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ME 231

Thermofluid
Mechanics I
Navier-Stokes
Equations
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Equations of Fluid Dynamics, Physical Meaning of the terms.


Equations are based on the following physical principles:
• Mass is conserved
• Newton’s Second Law: F = m a
• The First Law of thermodynamics: De = dq - dw, for a
system.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Control Volume Analysis


The governing equations can be obtained in the integral form
by choosing a control volume (CV) in the flow field and
applying the principles of the conservation of mass,
momentum and energy to the CV.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Consider a differential volume element dV in the flow field.


dV is small enough to be considered infinitesimal but large
enough to contain a large number of molecules for
continuum approach to be valid.
dV may be:
• fixed in space with fluid flowing in and out of its surface
or,
• moving so as to contain the same fluid particles all the
time. In this case the boundaries may distort and the
volume may change.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Substantial derivative
y

(time rate of change


following a moving fluid
element) 1 V1

Fluid element at
time t = t1

i x

k
2

z V2
Fluid element at
time t = t2
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The velocity vector can be written in terms of its Cartesian


components as:

ˆ (t , x, y, z )
ˆ (t , x, y, z )  ˆjv(t , x, y, z )  kw
V  iu

where
u = u(t, x, y, z)
v = v(t, x, y, z)
w = w(t, x, y, z)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

@ time t1:
1   (t1, x1, y1, z1 )

@ time t2:
2   (t2 , x2 , y2 , z2 )
Using Taylor series
           
 2  1    (t2  t1 )    ( x2  x1 )    ( y2  y1 )    ( z2  z1 )
 t 1  x 1  y 1  z 1

(higher  order  terms)


Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The time derivative can be written as shown on the RHS in the


following equation. This way of writing helps explain the meaning of
total derivative.

 2  1       x  x    y  y    z  z
      2 1    2 1    2 1 ...........(2.1)
t2  t1  t 1  x 1 t2  t1  y 1 t2  t1  z 1 t2  t1
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

We can also write


 2  1 D
lim 
t2 t1 t2  t1 Dt

x2  x1
lim u
t2 t1 t2  t1

y2  y1
lim v
t2 t1 t2  t1

z2  z1
lim w
t2 t1 t2  t1
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

D     
 u v  w ...........(2.2)
Dt t x y z

where the operator DtD can now be seen to be defined in


the following manner.

D    
  u  v  w .........(2.3)
Dt t x y z
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The  operator in vector calculus is defined as

  
  iˆ  ˆj  kˆ ...........(2.4)
x y z

which can be used to write the total derivative as

D 
  V   ...........(2.5)
Dt t
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Example: derivative of temperature, T

DT T T T T T
  (V )T  u v  w ........(2.6)
Dt t convective
t x y z
local derivative
derivative
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

A simpler way of writing the total derivative is as follows:


   
d  dt  dx  dy  dz............(2.7)
t x y z

d    dx  dy  dz
    ............(2.8)
dt t x dt y dt z dt

d     
 u v  w ..........(2.9)
dt t x y z
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The above equation shows that d and


D
have the same meaning,
dt Dt
and the latter form is used simply to emphasize the physical meaning
that it consists of the local derivative and the convective derivatives.

Divergence of Velocity (What does it mean?)

Consider a control volume moving with the fluid.


Its mass is fixed with respect to time.
Its volume and surface change with time as it moves from one location
to another.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Insert Figure 2.4


Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The volume swept by the elemental area dS during time interval Dt can
be written as

DV  V Dt   nˆ  dS  V Dt   dS .........(2.10)

Note that, depending on the orientation of the surface element, Dv could


be positive or negative. Dividing by Dt and letting DV  0 gives the
following expression.

 lim  V Dt   dS   V  dS ..........(2.11)
DV 1
Dt Dt 0 Dt S S
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The LHS term is written as a total time derivative because the fluid
element is moving with the flow and it would undergo both the local
acceleration and the convective acceleration.

The divergence theorem from vector calculus can now be used to


transform the surface integral into a volume integral.

