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Thermofluid

Mechanics I

Navier-Stokes

Equations

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Equations are based on the following physical principles:

• Mass is conserved

• Newton’s Second Law: F = m a

• The First Law of thermodynamics: De = dq - dw, for a

system.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

The governing equations can be obtained in the integral form

by choosing a control volume (CV) in the flow field and

applying the principles of the conservation of mass,

momentum and energy to the CV.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

dV is small enough to be considered infinitesimal but large

enough to contain a large number of molecules for

continuum approach to be valid.

dV may be:

• fixed in space with fluid flowing in and out of its surface

or,

• moving so as to contain the same fluid particles all the

time. In this case the boundaries may distort and the

volume may change.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Substantial derivative

y

following a moving fluid

element) 1 V1

Fluid element at

time t = t1

i x

k

2

z V2

Fluid element at

time t = t2

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

components as:

ˆ (t , x, y, z )

ˆ (t , x, y, z ) ˆjv(t , x, y, z ) kw

V iu

where

u = u(t, x, y, z)

v = v(t, x, y, z)

w = w(t, x, y, z)

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

@ time t1:

1 (t1, x1, y1, z1 )

@ time t2:

2 (t2 , x2 , y2 , z2 )

Using Taylor series

2 1 (t2 t1 ) ( x2 x1 ) ( y2 y1 ) ( z2 z1 )

t 1 x 1 y 1 z 1

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

following equation. This way of writing helps explain the meaning of

total derivative.

2 1 x x y y z z

2 1 2 1 2 1 ...........(2.1)

t2 t1 t 1 x 1 t2 t1 y 1 t2 t1 z 1 t2 t1

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

2 1 D

lim

t2 t1 t2 t1 Dt

x2 x1

lim u

t2 t1 t2 t1

y2 y1

lim v

t2 t1 t2 t1

z2 z1

lim w

t2 t1 t2 t1

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

D

u v w ...........(2.2)

Dt t x y z

the following manner.

D

u v w .........(2.3)

Dt t x y z

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

iˆ ˆj kˆ ...........(2.4)

x y z

D

V ...........(2.5)

Dt t

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

DT T T T T T

(V )T u v w ........(2.6)

Dt t convective

t x y z

local derivative

derivative

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

d dt dx dy dz............(2.7)

t x y z

d dx dy dz

............(2.8)

dt t x dt y dt z dt

d

u v w ..........(2.9)

dt t x y z

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

D

have the same meaning,

dt Dt

and the latter form is used simply to emphasize the physical meaning

that it consists of the local derivative and the convective derivatives.

Its mass is fixed with respect to time.

Its volume and surface change with time as it moves from one location

to another.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

The volume swept by the elemental area dS during time interval Dt can

be written as

DV V Dt nˆ dS V Dt dS .........(2.10)

be positive or negative. Dividing by Dt and letting DV 0 gives the

following expression.

lim V Dt dS V dS ..........(2.11)

DV 1

Dt Dt 0 Dt S S

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

The LHS term is written as a total time derivative because the fluid

element is moving with the flow and it would undergo both the local

acceleration and the convective acceleration.

transform the surface integral into a volume integral.

DV

Dt V

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

δV

, , the above equation becomes

V dV ...............(2.13)

D( V )

Dt δV

VδV

When δV 0 the volume integral can be replaced by

on the RHS to get the following.

1 D( V )

V .........(2.14)

d V Dt

V

The divergence of is the rate of change of volume per unit volume.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Continuity Equation

Consider the CV fixed in space. Unlike the earlier case the shape and

size of the CV are the same at all times. The conservation of mass can

be stated as:

decrease of mass inside the CV

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Vn dS V dS ..........(2.16)

Note that dS by convention is always pointing outward. Therefore V dS

can be (+) or (-) depending on the directions of the velocity and the

surface element.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Mass dV ..........(2.20)

V

t V

dV ................(2.18)

t

dV V dS 0.................(2.19)

V S

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

becomes

D

Dt V

dV 0........(2.21)

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

( u ) u

u dx dydz u dydz dxdydz

x x

Net outflow in y-direction

v v

v dy dxdz v dxdz dxdydz

y y

Net outflow in z-direction

w w

w dz dxdy w dxdy dxdydz

z z

u v w

Net mass flow = dxdydz..........(2.22)

x y z

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

mass of the element = (dx dy dz)

Time rate of mass increase = dxdydz ...........(2.23)

t

within CV

u v w

dxdydz dxdydz

x y z t

or

u v w

0.......(2.24)

t x y z

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Which becomes

V 0..........(2.25)

t

Note that for steady flow and unsteady incompressible flow the

first term is zero.

of the continuity equation. Note an error in Figure 2.6: Dp/Dt should be

replace with D/Dt.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Momentum equation

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Basis is Newton’s 2nd Law which says F = m a

Note that this is a vector equation.

