’ etc)
2. unconvincing essay: you do not grasp the main idea(s) E. Overall effect:
3. self-contradictory essay (e.g. the writer seems to support contradictory  convincing  originality
opinions: one opinion in the introduction and the opposite one in the
body/conclusion)
4. very many (4-5 ...) quotes (because they use much of the space allotted and
the essay is less original)

DECISIONS REACHED IN WORKSHOPS:


1. ‘discussion clock’ (e.g. Touch upon at least three of the following aspects in the order given.) to be
included in the task only at the national level;
2. what is written in excess of  10% of the allotted space (= no of words) is not to be read / assessed
by the assessor at the national level only;
3. mistakes not mentioned in the chart above are not to be penalized at either county or national
level

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