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Automatic Grass Cutter

Project

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree

Of

Bachelor of Technology

IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Under the guidance of

Puneet Sharma

(Assistant Professor)

(UID - 16925)

By

Jai Prakash 11410635

Himanshu Malik 11408102

Aniket P. Borikar 11407595

Sukhbir Singh 11402678

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

PUNJAB

MAY 2017

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2
ABSTRACT

An automatic grass cutting machine is a device or robot that help human to cut grass
automatically. Due to rapid development, many robots have turn into an autonomous
robot. In this project, an automatic grass cutting machine is developed with the Bluetooth,
which can be easily controlled by the smart phone. The movement or the path of the
automatic grass cutting machine is based on a path user requires i.e., it can be easily
controlled by the user, irrespective of the movement of the user with it. For this grass
cutting machine, microcontroller is utilized. Every action of the grass cutting machine is
monitored by the microcontroller with the help of the Bluetooth application. Furthermore,
CATIA as CAD software was used to design the structure of the grass cutter.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

“Engineering is incomplete without practical knowledge and skills. An engineer is


expected to be a designer of dynamic world of innovation for which practical
experience matters a lot.”

It gives me a great pleasure to have an opportunity to acknowledge and to express


gratitude to those who were associated with my project.

Special thanks to Puneet Sharma for his incessant support and guidance throughout my
project. I express my sincere thanks and gratitude to Lovely Professional University for
allowing me to undergo my project in this prestigious organization.

I shall always remain indebted to them for their constant interest and excellent guidance
in my project session. Also, on this occasion we would like to convey our special thanks
to Dr. M.S. Saini, HOS, School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional
University, and Punjab and heartly thanks to Mr. Gurpreet Singh Phull who gave us a
wonderful chance to do project and provided us an immense learning experience.

I acknowledge to the support of other authorities also with a deep sense of gratitude. I am
also very thankful to various kinds of sources that helped me out throughout my project
and I want to thanks my college, Lovely Professional University for having given me this
opportunity to get trained technically for a period of time and to know well that how good
I am practically, and by testing me out on the later note.

Not only this, I want to give a sincere thanks to my parents and teachers for their constant
blessings that they have showered upon me for the last days of my project period and not
forgetting the Omnipotent God for His supreme grace over me.

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DECLARATION

We hereby declare that we have completed our project of MEC494 under the guidance of
Puneet Sharma. We declare that we have worked with full dedication during this project
and that our learning outcomes fulfill the requirements of project for the award of degree
of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering. Lovely Professional University,
Phagwara.

Project Group Number: MERGC0204

Name Registration Number

Jai Prakash 11410635

Himanshu Malik 11408102

Aniket P Borikar 11407595

Sukhbir Singh 11402678

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Lovely Professional University, Punjab

Certificate

I hereby certify that the work being presented in the dissertation entitled “Automatic
Grass Cutter” in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award of the Degree of
Bachelor of technology and submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering of
Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, is an authentic record of my own work carried
out under the supervision of Puneet Sharma, (Assistant Professor) Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University. The matter embodied in this
project has not been submitted in part or full to any other University or Institute for the
award of any degree.

Date:

Jai Prakash 11410635

Himanshu Malik 11408102

Aniket P. Borikar 11407595

Sukhbir Singh 11402678

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of
my knowledge.

Date: Puneet Sharma

(Assistant professor)

(16925)

The Bachelor of Technology Robotics related mini project examination of Load Carrying
Robot for Domestic Help, shall be held on December 26, 2016.

Signature of Examiner

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ......................................................................................................................... 1
Approval page ................................................................................................................. 2
Abstract............................................................................................................................. 3
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................... 4
Declaration statement....................................................................................................... 5
Certificate......................................................................................................................... 6
Table of content................................................................................................................ 7
List of figures.................................................................................................................... 8

1. Introduction.................................................................................................................... 9
1.1 History …………………………………………………………………...…..9
1.2 Modification……….……………………………………..………………… 10
1.3 Types ...…………………………………………………………………………... 11
1.4 By Energy Sources………...……………………………………………………... 13

