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Devanand Dwangga Rheza Kumara

1706064353

Devankumara@outlook.com

081299078043

Group 4

Problem 1

After studying Mechanical Engineering at University of Indonesia for 4 years or less,


hopefully I graduate with ease. After I have graduated from University of Indonesia, I would like
to continue my study at Germany. The reason why I chose Germany, is because Germany is known
by many people as the best country in Europe for it’s automotive. By the time I’ve graduated,
hopefully I already have a lot of knowledge and understanding at Machine, Automotive,
Aeromodelling, and many more. After that, I would like to return to Indonesia and hopefully start
my own automotive company, and the reason behind that is simply, that is my dream or what I
wanted to be when I was a child. The only drawback that I thought from this dream, is that why
would I made a company that produced car, and then distribute them at a country that already have
millions of cars, the end result would be a country that filled up with cars. If this dream is not
possible, then I would like to return back to Germany, maybe live there, and start working for the
Volkswagen Company in Wolfsburg. The reason why I chose Volkswagen, is because
Volkswagen Company is known to own many Smaller Companies. Some of them, are Audi,
Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, SEAT, Škoda, with the additional Motorcycles Company,
Ducati. For that reason, is why Volkswagen is known to be one of the best Automotive Company
out there and I would very much like to work there in the future.

“what’s your dreams or what would be your goal in the next 15 years?”

2 years after graduated from University of Indonesia, I will be graduated from my Magister
Program at Germany. Working for Volkswagen, live in Germany, started a family in Germany,
these should cover up my next 15 years or so.

Problem 2
A.

Super-Heater

Boiler Turbine
Condenser
1. Water enters the boiler, which then the boiler will begin to heat the water. The heating
process is caused by the Furnace using initial energy such as coal, gas, etc. Keep in mind
that the water needs to be heated until the temperature reaches more than 100oc. The reason
behind that, is because Boiling Point depends on the pressure, and in this closed vessel, the
pressure is more than 1 atm. Water will then turn into steam, but this steam is a steam with
low energy in it, or also known as Saturated Vapor. This steam will continue to go into
the Super Heater for further process.
2. As the low-energized steam enter the Super Heater, the super heater, as the name suggests,
will heat the steam even more. The reason behind that is because, according to basic Theory
of Thermodynamics, as the steam heated, the pressure will also increase. The steam with
initially low energy, will now become energized, and thus we have a steam with high
pressure.
3. The high pressurized steam will go through many very tiny holes, that are called nozzles.
These nozzles are located near the turbine blade. When the steam travels through these
tiny nozzles, they traveled at such high pressure, that they began to move the turbine blade,
and thus this mechanic movement creates energy that are used by our daily lives. (the
turbine blades are faced a little bit sideways, so that they would still be able to be moved
by the pressurized steam)
4. The high pressurized steam, that are used to move the turbine, will exits the turbine system
with little to no energy left in it. This steam will go into condenser and starts to cool down,
and finally become a liquid. This liquid will then enter the boiler for another heating
process, and this system will start all over again, continuously.
B. Boiler and Super Heater
In this system, coal have a big role on producing Steam. Water that are coming from the
condenser, will enter the heating process on boiler, through the Down-comer tube, and
through the water tubes, where it transformed into Steam, the pure steam is separated at
the steam Drum, now we have steam with High P (Pressure) and High T (Temperature).
This steam will now be able to move to the Turbine section, where it would move the
turbine blade.
The superheating process keeps on going after many cycles of Steam Power Plant (Rankine
Cycle). Even after the liquid has been converted into steam, the super heater keeps on
heating, thus the steam will become super-heated with the temperature approximately
550oc. The higher the temperature, the more efficient the cycle. Keep in mind that the steam
turbine material would not likely to withstand temperature over 600oc so super heating is
limited to around 550oc.
C. As I have mentioned before, the turbine will move effectively with the impact of Super-
Heated Steam. This super-heated steam will have to have a high temperature (around
550oc), the reason behind that is because of basic theory of Thermodynamics. The theory
goes like this, the higher the Temperature, the higher the pressure, and from that theory,
we now know why the system would need a super heater. The Nozzles would have to be
tiny, this is because the lower the area, the higher the pressure.
Problem 3
A. The basic principle of refrigeration, is that a high-pressure liquid, or also known as
refrigerant, could absorb as many heat as possible from surrounding objects, and thus
making the objects loses its temperature, and made them colder.
1. First thing is that, we are going to need a liquid that is high pressure. Refrigerant would
fit perfectly for this system. This refrigerant will go through a small component of this
system, called, Capillary tube or Expansion Valve. This Expansion Valve will cause
the liquid’s pressure to drop significantly. Due to drop of pressure, the boiling point of
the liquid will drop also, causing it to start evaporating. Heat that is required for it to
evaporate comes from the refrigerant, so it’s temperature drops.
2. The low-temperature liquid will move pass the body where you would need the
refrigerant to absorbed the heat from (in this case, Refrigerator’s Trays). During this
process, refrigerant will absorb heat, and will transformed into pure vapor. We ended
up needing a component to increase this refrigerant pressure and transformed it into
liquid once more, so that the process could go continuously.
3. First, we need to increase its pressure. One of the ways to do so, is through the
Compressor. Compressor will raise the pressure to its initial value. According to
Thermodynamic Law, this increasing of pressure will also increase the temperature
of the refrigerant. Now, we have a refrigerant that is a vapor with high pressure.
4. To transform this refrigerant into liquid, we would need another component, which is
Condenser. This component is placed outside the refrigerator so it would produce heat
outside the system and thus not intervene with the inside cooling process. Due to the
refrigerant losing its temperature, we ended up with refrigerant with high pressure and
are in the state of liquid.