   .V  dV ........(2.12)


DV
Dt V
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

If we now shrink the moving control volume to an infinitesimal volume,


δV
, , the above equation becomes

    V  dV ...............(2.13)
D( V )
Dt δV
  VδV
When δV  0 the volume integral can be replaced by
on the RHS to get the following.

1 D( V )
 V  .........(2.14)
d V Dt
V
The divergence of is the rate of change of volume per unit volume.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Continuity Equation

Consider the CV fixed in space. Unlike the earlier case the shape and
size of the CV are the same at all times. The conservation of mass can
be stated as:

Net rate of outflow of mass from CV through surface S = time rate of


decrease of mass inside the CV
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The net outflow of mass from the CV can be written as

Vn dS  V  dS ..........(2.16)
Note that dS by convention is always pointing outward. Therefore V  dS
can be (+) or (-) depending on the directions of the velocity and the
surface element.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Total mass inside CV


Mass    dV ..........(2.20)
V

Time rate of increase of mass inside CV (correct this equation)



t V
 dV ................(2.18)

Conservation of mass can now be used to write the following equation



t 
 dV   V  dS  0.................(2.19)
V S

See text for other ways of obtaining the same equation.


Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Integral form of the conservation of mass equation thus


becomes

D

Dt V
 dV  0........(2.21)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

An infinitesimally small element fixed in space


Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Net outflow in x-direction


 ( u )    u 
  u  dx  dydz    u  dydz  dxdydz
x x
Net outflow in y-direction
   v     v 
  v  dy  dxdz    v  dxdz  dxdydz
  y   y
Net outflow in z-direction
    w     w
  w  dz  dxdy    w  dxdy  dxdydz
  z   z

   u    v     w 
Net mass flow =     dxdydz..........(2.22)
 x y z 
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

volume of the element = dx dy dz


mass of the element = (dx dy dz)


Time rate of mass increase =  dxdydz  ...........(2.23)
t

Net rate of outflow from CV = time rate of decrease of mass


within CV

    u     v     w  
    dxdydz    dxdydz 
 x y z  t
or
    u     v     w 
     0.......(2.24)
t  x y z 
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Which becomes


    V   0..........(2.25)
t

The above is the continuity equation valid for unsteady flow


Note that for steady flow and unsteady incompressible flow the
first term is zero.

Figure 2.6 (next slide) shows conservation and non-conservation forms


of the continuity equation. Note an error in Figure 2.6: Dp/Dt should be
replace with D/Dt.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Momentum equation
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Consider the moving fluid element model shown in Figure 2.2b


Basis is Newton’s 2nd Law which says F = m a
Note that this is a vector equation.
It can be written in terms of the three cartesian scalar components, the
first of which becomes

Fx = m ax

Since we are considering a fluid element moving with the fluid, its mass, m,
is fixed.
The momentum equation will be obtained by writing expressions for the
externally applied force, Fx, on the fluid element and the acceleration, ax,
of the fluid element.
The externally applied forces can be divided into two types:
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

1. Body forces: Distributed throughout the control volume. Therefore,


this is proportional to the volume. Examples: gravitational forces,
magnetic forces, electrostatic forces.

2. Surface forces: Distributed at the control volume surface. Proportional


to the surface area. Examples: forces due to surface and normal stresses.
These can be calculated from stress-strain rate relations.

Body force on the fluid element = fx  dx dy dz


where fx is the body force per unit mass in the x-direction

The shear and normal stresses arise from the deformation of the fluid
element as it flows along. The shape as well as the volume of the fluid
element could change and the associated normal and tangential stresses
give rise to the surface stresses.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The relation between stress and rate of strain in a fluid is known from the
type of fluid we are dealing with.
Most of our discussion will relate to Newtonian fluids for which

Stress is proportional to the rate of strain

For non-Newtonian fluids more complex relationships should be used.

Notation: stress tij indicates stress acting on a plane perpendicular


to the i-direction (x-axis) and the stress acts in the
direction, j, (y-axis).

The stresses on the various faces of the fluid element can written as
shown in Figure 2.8. Note the use of Taylor series to write the
stress components.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The normal stresses also has the pressure term.