2. Literature Review.......................................................................................................... 16
3. Objective…………………………………………...……………………………….... 18
4. Research Methodology…………………………………………………………......... 19
4.1 Flow Chart …………………………………………………………………. 19
4.2 Block Diagram……………………………………………………………… 20
4.3 Circuit Diagram…………………………………………………………….. 21
4.4 working circuit……………………………………………………………… 22
4.5 System Architecture………………………………………………………… 22
5. Work plan...…………………...…………………………………………….………... 24
6. Design and Fabrication……...………..……………………………………….……... 25
6.1 Part Designing…………………………………………………….….……... 25
6.2 Aluminium Sheet………………………………………………….………... 30
6.3 Wheel…………………………………………………………….…………. 30
6.4 Bluetooth Module……………………………………………….………….. 31
6.5 Assembly…………………………………………………………………… 32
6.6 Specification……………………………………………………………….. 34
6.7 Fabrication…………………………………………………………………. 35

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7. Future Scope of Study……...……………………………………………………....… 38
8. Results and Discussion………………………….……………………………………. 39
9. Conclusions and Summary of the Work Done.…………………….…..…………….. 40
10. References ………………………..…..…………………………………………….. 41

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1. First Grass Lawn (1830)………………………...………………………………. 10


Fig 2. Cylinder or Reel Lawn Mover…………………………………………………... 11
Fig 3.Rotary Mover…………………………………………………………………….. 13
Fig 4 Electricity Lawn Mover……………..…………………………………………… 15
Fig 5. Block Diagram working of project……………………………………………… 20
Fig 6.Circuit Of Microprocessor………………………………………………………. 21
Fig 7 SystemArchitecture……………………………………………………………… 22
Fig 8 Bluetooth signal flow chart……………………………………..……………….. 23
Fig 9 Bluetooth Module………………………………………………………………… 32
Fig 10 Project View 1…………………………………………………………………... 36
Fig 11 Project View 2………………………………………………………………….. 37

LIST OF TABLE

1 Work plan…………………………………………………………………..………….24
2 Specification…..……………………………………………………………..…………34

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Grass cutter with a standard motor powered lawn mower is an inconvenience, and
no one takes pleasure in it. Cutting grass cannot be easily accomplished by elderly,
younger, or disabled people. So the objective of our project is the same as we are
designing a robot which will enable human beings to perform a tedious job in a simple
way. [w1, w2]

As the name of the project suggests the robot will be used to cut down the grass in
the lawn but in this case there is no need for us to move an inch from our place to run the
cutter over the lawn. The project is set up into three different categories, electrical,
software and mechanical. The electrical section looks after the electrical components; the
batteries, the motor. The software section deals with the development of the android
application for wireless transmission between the robot and the Bluetooth of the smart-
phone. The mechanical section deals with the mechanical components, the chassis,
wheels, blades, mounting brackets, etc. [w1, w2]

This prototype will be automatic and will run on a charged battery with no cords
to interfere with operation. This cordless electric automatic grass cutter is based on the
Bluetooth pairing capability which is less expensive than a robotic grass cutter. It is safe
to use, as well as efficient because it electric powered and cordless. [w1]

1.1 HISTORY

1.1.1 The First Grass Cutting Machine

The first grass cutter (lawn mower) was invented by Edwin Budding in
1830 in Thrupp, just outside Stroud, in Gloucestershire, England. Budding's mower was
designed primarily to cut the grass on sports grounds and extensive gardens, as a superior
alternative to the scythe, and was granted a British patent on August 31, 1830.[w3, w4]

Budding's first machine was 19 inches (480 mm) wide with a frame made
of wrought iron. The mower was pushed from behind. Cast-iron gear wheels transmitted
power from the rear roller to the cutting cylinder, allowing the rear roller to drive the
knives on the cutting cylinder; the ratio was 16:1. Another roller placed between the

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cutting cylinder and the main or land roller could be raised or lowered to alter the height
of cut. The grass clippings were hurled forward into a tray-like box. It was soon realized,
however, that an extra handle was needed in front to help pull the machine along. Overall,
these machines were remarkably similar to modern mowers.[w3, w4]

Fig 1. The First Grass Lawn (1830)

1.2 Modifications

1.2.1 Rotary Mover

Rotary mowers were not developed until engines were small enough and powerful
enough to run the blades at sufficient speed. Many people experimented with rotary blade
mowers in the late 1920s and early 1930s, and Power Specialties Ltd. introduced a
gasoline-powered rotary mower. KutKwick replaced the saw blade of the "Pulp Saw"
with a double-edged blade and a cutter deck, converting the "Pulp Saw" into the first ever
out-front rotary mower. [w3,w4]

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1.3 Types of the grass cutter(according to the motion of the blade)

1.3.1 By Rotation

Cylinder or reel mowers

A cylinder mower or reel mower carries a fixed, horizontal cutting blade at the
desired height of cut. Over this is a fast-spinning reel of blades which force the grass past
the cutting bar. Each blade in the blade cylinder forms a helix around the reel axis, and
the set of spinning blades describes a cylinder.