5. With the refrigerant returning into its initial phase (High Pressure Liquid), this cycle
could go continuously and the inside of this system will cool down, and thus making it
a cooling system.
6. It has to be noted, that to increase heat transfer effectiveness, we attached fins to both
evaporator and condenser.
B.

Temperature vs Distance Graph


10
8
6
4
2
0
22 44 60 76 92 117 142
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10

Name Temperature (oc) Distance (cm) Total Distance (cm)


Freezer 1 -8 22 22
Freezer 2 -6 22 44
Tray 1 8 16 60
Tray 2 7 16 76
Tray 3 7 16 92
Tray 4 7 25 117
Tray 5 5 25 142
Back of The Fridge 34

C. There are many reasons why it is better to use a refrigerant rather than water. Some of
those reasons are, refrigerants have low freezing point, low boiling point, low condensing
pressure, high heat of vaporization, high critical temperature and pressure, high vapor
density.
Low Freezing Point, this condition is very helpful when the refrigerant goes through the
capillary tube, and drops its temperature to below zero, if it was water, this condition could
cause a blockage in this component.
Low Boiling Point, in the evaporator, the heat that absorbed by the refrigerant would make
the surrounding area cold, but also making the refrigerant change phase into gas. It is very
important that the refrigerant should have low boiling point so that, in that component, the
refrigerant could change its phase with ease.
Low Condensing Pressure, the lower the condenser pressure, the lower the power that is
required to compress, and thus save some operating costs.
High Heat of Vaporization, the higher the value of heat taken by the refrigerant, the more
effective the cooling will be accomplished.
High Critical Temperature, the critical temperature of a refrigerant should be as high as
possible, so that it will have a greater heat transfer at a constant temperature.
High Vapor Density, refrigerants with high Vapor Density, will need a smaller compressor,
this would in fact help the system to be small and compact.
Some of the other properties that a refrigerant should have are, Non-Corrosive, Non-
Flammable, Non-Explosive, stable, Non-Toxic, cheap, easily stored, etc.
D. Because, after the refrigerant loses its temperature because of the Capillary Tube or
Expansion Valve, the refrigerant would move across the tube that goes to each tray. These
tubes are placed so that the refrigerant would go from the very bottom of the system,
straight up of the system, then slowly “zig-zag-ing” around the trays so that the refrigerant
would absorbs as many heat as possible.
Notice that at the very top of the system, the refrigerant still has very low temperature,
rather than when it reaches the bottom. This low temperature condition will very much
likely absorb much of the heat from the objects around that area, and thus making that area,
colder than other area bellow that.
In conclusion, the reason why the freezer is placed at the very top of the system, is due to
the shape and structure of the refrigerant tube.

Sources:
 https://owlcation.com/stem/Understanding-Why-Water-cannot-Be-Used-as-a-
Refrigerant
 www.learnengineering.org