It can be written in terms of the three cartesian scalar components, the

first of which becomes

Fx = m ax

Since we are considering a fluid element moving with the fluid, its mass, m,

is fixed.

The momentum equation will be obtained by writing expressions for the

externally applied force, Fx, on the fluid element and the acceleration, ax,

of the fluid element.

The externally applied forces can be divided into two types:

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

this is proportional to the volume. Examples: gravitational forces,

magnetic forces, electrostatic forces.

to the surface area. Examples: forces due to surface and normal stresses.

These can be calculated from stress-strain rate relations.

where fx is the body force per unit mass in the x-direction

The shear and normal stresses arise from the deformation of the fluid

element as it flows along. The shape as well as the volume of the fluid

element could change and the associated normal and tangential stresses

give rise to the surface stresses.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

The relation between stress and rate of strain in a fluid is known from the

type of fluid we are dealing with.

Most of our discussion will relate to Newtonian fluids for which

to the i-direction (x-axis) and the stress acts in the

direction, j, (y-axis).

The stresses on the various faces of the fluid element can written as

shown in Figure 2.8. Note the use of Taylor series to write the

stress components.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

p

p p x dx dydz

t t

t xx xx dx t xx dydz t yx yx dy t yx dxdz

x y

t

t zx zx dz t zx dxdy.............(2.46)

z

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

p t xx t yx t zx

Fx dxdydz f x dxdydz...........(2.47)

x x y z

m dxdydz........(2.48)

Du

ax ...........(2.49)

Dt

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Du p t t t

xx yx zx f x .........(2.50a)

Dt x x y z

Dv p t t t

xy yy zy f y .........(2.50b)

Dt y x y z

Dw p t t t

xz yz zz f z .........(2.50c)

Dt z x y z

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Du u

V u....................(2.51)

Dt t

u u

u

t t t

u u

u .............(2.52)

t t t

V u uV u V ........(2.53)

Du u

u u V uV

Dt t t

u

u V uV .............(2.54)

t t

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

The above equation simplifies to

Du u

uV ...........(2.55)

Dt t

Substitute Eq. (2.55) into Eq. (2.50a) shows how the following equations

can be obtained.

u p t t t

uV xx yx zx f x ..........(2.56a)

t x x y z

v p t t t

vV xy yy zy f y ..........(2.56b)

t y x y z

w p t t t

wV xz yz zz f z ..........(2.56c)

t z x y z

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

u

t xx V 2 ...........(2.57a )

x

v

t yy V 2 ...........(2.57b)

y

w

t zz V 2 ...........(2.57c)

z

v u

t xy t yx ...........(2.57d )

x y

u w

t xz t zx ...........(2.57e)

z x

w v

t yz t zy ...........(2.57 f )

y z

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

viscosity coefficient.

Stokes hypothesis given below can be used to relate the above two

coefficients

= - 2/3

The above can be used to get the Navier-Stokes equations in the following

familiar form

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

u u uv uw

2

p u

V 2

t x y z x x x

v u u w

f x .........(2.58a)

y x y z z x

v v uv vw p V 2 v

2

t y x z y y y

v u v w

f y .........(2.58b)

x x y z z y

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

w w uw vw

2

p w

V 2

t z x y z z z

w v u w

f z .........(2.58c)

y y z x z x

Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac

MAEEM Dept., UMR

the terms involving viscosity.

Summary

• As the CV shrinks to infinitesimal volume, the resulting partial

differential equations are the Navier-Stokes equations

• Taylor series can be used to write the variables

• The total derivative consists of local time derivative and convective

derivative terms

• In incompressible flow, divergence of velocity is a statement of

the conservation of volume

• Need surface and body forces to write the momentum equation

• Surface forces are: pressure forces, forces due to normal stresses

and forces due to shear stresses

• Body forces are due to weight, magnetism and electrostatics

• Momentum equation is a vector equation. Can be written in terms

of its components.

Summary

• For Newtonian fluids, stresses are proportional to the rates of strain

• Stokes hypothesis is used to relate the first and second coefficients of viscosity

• The resulting equations are the Navier-Stokes equations

• In order to solve the equations, they must be simplified for the problem

you are considering (e. g., boundary layer, jet, airfoil flow, nozzle flow)

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