Of all the mowers, a properly adjusted cylinder mower makes the cleanest cut of
the grass, and this allows the grass to heal more quickly. The cut of a well-adjusted
cylinder mower is straight and definite, as if cut with a pair of scissors. This clean cut
promotes healthier, thicker and more resilient lawn growth that is more resistant to
disease, weeds and parasites. Lawn cut with a cylinder mower is less likely to result in
yellow, white or brown discolorations as a result of leaf shredding. While the cutting
action is often likened to that of scissors, it is not necessary for the blades of the spinning
cylinder to contact the horizontal cutting bar. If the gap between the blades is less than the
thickness of the grass, a clean cut can still be made. If more however, the grass will slip
through. Reel mowers also have more difficulty mowing over uneven terrain.

Fig 2. Cylinder or Reel Lawn mover.


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The main parts of a cylinder or reel mower are:

 Blade reel/cylinder — consists of numerous (3 to 7) spiral blades that are attached to


a rotating shaft. The blades rotate, creating a scissor-like cutting motion.
 Bed knife — is the stationary cutting mechanism of a cylinder/reel mower. This is a
fixed horizontal blade that is mounted to the frame of the mower.
 Body frame — the main structural frame of the mower onto which the other parts of
the mower are mounted.
 Wheels — these help propel the mower in action. Generally, reel mowers have two
wheels.
 Push handle — the "power source" of a manually operated reel mower. This is a
sturdy T-shape handle that is connected to the frame, wheels and blade chamber.
 Motor — the power source of a reel mower that is powered by gasoline or electric.

1.3.2 Rotary mowers

A rotary mower rotates about a vertical axis with the blade spinning at high speed relying
on impact to cut the grass. This tends to result in a rougher cut and bruises and shreds the
grass leaf resulting in discoloration of the leaf ends as the shredded portion dies. This is
particularly prevalent if the blades become clogged or blunt. Most rotary mowers need to
be set a little higher than cylinder equivalents to avoid scalping and gouging of slightly
uneven lawns, although some modern rotaries are fitted with a rear roller to provide a
more formal striped cut. These machines will also tend to cut lower than a standard four-
wheeled rotary.[w3,w4]

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Fig 3. Rotary Mover

The main parts of a rotary mower are:

 Cutter deck housing — this houses the blade and the drive system of the mower. It
is shaped to effectively eject the grass clippings from the mower.
 Blade mounting and drive system — the blade of a rotary mower is usually
mounted directly to the crankshaft of its engine, but it can be propelled by a hydraulic
motor or a belt pulley system.
 Mower blade — a rotary mower generally has one blade that rotates horizontally.
The blade features edges that slightly curved up to generate a continuous air flow as
the blade rotates, thus creating a sucking and tearing action.
 Engine — may be powered by gasoline or electricity.
 Wheels — rotary mowers generally feature a set of four wheels; two front wheels and
two rear wheels.

1.4 By energy source

1.4.1 Gasoline (petrol)

Extensive grass trimming was not common before the widespread application of
the vertical shaft single cylinder gasoline/petrol engine. In the United States this
development paralleled the market penetration of companies such as the Briggs and
Stratton company of Wisconsin.

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Most rotary push mowers are powered by internal combustion engines. Such
engines are usually four-stroke engines, used for their greater torque and cleaner
combustion (although a number of older models used two-stroke engines), running
on gasoline (petrol) or other liquid fuels. Internal combustion engines used with lawn
mowers normally have only one cylinder. Power generally ranges from four to
seven horsepower. The engines usually have a carburetor and require a manual pull
crank to start them, although an electric starter is offered on some models, particularly
large riding and commercial mowers. Some mowers have a control on the handlebar with
which the operator can adjust the engine speed. Other mowers have a fixed, pre-set
engine speed. All are equipped with an air vane style of governor to maintain the pre-
selected speed when the force needed to cut the thicker or taller grass is encountered.
Gasoline mowers have the advantages over electric mowers of greater power and distance
range. They do create a significant amount of pollution due to the combustion in the
engine, and their engines require periodic maintenance such as cleaning or replacement of
the spark plug and air filter, and changing the engine oil.[w3, w4]