Net surface force acting in x direction =

  p  
 p   p  x dx   dydz
  

 t    t  
 t xx  xx dx   t xx  dydz  t yx  yx dy   t yx  dxdz
 x    y  

 t  
 t zx  zx dz   t zx  dxdy.............(2.46)
 z  
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

 p t xx t yx t zx 
Fx       dxdydz   f x dxdydz...........(2.47)
 x x y z 

m   dxdydz........(2.48)

Du
ax  ...........(2.49)
Dt
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Du p t t t
    xx  yx  zx   f x .........(2.50a)
Dt x x y z

Dv p t t t
    xy  yy  zy   f y .........(2.50b)
Dt y x y z

Dw p t t t
    xz  yz  zz   f z .........(2.50c)
Dt z x y z
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

Du u
   V u....................(2.51)
Dt t
  u  u 
 u
t t t

u    u  
   u .............(2.52)
t t t

V u      uV   u   V  ........(2.53)

Du    u  
  u  u   V       uV 
Dt t t

  u    
  u      V      uV  .............(2.54)
t  t 
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The term in the brackets is zero (continuity equation)


The above equation simplifies to

Du    u 
       uV  ...........(2.55)
Dt t
Substitute Eq. (2.55) into Eq. (2.50a) shows how the following equations
can be obtained.

  u  p t t t
    uV     xx  yx  zx   f x ..........(2.56a)
t x x y z

  v  p t t t
     vV     xy  yy  zy   f y ..........(2.56b)
t y x y z

   w p t t t
     wV     xz  yz  zz   f z ..........(2.56c)
t z x y z
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The above are the Navier-Stokes equations in “conservation form.”


Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

For Newtonian fluids the stresses can be expressed as follows


u
t xx     V   2 ...........(2.57a )
x

v
t yy     V   2 ...........(2.57b)
y

w
t zz      V   2 ...........(2.57c)
z

 v u 
t xy  t yx      ...........(2.57d )
 x y 
 u w 
t xz  t zx      ...........(2.57e)
  z x 
 w v 
t yz  t zy      ...........(2.57 f )
 y z 
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

In the above  is the coefficient of dynamic viscosity and  is the second


viscosity coefficient.
Stokes hypothesis given below can be used to relate the above two
coefficients

 = - 2/3 

The above can be used to get the Navier-Stokes equations in the following
familiar form
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

  u    u    uv    uw
2
p   u 
          V  2 
t x y z x x  x 

   v u      u w 
               f x .........(2.58a)
y   x y   z   z x  

  v    v     uv      vw   p      V  2 v 
2

  
t y x z y y  y 

   v u      v w  
               f y .........(2.58b)
x   x y   z   z y  
Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

   w    w    uw    vw
2
p   w 
          V  2 
t z x y z z  z 

   w v     u w 
              f z .........(2.58c)
y   y z  x   z x  

The energy equation can also be derived in a similar manner.


Computational Fluid Dynamics (AE/ME 339) K. M. Isaac
MAEEM Dept., UMR

The above equations can be simplified for inviscid flows by dropping


the terms involving viscosity.
Summary

• Apply conservation equations to a control volume (CV)


• As the CV shrinks to infinitesimal volume, the resulting partial
differential equations are the Navier-Stokes equations
• Taylor series can be used to write the variables
• The total derivative consists of local time derivative and convective
derivative terms
• In incompressible flow, divergence of velocity is a statement of
the conservation of volume
• Need surface and body forces to write the momentum equation
• Surface forces are: pressure forces, forces due to normal stresses
and forces due to shear stresses
• Body forces are due to weight, magnetism and electrostatics
• Momentum equation is a vector equation. Can be written in terms
of its components.
Summary

• Stresses are indicated by a plane and a direction, respectively, by two subscripts


• For Newtonian fluids, stresses are proportional to the rates of strain
• Stokes hypothesis is used to relate the first and second coefficients of viscosity
• The resulting equations are the Navier-Stokes equations
• In order to solve the equations, they must be simplified for the problem
you are considering (e. g., boundary layer, jet, airfoil flow, nozzle flow)