1.4.2 Electricity

Electric mowers are further subdivided into corded and cordless electric models.
Both are relatively quiet, typically producing less than 75 decibels, while a gasoline lawn
mower can be 95 decibels or more Corded electric mowers are limited in range by their
trailing power cord, which may limit their use with lawns extending outward more than
100–150 feet (30–45 m) from the nearest available power outlet. There is the additional
hazard with these machines of accidentally mowing over the power cable, which stops the
mower and may put users at risk of receiving a dangerous electric shock. Installing
a residual-current device on the outlet may reduce the shock risk.

Cordless electric mowers are powered by a variable number (typically 1–4) of 12-
volt, 56-volt, and 80-volt rechargeable batteries. Typically, more batteries mean more run
time and/or power (and more weight). Batteries can be in the interior of the lawn mower
or on the outside. If on the outside, the depleted batteries can be quickly swapped with
recharged batteries. Cordless mowers have the maneuverability of a gasoline-powered
mower and the environmental friendliness of a corded electric mower, but are more
expensive and come in fewer models (particularly self-propelling) than either. The
eventual disposal of worn-out batteries is problematic (though they can be recycled), and

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the motors in some cordless mowers tend to be less powerful than gasoline motors of the
same total weight (including batteries).[w3, w4]

Fig 4. Electricity Lawn Mover.

1.4.3 By hand
While considered antiquated in modern times, the original type of push-powered
reel mowers are still available. The reel is attached to the mower's wheels by gears, so
that when the mower is pushed forward, the reel spins several times faster than the
rubber-tired wheels turn. These types of reel mowers offer the benefit of zero pollution
being produced. Since all of the energy necessary comes from the user however, this
method of mowing is the most strenuous and is not recommended for large lawns.
Depending on the placement of the reel, these mowers often cannot cut grass very close to
lawn obstacles, like trees, driveways, edging, etc., and also require a very smooth lawn
surface to operate properly without bottoming out the cutter bar.

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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Dino G. Pansire [4th April 1977.]: A fully automatic self-propelled self-guiding lawn
mower in which guidance of the lawn mower is based on the principal of a magnet
following a passive ribbon or wire of ferromagnetic material. The lawn mower includes
two drive wheels located on opposite sides of the vehicle. Each drive wheel is connected
to a drive shaft on the vehicle through a separate solenoid controlled clutch and each
drive wheel is equipped with a separate electromagnet controlled brake. The drive shaft is
turned at a constant rate of speed by a battery powered electric motor. The guidance
system for controlling the movement and direction of the lawn mower includes a rotably
mounted bar magnet horizontally aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and
fixedly coupled to an electrical contact wiper arm that traverses an arcuate array of
radially extending electrical contacts. The cutter assembly portion of the lawn mower
includes two different sets of cutting blades, a first set for performing the majority of the
cutting of the grass and a second set for trimming off ragged edges of grass that might be
left by the first set of cutting blades. Cleaning vanes are also provided. The cutting blade
tip speed is relatively very slow; being set at about 3500 feet per minute.

David J. Wojtkowski, Leon W. Hubby [17Nov,1992]: An automatic lawn mower


vehicle is of a tricycle construction having a forward drive-wheel assembly including a
drive wheel and a drive-wheel motor, and having a trailing sulky connected at a sulky
hitch end by a vertical hinge to the forward drive-wheel assembly. Steering is
accomplished by a motor mounted to the drive-wheel assembly and through a gear
reduction system connected to the sulky part of the vertical hinge. The outermost two
cutters are equidistant from the drive wheel and are centered in the vertical plane of the
drive-wheel axle. The grass cutting wake produced by this machine is always equally
wide on both sides of any point in the path of the drive wheel, so that the predetermined
drive-wheel path, e.g. when the mower vehicle is automated to follow a buried wire, is
very simple to pre-construct so that the cutting more exactly follows the lawn boundaries
and structures in the lawn. A tippable shroud encompasses and protects the drive-wheel
assembly and cutters. When the shroud is displaced and tipped by an article or child in the
lawn, the mower vehicle is stopped by a shroud-tipping sensor connected to the drive-
wheel motor controller. The same sensor also shuts off the power to the cutters.

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Donald F. Cotton [8 March 1994]: A mechanism for use in a reel type lawn mower for
maintaining a constant uniform pressure between V-shaped reel blades and a bed knife.
The blades are arranged to maintain continuous contact with the bed knife on both sides
of the center of the reel. A biasing unit acts between the reel unit and the bed knife unit to
apply a regulated pressure on both sides of the reel center.

Roger P. Norris, [Apr 16, 1996]: A grass cutting device suitable for automatic and
unattended operation, comprises at least one drive wheel; a power unit operatively
coupled to said drive wheel to propel said device; a cutter mechanism to cut grass over
which said device passes and obstacle detection means capable of detecting an obstacle in
the path of said device and being operably linked to said power unit to cause said device
to retreat and turn away from said obstacle. The grass cutting device preferably further
comprises mechanical long grass detection means arranged to detect long grass in the
path of said device.

Mark R. Kinder, John S. Moore [13 Jan 1998]: A mower including a housing having a
cutting apparatus such as a flail mower rotatable mounted therein. The mower includes a
detector which determines during mower raising when the housing is positioned at least a
predetermined distance above the ground surface directly below the housing. After
passage of a time period during which the detector continuously detects that the housing
is positioned at least the predetermined distance from the ground, a signal is sent to an
actuator mechanism which interrupts the delivery of power to the motor rotating the
cutting apparatus such that the flail mower comes to a stop. In one embodiment, a locking
mechanism can be provided which prevents power from being reintroduced to the mower
motor after the mower is lowered until the operator purposefully disengages the locking
mechanism.

Ben C. Perry [30 Jun,1998]: A two-wheeled lawn trimmer, controlled with a handle
attached to a frame which receives a conventional gasoline or electric powered rotary
lawn trimmer, and provides balanced maneuverability with low operator forces while
providing complete trimming access and cutting height control. Additionally the trimmer
provides the operator access to vary the rotary cutting head speed as well as the ability to
stop the motor device with controls mounted on the handle grip assembly.

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CHAPTER 3

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The major objective of this project is to reduce human effort and can control the
machine with the help of his/her smart phone. Another objective is to remove electrical
wire and make a cordless machine so that the cost of wiring can be exempt.

This project helps in removal of wild vegetation.

(The wild growth like grass, bushy plants, thorny plants, etc., that have grown shall be cut
with spades, sickles or any other suitable manual / automated tools etc., and the ground
shall be scraped of all smaller vegetation, dressed, etc.)

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CHAPTER 4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 Flow Chart

Start

Planning

Designing

Analysis

Marketing and Fabrication

Assembly

Finishing

End

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4.2 Block Diagram (control mechanism):

ANROID
APPLICATION

BLUETOOTH
TRANSFER

RECEIVER (MICRO-
CONTROLLER)

Fig 5. Block diagram explaining working of the project

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4.3 Circuit diagram

Fig 6. Circuit of micro processor

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4.4 Circuit working for grass cutting blade

We design this project for effective grass cutting operation by using Bluetooth
application. By this project it is very convenient for user to operate the grass chopper for
all directions movement. By this app we not only use the chopper for front back left and
right direction but at the same time we switch on/off the grass chopper motor mechanism
by Bluetooth.

For grass chopper mechanism we use dc motor with blade. Command data from
the mobile app is connected to the Bluetooth receiver and then serially transfer to the
microcontroller device. Microcontroller checks the receiving code and calls the in built
function of program. Micro-controller provides an output on its pin in the form of voltage.
Small 5 volt voltage is connected to the base of the PNP transistor and then further
connected to the base of NPN transistor. Motor is connected to the collector of the NPN
transistor. We use NPN transistor as a motor driver and PNP transistor just invert the
negative output to positive.

4.5 System Architecture

Fig 7. System Architecture

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A robot can be controlled using Bluetooth module HC-05 and ATMEGA328P-PU
microcontroller with android Smartphone device. The controlling devices of the whole
system are a microcontroller. Bluetooth module, DC motors are interfaced to the
microcontroller.

The data receive by the Bluetooth module from android smart phone is fed input
to the controller. The controller acts accordingly on the DC motor of the robot. The robot
can move to move in all the four directions using the android phone. The direction of the
robot is indicators using LED indicators of the Robot system. In achieving the task the
controller is loaded with program written using Embedded ‘C’ Languages.

Android smart phone controller Bluetooth:

Fig 8. Bluetooth signal flow chart

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CHAPTER 5
WORKPLAN

AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER


Planning
&
Designing
Marketing

Assembly

Testing
&
Finishing
Table 1

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CHAPTER 6
DESIGN AND FABRICATION
6.1 Parts designing
A. Base

B. Base Wheel

25
C. Wheel

D. Bolts

26
E. Motor Support

27
F. Nuts

G. Wheel Shaft

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H. Wheel bolt’s nut

I. Blade

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J. Blade Support

6.2 Aluminium Sheet

Aluminium, not alloyed Metal containing by weight at least 99% of aluminium.

Aluminium alloys Metallic substances in which aluminium predominates by


weight over each of the other elements, provided that:

(i) the content by weight of at least one of the other elements or of iron plus
silicon taken together is greater than the limit specified in the foregoing table;
(ii) the total content by weight of such other elements exceeds 1%.

6.3 D65mm Rubber Wheel Pair - Black (Without Shaft)

These are typical rubber wheels for small robot mobile platforms. The tire is soft
black rubber with light tread for added traction in rugged terrain.

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SPECIFICATION

Tire material: Rubber

Outside diameter: 65mm (2.56")

Tire width: 26mm (1.02")

Hub color: Black

6.4 HC-05 Bluetooth module

This module is capable of communicating with pc, mobile phone or any other
Bluetooth enabled device. It is interfaced with the microcontroller over the serial UART
port of micro-controller. Bluetooth is a wireless communications protocol running at 2.4
GHz, with client server architecture, suitable for forming personal area networks.
Bluetooth is an extremely integral feature designed for low power devices. Bluetooth is a
standardized feature or specification that is available in all Smartphone running on
android, laptops and computers. It is very handy as it can be easily fitted with a module to
allow Bluetooth communication. Bluetooth is the only appropriate communications
protocol that has no fear of getting the frequency interferences because it uses the MAC
Address of the device i.e. Bluetooth allows the connectivity between two devices using
their MAC Address. HC-05 module is an easy to use Bluetooth SPP (Serial Port Protocol)
module, designed for transparent wireless serial connection setup. Serial port Bluetooth
module is fully qualified Bluetooth V2.0+EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) 3Mbps Modulation
with complete 2.4GHz radio transceiver and baseband. It uses CSR Blue core 04-External
single chip Bluetooth system with CMOS technology and with AFH (Adaptive Frequency
Hopping Feature). HC-05 module work on 3.0V low power operation and 3.0 to 4.2V I/O
controls. It has integrated antenna, edge connector and UART interface with
programmable baud rate. HC-05 module has default Baud rate: 38400, Data bits: 8, Stop
bit: 1, Parity: No parity and supported baud rates are 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200,
230400, and 460800.

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Fig 9: Bluetooth Module

6.5 Assembly

Isometric View

32
Side View

Front View

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6.6 Specifications:

S. No. Components Dimensions Materials Power Description


(in mm) (in V)
1. Chassis 300*300 Aluminium Described above
(base )
2. Wheel Base 50*40*2 Aluminium Described above
3*40*2
3. Blade Stainless Steel
4. Blade Support Aluminium
5. Wheel Rubber/Plastic Described above
6. DC Motor 9 D.C. motor is
controlled by DC
voltages and moves in
forward, backward,
left and right,
direction according to
the polarity of voltage
applied.
7. L293D Motor The L293D provides
bidirectional drive
Driver IC
currents of up to 1A
at voltage from 4.5V
to 36V
8. HC-05 This module is
Bluetooth capable of
module communicating with
pc, mobile phone or
any other Bluetooth
enabled device. .
Bluetooth is a
wireless
communications
protocol running at
2.4 GHz, with client
server architecture,
suitable for forming
personal area
networks.
9. Battery 12 A rechargeable

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battery, storage
battery, secondary
cell,or accumulator is
a type of electrical
battery which can be
charged, discharged
into a load, and
recharged many
times, as opposed to a
disposable or primary
battery, which is
supplied fully charged
and discarded after
use.

6.7 Fabrication
First we take aluminum sheet and cut out a piece of 31*31 cm we opt aluminum
metal sheet because it is tough and light weighted and perfect match for the grass cutter
economical as well as technical. It provides the desired toughness to the project and
economically cheaper as compare to other metals. By the help of power cutter we cut the
out the desired piece from the sheet. After cutting the main body from the sheet we use to
file is properly by the help of flat files. After proper filing we get smooth surfaces on the
four side of the square plate. Now we have to install the wheels on the front as well as
backside of the plate so we need to drill holes for the nut and bolts. By the help of drilling
machine we drilled holes (8 holes) on the surface of the plates. For the installation of the
wheels we have to make L shaped angles for that we have to make L shaped angles for
installation. Again by the help of power cutter we cut strips and bend it by the help of
bench wise similar action will be performed for the rest of the strips.
Now we have to install motor for cutter in the center of the plate again with the
help of power cutter we have to cut the desired space. For installation of the motors in the
wheel sections we have to cut the desired space for the motor and install them on the
wheels. With the help of the drilling machine make 2 holes on the upper side of the plate
to install the printed circuit board (PCB).
Now all the drilling parts were finished installed the components on the plates.
35
First we installed the L shaped angles with the help of nut and bolts and motors on the
rear side of the grass cutter by the help of nuts and bolts. All motors and angles were
installed now the time to install the wheels. We have 2 free wheel motion and 2 power
wheel which were installed on the motor shaft. After successfully installation of the
wheels now we have to installed motor for the cutting blades in the center of the
aluminum plates. After mounting the cutter motor on the grass cutter it’s time to install
the blades on the motor shaft for that we have blade supporter and blades which is
mounted on the supporter with the help of nuts and bolts and the blades were installed
successfully on the motor shaft. Now assemble the printed circuit board on the grass
cutter and make all the connections with the help of soldiering wire and machine. All set
connect with battery and grass cutter is ready to perform

Fig 10: Project View 1

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Fig 11: Project View 2

37
CHAPTER 7

FUTURE SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 Solar panel can be used for charging battery.


 With the help of the ultrasonic sensor, we can automatically set the machine to cut
the grass in prescribed area (required area).
 Could run on biodiesel or hydrogen fuel cell technology

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CHAPTER 8

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 Compactable size and portable.


 No fuel consumption i.e., no fuel cost.
 Eco Friendly.
 No skilled labor is required to operate(can be operated by any simple Smartphone
user.)

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CHAPTER 9

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY OF THE WOK DONE

With the safe, reliable, cheap, and user friendly Bluetooth controlled grass cutting
machine, the Robotic grass cutting machine would be a must have item in every
household as it is time efficient and requires very less efforts on the field. That is why
along with the various ages of users, this grass cutting machine can also be used by
people who have disabilities and are unable to use a regular push, or riding grass cutter.
Due to this it will create employment opportunities for physically disabled peoples and
aged persons too. Also, project will help farmers by saving their time. Further
modification can be made so that it can also be used as surveillance robot.

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REFERENCES

1. L1. Dino G. Pansire, 4th April 1977, Self Propelled Self Guiding Lawn Mover,
Patent, (Publication number) US4180964 A
2. David J. Wojtkowski, Leon W. Hubby, 17 Nov 1992, Automatic Lawn Mover,
Patents, (Publication number)US5163273 A,
3. Donald F. Cotton, 8 March 1994, Reel assembly for mower, Patent (Publication
Number) US5291724 A
4. Roger P. Norris, Apr 16 1996, Grass cutting device , Patent, (Publication
number) US5507137 A
5. Mark R. Kinder, John S. Moore, 13 Jan 1998 ,Mower with automatic power cut-
off, Patent (Publication Number) US5706638 A
6. Ben C. Perry, 30 Jun,1998, Balanced-wheeled grass and weed trimmer
apparatus, Patent (Publication Number) US5771670 A

Web Links

w1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawn_mower

w2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotic_lawn_mower

w3. http://www.thelawninstitute.org/pages/education/lawn-history/lawns-and-lawn-
history/

w4. https://robomow.com/en-GB/history-lawn-mowers/

w5. http://EzineArticles.com/6644273

w6. http://www.bssa.org.uk/topics.php?article=10

w7. http://www.dgciskol.nic.in/itchs2007/pdfs/CHP_76.pdf

w8. https://www.intorobotics.com/overview-of-wheels-used-in-robotics/

w9. http://articles.latimes.com/keyword/lawn-mowers

w10. https://home.howstuffworks.com/lawn-mower5.htm

w11. https://www.engineersgarage.com/electronic-components/l293d-motor-driver-ic

w12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rechargeable_battery

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w13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor

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